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  1. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

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    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  2. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  3. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

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    Grégore I Mielke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. METHODS: A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927. Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home. Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5 hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8 hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. CONCLUSION: Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  4. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yêska Paola Costa Aguiar; Fábio Gomes dos Santos; Eline Freitas de Farias Moura; Fernanda Clotilde Mariz da Costa; Sheyla Marcia Auad; Saul Martins Paiva; Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sul...

  5. Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based survey.

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    de Morais Sato, Priscila; da Rocha Pereira, Patrícia; de Carvalho Stelmo, Isis; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Sabatini, Fernanda; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2014-11-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered 'nutritionally proper' to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus.

  6. Association between Black Stains and Dental Caries in Primary Teeth: Findings from a Brazilian Population-Based Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    França-Pinto, C.C.; Cenci, M.S.; Correa, M.B.; Romano, A.R.; Peres, M.A.; Peres, K.G.; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I.S.; Barros, A.J.D.; Demarco, F.F.

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pel...

  7. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

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    A.E. Vargas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  8. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

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    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  9. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

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    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study

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    M.F. Gronner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m², waist circumference and blood pressure (BP were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively. Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  11. Multilocus Family-Based Association Analysis of Seven Candidate Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in an African-Derived Semi-Isolated Brazilian Population

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    L. Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH. Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos. Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families. Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752, AGT (rs669, ADD2 (rs3755351, NOS3 (rs1799983, GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443, and GRK4 (rs1801058. Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively or EH (as a binary outcome. Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P=0.040, whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P=0.004. Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

  12. Multilocus Family-Based Association Analysis of Seven Candidate Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in an African-Derived Semi-Isolated Brazilian Population

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    Kimura, L.; Angeli, C. B.; Auricchio, M. T. B. M.; Fernandes, G. R.; Pereira, A. C.; Vicente, J. P.; Pereira, T. V.; Mingroni-Netto, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH). Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes) on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos). Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families). Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752), AGT (rs669), ADD2 (rs3755351), NOS3 (rs1799983), GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443), and GRK4 (rs1801058). Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) or EH (as a binary outcome). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P = 0.040), whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23056922

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

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    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  14. Familial aggregation and dietary patterns in the Brazilian population.

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    Massarani, Fábia Albernaz; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Sichieri, Rosely; Yokoo, Edna Massae

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns in Brazil and verify aggregation among members of the same family based on the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2008-2009 in individuals over 10 years of age. Dietary intake was estimated with a food record. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, and familial aggregation was verified by linear regression. Three major dietary patterns were identified: (1) a traditional snack featuring coffee, rolls, oils and fats, and cheese; (2) traditional main meal, based on rice, beans and other legumes, and meat; and (3) fast food type snacks, namely sandwiches, processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, and pizza. Pattern 2 showed the strongest association (β = 0.37-0.64). Patterns 1 and 3 showed positive associations for all pairs of family members, with β ranging from 0.27 to 0.44 and 0.32 to 0.42, respectively. The study showed familial aggregation of dietary patterns in the Brazilian population. PMID:26872230

  15. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  16. Genetic diversity in Brazilian tall coconut populations by microsatellite markers

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    Francisco Elias Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tall coconut palm was introduced in Brazil in 1553, originating from the island of Cape Verde. The aim of the presentstudy was to evaluate the genetic diversity of ten populations of Brazilian tall coconut by 13 microsatellite markers. Samples werecollected from 195 individuals of 10 different populations. A total of 68 alleles were detected, with an average of 5.23 alleles perlocus. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity value was 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The number of alleles per populationranged from 36 to 48, with a mean of 40.9 alleles. We observed the formation of two groups, the first formed by the populationsof Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino and São José do Mipibu, and the second by the populations of Japoatã, Pacatuba and Praia doForte. These results reveal a high level of genetic diversity in the Brazilian populations.

  17. Demography, vulnerabilities and right to health to Brazilian prison population.

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    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases. The prison becomes the object of differentiated intervention by public bodies linked to the executive and the judiciary - it is worth remarking that the data show the high level of inequalities and health vulnerabilities among the prison population, whose needs involve a set of cross-sector of transverse public policies actions towards penal execution. PMID:27383334

  18. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

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    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed. PMID:26470135

  19. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

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    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed.

  20. FAS and FASL Gene Polymorphisms Are Not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection Based on a Case-Control Study in a Brazilian Population

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    Bárbara B. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FAS and FASL genes with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 116 HBV-infected patients at the Hospital of the Santa Casa de Misericordia Foundation (Belém, PA, Brazil. Seronegative individuals were used as controls. DNA samples were extracted from the leukocytes and assayed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by RFLP analysis with restriction endonucleases. Results. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes for -670FAS (GG, Ivs2nt-124FASL (GG, Ivs3nt-169FASL (ΔT/ΔT, and -844FASL (TT were higher in the HBV patients, and the FAS-1377AA genotype was more frequent in the control group; however, the differences between the allele and genotype frequencies were not statistically significant. When the HBV patient population was divided into two groups (inactive carriers and active chronic hepatitis patients, the mutant genotypes were found to be more prevalent in the active chronic hepatitis group with respect to the FAS gene polymorphisms; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that the polymorphisms in FAS and FASL genes are not associated with HBV infection or even with the natural history of the infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

  1. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

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    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  2. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

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    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

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    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  4. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis A in an urban population-based survey: a comparison of transmission patterns in Brazilian macro-regions.

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    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the transmission pattern of hepatitis A (HA infection based on a primary dataset from the Brazilian National Hepatitis Survey in a pre-vaccination context. The national survey conducted in urban areas disclosed two epidemiological scenarios with low and intermediate HA endemicity. METHODS: A catalytic model of HA transmission was built based on a national seroprevalence survey (2005 to 2009. The seroprevalence data from 7,062 individuals aged 5-69 years from all the Brazilian macro-regions were included. We built up three models: fully homogeneous mixing model, with constant contact pattern; the highly assortative model and the highly assortative model with the additional component accounting for contacts with infected food/water. Curves of prevalence, force of infection (FOI and the number of new infections with 99% confidence intervals (CIs were compared between the intermediate (North, Northeast, Midwest and Federal District and low (South and Southeast endemicity areas. A contour plot was also constructed. RESULTS: The anti- HAV IgG seroprevalence was 68.8% (95% CI, 64.8%-72.5% and 33.7% (95% CI, 32.4%-35.1% for the intermediate and low endemicity areas, respectively, according to the field data analysis. The models showed that a higher force of infection was identified in the 10- to 19-year-old age cohort (∼9,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons in the intermediate endemicity area, whereas a higher force of infection occurred in the 15- to 29-year-old age cohort (∼6,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons for the other macro-regions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the shift of Brazil toward intermediate and low endemicity levels with the shift of the risk of infection to older age groups. These estimates of HA force of infection stratified by age and endemicity levels are useful information to characterize the pre-vaccination scenario in

  5. Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence in the Brazilian population - National Health Survey (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Claro, Rafael; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Primordial prevention is defined as the initial prevention of risk factors, through the adoption of healthier behaviors. Within this concept, the American Heart Association (AHA) has defined seven metrics, based on evidence, to achieve ideal cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population, according to sex, age, and region of residence, using data from the latest National Health Survey (2013). We assessed the risk factors, as recommended by the AHA, combined (number of factors) and individually: four behavioral (smoking, physical activity, body mass index and diet) and three biological factors (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels). The Brazilian population has reached very low prevalence (1%), for the sum of 7 factors in ideal level. Individually, 3.2% of the population consumed ideal diet, followed by physical activity (23.6%) and body mass index (43.7%). The subjects aged between 18 and 35 years showed higher prevalence of metrics combined at the optimal levels (0.5%), which was also reached by the population of the Northern region. These results indicate that greater efforts are urgent by public policies at the level of primordial prevention in order to achieve appropriate targets of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population.

  6. Androgen receptor CAG polymorphism and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia in a Brazilian population

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    Vanderlei Biolchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a very frequent age-related proliferative abnormality in men. Polymorphic CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR can alter transactivation of androgen-responsive genes and potentially influence BPH risk. We investigated the association between CAG repeat length and risk of BPH in a case-control study of a Brazilian population. We evaluated 214 patients; 126 with BPH and 88 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes and the AR gene was analyzed using fragment analysis. Hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval were estimated using logistic regression models. Mean CAG length was not different between patients with BPH and controls. The CAG repeat length was examined as a categorical variable (CAG 21 and CAG 22 and did not differ between the control vs. the BPH group. We found no evidence for an association between AR CAG repeat length in BPH risk in a population-based sample of Brazilians.

  7. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  8. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

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    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  9. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  10. Association between peripheral arterial disease and creactive protein in the japanese-brazilian population

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    Luciana Garofolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial disease and elevated levels of C-reactive protein in the Japanese-Brazilian population of high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from a population-based study on the prevalence of diabetes and associated diseases in the Japanese-Brazilian population. One thousand, three hundred and thirty individuals aged e" 30 underwent clinical and laboratory examination, including measurement of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. The diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease was performed by calculating the ankle-brachial index. We considered with peripheral arterial disease patients who had ankle-brachial index d" 0.9. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 subjects completed the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 56.8 years; 46% were male. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 21%, with no difference between genders. Data analysis showed no association between peripheral arterial disease and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Patients with ankle-brachial index d" 0.70 showed higher values of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and worse cardiometabolic profile. We found a positive independent association of peripheral arterial disease with hypertension and smoking. CONCLUSION: The association between low levels of ankle-brachial index and elevated levels of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein may suggest a relationship of gravity, aiding in the mapping of high-risk patients.

  11. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Low Prevalence of Germline XPA Mutations in a Brazilian XP Population

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    Karina Miranda Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by DNA repair defects that cause photophobia, sunlight-induced cancers, and neurodegeneration. Prevalence of germline mutations in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA vary significantly in different populations. No Brazilian patients have been reported to carry a germline mutation in this gene. In this study, the germline mutational status of XPA was determined in Brazilian patients exhibiting major clinical features of XP syndrome. The study was conducted on 27 unrelated patients from select Brazilian families. A biallelic inactivating transition mutation c.619C>T (p.Arg207Ter was identified in only one patient with a history of neurological impairment and mild skin abnormalities. These findings suggest that XP syndrome is rarely associated with inherited disease-causing XPA mutations in the Brazilian population. Additionally, this report demonstrates the effectiveness of genotype-phenotype correlation as a valuable tool to guide direct genetic screening.

  12. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

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    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  13. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Low Prevalence of Germline XPA Mutations in a Brazilian XP Population

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Miranda Santiago; Amanda França de Nóbrega; Rafael Malagoli Rocha; Silvia Regina Rogatto; Maria Isabel Achatz

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by DNA repair defects that cause photophobia, sunlight-induced cancers, and neurodegeneration. Prevalence of germline mutations in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA vary significantly in different populations. No Brazilian patients have been reported to carry a germline mutation in this gene. In this study, the germline mutational status of XPA was determined in Brazilian patients exhibiting major clinical...

  14. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Kliemann; Marcela Boro Veiros; David Alejandro González-Chica; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes ...

  15. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe. PMID:27323193

  16. Multielemental hair composition of Brazilian Indian populational groups by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental composition of hair samples of Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Reservation, in the Brazilian Amazonic region has been determined for the first time, by INAA. Irradiations were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands) and, using a combination of different irradiation and decay times, about 40 elements could be determined in the hair. Previous analysis made at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) of hair samples of a Brazilian control population allowed the determination of 20 elements, also by INAA. Comparison of the data obtained for the Indian populations and the controls showed very significant differences in elemental compositions for some elements, like Hg, Mn and Al while for others, like Cu and Zn, the concentrations were similar. A discussion of the differences found for other elements also is made. (author)

  17. Education and WHO recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake are associated with better cognitive function in a disadvantaged Brazilian elderly population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Maria Pastor-Valero

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the fastest aging populations in the world and the incidence of cognitive impairment in the elderly is expected to increase exponentially. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in a low-income elderly population. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 1849 individuals aged 65 or over living in São Paulo, Brazil. Cognitive function was assessed using the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and categorized into quartiles of intake and into total daily fruit and vegetable intake using the cut-off points for the WHO recommendations (<400 grams/day or ≥ 400 grams/day. The association between cognitive impairment and each quartile of intake, and WHO recommendation levels, was evaluated in two separate multivariate logistic models. The WHO recommendations for daily intakes ≥ 400 grams/day were significantly associated with 47% decreased prevalence of cognitive impairment. An effect modification was found in both models between cognitive impairment and "years of education and physical activity" and "years of education and blood levels of HDL" So that, having 1 or more years of education and being physically active or having 1 or more years of education and levels higher than 50 mg/dl of HDL-cholesterol strongly decreased the prevalence of cognitive impairment. In this socially deprived population with very low levels of education and physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake, those who attained WHO recommendations, had 1 year or more of education and were physically active had a significantly lower prevalence of cognitive impairment. A more comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of mental health is needed to develop effective public policies in developing countries.

  18. INFANTILE DRAWING AND IDENTITY BETWEEN MEXICAN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS AND CENTER-WEST BRAZILIAN POPULATIONS

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    Sonia Grubits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate some fundamental aspects identified in the cultures of Brazilians indigenous social organizations and Mexicans indigenous organizations, start a short presentation of the more significant aspects of culture and the social organization for each chosen group and finally, a brief conclusion that shows similarity and differences between the referred groups of Brazil and Mexico, and identify some variables that are linked with infantile identity, this ones could be taken in the future to promote the child indigenous development. It is presented a data collected from center-west of Brazil, with infantile population (Bororo, Guarani and Kadiweu and three samples in Mexico, the first is with Mayo community in the north-west Mexico, others were from the south with Tzotsil and Nahualt people. We carried out participatory observation, interviews with families and analysis of drawings of the children, which show us similarities and differences among various native groups with the conformation of their ethnic identity. Center-west Brazilian sample it is possible notice high homogeneity, an integration among Kadiweu, and conflicts in the construction of the Guarani identity and between the Bororo people. Mayo and Tzotsil people of Mexico, their practices rituals abound the syncretism: in one hand is the catholic religion and in the other hand is the worship of the nature and the presence of both mixed during the pray, songs, dance, wear, etc. During observations in different communities and the analysis of infantile drawing, it was made evident the great influence since the first years of life from culture of the ethnic group and the non Indian culture in the building of the identity, social representations, etc. and often creating conflicts.

  19. Y chromosome comparative analysis of Rondônia with other Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Adriana C S; Silva, Dayse A; Teixeira, Marco A D; Nunes, Dorisvalder D; Lopes, Claudia M S; Netto, Ovídio R Tucunduva; Gusmão, Leonor; Carvalho, Elizeu F; Moura, Maria Manuela F

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a Brazilian population, located in the Rondônia state, was genetically characterized for a set of Y chromosome specific STRs included in the Applied Biosystems kit (AmpFℓSTR®Yfiler™), which allows the simultaneous amplification of 16 markers: DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4. The studied population from Rondônia state, in the North of Brazil, included individuals with admixed Native American, African and European ancestry. When comparing Rondônia with other Brazilian populations no significant genetic distances were found. In the comparison with other worldwide populations, although a predominant male European influence could be detected, there were significant differences with some populations from Central and South America and Africa. PMID:21269865

  20. Distribution of QPY and RAH haplotypes of granzyme B gene in distinct Brazilian populations

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    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The cytolysis mediated by granules is one of the most important effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Recently, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at exons 2, 3, and 5 of the granzyme B gene, resulting in a haplotype in which three amino acids of mature protein Q48P88Y245 are changed to R48A88H245, which leads to loss of cytotoxic activity of the protein. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian populations. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian ethnic groups (white, Afro-Brazilian, and Asian by sequencing these regions. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of SNP 2364A/G at exon 2 in Afro-Brazilian individuals (42.3% and 17.3% were significantly higher when compared with those in whites and Asians (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively. The polymorphisms 2933C/G and 4243C/T also were more frequent in Afro-Brazilians but without any significant difference regarding the other groups. The Afro-Brazilian group presented greater diversity of haplotypes, and the RAH haplotype seemed to be more frequent in this group (25%, followed by the whites (20.7% and by the Asians (11.9%, similar to the frequency presented in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of polymorphisms in Afro-Brazilians, and the RAH haplotype was more frequent in these individuals. We believe that further studies should aim to investigate the correlation of this haplotype with diseases related to immunity mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and if this correlation is confirmed, novel treatment strategies might be elaborated.

  1. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

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    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  2. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil

  3. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  4. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  5. Distribution of CYP2D6 Alleles and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D. J.; dos Santos, Ândrea K. Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  6. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise C Friedrich

    Full Text Available The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil to 10.2% (Northern Brazil. The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%. Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions.

  7. Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Lima, Kátia Manuela; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Juri, Marianela; Vera, Teresa; Cladera, Jorge; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area. PMID:26798258

  8. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

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    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  9. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

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    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  10. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: A pilot study

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    Radanovic M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE. Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women, all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7 and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9, were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation, but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  11. Structure and genetic relationships between Brazilian naturalized and exotic purebred goat domestic goat (Capra hircus breeds based on microsatellites

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    Joelliton Domingos de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic relationships and structure of fourteen goat (Capra hircus populations were estimated based on genotyping data from 14 goat populations (n = 410 goats at 13 microsatellite loci. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and F statistics (F IS, F IT and F ST to evaluate the genetic diversity (Ho, He and ad of the goats. Genetic distances between the 14 goat populations were calculated from allelic frequency data for the 13 microsatellite markers. Moderate differentiation was observed for the populations of the undefined breeds (including the Anglo-Nubian-M breed, the naturalized Brazilian breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, the exotic purebred breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Toggenbourg and Anglo-Nubian and the naturalized Brazilian Graúna group. Our AMOVA showed that a major portion (88.51% of the total genetic variation resulted from differences between individual goats within populations, while between-populations variation accounted for the remaining 11.49% of genetic variation. We used a Reynolds genetic distance matrix and PCA to produce a phenogram based on the 14 goat populations and found three clusters, or groups, consisting of the goats belonging to the undefined breed, the naturalized breeds and the exotic purebred breeds. The closer proximity of the Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Paraíba to the Graúna breed from the same state than to the genetically conserved Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Ceará, as well as the heterozygosity values and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that there was a high number of homozygotes in the populations studied, and indicates the importance of the State for the conservation of the local breeds. Cataloguing the genetic profile of Brazilian goat populations provides essential information for conservation and genetic improvements programs.

  12. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Pablo Abdon da Costa Francez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F ST coefficients to the present database ranged from F ST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F ST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; Dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F(ST) coefficients) to the present database ranged from F(ST) = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F(ST) = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (FST coefficients) to the present database ranged from FST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to FST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21637540

  15. Prevalence of maternal group B streptococcal colonization and related risk factors in a Brazilian population

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    Alexander S. Zusman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of maternal group B Streptococcal (GBS colonization and compare risk factor data related to GBS colonization. A prospective surveillance study of 598 pregnant women was conducted in two socioeconomically diverse maternity hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil between June and October 1999. Swabs from the lower vagina were obtained between 35 and 37 weeks gestation and cultured on selective media. Risk factor data were obtained by patient interview and chart review. The overall maternal GBS colonization prevalence rate was 17.9%. There was no association of GBS colonization with maternity hospital and no association of GBS colonization with previously identified risk factors, such as age, race, martial status, maternal education, parity, smoking, or alcohol use. There is a relatively high prevalence of maternal GBS colonization in this Brazilian population, although previously-identified-risk factors were not found to be important. This study provides baseline data for the creation of community-based GBS disease prevention protocols.

  16. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

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    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  17. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  18. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  19. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  20. SSR characterization of Oryza glumaepatula populations from the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Rosa, Thalita Marra; Borba, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The level and distribution of the genetic variability in 18 natural populations of Oryza glumaepatula that were collected from two Brazilian states were estimated using a set of 23 highly informative SSR markers. Samples comprising 78 and 117 individuals from populations of the states of Tocantins and Roraima, respectively, were evaluated in order to integrate and support previous studies that were carried out with populations of O. glumaepatula from Brazil. A total of 189 alleles were identified with an average of 8.22 alleles per locus. The 11 populations from Roraima presented, in combination, a higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.245) compared with that of the seven populations from Tocantins (HE = 0.212). All of the populations showed high and significant inbreeding values (mean f = 0.59); however, the mean was higher in Tocantins populations, indicating a higher gene flow in Roraima populations. The overall coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations was high and significant (0.59) and was higher in Tocantins due to the isolation of each population, in contrast to Roraima, where gene flow occurred more frequently. The SSR panel used in this work resulted to be informative (polymorphism information content = 0.201) for assessing genetic structure in O. glumaepatula populations.

  1. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

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    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  2. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  3. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  4. Frequency of Werner helicase 1367 polymorphism and age-related morbidity in an elderly Brazilian population

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    M.A.C. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4% and 121 males (31.6% of European (89.2%, Japanese (3.3%, Middle Eastern (1.81%, and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%. There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These subjects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%, hypertension (83.7%, diabetes (63.3%, obesity (41.23%, dementia (8.0%, depression (20.0%, and neoplasia (10.8%. Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japanese population.

  5. Arts-Based Investigation: A Brazilian Story

    OpenAIRE

    Cauduro, Maria Teresa; Birk, Márcia; Wachs, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out by the "Professional Qualification in Healthcare" research team at the Centro Universitário Feevale (Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brazil). The aim of the study was to learn about the way the children and adolescents from the Canudos' neighborhood who take part in the "Social Indoor Soccer" program understand their living conditions, with the intention of developing teaching plans for training the teachers involved. Through an arts-based investigative methodology, a group of 1...

  6. Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Central Obesity in a Southern Brazilian Population

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    Janaína P. Jaeger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in energy balance control, stimulating appetite and increasing body weight in wasting syndromes. Different studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene and obesity with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the 1359G/A (rs1049353, 3813A/G (rs12720071 and 4895A/G (rs806368 polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene in a Brazilian population of European descent. To verify the association between these variants and obesity-related traits in this population, 756 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods. The 4895G allele was associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR (P = 0.014; P = 0.042 after Bonferroni correction. An additive effect with the GAA haplotype was associated with WHR (P = 0.028, although this statistical significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.084. No significant association was observed between the genotypes of the 1359G/A and 3813A/G polymorphisms and any of the quantitative variables investigated. Our findings suggest that CNR1 gene polymorphism is associated with central obesity in this Brazilian population of European ancestry.

  7. Genetic diversity of four populations of Qualea grandiflora Mart. in fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiqueira, Lia Maris Orth Ritter; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure and diversity of Qualea grandiflora Mart., the most abundant woody species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from four populations subjected to different types of anthropic pressure, distributed throughout the state of São Paulo in the regions of Assis, Brotas, Itirapina and Pedregulho. Results indicated a mean number of 12 alleles per locus, but only six effective alleles. Alleles private to particular populations and rare alleles were also detected. An excess of homozygotes and moderate levels of inbreeding were observed. No clones were identified. All populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.05). Spatial structure was observed in the distribution of specimens in distance classes ranging from 30 to 40 km and three genetic clusters were identified, with genotypes in the Pedregulho population differing from the others by up to 90 %. The influence of the Wahlund effect on the studied populations lies between 8.5 and 53.3 %. Estimates of effective population size were low (<10), and the minimum viable area for conservation in the short-, medium- and long-term was estimated to be between 4 and 184 ha. Gene flow was high enough to counter the effects of genetic drift. The genetic diversity and divergence between the studied populations indicated that the Pedregulho population should be considered an Evolutionary Significant Unit and a Management Unit.

  8. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

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    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  9. Flavonoids in vegetable foods commonly consumed in Brazil and estimated ingestion by the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabbi, Paola R; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco M

    2004-03-10

    The objective of this work was to quantify the flavonoids present in foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. The predominant flavonoids found in largest abundance in all of the analyzed vegetables were glycosides of quercetin. In lettuce, a small amount of luteolin was also detected. In sweet pepper, quercetin and luteolin were both present. White onion [48-56 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), expressed as aglycon], red onion (40-100 mg/100 g of FW), red lettuce (67-67.2 mg/100 g of FW), arugula (41-118 mg/100 g of FW), and chicory (18-38 mg/100 g of FW) were highest in total flavonoids. In fruits, the highest concentrations of flavonoids were found in the peel (125-170 mg/100 g of FW) and pulp (35-44 mg/100 g of FW) of oranges and in some apple varieties (14-36 mg/100 g of FW). Variability in flavonoid content due to time of harvesting was high for leafy vegetables and red onions. The estimated ingestion by Brazilian population ranged from 60 to 106 mg/day.

  10. Association of leprosy with HLA-DR2 in a Southern Brazilian population

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    Visentainer J.E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between HLA specificities and leprosy was investigated in a Southern Brazilian population. One hundred and twenty-one patients and 147 controls were typed for HLA-A, B, Cw, DR and DQ. Patients were subdivided into the following subgroups, according to clinical, histological and immunological criteria: lepromatous (N = 55, tuberculoid (N = 32, dimorphous (N = 20, and indeterminate (N = 14. The frequencies of HLA specificities were compared between the total group of patients and controls, and between the same controls and each subgroup of patients. After correction of the probabilities, deviations were not significant, except for the DR2 specificity, which presented a frequency of 44.2% in the total group of patients and 56.3% in the subgroup of individuals with the tuberculoid form of the disease, compared to 23.3% in the controls. Stratified analysis showed that the increased DR2 frequency in the total group of patients was due to the subgroups with the tuberculoid and dimorphous forms. The relative risk of tuberculoid leprosy for DR2-positive individuals was 4.2, and the etiologic fraction of DR2 was 0.429. In conclusion, a positive association of the DR2 specificity with the tuberculoid form of leprosy, but not with the lepromatous, dimorphous, or indeterminate forms, was demonstrated in this Southern Brazilian population

  11. Discretionary-Based Disclosure: Evidence from the Brazilian Market

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    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to identify the factors that explain Brazilian companies’ level of voluntary disclosure. Underpinning this work is the Discretionary-based Disclosure theory. The sample is composed of the top 100 largest non-financial companies listed in the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures exchange - BOVESPA. Information was gathered from Financial Statements for the years ending in 2006, 2007, and 2008, with the use of content analysis. A disclosure framework based on 27 studies from these years was created, with a total of 92 voluntary items divided into two dimensions: economic (43 and socio-environmental (49. Based on the existing literature, a total of 12 hypotheses were elaborated and tested using a panel data approach. Results evidence that: (a Sector and Origin of Control are statistically significant in all three models tested: economic, socio-environmental, and total; (b ‘Profitability’ is relevant in the economic model and in the total model; (c Tobin’s Q is relevant in the socio-environmental model and in the total disclosure model; (d Leverage and Auditing Firm are only relevant in the economic disclosure model; (e Size, Governance, Stock Issuing, Growth Opportunities and Concentration of Control are not statistically significant in any of the three models.

  12. Prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional em uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of overweight in adolescents: a population-based study in a southern Brazilian city

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    Carmem L. Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes e sua distribuição segundo varíaveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas. Foram entrevistados 810 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O sobrepeso foi definido de acordo com a OMS (IMC > ou = Percentil 85, segundo idade e sexo conforme a população de referência do I National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. O processo amostral foi por conglomerados e as análises bruta e ajustada (Regressão de Poisson levaram em conta o efeito de delineamento. A prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes foi de 19,3% (IC95%: 16,6-22,0 e não houve diferença entre os sexos. Adolescentes pertencentes aos níveis econômicos mais elevados, que realizaram dieta para emagrecer nos três meses anteriores à entrevista, que assistiam quatro horas ou mais de televisão por dia e que realizavam apenas uma ou duas refeições diárias apresentaram maior proporção de sobrepeso. Na análise ajustada, o sobrepeso nos meninos esteve diretamente associado com nível econômico e, nas meninas, com as variáveis dieta para emagrecer, número de horas diárias assistindo à televisão e inversamente associado com o número de refeições.The prevalence of overweight and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological variables were evaluated. The sample included 810 adolescents (10-19 years of age living in the urban area of Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. Overweight was defined as a body mass index > or = the 85th percentile, according to sex and age, and compared to the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, following the WHO recommendation for adolescents. A clustering sampling strategy was used, and both the crude and adjusted analyses (Poisson Regression took this strategy into account. The prevalence of overweight was 19.3% (95%CI: 16.6-22.0 and there was no

  13. O perfil de saúde cardiovascular dos idosos brasileiros precisa melhorar: estudo de base populacional The profile of cardiovascular health of elderly brazilian people needs to improve: a population-based study

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    Janaina Caldeira Pereira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil, existe pouca informação de base populacional sobre a aglomeração de fatores de risco e sua relação com doenças cardiovasculares em idosos. OBJETIVO: Estimar prevalência e aglomeração de fatores de risco e investigar associação com doença isquêmica do coração (DIC em idosos. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos todos os participantes > 60 anos do "Inquérito domiciliar sobre comportamentos de risco e morbidade referida de doenças e agravos não-transmissíveis", realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em 2002/2003, em quinze capitais e no Distrito Federal. Investigou-se a prevalência de fatores de risco (tabagismo, consumo de álcool, inatividade física, dieta inadequada e obesidade e de morbidade referida (hipertensão, hipercolesterolemia e diabete, além da associação entre DIC e aglomeração desses fatores pela regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Os idosos representaram 13,4% (3.142/23.457, 59,4% mulheres e 40,6% homens. A idade média foi de 69,5 anos. Prevalências de dieta inadequada, inatividade física, obesidade, tabagismo e consumo de risco de álcool foram 94,4%, 40%, 17%, 12,7%e 3,2%, respectivamente. Cerca de 50% referiram hipertensão; 33% hipercolesterolemia e 18%, diabete. Tabagismo e hipercolesterolemia reduziram significativamente com a idade. Hipertensão, inatividade física, obesidade e hipercolesterolemia foram mais prevalentes em mulheres. Aglomeração de dois ou mais fatores foi observada em 71,3% dos idosos e reduziu com o avançar da idade. Idosos com DIC apresentaram uma prevalência quatro vezes maior de aglomeração de quatro ou mais fatores (RP = 4,1; IC_95%: 2,6-6,4. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre DIC e maior aglomeração de fatores de risco expressa, provavelmente, maior risco acumulado ao longo da vida, mas indica também a necessidade de melhorar o perfil de risco desses idosos.BACKGROUND: In Brazil, population-based information on risk factors and their relationship with

  14. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

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    Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz

    Full Text Available The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census. The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746, CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272 and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343, CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables, and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables. We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the

  15. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

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    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  16. Modelagem do crescimento populacional do rebanho bovino brasileiro Modeling the growth of Brazilian cattle population

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    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se o número efetivo de animais e a taxa de abate do rebanho bovino brasileiro no período de 1983 a 2000, estimou-se o crescimento dessa população utilizando-se o modelo de Richards, ajustado pela técnica de verossimilhança profile. O modelo se mostrou adequado para descrever o crescimento da população brasileira de bovinos, pois as superestimavas e ou subestimavas dos valores se situaram entre 1 e 2,5%. A partir da modelagem por cadeia de Markov, foram calculados a probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, em função da taxa de abate, e o tempo esperado para se atingir este tamanho populacional, em função da taxa de abate. A probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, a uma taxa de abate de aproximadamente 17%, é 0,7. Com taxa de abate anual de 16%, o rebanho atingirá esse tamanho no período de 11 anos e, com taxa de abate de 18%, em 20 anos.The growth of the Brazilian bovine cattle population was evaluated using the effective number of animals and the annual slaughter rate from 1983 to 2000. The Richards model was fitted with the profile likelihood technique. Two population parameters were calculated by Markov chain modeling: a the probability of the cattle population to reach 200 million of animals in 2015 as a function of the slaughter rate; b the time to reach this size, considering different annual slaughter rates. The Richards model was adequate to estimate the Brazilian cattle population growth since overestimated and/or underestimated values ranged between one and 2.5%. The probability of the Brazilian herd to reach 200 millions animals in 2015 for an annual slaughter rate of approximately 17% is 0.7 and the expected time to reach 200 million animals for annual slaughter rates of 16% and 18% was 11 and 20 years respectively.

  17. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

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    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  18. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population

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    M. Lazaretti-Castro

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years, with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX at the lumbar site (L2-L4 and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6% were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry, 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52 were classified as bb, 48.8% (62 as Bb and 10.2% (13 as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 ± 0.16 g/cm² than in the BB group (1.08 ± 0.14; P<0.05, and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 ± 0.15. Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 ± 0.11 g/cm² compared to Bb (0.93 ± 0.12 and BB (0.90 ± 0.09 (P<0.05. These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females.

  19. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

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    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira; Celso Teixeira Mendes-Junior; Cláudia Emília Vieira Wiezel; Marcelo Rizzatti Luizon; Aguinaldo Luiz Simões

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional ma...

  20. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

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    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional mating between European males and Amerindian or African females.

  1. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  2. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

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    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p education (p currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047). PMID:20464180

  3. Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations

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    Gonçalves Vanessa F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilian Amerindians have experienced a drastic population decrease in the past 500 years. Indeed, many native groups from eastern Brazil have vanished. However, their mitochondrial mtDNA haplotypes, still persist in Brazilians, at least 50 million of whom carry Amerindian mitochondrial lineages. Our objective was to test whether, by analyzing extant rural populations from regions anciently occupied by specific Amerindian groups, we could identify potentially authentic mitochondrial lineages, a strategy we have named 'homopatric targeting'. Results We studied 173 individuals from Queixadinha, a small village located in a territory previously occupied by the now extinct Botocudo Amerindian nation. Pedigree analysis revealed 74 unrelated matrilineages, which were screened for Amerindian mtDNA lineages by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A cosmopolitan control group was composed of 100 individuals from surrounding cities. All Amerindian lineages identified had their hypervariable segment HVSI sequenced, yielding 13 Amerindian haplotypes in Queixadinha, nine of which were not present in available databanks or in the literature. Among these haplotypes, there was a significant excess of haplogroup C (70% and absence of haplogroup A lineages, which were the most common in the control group. The novelty of the haplotypes and the excess of the C haplogroup suggested that we might indeed have identified Botocudo lineages. To validate our strategy, we studied teeth extracted from 14 ancient skulls of Botocudo Amerindians from the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. We recovered mtDNA sequences from all the teeth, identifying only six different haplotypes (a low haplotypic diversity of 0.8352 ± 0.0617, one of which was present among the lineages observed in the extant individuals studied. Conclusions These findings validate the technique of homopatric targeting as a useful new strategy to study the peopling

  4. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

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    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  5. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

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    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  6. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

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    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  7. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population

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    M.A.C. Smith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, has a critical role in cell cycle, apoptosis and cell senescence and participates in many crucial physiological and pathological processes. Identification of TP53 polymorphism in older people and age-related diseases may provide an understanding of its physiology and pathophysiological role as well as risk factors for complex diseases. TP53 codon 72 (TP53:72 polymorphism was investigated in 383 individuals aged 66 to 97 years in a cohort from a Brazilian Elderly Longitudinal Study. We investigated allele frequency, genotype distribution and allele association with morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, neoplasia, low cognitive level (dementia, and depression. We also determined the association of this polymorphism with serum lipid fractions and urea, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR using sense 5'-TTGCCGTCCCAAGCAATGGATGA-3' and antisense 5'-TCTGGGAAGGGACAGAAGATGAC-3' primers and digested with the BstUI enzyme. This polymorphism is within exon 4 at nucleotide residue 347. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis and Student t-test using the multiple comparison test were used. Allele frequencies, R (Arg = 0.69 and P (Pro = 0.31, were similar to other populations. Genotype distributions were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This polymorphism did not show significant association with any age-related disease or serum variables. However, R allele carriers showed lower HDL levels and a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease than P allele subjects. These findings may help to elucidate the physiopathological role of TP53:72 polymorphism in Brazilian elderly people.

  8. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling

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    Radanovic M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean ± SD = 47.2 ± 17.6 years, with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 ± 4.8 years. Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50 and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61. Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05. When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05, except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05 in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  9. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro Lj; Sousa, Lindemberg C de; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V de; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; Araújo, Ana Paula de; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-05-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites. PMID:27143489

  10. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro LJ; de Sousa, Lindemberg C; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites. PMID:27143489

  11. Exploring the distribution of genetic markers of pharmacogenomics relevance in Brazilian and Mexican populations.

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    Vania Bonifaz-Peña

    Full Text Available Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level.

  12. Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

  13. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city

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    Marilia Arndt Mesenburg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.

  14. Determination of uranium in human head hair of a Brazilian populational group by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair analysis is extensively used in forensic sciences, assessment of occupational or environmental exposure and in some cases also for clinical and nutritional studies. Hair has a series of advantages in relation to other biomonitors, like blood and urine, since it is very easy to collect, very stable at room temperature and it represents not only instantaneous concentrations, but it can reveal the exposure along a given period of time. The assessment of environmental or occupational exposure to uranium is generally done by means of urine analysis, although a few papers have described attempts to use hair as a biomonitor. In the present work, epithermal neutron activation analysis has been used to establish base-line concentrations for a Brazilian populational group, living in Sao Paulo and not exposed to uranium, either environmentally or occupationally. For quality control, the reference materials Pine Needles NIST 1575 and Basalt USGS BCR-1 were used. The concentrations obtained for the control population studied up to now varied from about 2 to 50 ng x g-1. (author)

  15. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

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    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  16. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution in an elderly Brazilian population: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

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    A.K. Fuzikawa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is one of the most extensively studied genes in the context of aging, but there are few population-based studies on ApoE polymorphism in the elderly in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to assess ApoE allele and genotype distribution in a large elderly community-based sample and its association with age, sex and skin color. Participants included 1408 subjects (80.8% of all residents aged ³60 years residing in Bambuí city, MG, Brazil. The DNA samples were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, with digestion by HhaI. Analysis was carried out taking into consideration the six ApoE genotypes (e3/e3, e3/e4, e2/e3, e4/e4, e2/e4, and e2/e2, the three ApoE alleles, and the number of ApoE4 alleles for each individual. The e3 allele predominated (80.0%, followed by e4 (13.5% and e2 (6.5%. All six possible genotypes were observed, the e3/e3 genotype being the most frequent (63.4%. This distribution was similar to that described in other western populations. Sex was not associated with number of ApoE4 alleles. Black skin color was significantly and independently associated with the presence of two ApoE4 alleles (age-sex adjusted OR = 7.38; 95%CI = 1.93-28.25, showing that the African-Brazilian elderly have a high prevalence of the e4 allele, as observed in blacks from Africa. No association between number of ApoE4 alleles and age was found, suggesting the absence of association of ApoE genotype with mortality in this population.

  17. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77mSe (T1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  18. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

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    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  19. Performance of four ischemic stroke prognostic scores in a Brazilian population

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    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Ischemic stroke (IS prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. Method We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100, Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL, and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE were compared. Results Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. Conclusion THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.

  20. [Prevalence of home care and associated factors in the Brazilian elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Louriele Soares; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Soares, Mariangela Uhlmann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Thumé, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of home care for the Brazilian elderly population and associated factors, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of individuals 60 years or older living in the urban areas of 100 municipalities located in 23 states. A Poisson regression model was used for crude and adjusted analyses. A total of 6,624 elderly individuals were interviewed, and prevalence of home care was 11.7%. After adjustment, higher home care rates were associated with female gender, older old age, lower schooling and purchasing power, diagnosis of chronic illness, history of falls, previous hospitalization, and medical consultation in the previous three months. The results highlight more extensive use of home care by the most vulnerable elderly. This finding suggests a contribution from home care to the promotion of healthcare equity in Brazil, especially due to the expansion of the Family Health Strategy. The results can support the organization of the work process for primary care professionals and managers. PMID:27027455

  1. Fitness evaluation of two Brazilian Aedes aegypti field populations with distinct levels of resistance to the organophosphate temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Affonso Belinato; Ademir Jesus Martins; Denise Valle

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR) for temephos. The insecticide-sus...

  2. The emergence of human population genetics and narratives about the formation of the Brazilian nation (1950-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the emergence of human population genetics in Brazil in the decades following World War II, and pays particular attention to narratives about the formation of the Brazilian nation. We analyze the institutionalization of this branch of genetics in the 1950s and 1960s, and look at research on the characteristics of the population of Brazil, which made use of new explanatory models of evolutionary dynamics. These developments were greatly influenced by the activities of the Rockefeller Foundation and by the presence of North American geneticists in Brazil, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky. One of the main points of this paper is to show that explanations of Brazilian human genetic diversity constructed in the mid-twentieth century closely followed interpretations that had been produced since the end of the nineteenth century, in which notions of 'racial mixing' played a central role. Even as population genetics was conditioned by nationalist concerns that had long marked Brazilian history, we argue that its emergence and institutionalization was closely associated with global, post-World War II socio-political contexts, especially with regards to modernization projects and growing scientific internationalization. PMID:24954151

  3. Levels of taurine introgression in the current Brazilian Nelore and Gir indicine cattle populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high density panel of more than 777000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to investigate the population structure of Nelore and Gir, compared to seven other populations worldwide. Principal Component Analysis and model-based ancestry estimation clearly separate the indici...

  4. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

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    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  5. Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon: temporal and spatial analysis

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    Karine Vila Real Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulatory Diseases (CD are the major cause of death among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon. OBJECTIVE: to analyze standardized mortality rates of diseases of the circulatory system (DCS, according to the main causes of death among the elderly, in microregions of the Brazilian Amazon, in the period of 1998 - 2007. METHODS: ecological study of mortality rates distribution standardized by CD and corrected by deaths from poorly defined causes among the elderly (> 65 years of age who lived in Brazilian Amazon in the period of 1998 - 2007. The analysis were carried out by the linear regression, trend, and spatial distribution of Kernel. RESULTS: We verified an increasing trend in mortality by CD (β1 = 28.34 p = 0.01, due to the increasing trend in the States of Maranhão and Tocantins. The central region of Mato Grosso, Northern Tocantins, Eastern Pará and Southwestern Maranhão present hot spots with the highest mortality rates. Males present higher rates when compared to females all over the region; rates of mortality due to acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive disease present the same spatial standard of the CD group and the rates of cerebrovascular diseases present a different spatial distribution standard. Increment in mortality rates according to age was observed: the greater the age, the higher is mortality by CD. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Amazon presents an increasing trend with high rates of mortality by the circulatory diseases, and the geographic areas with the highest rates are around the Brazilian Amazon, in the states of Tocantins, Maranhão and Mato Grosso.

  6. HLA-F coding and regulatory segments variability determined by massively parallel sequencing procedures in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thálitta Hetamaro Ayala; Buttura, Renato Vidal; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana Caricati; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Castelli, Erick C

    2016-10-01

    Human Leucocyte Antigen F (HLA-F) is a non-classical HLA class I gene distinguished from its classical counterparts by low allelic polymorphism and distinctive expression patterns. Its exact function remains unknown. It is believed that HLA-F has tolerogenic and immune modulatory properties. Currently, there is little information regarding the HLA-F allelic variation among human populations and the available studies have evaluated only a fraction of the HLA-F gene segment and/or have searched for known alleles only. Here we present a strategy to evaluate the complete HLA-F variability including its 5' upstream, coding and 3' downstream segments by using massively parallel sequencing procedures. HLA-F variability was surveyed on 196 individuals from the Brazilian Southeast. The results indicate that the HLA-F gene is indeed conserved at the protein level, where thirty coding haplotypes or coding alleles were detected, encoding only four different HLA-F full-length protein molecules. Moreover, a same protein molecule is encoded by 82.45% of all coding alleles detected in this Brazilian population sample. However, the HLA-F nucleotide and haplotype variability is much higher than our current knowledge both in Brazilians and considering the 1000 Genomes Project data. This protein conservation is probably a consequence of the key role of HLA-F in the immune system physiology.

  7. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

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    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  8. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites using Brazilian students as a sample population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolim, W D; De V C Penteado, M

    2005-11-01

    In Brazil, there is neither a register of the use of sulphites by the food industry nor is research being undertaken on their dietary exposure to the population. The objective of the work reported here was to estimate the dietary exposure to sulphites in two different groups of high school students, a fee-paying school group and a state school group. The data were collected through a 24-hour dietary recall, which provided estimates of sulphited foods and beverages in the diet. The Maximum Permitted Level (MPL), established by the Brazilian legislation for each of the sulphited food and beverages, was used to measure the dietary exposure to this additive. On this basis none of the students could have exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.70 mg SO2/kg bw/day, with a average dietary exposure of 0.07 mg SO2/kg bw/day (p<0.001), with no significant statistical difference (p=0.643) between fee-paying and state school students. Highly exposed consumers (dietary exposure to more than 50% of the ADI, or either, 0.35 mg SO2/kg bw/day, to the maximum of 0.52 mg SO2/kg bw/dia) represented 4.5% of the researched samples and reached these levels of intake due to a consumption beyond 500 ml/day of industrialized packaged fruit juices, and, in the fee-paying school, for associating its consumption with alcoholic beverages like beer and wine.

  9. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  10. Lack of association between alopecia areata and HLA class I and II in a southeastern Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ângela Marques; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Sobral, Aldri Roberta Sodoschi; Sakiyama, Marcelo Jun; Lemos, Bruna Cerávolo; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Martos, Luciana Leite Crivelin; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disorder of unknown etiology that affects approximately 0.7% to 3.8% of patients among the general population. Currently, genetic and autoimmune factors are emphasized as etiopathogenic. Studies linking Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) to AA have suggested that immunogenetic factors may play a role in the disease's onset/development. Objectives To investigate an association between AA and HLA class I/II in white Brazilians. Methods: Patients and control groups comprised 33 and 112 individuals, respectively. DNA extraction was performed by column method with BioPur kit. Allele's classification was undertaken using the PCR-SSO technique. HLA frequencies were obtained through direct counting and subjected to comparison by means of the chi-square test. Results Most patients were aged over 16, with no familial history, and developed partial AA, with no recurrent episodes. Patients showed a higher frequency of HLA-B*40, HLA-B*45, HLA-B*53 and HLA-C*04 compared with controls, although P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Regarding HLA class II, only HLA-DRB1*07 revealed statistical significance; nevertheless, it featured more prominently in controls than patients (P=0.04; Pc=0.52; OR=0.29; 95%; CI=0.07 to 1.25). P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The development of AA does not seem to be associated with HLA in white Brazilians, nor with susceptibility or resistance. The studies were carried out in populations with little or no miscegenation, unlike the Brazilian population in general, which could explain the inconsistency found.

  11. Lack of association between alopecia areata and HLA class I and II in a southeastern Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ângela Marques; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Sobral, Aldri Roberta Sodoschi; Sakiyama, Marcelo Jun; Lemos, Bruna Cerávolo; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Martos, Luciana Leite Crivelin; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disorder of unknown etiology that affects approximately 0.7% to 3.8% of patients among the general population. Currently, genetic and autoimmune factors are emphasized as etiopathogenic. Studies linking Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) to AA have suggested that immunogenetic factors may play a role in the disease's onset/development. Objectives To investigate an association between AA and HLA class I/II in white Brazilians. Methods: Patients and control groups comprised 33 and 112 individuals, respectively. DNA extraction was performed by column method with BioPur kit. Allele's classification was undertaken using the PCR-SSO technique. HLA frequencies were obtained through direct counting and subjected to comparison by means of the chi-square test. Results Most patients were aged over 16, with no familial history, and developed partial AA, with no recurrent episodes. Patients showed a higher frequency of HLA-B*40, HLA-B*45, HLA-B*53 and HLA-C*04 compared with controls, although P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Regarding HLA class II, only HLA-DRB1*07 revealed statistical significance; nevertheless, it featured more prominently in controls than patients (P=0.04; Pc=0.52; OR=0.29; 95%; CI=0.07 to 1.25). P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The development of AA does not seem to be associated with HLA in white Brazilians, nor with susceptibility or resistance. The studies were carried out in populations with little or no miscegenation, unlike the Brazilian population in general, which could explain the inconsistency found. PMID:27438193

  12. Different risk factors influence peptic ulcer disease development in a Brazilian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Buzinaro Suzuki; Rodrigo Faria Cola; Larissa Tranquilino Bardela Cola; Camila Garcia Ferrari; Fred Ellinger; Altino Luiz Therezo; Luis Carlos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate age,sex,histopathology and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) status,as risk factors for gastroduodenal disease outcome in Brazilian dyspeptic patients.METHODS:From all 1466 consecutive dyspeptic patients submitted to upper gastroscopy at Hospital das Clinicas of Marilia,antral biopsy specimens were obtained and subjected to histopathology and H.pylori diagnosis.All patients presenting chronic gastritis (CG)and peptic ulcer (PU) disease localized in the stomach,gastric ulcer (GU) and/or duodenal ulcer (DU) were included in the study.Gastric biopsies (n =668) positive for H.pylori by rapid urease test were investigated for vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) medium (m) region mosaicism by polymerase chain reaction.Logistic regression analysis was performed to verify the association of age,sex,histopathologic alterations,H.pylori diagnosis and vacA m region mosaicism with the incidence of DU,GU and CG in patients.RESULTS:Of 1466 patients submitted to endoscopy,1060 (72.3%) presented CG [male/female =506/554;mean age (year) ± SD =51.2 ± 17.81],88 (6.0%)presented DU [male/female =54/34; mean age (year)± SD =51.4 ± 17.14],and 75 (5.1%) presented GU[male/female =54/21; mean age (year) ± SD =51.3± 17.12] and were included in the comparative analysis.Sex and age showed no detectable effect on CG incidence (overall x2 =2.1,P =0.3423).Sex [Odds ratios (OR) =1.8631,P =0.0058] but not age (OR =0.9929,P =0.2699) was associated with DU and both parameters had a highly significant effect on GU (overall x2 =30.5,P < 0.0001).The histopathological results showed a significant contribution of ageing for both atrophy (OR =1.0297,P < 0.0001) and intestinal metaplasia (OR =1.0520,P < 0.0001).Presence of H.pylori was significantly associated with decreasing age (OR =0.9827,P < 0.0001) and with the incidence of DU (OR =3.6077,P < 0.0001).The prevalence of ml in DU was statistically significant (OR =2.3563,P =0.0018) but not in CG (OR =2.678,P =0.0863) and

  13. Gastric cancer is associated with NOS2 -954G/C polymorphism and environmental factors in a Brazilian population

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    Silva Ana E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer can progress from a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection that activates the inflammatory response of the host. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2, have been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of NOS2 polymorphisms Ser608Leu (rs2297518 in exon 16, -954G/C and -1173C/T, both in the promoter region, with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis and the association of cancer with risk factors such as smoking, alcohol intake and H. pylori infection. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study in 474 Southeast Brazilian individuals (150 with gastric cancer, 160 with chronic gastritis, and 164 healthy individuals, in which we performed NOS2 genotyping by PCR-RFLP. Results SNP Ser608Leu was not associated with risk of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer. The polymorphic allele -1173T was not found in the studied population. However, the frequency of -954GC+CC genotypes was significantly higher (p NOS2 SNP -954G/C was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12-3.13. We also observed an association with risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake in both the gastric cancer (OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.58-4.53; OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 2.05-6.32, respectively and the chronic gastritis (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.19-3.13; OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.55-5.02, respectively groups. This is the first report of increased risk of gastric cancer in association with the -954G/C polymorphism. These findings show that several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility to gastric cancer. Conclusions Polymorphism NOS2 -954 G/C, along with alcohol intake and tobacco smoking, is associated with gastric cancer. However, the NOS2 Ser608Leu polymorphism was not associated with

  14. Reliability of Nationwide Prevalence Estimates of Dementia: A Critical Appraisal Based on Brazilian Surveys.

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    Flávio Chaimowicz

    Full Text Available The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries' populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia surveys, ascertained their risk of bias, and present the best estimate of occurrence of dementia in Brazil.We carried out an electronic search of PubMed, Latin-American databases, and a Brazilian thesis database for surveys focusing on dementia prevalence in Brazil. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42014008815. Among the 35 studies found, 15 analyzed population-based random samples. However, most of them utilized inadequate criteria for diagnostics. Six studies without these limitations were further analyzed to assess the risk of selection, attrition, outcome and population bias as well as several statistical issues. All the studies presented moderate or high risk of bias in at least two domains due to the following features: high non-response, inaccurate cut-offs, and doubtful accuracy of the examiners. Two studies had limited external validity due to high rates of illiteracy or low income. The three studies with adequate generalizability and the lowest risk of bias presented a prevalence of dementia between 7.1% and 8.3% among subjects aged 65 years and older. However, after adjustment for accuracy of screening, the best available evidence points towards a figure between 15.2% and 16.3%.The risk of bias may strongly limit the generalizability of dementia prevalence estimates in developing countries. Extrapolations that have already been made for Brazil and Latin America were based on a prevalence that should have been adjusted for screening accuracy or not used at all due to severe bias. Similar evaluations regarding other developing countries are needed in order to verify the scope of these limitations.

  15. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos de Souza, Clarissa; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Miranda, Eliana C M; Garcia, Celso; Rensi Colturato, Vergílio Antonio; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Cláudia; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Lermontov, Simone; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rodrigues, Morgani; Carlos de Almeida Barros, Jose; Chiattone, Ricardo; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-07-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Symptom Scale is a patient-reported instrument developed and validated in English to measure the symptoms and functional impact of cGVHD. This tool has not yet been validated in a Latin American population, however. The Brazil-Seattle Chronic GVHD Consortium conducted a multicenter study at 5 Brazilian institutions to validate the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale in adults with cGVHD. Study objectives included the translation and validation of the instrument in Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of the correlation with other quality of life (QoL) tools, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Bone Marrow Transplant subscale (FACT-BMT). Translation and validation were done according to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons Outcome Committee guidelines. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to measure construct validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Between April 2011 and August 2012, 47 patients with cGVHD based on the 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria (29 males [62%], 18 females [38%]; median age, 48 years; range, 23 to 69 years) were enrolled in this study. The reliability of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.62 to 0.83). The correlations between similar domains of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, SF-36, and FACT-BMT were moderate to high. Our data indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale is valid and reliable and can be used in clinical trials of cGVHD in Brazil. PMID:27058616

  16. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  17. Fitness evaluation of two Brazilian Aedes aegypti field populations with distinct levels of resistance to the organophosphate temephos

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    Thiago Affonso Belinato

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR for temephos. The insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain was used as an experimental control. The population presenting the higher temephos resistance level, Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás (RR95 of 19.2, exhibited deficiency in the following four parameters: blood meal acceptance, amount of ingested blood, number of eggs and frequency of inseminated females. Mosquitoes from Boa Vista, state of Roraima, the population with lower temephos resistance level (RR95 of 7.4, presented impairment in only two parameters, blood meal acceptance and frequency of inseminated females. These results indicate that the overall fitness handicap was proportional to temephos resistance levels. However, it is unlikely that these disabilities can be attributed solely to temephos resistance, since both populations are also resistant to deltamethrin and harbour the kdr allele, which indicates resistance to pyrethroids. The effects of reduced fitness in resistant populations are discussed.

  18. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  19. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almado, Roosevelt P; Miazaki, Angela S; Diniz, Écio S; Moreira, Luis C B; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 3417 trees and treelets identified during three censuses in both areas.

  20. Y-STR haplotypes of Native American populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2010-10-01

    The allele and haplotype frequencies of nine Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a sample of six native tribes from the Brazilian Amazon (Tiriyó, Awa-Guajá, Waiãpi, Urubu-Kaapor, Zoé and Parakanã). Forty-eight different haplotypes were identified, 28 of which unique. Five haplotypes are very frequent and were shared by over 10 individuals. The estimated haplotype diversity (0.9114) was very low compared to other geographic groups, including Africans, Europeans and Asians. PMID:20457062

  1. Polymorphisms of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes are associated with risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Garcia de Oliveira; Ana Elizabete Silva

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-196 to -174 del,and TLR4 (+896A/G rs4986790 and +1196C/ T rs4986791) polymorphisms at risk of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in a Brazilian population and association of gastric lesions with risk factors such as smoking,alcohol intake and Helicobacterpylori infection.METHODS:In this case-control study,polymorphism at TLR2-196 to-174 del was investigated by using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method,while the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was carried out to identify the TLR4 (rs4986790 and rs4986791) genotypes in 607 Brazilian individuals (208 with chronic gastritis-CG,174 with gastric cancer-GC and 225 controls-C).RESULTS:The single nucleotide polymorphisms TLR4+1196C/T was not associated with risk of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer and the homozygous genotypes TLR4+896GG and TLR4+1196TT were absent in the studied population.However,the frequency of TLR2-196 to-174 ins/del + del/del and TLR4+896AG genotypes was significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P =0.01,respectively) in the cancer group (33.4% and 11.5%,respectively) than in the control group (16.9% and 4.5%,respectively).It was also observed that the G-C haplotype of the TLR4+896A/G+1196C/T (P =0.02) and the combination of variant alleles of the TLR2/TLR4+896G (P =0.02) are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer.In addition,the multiple logistic regression showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) =2.70; 95% CI:1.66-4.41; P < 0.01],alcohol intake (OR =2.93; 95% CI:1.76-4.87; P < 0.01),TLR2-196 to-174 del (OR =2.64; 95% CI:1.56-4.44;P < 0.01) and TLR4+896G (OR =3.19; 95% CI:1.34-7.61; P < 0.01) polymorphisms were associated with a higher susceptibility to developing this neoplasm.CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that TLR2-196 to -174 del and TLR4+896G may increase the risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population.

  2. Dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents: results of the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE).

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    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adolescents, describe their distributions in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District, and analyze the correlations with the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M). The study analyzed a sample of 60,954 ninth-graders from public and private schools who participated in the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. Cluster analysis was used to characterize dietary patterns. Three patterns were identified: healthy (27.7%), unhealthy (34.6%), and mixed (37.7%). Adolescents in the country's Southeast, South, and Central West regions showed a higher proportion of the healthy eating pattern. HDI-M showed a positive correlation with the healthy pattern and a negative correlation with the mixed pattern. The identification of different dietary patterns within and between regions and according to HDI-M highlights the need for better knowledge of each local context in terms of both the magnitude of events and the examination of determinants within these different realities.

  3. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies. PMID:21503521

  4. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

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    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  5. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB), a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators. PMID:26107715

  6. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations.

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    Thiago Affonso Belinato

    Full Text Available Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB, a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI, was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators.

  7. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB), a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators.

  8. Perdas dentárias em adolescentes brasileiros e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional Perdidas dentarias en adolescentes brasileros y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional Tooth loss and associated factors in adolescents: a Brazilian population-based oral health survey

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    Paulo Roberto Barbato

    2009-02-01

    residentes en áreas con disponibilidad de esa medida. Hubo fuerte asociación (pOBJECTIVE: To estimate tooth loss among adolescents and its factors associated. METHODS: Data from 16,833 participants of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2002-2003 were analyzed. The outcome studied was tooth loss of at least one tooth. Independent variables included geographical localization, gender, skin color, per capita income, education gap, dental service utilization and fluoridated water supply at the local level. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression for each Brazilian macroregion and nationwide. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one tooth loss was 38.9% (95% CI 38.2%;39.7%. Adolescents living in localities with non-fluoridated water supply were 40% more likely to have tooth loss compared with those living in areas with fluoridated water supply. There was seen a strong association (p<0.01 between non-fluoridated water supply and tooth loss prevalence in the Northeast. In other Brazilian regions this association was confounded for distal variables, mainly socioeconomic variables, reinforcing regional inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of tooth loss among Brazilian adolescents shows a need for targeted dental actions including prevention at earlier ages, treatment of affected teeth and universal access to fluoridated water.

  9. Evaluation of short wave therapy equipment based on brazilian standards

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    Cristiane Regina Gruber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Short Wave Diathermy (SWD equipment is used in physiotherapy and applied therapeutically using radio frequency (RF radiation of 27.12 MHz. This article presents the results of a survey related to SWD, showing data about the equipment, conditions of use, visual inspection and analysis of accompanying documents, having as reference the requirements of the Brazilian standards NBR IEC 601-1 and NBR IEC 601-2-3. Electrical safety tests were also carried out for the equipment and the installation. The results showed that manufacturers do not completely follow the standards and there is a lack of knowledge of these standards by the physiotherapists. Electrical safety tests presented measured values of equipment leakage current within the limits of the standards, but installation presented fails. One can conclude that it is necessary a greater awareness by manufacturers and professionals regarding the standards including electrical safety in order to assure the correct use of SWD equipment.Equipamentos de diatermia por ondas curtas (DOC são utilizados em clínicas de fisioterapia e aplicados terapeuticamente, utilizando radiação de radiofreqüência (RF em 27,12 MHz. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa diagnóstica para equipamentos de DOC mostrando dados relativos aos equipamentos, condições de uso, inspeção visual e análise dos documentos acompanhantes tendo como referência os requisitos descritos nas normas brasileiras NBR IEC 601-1 (geral e NBR IEC 601-2-3 (específica. Além disso, apresentam-se os resultados de testes de segurança elétrica efetuados nos equipamentos e nas instalações onde os mesmos são utilizados. Os resultados em geral mostraram que os fabricantes não seguem as normas para as especificações tanto do equipamento quanto do ambiente e dos documentos acompanhantes, e que há falta de conhecimento das normas por parte dos fisioterapeutas. Os testes de segurança elétrica envolvendo correntes de fuga

  10. Ethnicity and glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population

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    Gattás G.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of polymorphisms related to glutathione S-transferases (GST has been described in different populations, mainly for white individuals. We evaluated the distribution of GST mu (GSTM1 and theta (GSTT1 genotypes in 594 individuals, by multiplex PCR-based methods, using amplification of the exon 7 of CYP1A1 gene as an internal control. In São Paulo, 233 whites, 87 mulattos, and 137 blacks, all healthy blood-donor volunteers, were tested. In Bahia, where black and mulatto populations are more numerous, 137 subjects were evaluated. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher among whites (55.4% than among mulattos (41.4%; P = 0.03 and blacks (32.8%; P < 0.0001 from São Paulo, or Bahian subjects in general (35.7%; P = 0.0003. There was no statistically different distribution among any non-white groups. The distribution of GSTT1 null genotype among groups did not differ significantly. The agreement between self-reported and interviewer classification of skin color in the Bahian group was low. The interviewer classification indicated a gradient of distribution of the GSTM1 null genotype from whites (55.6% to light mulattos (40.4%, dark mulattos (32.0% and blacks (28.6%. However, any information about race or ethnicity should be considered with caution regarding the bias introduced by different data collection techniques, specially in countries where racial admixture is intense, and ethnic definition boundaries are loose. Because homozygous deletions of GST gene might be associated with cancer risk, a better understanding of chemical metabolizing gene distribution can contribute to risk assessment of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens.

  11. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC) in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA+ was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the X2 test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively) and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03). The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals

  12. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.C. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil); Ladeira, M.S.P. [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Pedrazzoli, J. Jr.; Ribeiro, M.L. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC) in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA{sup +} was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the X{sup 2} test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively) and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03). The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  13. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system. PMID:26385714

  14. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy in a Southern Brazilian population

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    José Augusto Bragatti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A great prevalence of psychiatric disorders in epilepsy is well demonstrated, although most studies have used unstructured psychiatric interviews for diagnosis. Here we present a study evaluating the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a cohort of Southern Brazilian patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE using a structured clinical interview. We analyzed 166 patients with TLE regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. One hundred-six patients (63.9% presented psychiatric comorbidities. Mood disorders were observed in 80 patients (48.2%, anxiety disorders in 51 patients (30.7%, psychotic disorders in 14 (8.4%, and substance abuse in 8 patients (4.8% respectively. Our results agree with literature data where most authors detected mental disorders in 10 to 60% of epileptic patients. This wide variation is probably attributable to different patient groups investigated and to the great variety of diagnostic methods. Structured psychiatric interviews might contribute to a better evaluation of prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in TLE.

  15. Prevalence of neurocognitive disorders and depression in a Brazilian HIV population

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    Flávio Trentin Troncoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Combined antiretroviral therapy has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV carriers to live longer. This increased life expectancy is associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which are diagnosed via a complex neuropsychological assessment. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS is a screening instrument validated in Brazil for use in the absence of neuropsychological evaluation. HIV patients are frequently diagnosed with depression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT, the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables.METHODS:One hundred fourteen patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted in a public outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in Marília City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected following consultation. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the nature and distribution of the data and hypotheses.RESULTS:According to the IHDS, 53.2% of the sampled patients were neuropsychologically impaired. According to the HAM-D17, 26.3% had depressive disorders. There were significant associations between the IHDS and the TGT and DS. Multiple regression analysis indicated that female gender, educational level, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 levels were significantly and independently associated with neurocognitive impairment.CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment according to the IHDS is high and associated with female gender, education level, and low CD4 levels.

  16. Innovation based on value co-creation: An alternative for Brazilian wine?

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    Borges Martiele Cortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian wine industry has been facing obstacles such as competition and high tax rates. Innovation is an alternative towards this scenario being it a major factor for any company's survival and growth in the market. Besides this, technological advances and access to information provide consumers with a larger number of choices and knowledge for an informed decision making. Despite differentiation efforts consumers did not obtain satisfaction. Customer interaction provides another way to generate innovation from its involvement in the production process (co-creation of value. The research was held in an awarded winery located in Bento Gonçalves (Brazil with the objective of understanding how the process of value co-creation between Brazilian award-winning wineries and consumers influences innovation generation. It is an exploratory and qualitative study collected through in-depth interviews with a semi-structured script. The winery identifies beneficial effects in the production process resulting from interactions because it narrows the bond with the consumer creating a better understanding of the consumers as well as develop a more tailored offer regarding value. The innovations generated based on co-creation can be taken as an alternative to imposed barriers in the current Brazilian wine sector.

  17. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

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    Suzana Papile Maciel Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995, previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South

  18. Origin of the hemoglobin S gene in a northern Brazilian population: the combined effects of slave trade and internal migrations

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    Gabriella Pante-de-Sousa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed DNA polymorphisms in the b-globin gene cluster of 30 sickle cell anemia patients from Belém, the capital city of the State of Pará, in order to investigate the origin of the bS mutation. Sixty-seven percent of the bS chromosomes were Bantu type, 30% were Benin type, and 3% were Senegal type. The origin of the bS mutation in this population, estimated on the basis of bS-linked haplotypes, contradicts the historical records of direct slave trade from Africa to the northern region of Brazil. Historical records indicate a lower percentage of people from Benin. These discrepancies are probably due to domestic slave trade and later internal migrations, mainly from northeastern to northern regions. Haplotype distribution in Belém did not differ significantly from that observed in other Brazilian regions, although historical records indicate that most slaves from Atlantic West Africa, where the Senegal haplotype is prevalent, were destined for the northern region, whereas the northeast (Bahia, Pernambuco and Maranhão was heavily supplied with slaves from Central West Africa, where the Benin haplotype predominates.Com o objetivo de investigar a origem da mutação bS na população da região norte do Brasil, foram analisados polimorfismos de DNA no complexo de genes b da hemoglobina em 30 pacientes com anemia falciforme na população de Belém, a capital do Estado do Pará. Sessenta e sete por cento dos cromossomos bS analisados apresentaram o haplótipo Bantu, 30% o haplótipo Benin e 3% o haplótipo Senegal. A origem da mutação bS na população de Belém, estimada de acordo com a distribuição de haplótipos, não está de acordo com a esperada com base em dados históricos sobre o tráfico de escravos para a região norte, os quais indicam uma reduzida contribuição de escravos da região do Benin. Essas diferenças podem ser atribuídas ao tráfico interno de escravos, bem como ao posterior fluxo de populações imigrantes

  19. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

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    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  20. Chromosome mapping of 5S rRNA genes differentiates Brazilian populations of Leporellus vittatus (Anostomidae, Characiformes

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    Cecilia Teixeira de Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the anostomid fishes, the genus Leporellus is represented by only three species: L. nattereri, endemic of the Amazon River, L. retropinnis, endemic of the Piracicaba River, and L. vittatus, widely distributed in rivers from Peru, Colombia, Guianas, and different major hydrographic basins of Brazil. A cytogenetic study carried out on specimens of Leporellus vittatus from three major Brazilian hydrographic basins evidenced a karyotype of 54 metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. C-banding analysis revealed the presence of large pericentromeric heterochromatic segments in all chromosomes and a telomeric block coincident with the NOR sites. Ag, CMA3 or MM staining, and FISH with ribosomal probes located the 45S ribosomal genes on the terminal region of the long arm of the 12th chromosome pair of all populations. Nevertheless, in the specimens from the Paraná and São Francisco Basins the 5S rDNA clusters were interstitially located by FISH on the long arm of the 2nd chromosome pair, while in the specimens from the Tocantins-Araguaia Basin these sites were observed on the long arm of the 9th chromosome pair and on the short arm of the 17th chromosome pair. These data suggest that the species currently named Leporellus vittatus may comprise a complex of cryptic species.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  2. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

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    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  3. MYLIP p.N342S polymorphism is not associated with lipid profile in the Brazilian population

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    Santos Paulo C J L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study investigated the MYLIP region in the Mexican population in order to fine-map the actual susceptibility variants of this locus. The p.N342S polymorphism was identified as the underlying functional variant accounting for one of the previous signals of genome-wide association studies and the N342 allele was associated with higher cholesterol concentrations in Mexican dyslipidemic individuals. To date, there is no further evaluation on this genotype-phenotype association in the literature. In this scenario, and because of a possible pharmacotherapeutic target of dyslipidemia, the main aim of this study was to assess the influence of the MYLIP p.N342S polymorphism on lipid profile in Brazilian individuals. Methods 1295 subjects of the general population and 1425 consecutive patients submitted to coronary angiography were selected. General characteristics, biochemical tests, blood pressures, pulse wave velocity, and coronary artery disease scores were analyzed. Genotypes for the MYLIP rs9370867 (p.N342S, c.G1025A polymorphism were detected by high resolution melting analysis. Results No association of the MYLIP rs9370867 genotypes with lipid profile, hemodynamic data, and coronary angiographic data was found. Analysis stratified by hyperlipidemia, gender, and ethnicity was also performed and the sub-groups presented similar results. In both general population and patient samples, the MYLIP rs9370867 polymorphism was differently distributed according to ethnicity. In the general population, subjects carrying GG genotypes had higher systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, and mean BP values (129.0 ± 23.3; 84.9 ± 14.6; 99.5 ± 16.8 mmHg compared with subjects carrying AA genotypes (123.7 ± 19.5; 81.6 ± 11.8; 95.6 ± 13.6 mmHg (p = 0.01; p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively, even after adjustment for covariates. However, in analysis stratified by ethnicity, this finding was not

  4. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  5. Cluster evaluation of Brazilian and Moroccan goat populations using physical measurements

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    Luanna Chácara Pires

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the genetic diversity of 12 populations of goats in Brazil and Morocco (n = 796 through the use of physical measurements and different multivariate techniques. Traits measured included wither height (WH, distance from the brisket to the ground (BH and ear length (EL. The standardized Euclidean distance (D was adopted. The D values were submitted to clustering analysis using hierarchical methods (from nearest neighbor and UPGMA - Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and the numbers of clusters were analyzed using the Tocher optimization method. The population clustering was different depending on the method of analysis used. Among the hierarchical methods, UPGMA showed the best fit (CCC = 0.82. The Tocher method enabled the formation of four different clusters. Although the hierarchical and Tocher methods resulted in different cluster formations, both contributed to the interpretation of the genetic cluster divergence. The results obtained through UPGMA and Tocher optimization enable their use for future studies that may include a larger number of biometric variables on greater numbers of individuals and additional populations.

  6. Population biology of the crab Armases angustipes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sesarmidae at Brazilian tropical coast

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    Marina de Sá Leitão C. de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi terrestrial crabs are important elements of the fauna of coastal regions. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 at estuaries of the Ariquindá River, considered a non impacted area, and Mamucabas River, considered a few impacted area, on the south coast of state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The species occurred in all months of the year. The number of individuals per month varied, being higher in the months of transition between the seasons. This is probably due to significant seasonal variations of air and burrow temperature and burrow salinity. There was no sexual dimorphism in size of A. angustipes in the mangrove of Ariquindá River, but males were larger than females in the mangrove of Mamucabas River. In both estuaries, the sex ratio did not differ from Mendelian proportion, but showed a deviation for females. The analysis of temporal variation in sex ratio showed significant differences in some months of the year. These variations are due to cyclical events that act distinctly on each sex. In both estuaries, size classes of carapace width were equally represented by both sexes. The ovigerous females of A. angustipes occurred only in some months of the year, especially in summer, in both estuaries. Probably the high phytoplankton productivity observed in summer favors the reproductive activity, since these algae serve as food for the larvae. Specimens of the population of Rio Ariquindá are largest and wider than those of Mamucabas River. This fact, associated with the low abundance of crabs and the lower frequency of ovigerous females observed in Mamucabas River, is an indication that this population may be influenced by the environmental impacts that this estuary has received.

  7. Genetics of resistance to soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines ichione (Race 3, in a brazilian soybean population

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    Antonio Orlando Mauro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the genetics of resistance to the soybean cyst nematode, race 3, in a population derived from crosses between the Brazilian soybean genotypes BR 90-4722 and FT-Cristalina. Crosses between the two parents were made, the F1 and F2 generations were obtained and the population was analyzed for the number of cysts found in each plant of each generation as well as the type of reaction to the nematode. The results showed that resistance to the cyst nematode in this soybean population is of a qualitative nature and conditioned by three genes, one dominant and two recessives. The heritability of the character was very high (0.96, with minimum environmental effect, which means that this population is suitable for the development of soybean cultivars resistant to the cyst nematode.O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a genética da resistência de uma população de soja, derivada de cruzamentos entre os genótipos brasileiros BR 90-4722 e FT-Cristalina, ao nematóide do cisto da soja, raça 3. Foram efetuados vários cruzamentos entre os parentais, sendo obtidas as gerações F1 e F2, as quais foram analisadas considerando-se o número de cistos presentes em cada planta de cada geração, bem como a reação das plantas após as inoculações. Os resultados evidenciaram que a resistência ao nematóide do cisto nessa população de soja é de natureza qualitativa e governada por três genes, sendo um dominante e dois recessivos. A herdabilidade do caráter foi alta (0,96, com mínimo efeito ambiental, sugerindo que essa população é adequada para o desenvolvimento de genótipos de soja resistentes ao nematóide do cisto.

  8. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  9. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  10. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  11. Excess lifetime cancer risk projections for populations who lives in high background radiation areas as a useful risk communication to the Brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report aims to demonstrate how lifetime risk projections for residents in HBRAs can be used as a risk communication tool, on the basis of an experience of Monte Alegre, a small city in north of Brazil, which has been economically and socially affected due to rumors of environmental contamination and increased radiation related diseases. A comprehensive radiological characterization have been conducted in Monte Alegre and neighborhood cities Alenquer and Prainha which includes indoor radon concentration, indoor and outdoor external gamma radiation, and natural radionuclides concentration in water and crops. Cumulative dose to specific organs were estimated taking into account the environment exposure pathways. Using the NCI radioepidemiological program (NCJ Rad-Risk), which is based mainly on BEIR VII models, we estimated overall and site-specific lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for males and females based on estimated mean dose of all exposure other than radon. For radon, model from BEIR VI was used to estimate the lifetime lung cancer risk and uncertainties was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Adjustment for Brazilian expected survival and baseline cancer risk was considered. We aim to discuss in this report how risk projections can he used as a useful risk communication tool. To provide a sound evaluation, comparisons of the estimated lifetime cancer risk due to the enhanced natural radiation to that estimated for population who lives in normal background cities and also to the general baseline lifetime cancer risk were carried on. The use of risk projections are particularly important given the effects of relatively low doses and hence the quantification of a priori relatively small risk. In conclusion, the Brazilian experience in conducting such small epidemiological studies in residents of HBRAs has demonstrated that these studies have been driven just to attend public expectation and/or regulatory agencies request and were most useful for risk

  12. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  13. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

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    Diogo Fernandes Bellinato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PY are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP, deltamethrin (PY, and diflubenzuron (IGR of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3. Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities.

  14. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinato, Diogo Fernandes; Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  15. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important for the...... interpretation of study results and generalization to the background population....

  16. A wavelets-based analysis of the phillips curve hypothesis for the Brazilian economy, 1980-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Almeida Pimentel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper implements a wavelets-based analysis of the Phillips curve hypothesis — as formulated by Friedman and Phelps — for the Brazilian economy, concerning the last thirty years. We provide an introductory discussion on Phillips curve's main arguments and an exploratory data analysis for the variables under consideration: prices, unemployment and real wages. In the sequel, we estimate variances and correlation structures between these aggregates through wavelets. Our findings reject the Phillips curve hypothesis for the Brazilian economy in the short run while suggest that it does hold in the long run. Finally, the correlation structure obtained in the paper captures particular aspects of Brazilian economic policy within the period.

  17. Life cycle and biological parameters of several Brazilian Amazon fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, M.L.; Isaac, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    This contribution summarizes knowledge on the biology (population dynamics, reproduction, ecology) of 25 fish species from the Lower Amazon, Brazil, based on data from a Brazilian-German field project (IARA) and a review of the literature.

  18. Structural validity of the tonic immobility scale in a population exposed to trauma: evidence from two large Brazilian samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reichenheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS. However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075 via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT location parameters were also investigated. RESULTS: An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A and six (alternative B items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are

  19. Brazilian Proposal for Agent-Based Learning Objects Metadata Standard - OBAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa Maria; Ribeiro, Alexandre; da Silva, Júlia Marques Carvalho; Santos, Elder Rizzon; Primo, Tiago; Bez, Marta

    This paper presents the Agent Based Learning Objects - OBAA standard proposal. The main goal of the research was to establish a standardized specification of the technical and functional requirements of interoperable learning objects. In our context, interoperability regards the operation of the content inside Web, Digital TV and mobile environments, supporting accessibility and pedagogical issues. In this proposal it has been explored the convergence among the multi-agent systems, learning object and ubiquitous computing technologies, allowing the authoring, storage and recovery of learning object in varied contexts and through different digital platforms. The result of this research was the definition of the OBAA proposal containing the requirements, specifications and architectures that will compose the Brazilian standard for the management, transmission, storage, search, editing and use of interoperable learning object.

  20. Association of the CYP2B6 gene with anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Brazilian Amazon population

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Christina Ricardo Oliveira Fernandes; Ney Pereira Carneiro Santos; Milene Raiol Moraes; Ana Cristina Oliveira Braga; Cleonardo Augusto Silva; Andrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Sidney Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The treatment of tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge owing to the high incidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two gene polymorphisms, one in the CYP2B6 (rs3745274) gene and one in the CYP3A5 (rs776746) gene, on the development of hepatotoxicity in patients treated with anti-TB drugs in a Brazilian Amazon population. Methods: TB patients who were treated with anti-TB drugs were examined for hepatotoxicity, an adverse effect...

  1. Population Structure of Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes on the Brazilian coast: further existence evidence of a single species of red snapper in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focus on the mitochondrial control region to investigate phylogeographic patterns and population structure in Lutjanus purpureus, and to evaluate the genetic similarity between L. purpureus and L. campechanus. For the initial analysis, 810 base pairs sequence from control region were obtained from 239 specimens of L. purpureus collected from four localities off the Brazilian coast. The results revealed the presence of a single panmictic population characterized by high values of genetic diversity. The 299 base pairs hypervariable portion were used for the combined analysis of L. purpureus and L. campechanus, being 275 haplotypes identified in the 414 specimens. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network did not indicate phylogeographic substructuring between the two species, but rather an intense intermingling of individuals. Considering their marked morphological similarity, the molecular data presented here indicate that only one species of red snapper exists in the western Atlantic.Para o presente estudo utilizou-se a região controle mitocondrial para investigar os padrões filogeográficos e a estrutura populacional de Lutjanus purpureus e para avaliar a similaridade genética entre L. purpureus e L. campechanus. Para a análise inicial foram obtidas sequências de 810 pares de bases (pb da região controle para 239 espécimes de L. purpureus de quatro localidades da costa brasileira. Os resultados mostraram a presença de uma população panmítica caracterizada por altos valores de diversidade genética. Utilizou-se um segmento de 299 pb da porção hipervariável para comparar L. purpureus e L. campechanus. Dos 414 indivíduos analisados foram identificados 275 haplótipos. A árvore filogenética e a rede de haplótipos não mostraram subestruturação filogeográfica entre as duas espécies, com intensa mistura de indivíduos. Considerando a grande similaridade morfológica, os dados moleculares apresentados, aqui

  2. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  3. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Bakos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0

  4. Chromosome mapping of 5S rRNA genes differentiates Brazilian populations of Leporellus vittatus (Anostomidae, Characiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Teixeira de Aguilar; Pedro Manoel Galetti Junior

    2008-01-01

    Among the anostomid fishes, the genus Leporellus is represented by only three species: L. nattereri, endemic of the Amazon River, L. retropinnis, endemic of the Piracicaba River, and L. vittatus, widely distributed in rivers from Peru, Colombia, Guianas, and different major hydrographic basins of Brazil. A cytogenetic study carried out on specimens of Leporellus vittatus from three major Brazilian hydrographic basins evidenced a karyotype of 54 metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. C-ba...

  5. Self-reported oral health in the Brazilian adult population: results of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Lucélia Silva; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Pucca Júnior, Gilberto Alfredo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2016-02-01

    Oral diseases are a relevant public health problem in Brazil, because of their prevalence and magnitude in the population. Population-based surveys are essential tools for the election of groups and demands priority attention, . The aim of this paper was to describe the self-reported oral health status of the population, according to sociodemographic factors. A descriptive study was conducted using the National Health Survey data of 2013. Indicators associated with oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions were analyzed. Men, elders, blacks and browns, individuals with no education and with incomplete elementary level, residents in rural areas and in the northeast had the lowest frequencies of the indicators of oral hygiene and health self-perception oral as good or very good. Total loss has affected about 16.0 million. Both total tooth loss as the loss of 13 or more teeth was more frequent among women, individuals aged 60 and older, poorly educated, residents in rural areas. It is concluded that the data from the National Health Research -PNS 2013 reinforce the need for policies and actions that minimize the inequalities in oral health, ensuring access to the most vulnerable population sub-groups according to their health needs. PMID:26910147

  6. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailson-Brito, J; Dorneles, P R; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Azevedo, A F; Vidal, L G; Zanelatto, R C; Lozinski, C P C; Azeredo, A; Fragoso, A B L; Cunha, H A; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2010-05-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranaguá Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SigmaDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SigmaPCB; and from dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. PMID:19932538

  7. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Börner

    Full Text Available Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  8. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  9. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda N Regis

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents and Santa Cruz (83,000, in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.

  10. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  11. Vehicle parameter identification using population based algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKDAĞ, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with parameter identification of a vehicle using population based algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Full vehicle model with seven degree of freedom (DoF) is employed, and two objective functions based on reference and computed responses are proposed. Solving the optimization problem vehicle mass, moments of inertia and vehicle center of gravity parameters, which are necessary for later app...

  12. Utilization of medicines by the Brazilian population, 2003 Características da utilização de medicamentos na população brasileira, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Felga de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the utilization of medicines by the Brazilian population, using data from the Brazilian World Health Survey. Medicines were grouped according to the active pharmaceutical ingredient based on an adaptation of the World Health Organization standard list of essential medicines. The analysis included the characteristics of individuals who keep medicines at home and who had used them within the reference period (within two weeks prior to the interview, according to presence of medical prescription. Nearly half of the participants (49.0% reported use of medicines during the reference period. Older and wealthier individuals and those with chronic diseases or disabilities and with poor self-rated health keep and use medicines more frequently. For 25.0% of the individuals that had used medicines during the reference period, none of the drugs had been prescribed by a health professional. Among the individuals who had medicines prescribed in the last appointment, 13.0% were unable to obtain the prescribed medication (of these, 55.0% could not afford it. The most widely utilized group was that of the analgesics (22.0%, and only 51.0% of the individuals using this type of medicine had received a medical prescription for it.O presente estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar a utilização de medicamentos na população brasileira, por meio dos dados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde. Os medicamentos foram agrupados de acordo com o princípio ativo baseando-se em uma adaptação da lista padrão da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A análise contemplou as características das pessoas que guardam medicamentos em casa e que utilizaram medicamentos nas duas semanas anteriores à data da pesquisa segundo a presença de prescrição médica. Quase a metade dos participantes relatou uso no período de referência (49,0%. Os indivíduos mais idosos, com maior riqueza, com doença de longa duração ou incapacidade e com auto

  13. A wavelets-based analysis of the phillips curve hypothesis for the Brazilian economy, 1980-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard Almeida Pimentel

    2013-01-01

    This paper implements a wavelets-based analysis of the Phillips curve hypothesis — as formulated by Friedman and Phelps — for the Brazilian economy, concerning the last thirty years. We provide an introductory discussion on Phillips curve's main arguments and an exploratory data analysis for the variables under consideration: prices, unemployment and real wages. In the sequel, we estimate variances and correlation structures between these aggregates through wavelets. Our findings reject the P...

  14. Comparison of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in the population with and without health insurance in the Brazilian capitals, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The article compares the risk and protective factors for Non-communicable Diseases (NCD, referred morbidity and access to preventive examinations in the population with and without health insurance in all Brazilian State capitals. METHODS: The study population consists of adults (≥ 18 years old living in households with landlines in 26 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. Estimates of selected variables are presented according to possession of health plans ("Yes" or "No" and sex. A post-stratification was performed according to age, gender and education in both populations, and prevalence ratios were calculated, adjusted for age and sex between people with and without health insurance for the risk and protective factors for NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 54,099 people at the age of 18 or older were evaluated, 47.4% of them were beneficiaries of health plans. The coverage of health insurance tends to increase with age and level of education. Compared to non-beneficiaries of health plans, beneficiaries were more likely to have protective factors, such as healthy eating, physical activity, coverage tests, such as mammography and Pap test, and lower prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor health assessment and hypertension. Alcohol abuse, consumption of excessively fat meats, overweight, obesity and diabetes were not associated with the variable possession of health insurance. When controlled by education, individuals who have health insurance generally have better indicators. CONCLUSION: This information is important to establish measures for reducing differences among people with and without health insurance.

  15. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  16. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  17. Nutritional aspects applied to grazing cattle in the tropics: a review based on Brazilian results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review presents and discusses the nutritional and physiological aspects of cattle production under grazing in the tropics. The critical evaluations were based on Brazilian experimental results as well as on basic literature concerning ruminant nutrition. Several associations between the characteristics of the grazed forage, the composition of the supplements and animal and microbial requirements were established. The adopted approach was divided according to two different climatic seasons observed in the tropics: dry and rainy seasons. During the dry season, the main nutritional constraints on animal performance are associated with inherent requirements of the rumen fibrolytic microorganisms. An overall deficiency of nitrogenous compounds is observed in the forage, which compromises forage intake and digestibility. Supplementation with nitrogenous compounds must be a priority in this season to increase forage intake and energy extraction from forage fiber. However, during the rainy season, no constraints on microbial growth are observed. The usual pasture composition presents an unbalanced and high ratio of energy to protein when compared to animal requirements. In such cases, protein supplementation is needed to equilibrate the basal diet and improve the utilization of metabolizable energy and protein.

  18. A fuzzy logic based method to monitor organizational resilience: application in a brazilian radioactive facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R.; Cosenza, Carlos A.N., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.br, E-mail: cosenza@pep.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2013-07-01

    Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under expected and unexpected conditions. This definition focuses on the ability to function, rather than on being impervious to failure, and thereby overcomes the traditional conflict between productivity and safety. Resilience engineering (RE) has fast become recognized as a valuable complement to the established approaches to safety of complex socio-technical systems and methods to monitor organizational resilience are needed. However, few, if any, comprehensive and systematic research studies focus on developing an objective, reliable and practical assessment model for monitoring organizational resilience. Most methods cannot fully solve the subjectivity of resilience evaluation. In order to remedy this deficiency, the aim of this research is to adopt a Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) approach to establish a method for resilience assessment in organizations based on leading safety performance indicators, defined according to the resilience engineering principles. The method uses FST concepts and properties to model the indicators and to assess the results of their application. To exemplify the method we performed an exploratory case study at the process of radiopharmaceuticals dispatch package of a Brazilian radioactive facility. (author)

  19. Individual based population inference using tagging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Baktoft, Henrik;

    estimate and its uncertainty (Hessian) can be computed. The individual model used in this text is a hidden Markov model. A simulation study concerning a two-dimensional biased random walk is examined to verify the consistency of the hierarchical estimation framework. In addition, a study based on acoustic...... telemetry data from pike illustrates how the framework can identify individuals that deviate from the remaining population....

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  1. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  2. Relationships Between Fire and Land Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon Based on Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the process of deforestation. The relationship between fire and deforestation varies temporally and spatially according to the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal variability between fire and deforestation over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA). We based our study on four datasets: deforestation estimates from PRODES (Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project) and forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project based on Landsat data, and burned area and land cover based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. While GFC and PRODES supported similar findings on spatial and temporal dynamics, the Landsat-scale comparison also highlighted a number of differences. Both datasets show a decrease after 2004 in forest loss or deforestation extent mainly from decreasing clearing rates in evergreen broadleaf forest, mostly in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondonia. However, the drop is larger and more gradual in PRODES than in GFC, with the former having less than half the forest loss of the latter. GFC indicates anomalous high forest loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not seen in PRODES. Rescaling these forest dynamics datasets to 500-meter resolution, allowed for a comparison against the MODIS datasets. The burned area data indicates that the mismatch between PRODES and GFC is largely related to increased fire occurrence during these dry years, mainly in Para. In addition it indicates that the time interval between deforestation and fire differs according to land cover, which is important when estimating the atmospheric impact of forest loss. We found that evergreen broadleaf forests are burned shortly after deforestation due to slash and burn techniques, while croplands have longer intervals depending on the crop variety. As a final step, we used these insights to better quantify carbon emissions from this region.

  3. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  4. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  5. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for ΣDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for ΣPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  6. Consumption Characteristics Mapping of the Base of the Pyramid (BOP Population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Giovinazzo Spers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to outline a diagnosis of the BoP's population in Brazil, regarding their size and consumption characteristics. This is a relevant and current issue, considering that BoP needs to be understood as a large potential market with its own logic, also representing a large productive potential, which, if well developed, will bring very positive impacts to these communities. To achieve this, a theoretical survey was made. After, search was made based on secondary data about Brazilian BoP population participation and a mapping of their consumption profile, identifying main categories of goods consumed. This research generated meaningful results for society, companies and the Academy, hopefully consolidating a relevant line of research and management education.

  7. Problem-Based Learning in Management Accounting Teaching: Report of a Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Bragueto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report on the operation of the PBL method in a management accounting discipline in the Accounting course of a Brazilian Higher Education institution. The research technique used was the case study, involving a descriptive approach to PBL classes, whose purpose was to present the properties of the classes, how to act and the profile of the students and teachers. The field research took place in 2013. The data were collected through interviews with teachers, participant observation and document analysis. The empirical analysis in this research rested on the studies by Araújo and Arantes (2009, Dochy, Segers, Bossche and Gijbels (2003, Duch, Groh and Allen (2001, MacDonald and Savin-Baden (2004, Ribeiro (2008, Schmidt (1983, Sockalingam and Schmidt (2011, among others. The results show that the integration between academics and businesses based on the use of practical and real problems the students brought from the work environment offered gains, such as: the student broadens the potential to solve practical and professional problems; and the company is benefited, as it can receive qualified professionals in the future, who are able for research and the proposal of solutions to problems. Teachers also gain as they are exposed to a contemporary setting, providing major updates in terms of use of concepts and theories, because of the contextualization. The PBL helps to engage Generation Y students, given that the desire for participation and communication in an interactive environment using technological tools are the main marks of that generation. The skills developed in the PBL approach are similar to those required from the management accountant.

  8. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  9. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  10. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

  11. Brazilian propolis extract used as an additive to decrease methane emissions from the rumen microbial population in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Woruby; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; Yoshimura, Emerson Henri; Machado, Erica; Macheboeuf, Didier; Cornu, Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a product that is rich in phenolic compounds and can be utilized in animal nutrition as a dietary additive. In this study, the effects of a Brazilian green propolis extract on rumen fermentation and gas production were determined. The fate of propolis phenolic compounds in the rumen medium was also investigated. Fermentation was done in 24-h batches over three periods. Inoculates were obtained from cows fed on grassland hay and concentrate. Propolis extract in a hydroalcoholic solution was applied at increasing doses to the substrate (1 to 56 g/kg). The fermentation substrate consisted on a mixture of alfalfa hay, soybean meal, and wheat grain mixture in dry matter. After 24 h of fermentation, seven new compounds were observed in the medium in amounts that correlated to the propolis dose. The dose of propolis extract linearly decreased the pH of the medium and linearly increased propionate production, which reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio and influenced the total production of short-chain fatty acids. Propolis also linearly reduced methane production and increased the carbon dioxide-to-methane ratio. Ammonia nitrogen levels and in vitro digestibility of organic matter were similar among the treatments. The combination of increased propionate production and decreased methane production suggests better energy utilization from the feed. PMID:27105625

  12. Genetic diversity in a Brazilian bovine herd based on four microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E. Matos Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs, DNA markers relatively abundant in the genome, have a high degree of polymorphism and therefore great potential for characterizing populations. The present study estimates genetic variability in a set of four microsatellites (BMS3013, BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122 in a Brazilian hybrid bovine breed (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore. The objectives were to determine the effect of crossbreeding and selection in these animals' genetic diversity as well as to discover the herd's genetic relationship with that of other breeds. Low diversity was verified in BMS3013 and high diversity was detected in BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122. Two alleles in TGLA122 are described here for the first time (TGLA122*155 and TGLA122*163. These genes are possibly characteristics of Zebu animals since they have not been found in other taurine samples so far investigated. Low interpopulational diversity was observed among taurine cattle populations, and clusters obtained on TGLA122 phylogenetic trees agreed with the bovine herd's geographic origin. Therefore, despite TGLA122's high polymorphism and high levels of intrapopulational diversity, the system engenders consistent bovine phylogenies. We detected an intriguingly high similarity between Brangus Ibagé and Red Angus since the former is a hybrid having 3/8 of Nelore genes. Either these animals' environment or genetic selective practices applied to the breed probably favor the Angus genotype.Microssatélites ou repetições curtas em tandem (STRs são marcadores moleculares de relativa abundância no genoma e apresentam alto grau de polimorfismo, constituindo-se numa excelente ferramenta para a caracterização das populações. Este trabalho estimou a variabilidade genética de quatro microssatélites (BMS3013, BMS3004, HEL10 e TGLA122 em um rebanho híbrido de bovinos brasileiros (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore, com os objetivos de verificar o efeito do cruzamento e das pr

  13. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  14. Pharmacogenomic diversity among Brazilians: Influence of ancestry, self-reported Color and geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of being the product of the genetic admixture of three ancestral roots: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians, the present day Brazilian population displays very high levels of genomic diversity, which have important pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx implications. Recognition of this fact has prompted the creation of the Brazilian Pharmacogenomics Network (Refargen, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population heath impact. Here, we present original data and review published results from a Refargen comprehensive study of the distribution of PGx polymorphisms in a representative cohort of the Brazilian people, comprising 1,034 healthy, unrelated adults, self-identified as white, brown or black, according to the Color categories adopted by the Brazilian Census. Multinomial log-linear regression analysis was applied to infer the statistical association between allele, genotype and haplotype distributions among Brazilians (response variables and self-reported Color, geographical region and biogeographical ancestry (explanatory variables, whereas Wright´s FST statistics was used to assess the extent of PGx divergence among different strata of the Brazilian population. Major PGx implications of these findings are: first, extrapolation of data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in several pharmacogenes of clinical relevance (e.g. ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, VKORC varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/Color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts.

  15. Genetic diversity among Brazilian soybean cultivars based on SSR loci and pedigree data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Geribello Priolli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simple sequence repeats (SSR loci and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationship in a group of 168 Brazilian soybean cultivars. Eighteen SSR loci produced an average of 5.06 alleles and a mean gene diversity of 0.58 for the cultivars studied. Genetic distance (GD was determined using the modified Roger's Wright distance, and a final dendrogram was in agreement with the cultivar pedigree. A distance matrix based on the coefficient of parentage scores was also generated for the cultivars, which ranged from 0 to 1, with a mean of 0.18, whereas SSR-based genetic similarity (1- GD ranged from 0.01 to 0.90, with a mean of 0.25. Mantel's Z test showed that the similarity matrices generated from both the data sets were low, but significantly correlated (r = 0.31, pLocos microssatélites e dados de genealogia foram utilizados para avaliar a diversidade genética de um grupo de 168 cultivares brasileiras de soja. Os dezoito locos utilizados apresentaram em média 5,06 alelos por loco e coeficiente de diversidade genética médio de 0,58. O dendrograma final resultante da matriz de distância genética de Roger modificado por Wright, apresentou boa concordância com a ancestralidade dos grupos formados. Também foi estimado os coeficientes de parentesco entre as cultivares, sendo observada variação de 0 a 1 com média de 0,18, enquanto que as similaridades para os locos microssatélites (1- GD variou de 0,01 a 0,90 com média de 0,25. A correlação entre as duas matrizes obtidas determinada pelo teste Z de Mantel apresentou valor baixo, 0,31, mas significativo (p<0,001. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que os locos microssatélites aliados às informações de genealogia proporcionam melhor análise da diversidade genética de cultivares de soja.

  16. Frequency of polymorphisms of genes coding for HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2 in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munerato Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry of human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1 into target cells requires both CD4and one of the chemokine receptors. Viruses predominantly use one, or occasionally both, of the major co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, although other receptors, including CCR2B and CCR3, function as minor co-receptors. A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta32 within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5 has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposition to HIV-1. The heterozygous genotype delays disease progression. This allele is common among Caucasians, but has not been found in people of African or Asian ancestry. A more common transition involving a valine to isoleucine switch in transmembrane domain I of CCR2B (64I, with unknown functional consequences, was found to delay disease progression but not to reduce infection risk. As the Brazilian population consists of a mixture of several ethnic groups, we decided to examine the genotype frequency of these polymorphisms in this country. There were 11.5% CCR5 heterozygotes among the HIV-1 infected population and 12.5% among uninfected individuals, similar to data from North America and Western Europe. The prevalence of CCR2-64I homozygotes and heterozygotes was 0.06 and 15.2%, respectively, also similar to what is known for North America and Western Europe.

  17. Development of two multiplex PCR systems for the analysis of 14 X-chromosomal STR loci in a southern Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Larissa Siqueira; Silva, Fernanda Gamio; Salim, Patricia Hartstein; Ewald, Gisele; Jobim, Mariana; Magalhães, José Antônio de Azevedo; Jobim, Luiz Fernando

    2012-03-01

    We developed two multiplex systems for the coamplification of X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). X-Multiplex 1 consisted of DXS6807, DXS6800, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05 and HPRTB and X-Multiplex 2 consisted of DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS6801, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS8377 and DXS7423. In addition, we present allele frequencies for these loci in a south Brazilian population comprising 124 females and 141 males and haplotype frequencies of linked markers for males. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested in the female sample and no significant deviations were found after applying Bonferroni's correction. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests were performed for all pairs of loci and three significant results, out of 91 pairwise comparisons, were obtained. We did not find any evidence of linkage disequilibrium between close or linked markers. The power of discrimination in females (PD(F)) varied between 0.832 for DXS6801 and 0.987 for DXS8377. DXS6801 was the least informative marker (PIC = 0.605), while DXS8377 was the most polymorphic (PIC = 0.911), followed by DXS101 (PIC = 0.872). Genetic distances were estimated for each STR marker applying the calculation of F (ST) between our total sample and other studies from Brazil, Europe, Asia and Africa. The most distant populations were Japan, Korea, China, Ghana and Uganda.

  18. Future burden of prostate cancer mortality in Brazil: a population-based study

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    Javier Jerez-Roig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer mortality projections at the nationwide and regional levels to the year 2025 are carried out in this ecological study that is based on an analysis of Brazilian trends between 1996 and 2010. The predictions were made for the period 2011-2025 utilizing the Nordpred program based on the period of 1996-2010, using the age-period-cohort model. A significant increase was observed in the Brazilian rates between 1996 and 2006, followed by a non-significant decrease. The projections indicate a decrease in rates at a national level as well as for the Central, South and Southeast regions. Increases are expected for the North and Northeast regions. In conclusion, a reduction in the mortality rates for prostate cancer in Brazil is expected to the year 2025, as well as for the Central, South and Southeast regions. However, an increase in the absolute number of deaths in all regions is expected due to the anticipated aging of the population.

  19. Dental approach in the pediatric oncology patient: characteristics of the population treated at the dentistry unit in a pediatric oncology brazilian teaching hospital

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    Camila Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to characterize the population seen at the dentistry unit of the hematology-oncology service of the Oncology-Hematology Service, Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Oral problems resulting from cancer therapy increase the risk of infection, length of hospital stay, treatment cost and negative impact on the course and prognosis of the disease. METHOD: Of the 367 medical records of cancer patients seen from November 2007 until December 2008: 186 with a cancer diagnosis and complete clinical data were selected, while 20 with a cancer diagnosis and incomplete records were excluded; 161 medical records with only hematological diagnosis were also excluded. The following characteristics were assessed: ethnicity, gender, age, diagnosis and characteristics of the neoplasm, cancer therapy status and performed dental procedures. RESULTS: Review of 1,236 visits indicated that 54% (n=100 of the patients had blood cancers, 46% (n=86 had solid tumors and 63% were undergoing anticancer therapy. The proportion of males (52.7% in the study population was slightly greater. The most common cancer was acute lymphocytic leukemia (32.2%. Cancer occurred more often among those patients aged 5 to 9 years. The most common dental procedures were restorative treatment, preventive treatment and removal of infectious foci. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the studied population were similar to those of the general Brazilian and global populations, especially regarding gender and diagnosis distributions. The aim of implementation of the dentistry unit was to maintain good oral health and patients' quality of life, which is critical to provide oral care and prevent future oral problems.

  20. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice.

  1. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

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    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  2. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

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    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  3. The Incorporation of Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: reflections based on brazilian context

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    Josiel Valadares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims seeks to broaden the debate on the incorporation of the theme Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector (EPS through the literature review on the reflective character to be taken to transpose concepts from the private sector to the public sector. It was understood that needs a critical discussion on the process of appropriating that theme in Brazil. It was observed that the Brazilian Public Administration is marked by a hybrid model of administration, in which patrimonial practices, bureaucratic and managerial coexist, making the complex adaptation of entrepreneurship. Therefore, we must be wary of exaggerated expectations regarding this theme in Brazilian Public Administration, as have several limitations that meet the sustainability of democratic governments.

  4. The Association of the Immune Response Genes to Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Disease in a Brazilian Population

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    Amanda Vansan Marangon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of the host contributes to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV-related cervical disease. Immune response genes to HPV must be investigated to define patients with the highest risk of developing malignant disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphic immune response genes, namely KIR, HLA class I and II, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of cytokines with HPV-related cervical disease. We selected 79 non-related, admixed Brazilian women from the state of Paraná, southern region of Brazil, who were infected with high carcinogenic risk HPV and present cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, and 150 HPV-negative women from the same region matched for ethnicity. KIR genes were genotyped using an in-house PCR-SSP. HLA alleles were typed using a reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide technique. SNPs of TNF −308G>A, IL6 −174G>C, IFNG +874T>A, TGFB1 +869T>C +915G>C, and IL10 −592C>A −819C>T −1082G>A were evaluated using PCR-SSP. The KIR genes were not associated with HPV, although some pairs of i(inhibitoryKIR-ligands occurred more frequently in patients, supporting a role for NK in detrimental chronic inflammatory and carcinogenesis. Some HLA haplotypes were associated with HPV. The associations of INFG and IL10 SNPs potentially reflect impaired or invalid responses in advanced lesions.

  5. -765 G>C POLYMORPHISM OF THE COX-2 GENE AND GASTRIC CANCER RISK IN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

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    Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine CAMPANHOLO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Genomic alterations play important roles in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenases (COX are important enzymes in the maintenance of mucosal integrity and in pathological processes, mainly in inflammation and cancer. The -765G>C COX-2 polymorphism has been implicated in gastric cancer risk. Objectives To evaluate the COX-2 gene polymorphism as a predictor of gastric cancer risk. Methods One hundred gastric cancer patients and 150 controls were enrolled from a Brazilian centre. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption and smoking behavior, were collected via questionnaire. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the genotypes were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results G/G, G/C and C/C genotypes frequencies was 42.7%, 50% and 7.3%, respectively in controls and 59.0%, 34.0% and 7.0% in gastric cancer. The frequency of the genotypes differed between the groups (P = 0.033. A higher risk of gastric cancer was associated with COX-2 -765G/G genotype (P = 0.048; OR:1.98, 95% CI = 1.01-3.90. Alcohol consumption and smoking in patients with -765G/G genotype also increased the risk of gastric cancer. Conclusions The -765G/G genotype and the -765G allele had been associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. The presence of smoking and alcohol consumption increased the risk for gastric cancer in subjects with -765G/G genotype compared with the control group. Polymorphism of COX-2 gene and gastric cancer risk.

  6. TP53 gene polymorphisms at codons 11, 72, and 248 and association with endometriosis in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Kosugi, C M; D'Amora, P; Kleine, J P F O; Carvalho, C V; Sato, H; Schor, E; Silva, I D C G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association between TP53 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis in Brazilian women. Genomic DNA was extracted from swabs of buccal cells collected from hospital patients. TP53 gene polymorphisms were investigated at three codons: TP53 11 Glu/Gln or Lys (GAG->CAG or AAG), TP53 72 Arg/Pro (CCG->CCC), and TP53 248 Arg/Thr (CGG->TCG) using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. TP53 11 presented the following genotypic distribution: the control group was 98.28% homozygous wild-type (Glu) and 1.72% homozygous variant (Gln/Lys), and the heterozygous genotype was not identified. The genotypic distribution in the endometriosis group was 96% homozygous wild-type (Glu) and 4% heterozygous (Glu-Gln/Lys); the homozygous variant genotype was not identified (P = 0.02). TP53 72 showed the following genotypic distribution: the control group was 29.75% homozygous wild-type (Arg), 47.11% heterozygous (Arg-Pro), and 23.14% homozygous variant (Pro). The genotypic distribution in the endometriosis group was 16.15% homozygous wild-type (Arg), 51.54% heterozygous (Arg-Pro), and 32.31% homozygous variant (Pro) (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.03; P = 0.02). Only one patient had the homozygous TP53 248 genotype (Arg-Trp/Gln); all other patients were homozygous wild-type in both the control and endometriosis groups (P = 0.51; NS). We found that TP53 72 polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to endometriosis; the presence of at least 1 polymorphic allele increased the chance of disease development by 2.26-fold. Hence, this genetic variant is a potential candidate marker for endometriosis. PMID:25177931

  7. Genetic structure of red-handed howler monkey populations in the fragmented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

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    Heitor B. Bastos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation, caused by flooding of the Tucuruí reservoir, on the genetic structure of Alouatta belzebul in eastern Amazonia. The analysis included two populations sampled in 1984, representing both margins of the Tocantins river, and three populations sampled 18 years later. Minimal differences in the diversity levels between present-day (Ho = 0.62-0.69 and A R = 6.07-7.21 and pre-flooding (Ho = 0.60-0.62 and A R = 6.27-6.77 populations indicated there was no significant loss of genetic variability, possibly because of successful management strategies applied during the flooding. The changes observed were limited to shifts in the composition of alleles, which presumably reflect the admixture of subpopulations during flooding. Given this, there were significant differences in the Rst values (p = 0.05 in all but one between-site comparison. Both present-day and original populations showed a deficit of heterozygotes, which suggests that this may be typical of the species, at least at a local level, perhaps because of specific ecological characteristics. The relatively large number of private alleles recorded in all populations may be a consequence of the Wahlund effect resulting from population admixture or a process of expansion rather than the loss of rare alleles through genetic drift. Additionally, the levels of genetic variability observed in this study were higher than those reported for other species of Neotropical primates, suggesting good fitness levels in these A. belzebul populations. Regular genetic monitoring of remnant populations, especially on islands, should nevertheless be an integral component of long-term management strategies.

  8. Brazilian Portuguese transcultural adaptation of Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS

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    Victor Polignano Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the importance of Executive Functions to clinical and nonclinical situations, Barkley proposed a new theory of executive functioning based on an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective and clinical research using large samples of clinical and community identified adults and children as well as children with ADHD followed to adulthood. Objective The present study aims to adapt the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functions Scales (BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and also assess its construct validity in a sample of normal Brazilian adults. Methods The original version of scale was adapted to Brazilian Portuguese according to the guideline from the ISPOR Task Force. To assess the semantic equivalence between the original and adapted version, both of them were applied into a sample of 25 Brazilian bilingual adults. Finally, 60 Brazilian adults completed the BDEFS and the Brazilian versions of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 to assess convergent validity. Results The BDEFS Brazilian Portuguese version has semantic correspondence with the original version indicating that the adaptation procedure was successful. The BDEFS correlated significantly with the impulsivity and attention scores from the BIS-11 and ASRS-18 supporting its construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.961 indicated that the BDEFS translated version has satisfactory internal consistency. Discussion Together, these findings indicate the successful adaptation of the BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and support its utility in that population.

  9. Condições periodontais e diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira Periodontal conditions and diabetes mellitus in the Japanese-Brazilian population

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    Nilce E Tomita

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as condições periodontais e sua relação com o diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 1.315 indivíduos do município de Bauru, SP, na faixa etária de 30 a 92 anos de idade, ambos os sexos, primeira (Isseis e segunda (Niseis gerações. Os critérios de exclusão da amostra foram o edentulismo total e a presença de seis sextantes nulos. O índice periodontal comunitário e o índice de perda de inserção periodontal foram obtidos mediante sondagem em 10 dentes-índice, em uma amostra de 831 indivíduos. O diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus foi estabelecido através da glicemia em jejum e de duas horas após sobrecarga com 75 g de glicose. Para análise estatística foram utilizados os Testes de Kappa e de Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Quanto às condições periodontais, foram encontrados 25,5% de indivíduos sadios, 12,5% com sangramento à sondagem, 49,4% com presença de cálculo, 10,4% com bolsas superficiais, 2,2% com bolsas profundas. Apresentaram perdas de inserção periodontal de 0-3 mm, 24,2% dos indivíduos, de 4-5 mm, 36,7%, de 6-8 mm, 23,7%, de 9-11 mm, 11,3% e de 12 mm ou mais, 4,1%. A avaliação entre diabetes e condições periodontais não apresentou associação estatística (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between diabetic status and periodontal conditions in the Japanese-Brazilian population. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,315 subjects, of both sexes, first (Issei and second (Nisei generations, aged 30 to 92 years, living in Bauru, Brazil. Edentulism and presence of 6 null sextants were the exclusion criteria for the sample. The Community Periodontal Index and Periodontal Attachment Loss Index were determined using the probing of 10 teeth in a sample of 831 subjects. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was based on fasting blood sugar and blood sugar 2 hours after 75 mg of glucose overload. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kappa test and Chi

  10. Genética comunitária e hemofilia em uma população brasileira Community genetics and hemophilia in a Brazilian population

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    Vânia Maria Caio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A hemofilia é uma doença hemorrágica importante no Brasil, afetando cerca de um em cada dez mil indivíduos do sexo masculino. A autopercepção do portador a respeito da hemofilia e a sua interação com a comunidade são relevantes na abordagem clínica dessa doença. Nós investigamos vários aspectos sociais, psicológicos e comunitários da hemofilia em uma população brasileira (Campinas, São Paulo. Entrevistamos trinta portadores adultos da hemofilia, uma amostra-controle composta por 73 de seus irmãos normais do sexo masculino e 641 indivíduos da comunidade. A integração comunitária dos portadores da hemofilia mostrou-se afetada apenas nos aspectos sócio-econômicos, sem alteração no que diz respeito ao casamento, à procriação e à aquisição de melhores níveis educacionais. Observaram-se entre os portadores da hemofilia altos níveis de auto-rotulação, acompanhados de depressão, ansiedade e insegurança. A comunidade apresentou uma alta freqüência de completo desconhecimento a respeito da hemofilia (49%, demonstrando contra os hemofílicos os preconceitos normalmente observados contra os portadores de doenças contagiosas, como a AIDS. O trabalho sugere a estruturação de programa comunitário, visando à melhor adequação psicossocial dos portadores da hemofilia.Hemophilia is an important hemorrhagic disease in Brazil, affecting about 1 out of every 10,000 males. Patient's self-perception of hemophilia and interaction with the community are relevant to the clinical management of this disease. We investigated several social, psychological, and community aspects of hemophilia in a Brazilian population (Campinas, São Paulo State, interviewing 30 hemophiliac males, a control sample comprised of 73 non-hemophiliac brothers, and 641 individuals from the community. According to our results, more severe social disability in the hemophiliac patient was related to economic factors, mainly unemployment; however, no

  11. Population Analysis of Pharmacogenetic Polymorphisms Related to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Drug Treatment

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    Marcela A. Chiabai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in the Brazilian population, the genotypes and population frequencies of pharmacogenetic polymorphisms involved in the response to drugs used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and to compare the data with data from the HapMap populations. There was significant differentiation between most population pairs, but few associations between genetic ancestry and SNPs in the Brazilian population were observed. AMOVA analysis comparing the Brazilian population to all other populations retrieved from HapMap pointed to a genetic proximity with the European population. These associations point to preclusion of the use of genetic ancestry as a proxy for predicting drug response. In this way, any study aiming to correlate genotype with drug response in the Brazilian population should be based on pharmacogenetic SNP genotypes.

  12. Bullying in Brazilian school children: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. RESULTS: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50, at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29 and 16 (OR = 1.41, public school students (OR = 2.08, black (OR = 1.18 and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old, male (OR = 1.26, black (OR = 1.15 and indigenous (OR = 1.16 and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08 and 15 years (OR = 1.18, male (OR = 1.87, black (OR = 1.14 and yellow (OR = 1.15, children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue.

  13. A wavelets-based analysis of the phillips curve hypothesis for the Brazilian economy, 1980-2011

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    Edgard Almeida Pimentel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper implements a wavelets-based analysis of the Phillips curve hypothesis — as formulated by Friedman and Phelps — for the Brazilian economy, concerning the last thirty years. We provide an introductory discussion on Phillips curve's main arguments and an exploratory data analysis for the variables under consideration: prices, unemployment and real wages. In the sequel, we estimate variances and correlation structures between these aggregates through wavelets. Our findings reject the Phillips curve hypothesis for the Brazilian economy in the short run while suggest that it does hold in the long run. Finally, the correlation structure obtained in the paper captures particular aspects of Brazilian economic policy within the period.Este artigo desenvolve uma análise da hipótese da curva de Phillips — de acordo com a formulação de Phelps-Friedman — para a economia brasileira dos últimos 30 anos através da metodologia de ondaletas. Uma introdução às ideias fundamentais do argumento de Phillips é seguida por uma breve exposição dos principais desenvolvimentos teóricos no tema e uma discussão acerca do recente panorama da pesquisa no Brasil. Em seguida, uma análise exploratória das variáveis em questão é empreendida. Por fim, são apresentadas estruturas de correlação e variâncias estimadas através da metodologia de ondatelas, desagregando assim efeitos de curto e longo prazo. Nossos resultados rejeitam a hipótese da curva de Phillips para a economia brasileira no curto prazo enquanto sugere a sua validade no longo prazo. Ainda discutem-se aspectos da pol+itica econômica nacional evidenciados pela metodologia de análise empregada.

  14. Absence of routine medical consultation among hypertensive and/or diabetic elders: an epidemiological study based on the Brazilian National Household Survey 2008

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    Daniela Nice Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study aimed to investigate the predisposing, enabling and health need characteristics associated with lack of medical visits in the last 12 months, among 23,620 elderly hypertensive and/or diabetic individuals.METHODS: In this research, we used the theoretical behavioral model of Andersen and Newman for use of health services. The data analyzed were produced by the health supplement of the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD 2008, nationwide. To identify the associations, we used the Poisson regression model, which estimates the prevalence ratios and confidence intervals of 95%, considering the significance level of 5%.RESULTS: The results showed that 10.6% of the study population did not consult the doctor in the period considered, and the prevalence was higher among hypertensive subjects (10.5% than among diabetic ones (7.1%. The lack of medical consultation was negatively associated with female sex and increasing age (predisposing characteristics, with health insurance coverage (enabling characteristic, worse self-rated health, chronic health conditions selected and the presence of hypertension associated with diabetes (health needs, while the fact of living in the Northeast, North and Midwest appeared positively associated with the event under investigation.CONCLUSION: These results corroborate those observed in national and international studies and show evidence of inequality and inequity in the use of medical consultation for this population, based on the findings related to health plan coverage and geographic region.

  15. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha, T. B.; Ding, L; He, H; Alexander, E. S.; Zhang, X.; B. G. Kurowski; Pilipenko, V.; Kottyan, L.; Martin, L. J.; Fardo, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The prese...

  16. Population data of 16 autosomal STR loci of the Powerplex ESX 17 System in a Brazilian Population from the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Prado Oliveira e Sousa, Maria Luiza; de Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Tuena; Auler-Bittencout, Eloisa A; Soares-Vieira, Jose Arnaldo; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2014-07-01

    The State of São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, including approximately one fifth of the population of the country. In addition to a strong economy, the state has relatively good social indicators when compared with the rest of the country. The capital city, also called São Paulo, is the sixth largest city in the world. Its population is considered the most multicultural and racially mixed in Brazil. Currently, the largest populations in São Paulo are of Italian, Lebanese, Spanish and Japanese origin, and the state has the largest number of Northeasterners outside of the Northeast region. This population structure may lead to a particular genotype frequency. In this context, the formation of a new database containing the allele frequencies of five new genetic markers (D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391) in a sample population is relevant. The allele frequencies of 16 STR loci, including the five new European Standard Set (ESS) loci, were calculated in a sample of 1088-1098 unrelated individuals, who geographically represent the Capital city.

  17. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

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    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. GSTT1,GSTM 1 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms in gastric cancer and chronic gastritis in a Brazilian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jucimara Colombo; Andréa Regina Baptista Rossit; Alaor Caetano; Aldenis Albaneze Borim; Durval Wornrath; Ana Elizabete Silva

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that, in the Southeastern Brazilian population, the GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP2E1polymorphisms and putative risk factors are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer.METHODS: We conducted a study on 100 cases of gastric cancer (GC), 100 cases of chronic gastritis (CG), and 150controls (C). Deletion of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was assessed by multiplex PCR. CYP2E1/PstI genotyping was performed using a PCR-RFLP assay.RESULTS: No relationship between GSTT1/GSTM1 deletion and the c1/c2 genotype of CYP2E1 was observed among the three groups. However, a significant difference between CG and C was observed, due to a greater number of GSTT1/GSTM1 positive genotypes in the CG group. The GSTT1 null genotype occurred more frequently in Negroid subjects, and the GSTM1 null genotype in Caucasians, while the GSTM1 positive genotype was observed mainly in individuals with chronic gastritis infected with H pylori.CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that there is no obvious relationship between the GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and gastric cancer.

  19. The song of the Brazilian population of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae, in the year 2000: individual song variations and possible implications

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    Arraut Eduardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The song of the Brazilian population of the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae was studied in its breeding and calving ground, the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil, from July to November 2000. Aural and spectral analyses of digital recordings were completed for approximately 20 song cycles, totaling 5 hours of song from 10 different recording events. We identified 24 note types, organized in five themes. All songs presented the same themes and the order in which they were sung did not vary. We registered the appearance of a note type and the disappearance of a phrase ending, which indicate that the song changed as the season progressed. Moreover, we detected individual variation in the way singers performed certain complex note types. As songs are transmitted culturally, it is likely that singers have different abilities to compose and/or learn new notes. If, as it has been previously suggested, 'new' songs are preferred to 'old' ones, these more able singers will be sending out information about their learning abilities that could be used by other whales to decide whether or not to interact with them.

  20. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do Pss; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital - Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  1. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

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    Magaly B.P.L.V. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q. Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1, which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3. These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis.

  2. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q). Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1), which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3). These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis. PMID:21637678

  3. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995; Balanco energetico nacional 1996: ano base 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  4. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997; Balanco energetico nacional 1998: ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  5. Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Macdonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The placental weight ratio (PWR is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA. The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n=41441. Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants.

  6. Crescimento físico e estado nutricional de populações indígenas brasileiras Physical growth and nutritional status of Brazilian indian populations

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    Ricardo V. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho revisa a literatura sobre crescimento físico de populações indígenas do Brasil. Os estudos voltados para caracterização do estado nutricional através da antropometria são relativamente recentes e, ainda, não chegam a prover um quadro claro da situação. Quando comparadas com crianças brasileiras ou com populações-referência internacionais (NCHS, as indígenas são em média de menor estatura e peso, ainda que mantenham a proporcionalidade corporal, avaliada pelo indicador 'peso para estatura'. Estes resultados podem ser interpretados como evidência de altas freqüências de desnutrição energética-protéico crônica. Pelo menos para alguns grupos, dados oriundos de inquéritos de saúde provêem evidências favoráveis à existência de condições nutricionais marginais. É indicado, contudo, que curvas de referências internacionais talvez não sejam adequadas para avaliar o crescimento físico de populações específicas, incluindo as crianças indígenas brasileiras. Chama-se atenção, também, para o fato de que mudanças nas práticas tradicionais de subsistência e nas condições de saúde devido ao processo aculturativo podem contribuir para a deterioração do estado de nutrição das populações indígenas.This paper reviews the literature on the physical growth of native populations from Brazil. Studies aiming at relating the physical growth patterns of these populations to their nutritional status are relatively recent and still do not provide a comprehensive picture of the situation. Compared to non-indigenous Brazilian children and international reference populations (NCHS, indigenous children are short and light for their age, although they maintain their body proportionality, as evaluated by weight for height. These findings could be interpreted as an indication of high rates of chronic protein-energy undernutrition. At least for some groups, data derived from health surveys provide further

  7. BEHAVIOR OF THE TEN LARGEST BRAZILIAN BANKS DURING THE SUBPRIME CRISIS: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS

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    Rosane Maria Pio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of the ten largest Brazilian banks between June 2008 and September 2009, based on the analysis of financial indicators. Therefore, 16 three-monthly indices were calculated, extracted from financial statement information, which characterizes a documentary research. The indices were separated in five categories: liquidity, capital, profitability, income and market. The obtained results appointed that most financial institutions in the sample were able to manage their resources so as to gain conditions to maintain credit initially. Then, as from the first term of 2009, driven by public banks, they increased their credit operations. In addition, most banks revealed an anti-cyclical trend to encourage productive activities, preferably activities with higher liquidity levels, to the detriment of profitability, which reveals a more conservative attitude. Finally, it was verified that government initiatives, the Brazilian economic balance and the resources the banks offered helped to produce an environment to reactivate business activities during the most acute period of the subprime crisis.

  8. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non problem-based learning environment

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    Lucélio B. Couto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In problem-based learning (PBL, the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results: Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001 greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%, guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%, achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%, generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%, and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%. Discussion/conclusion: According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.

  9. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.

  10. Diagnosis of amitraz resistance in Brazilian populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) with larval immersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Elisa Cimitan; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Sato, Mário Eidi

    2013-11-01

    Among the ectoparasites of cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) remains a major cause of economic losses to livestock. The chemical control with acaricides is still the most efficient method available to control ticks. The aims of this study were to diagnose resistance to amitraz in 16 tick populations from the States of São Paulo (14) and Paraná (2), using the larval immersion technique (LIT), and evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] on amitraz resistant and susceptible strains of cattle tick. Most of the evaluated populations (68.7 %) showed to be resistant to amitraz, with resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 132. The results suggest that the test procedure by LIT is sensitive and adequate for detection and monitoring of amitraz resistance in cattle tick. No synergistic effect was observed for the synergists PBO, DEM and TPP, on the amitraz resistant (Poa) strain of cattle tick, indicating that increased detoxification metabolism was not involved in this resistance. PMID:23620418

  11. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea on the southeastern Brazilian coast

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    Vivian Fransozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. Water and sediment samples were also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224, followed by UBA (154 and MV (23 but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  12. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population

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    T. B. Mersha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The presence of population substructure was underscored by discriminant analysis, in which over 92% of individuals were correctly assigned to their actual family using only 100 principal components. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting for population substructure in family-based studies of admixed populations.

  13. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, T B; Ding, L; He, H; Alexander, E S; Zhang, X; Kurowski, B G; Pilipenko, V; Kottyan, L; Martin, L J; Fardo, D W

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The presence of population substructure was underscored by discriminant analysis, in which over 92% of individuals were correctly assigned to their actual family using only 100 principal components. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting for population substructure in family-based studies of admixed populations. PMID:26064873

  14. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

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    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  15. O envelhecimento da população brasileira: um enfoque demográfico The aging process in the Brazilian population: a demographic approach

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    José Alberto Magno de Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente ao indicado pelo senso comum, o processo de envelhecimento populacional, tal como observado até hoje, é resultado do declínio da fecundidade, e não da mortalidade. O envelhecimento populacional iniciou-se no final do século XIX em alguns países da Europa Ocidental, espalhou-se pelo resto do Primeiro Mundo, no século passado, e se estendeu, nas últimas décadas, por vários países do Terceiro Mundo, inclusive o Brasil. No caso brasileiro, observou-se, a partir do final dos anos 60, rapidíssima e generalizada queda da fecundidade, e haverá, conseqüentemente, um célere processo de envelhecimento da população. Este processo será, necessariamente, mais rápido e com mudanças estruturais, demograficamente falando, mais profundas do que nos países do Primeiro Mundo por duas razões: o declínio da fecundidade, no País, deu-se em um ritmo maior e origina-se de uma população mais jovem do que aquela dos países desenvolvidos.Contrary to common sense, the population aging process is due to the decline in fertility rather than mortality. The aging process began around the end of the 19th century in a number of Western European countries, expanded to the rest of the so-called First World over the past century, and reached several Third World countries afterwards, including Brazil over the last decades. In the Brazilian case, a sharp and widespread fertility decline began by the end of the 1960s, and an accelerated population aging process can thus be expected. This process will necessarily be faster and with deeper structural changes, demographically speaking, than in First World countries, for two reasons: the fertility decline in Brazil was faster, and it took place in a population with a younger age structure.

  16. Setting priorities for environmental sanitation interventions based on epidemiological criteria: a Brazilian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico A; Antunes, Carlos M F

    2005-09-01

    The present study addresses the use of analytical epidemiologic approaches to subsidize the establishment of priorities in environmental sanitation interventions. An epidemiological investigation was carried out in 1993 in the urban area of Betim, a southeast Brazilian City of 160,000 inhabitants. The case-control 'inclusive' (or case-cohort) design, with a sample of 997 cases and 999 controls, was employed. Cases were defined as children of less than five years of age presenting diarrhoea episodes, while controls were randomly selected among children of the same age, living in the study area. After logistic regression adjustment, 11 of several exposure variables analysed were significantly associated with diarrhoea. Four different criteria, using as risk measures the relative risk, the attributable risk, the standardized coefficient of the logistic regression and the cost standardized coefficient, were used in order to define intervention priorities. PMID:16209031

  17. Population Scalability Analysis of Abstract Population-based Random Search: Spectral Radius

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Population-based Random Search (RS) algorithms, such as Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), have been widely applied to solving discrete optimization problems. A common belief in this area is that the performance of a population-based RS algorithm may improve if increasing its population size. The term of population scalability is used to describe the relationship between the performance of RS algorithms and their population size. Although understanding population scalability is important to design efficient RS algorithms, there exist few theoretical results about population scalability so far. Among those limited results, most of them belong to case studies, e.g. simple RS algorithms for simple problems. Different from them, the paper aims at providing a general study. A large family of RS algorithms, called ARS, has been investigated in the paper. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a novel appro...

  18. Fatores de risco para o prolapso genital em uma população brasileira Risk factors for genital prolapse in a Brazilian population

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    Andrea Moura Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de prolapso genital na população brasileira. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle envolvendo 316 pacientes que foram submetidas a estadiamento de prolapso, utilizando-se o sistema de quantificação de prolapso dos órgãos pélvicos. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No Grupo Caso, foram incluídas 107 pacientes com prolapso nos estádios III ou IV, e no Controle, 209 mulheres com estádios 0 ou I. As mulheres selecionadas respondiam à anamnese na qual eram questionadas sobre a presença de possíveis fatores de risco para prolapso genital, tais como: idade, idade da menopausa, paridade, tipos de parto (vaginal, cesariana ou fórcipe, ocorrência de macrossomia fetal, história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau de distopia genital, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS: as variáveis que se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos foram: idade, índice de massa corpórea, paridade, número de partos vaginais, de cesarianas, de partos fórcipe, peso do recém-nascido e história familiar positiva para prolapso. Raça, idade da menopausa, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos. Após a regressão logística, somente três variáveis se apresentaram como fatores de risco independentes: presença de pelo menos um parto vaginal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva. A cesariana se mostrou como fator protetor. CONCLUSÕES: na população brasileira, os fatores de risco independentes para prolapso foram a presença de pelo menos um parto normal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva para distopia.PURPOSE: to evaluate risk factors for the development of genital prolapse in the Brazilian population. METHODS: case-control study involving 316 patients submitted to prolapse staging, according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Case Group

  19. Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities

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    Laura Russo Zillmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68% were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.

  20. Preliminary Analysis of the Nonsynonymous Polymorphism rs17563 in BMP4 Gene in Brazilian Population Suggests Protection for Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate

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    Tânia Kawasaki Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without palate (CL±P is common congenital anomalies in humans. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (Bmp4 is involved in the etiology of CL±P in animal models. The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs17563 T>C (p.V152A in the BMP4 gene has been associated to the risk of nonsyndromic CL±P in Chinese population and microforms from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMP4 gene in CL±P in Brazilian sample using genetic association approach. Our sample was composed by 123 patients with nonsyndromic CL±P and 246 controls, in which absence of CL±P was confirmed in 3 generations. The rs17563 polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association. Our data showed statistical power to detect association (86.83% in this sample. Logistic regression results showed significant association between C allele and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.40, and 95% CI = 0.25–0.65, as well as CC genotype and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.35, and 95% CI = 0.19–0.66. So, there is a strong association between nonsyndromic CL±P and BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism in our sample and the C allele had a protective effect against the occurrence of nonsyndromic CL±P.

  1. Populations analysis of the Brazilian Sharpnose Shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae on the São Paulo coast, Southern Brazil: inferences from mt DNA sequences

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    Fernando Fernandes Mendonça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharks of the genus Rhizoprionodon can be considered some of the most important predators along the trophic coastal marine ecosystems and represent an important economic resource for the small-scale fisheries, especially on the Brazilian coastline. In order to analyze the population structure of the shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii of São Paulo, Southeastern coast of Brazil, levels of genetic diversity were identified by nucleotide sequence analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results obtained from this study present moderate values of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. Although the AMOVA tests (ΦST = 0.08394, P Tubarões do gênero Rhizoprionodon são considerados predadores de grande importância ao longo da cadeia trófica nos ecossistemas costeiros e marinhos, também representando um importante recurso econômico para a pesca, especialmente no litoral brasileiro. A fim de analisar a estrutura populacional do tubarão Rhizoprionodon lalandii no litoral de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foram identificados os níveis de diversidade genética a partir da análise de sequências nucleotídicas da região controladora do DNA mitocondrial. Os dados obtidos neste estudo apresentam valores moderados de diversidade haplotípica e baixos índices de diversidade nucleotídica. Embora os testes de AMOVA (ΦST = 0,08394, P < 0,01 tenham revelado uma pequena diferença entre as amostras estudadas, evidências sobre a ocorrência de estruturação populacional não foram encontradas o que pode representar uma característica geral para tubarões vivendo em áreas costeiras.

  2. The effect of combined polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdimara Corrêa Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes that encode chemokines or their receptors can modulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and disease progression. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A and their role in the course of HIV infection in a Southern Brazilian population. Clinical data were obtained from 249 patients for an average period of 6.4 years and genotypes were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Survival analyses were conducted for three outcomes: CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/µL, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or death. The frequency of the polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A were 0.024, 0.113, 0.487 and 0.207, respectively. CCR5-Δ32 was associated with a reduction in the risk for CD4+ T-cell depletion and with an increased risk for death after AIDS diagnosis. CCR2-64I was associated with a reduction in the risk for developing AIDS. SDF1-3'A was also associated with decreased risk for AIDS, but its effect was only evident when CCR2-64I was present as well. These results highlight the possibility of using these markers as indicators for the prognosis of disease progression and provide evidence for the importance of analysing the effects of gene polymorphisms in a combined fashion.

  3. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  4. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica;

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD) to...

  5. Estudo audiológico de uma população idosa brasileira Audiological study of an elderly brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio do Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A população idosa brasileira cresce e representa 8,6% do total populacional. Fatores ambientais, hábitos de vida, sexo e fatores genéticos interferem na evolução da presbiacusia que reduz a qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Investigar queixas audiológicas e vestibulares em idosos, executar audiometria tonal, verificar se há diferenças entre os sexos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 320 pacientes idosos (160 homens e 160 mulheres foram submetidos a anamnese audiológica e audiometria tonal. Análise estatística dos resultados pelos testes ANOVA, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. RESULTADO: As queixas audiológicas e vestibulares (perda auditiva, tinnitus, plenitude auricular, tontura foram similares entre os sexos (exceção, a tontura: pThe Brazilian elderly population is growing, and already represents 8,6% of our total population. Environmental factors, lifestyle, gender and genetics impact the development of presbycusis, which reduces quality of life. AIM: investigate audiologic and vestibular complaints in the elderly; perform tonal audiometry and check to see if there are differences between genders. STUDY: Cross-sectional clinical prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 320 elderly patients (160 men and 160 women were submitted to audiologic interview and tonal audiometry. The results were statistically analyzed by the following methods: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Squared. RESULTS: audiologic and vestibular complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus, ear fullness, dizziness were similar between the genders (except for dizziness: p<0,05; tonal audiometry showed a significant difference, with hearing loss in the high frequencies among men; and among women the curves were descending and flat. These results were statistically significant (P<0,001. CONCLUSION: our results lead us to conclude that, when the genders are compared, hearing loss in the elderly has similar symptoms; however, there are

  6. Correlation between histocompatibility antigens and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in the brazilian population Estudo da associação entre antígenos de histocompatibilidade e estomatite aftoide recorrente em população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Salles Willo Wilhelmsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common oral mucosa disorder that affects 20% of the world's population, characterized by recurring painful ulcers in the mouth. The diagnosis is primarily based on the patient's clinical history. Inheritance may pose as a risk factor for the disease; however, the studies available are inconclusive as to the results attained, and they vary according to the population studied. AIM: to typify class I and class II HLA molecules and to assess how frequent these molecules are present in the Brazilian population with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis, compared to healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional and investigative study, thirty one patients with diagnostic hypothesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis were seen from February of 2004 to May of 2006. We obtained the DNA from those patients who matched the inclusion criteria and typified their HLA by PCR. RESULTS: In those patients with Recurrent Minor Aphthous Stomatitis we found statistically significant occurrences of HLA-A33 and HLA-B35. CONCLUSION: HLA-A33 and HLA-B35 may be associated with recurrent minor aphthous stomatitis in the Brazilian's population.A Estomatite Aftoide Recorrente é uma doença oral com incidência em 20% da população mundial, caracterizada por úlceras mucosas de caráter recidivante. O diagnóstico baseiase principalmente na história clínica do paciente. Hereditariedade pode ser um fator de risco para doença, entretanto, os estudos disponíveis não são conclusivos quanto aos resultados obtidos, variando segundo a população estudada. OBJETIVO: Tipificar moléculas HLA de classe I e de classe II e avaliar a frequência destas moléculas em pacientes brasileiros, portadores de Estomatite Aftoide Recorrente, comparando com grupo controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Este trabalho possui um desenho prospectivo, transverso e investigativo. Foram estudados 31 pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de Estomatite

  7. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  8. Treatment for TMD with occlusal splint and electromyographic control: application of the FARC protocol in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira e Silva, Carolina A; da Silva, Marco Antônio M Rodrigues; Melchior, Melissa de Oliveira; de Felício, Cláudia Maria; Sforza, Chiarella; Tartaglia, Gianluca M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply Functional Anatomy Research Center (FARC) Protocol of TMD treatment, which includes the use of a specific type of mandibular occlusal splint, adjusted based on the electromyographic index, in a group of 15 patients with disc displacement, classified according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and then analyzing the results compared with the control group. The clinical evaluations were completed both before and after the treatment. Electromyographic (EMG) data was collected and recorded on the day the splint was inserted (visit 1), after one week (visit 2) and after five weeks of treatment (visit 3). The control group consisted of 15 asymptomatic subjects, according to the same diagnostic criteria (RDC/TMD), who were submitted to the same evaluations with the same interval periods as the treatment group. Immediately after splint adjustment, masseter muscle symmetry and total muscular activity were significantly different with than without the splint (p < 0.05), showing an increased neuromuscular coordination. After treatment, significant variations (p < .05) were found in mouth opening and in pain remission. There were no significant differences among the three sessions, either with or without the splint. There were significant differences between the TMD and control groups for all analyzed indices of muscular symmetry, activity and torque, with the exception of total muscular activity. The use of the splint promoted balance of the EMG activities during its use, relieving symptoms. EMG parameters identified neuromuscular imbalance, and allowed an objective analysis of different phases of TMD treatment, differentiating individuals with TMD from the asymptomatic subjects.

  9. Brazilian energy balance 2011 - year 2010. Final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2011 - ano base 2010. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2010 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2010; chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, desegregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2010, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  12. Genetic diversity of Brazilian and introduced olive germplasms based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Val, A D B; Ferreira, J L; Vieira Neto, J; Pasqual, M; de Oliveira, A F; Borém, A; Cançado, G M A

    2012-01-01

    Olive trees have been grown since the beginning of civilization, and the consumption of olives and olive products is increasing worldwide, due to their health benefits and organoleptic qualities. To meet the growing market for olives, commercial cultivation of this species is expanding from traditional areas to new regions. Although the Brazilian olive industry has just begun to be established, breeding programs are already developing cultivars that are more adapted to local conditions. We used 12 microsatellite markers to evaluate 60 olive accessions, including several cultivars that were developed in Brazil. The analyses identified 72 distinct alleles; the largest number of alleles per locus were at the markers GAPU 101 and GAPU 71B, which contained 10 and 9 alleles, respectively. The largest allelic diversity and polymorphic information contents were also found at the GAPU 101 and GAPU 71B markers, with values of 0.8399/0.8203 and 0.8117/0.7863, respectively. Additionally, the 12 microsatellite markers generated a cumulative identity probability of 1.51 x 10(-10), indicating a high level of accuracy of accession identification. The set of markers that we used allowed the identification of 52 of the 60 olive genotypes, in addition to the recognition of several varietal synonyms. The components of a two-dimensional principal coordinate analysis explained 48.6% of the total genetic variation. The results obtained from the microsatellite markers showed a substantial degree of genetic diversity in the olive tree accessions used in Brazil.

  13. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-01-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the Habitable Zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planets' atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not favor one planet type. Instead the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid...

  14. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  15. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benseñor I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in São Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1 by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness. The odds ratio (OR for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4, dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4 and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6, when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  16. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, I M; Tófoli, L F; Andrade, L

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in S o Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1) by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness). The odds ratio (OR) for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4), dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6), when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  17. Brazilian Sign Language Lexicography and Technology: Dictionary, Digital Encyclopedia, Chereme-based Sign Retrieval, and Quadriplegic Deaf Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, Fernando C.; Duduchi, Marcelo; Raphael, Walkiria D.; Luz, Renato D.; Rozados, Daniela; Capovilla, Alessandra G. S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Brazilian Sign language digital encyclopedia, which contains a databank of 5,600 signs glossed in Portuguese and English, along with descriptions and illustrations of their signed form. (Author/VWL)

  18. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  19. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  20. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  1. Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Saraiva Fialho

    Full Text Available Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.

  2. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  3. Spironolactone use and renal toxicity: population based longitudinal analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, L; Struthers, A D; Fahey, T; Watson, A D; MacDonald, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety of spironolactone prescribing in the setting of the UK National Health Service. Design Population based longitudinal analysis using a record linkage database. Setting Tayside, Scotland. Population All patients who received one or more dispensed prescriptions for spironolactone between 1994 and 2007. Main outcome measures Rates of prescribing for spironolactone, hospital admissions for hyperkalaemia, and hyperkalaemia and renal function without...

  4. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado; Antônio José Ribeiro Dias; Flavia Carvalho M. Mello; Marta Angelica Iossi Silva; Michelle Ralil da Costa; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental heal...

  5. Genetic variability in natural populations of Zeyheria montana mart. from the Brazilian Cerrado Variabilidade genética entre e dentro de populações naturais de Zeyheria montana mart. do Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Waléria Bertoni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeyheria montana, an endemic species of the Bignoniaceae family from the Brazilian Cerrado's known for its anti-cancer properties, is widely used as imuno stimulant in the popular medicine and its therapeutic activity must be validated by scientific data. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of eight plant populations collected within the state of São Paulo, Brazil, via Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD used as molecular markers. After an optimized protocol for the amplification reaction, nine selected primers generated 105 reproducible bands, indicating up to 60% polymorphism. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed higher genetic variation within populations (84.03% than among populations (15.97%. The variation values estimated by phiST (0.160 indicated moderate to high inter population structuration. Levels of similarity inter plants with genetic and geographical distances, estimated by the unweighted pair-group method analysis (UPGMA clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination methods and by the Mantel test (-0.2345 p = 0.118 denoted that the structure found follows the island model, which assumes that a single population of infinite size may have initiated the existing populations of Zeyheria montana, with no spatial position correlation. Based on the obtained data, a germplasm bank from individuals representing the species variability was established. Furthermore the information here reported can be of importance to develop strategies for the conservation of Z. montana.Zeyheria montana, planta arbustiva da família Bignoniaceae, é uma espécie endêmica do Cerrado e possui atividade anti-câncer, sendo utilizada como estimulante na medicina popular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a variabilidade genética de oito populações localizadas no estado de São Paulo, utilizando marcadores moleculares de Polimorfismo de DNA Amplificado ao Acaso (RAPD. Após a otimiza

  6. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract; Aplicacao dos parametros fisiologicos e morfologicos de uma amostra da populacao brasileira no modelo matematico do trato respiratorio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-07-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  7. Reliability of nationwide prevalence estimates of dementia : A critical appraisal based on Brazilian surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaimowicz, F. (Flávio); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries' populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia

  8. Novas competências profissionais em saúde e o envelhecimento populacional brasileiro: integralidade, interdisciplinaridade e intersetorialidade New professional competences in the field of health and the aging Brazilian population: integrality, interdisciplinarity, intersectoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Branco da Motta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as características da formação médica frente ao processo de envelhecimento e as especificidades da atenção à saúde do idoso, de forma a sistematizar as competências necessárias para profissionais de saúde. A premissa é que existe uma distância marcante entre, por um lado, conteúdos necessários à boa prática geriátrica e diretrizes das políticas de saúde e educação e, por outro lado, o currículo atual da graduação e da pós-graduação. A transição epidemiológica e demográfica coloca a Geriatria e Gerontologia como uma especialidade com mercado em expansão, tanto no setor público como privado, implicando a discussão da normatização da formação e distribuição de RH na saúde. Porém, a pouca valorização da presença de seus conteúdos nos currículos não reflete apenas uma questão pedagógica. Ao que tudo indica, apesar da legislação existente, ainda não está clara a importância destes conteúdos para a sociedade. A inclusão do processo de envelhecimento como curso de vida e em todos os seus aspectos nos currículos de graduação é uma prioridade. É também necessário ampliar a discussão sobre o papel da pós-graduação, da educação permanente e da educação continuada a fim de fazer frente ao desafio de envelhecer com qualidade.This paper discusses the challenges faced by medical education with regard to the aging Brazilian population as well as the specificities of senior health care services, aiming at systematizing the contents and practices needed to prepare health professionals. The assumption is based on a clear gap between appropriate contents for quality geriatric practices and health policy guidelines on the one hand, and current undergraduate and graduate level medical programs on the other. This epidemiological and demographic transition positions Geriatrics and Gerontology as fields of expertise in an expanding market, both in the public and private sectors

  9. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. PMID:26805742

  10. Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Leganés cognitive test in a low educated elderly Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vescia Vieira de Alencar Caldas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate the Leganés cognitive test (LCT for cognitive screening in low educated elderly Brazilians. METHODS: The study sample was composed of 59 elderly residents from the city of Santa Cruz, in Brazil, with low schooling levels. Reliability was analyzed with a two-day interval between assessments, and concurrent validity was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. RESULTS: According to the LCT, the prevalence of dementia was 11.8%. The scale items showed a moderate to strong correlation between domains (p<0.01, and inter-rater reliability exhibited ICC=0.81, 95%CI=0.72-0.88. The factor analysis resulted in two factors: memory and orientation. Interscale agreement was considered poor (k=-0.02, supporting the hypothesis of an educational impact on final MMSE scores. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that LCT has acceptable levels of reliability for use in low-educated Brazilian elderly.

  11. Polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA -308 G/A) is not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Trevilatto; Rui Barbosa Brito Jr; Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga; Ana Paula de Souza Pardo; Cleber Machado de Souza; Antônio Wilson Sallum; Sérgio Roberto Peres Line

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a major mediator of the immune-inflammatory response and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic periodontitis. Polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNFA gene have been associated with some types of inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TNFA (G-308A) gene and chronic periodontitis in Brazilians. Methods: One hundred and thirt...

  12. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  13. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  15. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  16. LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    This report uses four large, national, population-based surveys to consider the ways in which LGBT populations are demographically similar to or distinct from their non-LGBT counterparts in the United States. Comparisons of demographic characteristics are made among the surveys and, when possible, among sexual orientation identities to consider differences between those who identify as lesbian or gay and those who identify as bisexual (none of the surveys allow for separate identification of ...

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP. PMID:26786079

  18. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Túlio de Freitas Ribeiro; Marco Aurélio Camargo da Rosa; Rosa Maria Natal de Lima; Andréa Maria Duarte Vargas; João Paulo Amaral Haddad; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World...

  19. The e-NutriHS: a web-based system for a Brazilian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folchetti, Luciana D; da Silva, Isis T; de Almeida Pititto, Bianca; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2015-01-01

    The e-NutriHS is a web-based system developed to gather online information on health of a cohort of college students and graduates in nutrition. It consists of six validated and internationally recognized questionnaires regarding demographic and socioeconomic data, dietary habits, physical activity level, alcohol and tobacco use, anti-fat attitudes and personal and family histories. Our software and respective database is hosted in the School of Public Health server and is based on free programming languages. An e-NutriHS prototype was created preceding online deployment. An improved version of the website was released based on 20 volunteers' opinions. A total of 503 users were registered. Considering that web-based systems produce reliable data, are easy to use, less costly and are less time-consuming, we conclude that our experience deserves to be shared, particularly with middle income economy countries.

  20. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...

  1. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  2. Population Control for Multi-agent Based Topical Crawlers

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Alban; Marteau, Pierre-François

    2008-01-01

    International audience The use of multi-agent topical Web crawlers based on the endogenous fitness model raises the problem of controling the population of agents. We tackle this question through an energy based model to balance the reproduction/life expectency of agents. Our goal is to simplify the tuning of parameters and to optimize the use of ressources available for the crawling. We introduce an energy based model designed to control the number of agents according to the precision of ...

  3. Validation of a web-based questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of Brazilian children aged 7-10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (CAAFE) comprises an online questionnaire to self-report diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The present study aimed to assess the validity (matches, omissions and intrusions) and moderating factors of the CAAFE. Direct obs...

  4. Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most

  5. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Marília Lavocart Nunes; Fátima Carvalho Madeira; Maria Goreth Santos; Silvia Reise Bregmann; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Luana Giatti; Sandhi Maria Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected ...

  6. Brazilian adolescents' knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: A school-based internet inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Ellen; Heumann, Silke; Araujo, Ana; Adesse, Leila; Halpern, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics.Methods: We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12-21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools.Results: Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone a...

  7. METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSION AND PILOTING OF LCA-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR PRODUCT STAGE ASSESSMENT OF BRAZILIAN BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Ruschi Mendes Saade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Energy Agency (IEA’s Annex 57 was established to advance on evaluation of embodied energy and GHG emissions for building construction. Its activities include recommendation of common calculation methods and disclosure of regional benchmarks. Process-based, input-output or hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA can support such calculations. Identification of the major products that describe key building typologies plays a strategic role in the tasks of streamlining indicators’ monitoring scope and LCI data gathering in contexts with little LCA practice consolidation. Given these motivations and backdrops, our main goals are (i to calculate a selected set of LCA-based indicators to synthetically describe environmental performance of construction products for three functionally equivalent case studies; (ii to detect the major contributors to embodied energy (EE and emissions (EGWP; and (iii to examine the implications of considering embodied CO2 versus total GHG emissions. The selected metrics include – besides EE and EGWP targeted by Annex 57 – the blue water footprint (bWF, non-renewable primary material consumption (NRc and volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Production cycle modeling used previously collected national data, as well as secondary data extracted from national and international literature or adapted from international databases whenever considered as reasonably similar to Brazilian processes. EE and EGWP results were calculated using the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED method and the CML 2001 baseline v. 2.05 method, respectively, and are presented for the top contributing products. NRc, bWF and VOC calculations were directly derived from the inventories and discussed in more detail for cement and concrete. Around 80% of the total embodied energy was related to seven construction products, while four of them also responded for around 80% of embodied GWP. Enlarging the database to encompass ten core

  8. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  9. Assemblages of Southeast-South Brazilian Coastal Systems Based on the Distribution of Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F. G.; Costa de Azevedo, M. C.

    2001-06-01

    Multivariate principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed on data representing presence or absence of 498 species of juvenile and adult fish species in twenty-four coastal marine systems (bays, coastal lagoons, estuaries and coastal zones) distributed from southeast to southern Brazil. Five groups of coastal systems were identified based on fish assemblage similarity: estuaries and bays of the southeast area; an estuary of the southern area; coastal lagoons; rocky coastal zones; and the continental platform. Species assemblages for each zone were identified and used as surrogate habitat indicators to compare and contrast the groups. Stepwise multiple regression of environmental and physical variables as predictors of the number of species indicated that only ' area ' was included in the model as the most important variable explaining the variation of the number of species in these data sets. The total number of fish species increased as surface area increased.

  10. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF POPULATION BASED ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Valeeva, A.; Goncharova, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem, which has a wide practical application. The SDVRP is NP-hard problem. We propose a population based ant colony optimization algorithm for solving the SDVRP. Computational experiments for developed algorithm are reported.

  11. Individual based model of slug population and spatial dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Y.H.; Bohan, D.A.; Potting, R.P.J.; Semenov, M.A.; Glen, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The slug, Deroceras reticulatum, is one of the most important pests of agricultural and horticultural crops in UK and Europe. In this paper, a spatially explicit individual based model (IbM) is developed to study the dynamics of a population of D. reticulatum. The IbM establishes a virtual field wit

  12. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Thaíse Campos Mondin; Caroline Elizabeth Konradt; Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso; Luciana de Avila Quevedo; Karen Jansen; Luciano Dias de Mattos; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Ricardo Azevedo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The final sample compris...

  13. Brazilian experience in characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose on camera-based PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), showing increased 18F-FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has proved useful to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. An accurate diagnosis of pulmonary cancer represents a clinical challenge. This could be even more significant in Latin America, where the incidence of infectious granulomas is high. However, the high cost of dedicated- PET studies has prevented widespread application of this technique. Hybrid PET is a new approach to tumor imaging using 18F-FDG. In our country, such a system was introduced in 1998. These systems offer the possibility to produce diagnostic quality images of 18F-FDG body distribution, making metabolic scans potentially available. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of F-18-FDG scan using a hybrid PET in characterizing pulmonary nodules as benign or malignant. Methods: We evaluated 62 patients (50 male, 38-79y) with indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules after computed tomography (CT) screening. 18F-FDG scans were performed on a camera-based PET (MCD Vertex-plus Adac) after injection of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose intravenously. Image acquisition began after 1 hour. Qualitative analysis of the images was performed by visual identification of areas of increase (positive) or absence (negative)of FDG uptake. All results were assessed on basis of histology or clinical/radiological follow-up. Results : Twenty-one patients (33.9%) showed a marked increase in FDG uptake and underwent invasive intervention (biopsy or thoracotomy). Histopathological evaluation revealed malignant disease in eighteen of these patients and benign disease in three of them (positive predictive value = 85.7%). Forty-one patients (66.1%) showed absence of FDG uptake. Fourteen of them underwent surgical procedure. Malignancy was found in only one. Twenty-seven patients with negative FDG studies are being followed up with a

  14. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  15. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population.

  16. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population. PMID:26375644

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent, a health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument for adolescents, in a healthy Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeoni Marie-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL assessment, encompassing the adolescents' perceptions of their mental, physical, and social health and well-being is increasingly considered an important outcome to be used to identify population health needs and to provide targeted medical care. Although validated instruments are essential for accurately assessing HRQoL outcomes, there are few cross-culturally adapted tools for use in Brazil, and none designed exclusively for use among adolescents. The Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A is a generic, multidimensional self-reported instrument originally developed and validated in France that evaluates HRQoL of ill and healthy adolescents. Purpose To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A, a generic HRQoL measure for adolescents originally developed in France. Methods The VSP-A was translated following a well-validated forward-backward process leading to the Brazilian version. The psychometric evaluation was conducted in a sample of 446 adolescents (14-18 years attending 2 public high schools of São Gonçalo City. The adolescents self-reported the Brazilian VSP-A, the validated Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and socio-demographic information. A retest evaluation was carried out on a sub-sample (n = 195 at a two-week interval. The internal construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, multi-trait scaling analyses, Rasch analysis evaluating unidimensionality of each scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Zumbo's ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF between the Brazilian and the French items. External construct validity was investigated testing expected differences between groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney tests and the univariate general

  18. Nível de conhecimento e percepção de risco da população brasileira sobre o HIV/Aids, 1998 e 2005 Knowledge and risk perception on HIV/AIDS by Brazilian population, 1998 and 2005

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    Maria Paula Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o nível de conhecimento e percepção de risco da população brasileira sobre o HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas as bases de dados da Pesquisa sobre Comportamento Sexual e Percepções da População, nos anos 1998 e 2005. Utilizou-se um indicador sintético composto de nove questões sobre níveis de conhecimento e percepção de risco acerca de formas de transmissão do vírus e situações de risco, segundo subgrupos populacionais. RESULTADOS: Os homens aumentaram seu nível de conhecimento no período, atingindo o nível de informação das mulheres. Entre os jovens não houve crescimento significativo do conhecimento, e tornou-se praticamente inexistente a diferença entre os sexos em relação a essa dimensão. Quanto à percepção de risco, aumentou a proporção dos que declaram não apresentar risco de contrair HIV/Aids. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do aumento no nível de conhecimento em geral, os resultados encontrados indicam a necessidade de ações e programas e de prevenção do HIV/Aids para a população em geral, em especial, aos jovens.OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of knowledge and risk perception on HIV/AIDS of the Brazilian Population. METHODS: Data base from a national survey on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS risk perception in the Brazilian population, in 1998 and 2005, were used. A synthetic indicator was used, composed by nine questions on the level of knowledge and risk perception on the forms of transmission of the virus and risk situations, according to population subgroups. RESULTS: Men increased their level of knowledge in the period, reaching the same information level of women. Among youngsters, there was no significant increase in knowledge, and the difference between sexes was absent in this dimension. Regarding risk perception, there was an increase in the proportion of those that declared they were not under risk of HIV/AIDS contamination. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increase in the level of

  19. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer’s disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code

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    Felipe K. Sudo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of “limited guardianship,” applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

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    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  1. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  2. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  3. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  4. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  5. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors Pirjo L; Kaltiala-Heino Riittakerttu; Rimpelä Arja H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, an...

  6. Genetic diversity of Sardinian goat population based on microsatellites

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    A. Carta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, the selection for production traits of the main livestock species has led to a reduction in number of local populations with consequent loss of genetic variability. In Sardinia, the genetic improvement strategy has been based on selection for the local pure breed in sheep, whereas in the other species (cattle, swine and goat, an often unplanned crossbreeding with improved breeds has been applied.

  7. International Competitiveness Based on Resources – Study of the Relation amog Resources and The International Dtrategies in the Biggest Exporting Companies of the Brazilian Footwear Sector

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    Sérgio Henrique Arruda Cavalcante Forte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of companies refers to a strategy to get greater presence in the international market. As the companies need to make use of strategical resources for their insertion in the international market, was searched to answer: Is there a relation between the evolution of the strategical resources and the strategies of internationalization in great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector? For the theoretical base were used the classifications of the resources of Fahy (2002 and the strategies of internationalization of Sharma and Erramilli (2004. The study searched to rescue the dynamic character of the Resouce-based View. The method of the research was the quantitative and explicative nature. The data were collected from 2004 to 2005, with 15 great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector and had been analyzed by the Cluster Analysis in the entrance in the international market, in the current situation and in 2010. It was concluded that the companies which use more complex strategies of internationalization, at the entrance moment and in the future, consider more strategical the capabilities, then the tangible resources and finally the intangible resources. However, in the current situation, they consider more strategical the capabilities, then the intangible resources and finally, the tangible resources.

  8. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION BASED ON CHAIN-NETWORK LOGIC TO PROMOTE THE EXPLORATION OF NATIVE AÇAÍ IN WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

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    Mariluce Paes-de-Souza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the objective to expose a proposition of organization within a chain and network logic, aiming to potentiate the extraction of the Native Açaí Berry at the Western Brazilian Amazon rainforest. This exploratory study involves the municipalities of Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Machadinho D’Oeste, at the Brazilian state of Rondônia, with primary data originating mostly from conservation areas at the lower Madeira River region. As a result, it was possible to infer that from the native Açai Berry, derives food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for both local consumption and international markets. It was found that beyond Açai Berry plantations availability, the lower Madeira River provides better transport logistic, consumer market and greater possibility of interaction with middleman than most Açai production areas. As a conclusion, it is made a proposition of an organizational arrangement to strengthen the extrativist productive chain of the Native Açaí Berry, based on the network and chain logic, oriented towards an organization based upon social organizations, manufacturing regularization and marketing.

  9. A successful population-based smoking cessation program

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    Hovan-Somborac Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our country is in the third place in Europe concerning tobacco smoking. Although strict law regulations regarding indoor smoking have been brought, the law banning all tobacco advertising, and the behaviour of our population are inadequate. Our objective was to persuade smokers for the 'Quit and Win' campaign and to establish the number of smokers in health personnel employed in health facilities. Material and methods This population-based smoking cessation campaign was coordinated by Federal Institute of Public Health, through a network of Public Health Institutes within the country with the support of national and local media. Results and discussion Quit and Win campaign was organized for the third time. The campaign was realized with the financial support and sponsorship at community level throughout the country. The Federal Ministry provided a national health award. The national and local media accompanied the campaign. The campaign included 3.178 smokers and 2.575 supporters, that is 0.1% of the population over 18 years of age. This is in accordance with participants in some other countries, who had a better support. More than 60% of health care facility employees are smokers. Conclusions Our tradition, habits in the society and overall situation encourage smoking habits to spread in general population. Our campaign has proved that people should be motivated to quit smoking, but they need to be informed. Actions taken in general population and based on a positive smoking cessation program in which smokers are willing to stop smoking have given unexpectedly good results.

  10. Características associadas ao uso de serviços odontológicos públicos pela população adulta brasileira Characteristics associated with the use of dental services by the adult Brazilian population

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    Rafaela da Silveira Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os fatores associados ao uso de serviços odontológicos públicos pela população adulta brasileira. Foram utilizados dados coletados junto a 13.356 adultos (35-44 anos, em um inquérito epidemiológico de saúde bucal, de abrangência nacional (Projeto SB-Brasil 2003. A análise dos dados baseou-se na regressão de Poisson, que produziu estimativas de Razões de Prevalências como medida de associação. A análise dos dados mostrou que o uso de serviços odontológicos públicos por adultos esteve associada com: sexo feminino, baixa escolaridade e renda, residência nas regiões Nordeste e Sul e em municípios de menor porte, queixas de dor de dente ou gengival, necessidades de prótese parcial e total, maior quantidade de dentes permanentes demandando tratamento, procura por serviço motivada por algum problema bucal e avaliação do tratamento recebido como regular. Esses resultados mostraram que a população atendida pelo serviço público era menos favorecida socioeconomicamente e apresentava maiores necessidades de tratamento. A grande necessidade acumulada reflete o histórico apartamento desse segmento populacional da atenção à saúde bucal em nosso país e coloca um grande desafio ao SUS, considerando o seu papel na redução das desigualdades e de provimento de acesso universal ao cuidado integral.The scope of this study was to investigate the factors related to the use of dental services by Brazilian adults. Data were collected from 13,356 adults (35 to 44 years of age, participating in a nationwide epidemiological survey of oral health (SB-BRASIL 2003 Project. Data analysis was based on Poisson regression, which produced estimates of Prevalence Ratios as a measure of association. Data analysis showed that the use of dental services by adults was associated with: female gender, low education and income, living in the Northeastern and Southern regions and in small cities, complaints of

  11. Prevalência e perfil dos usuários de álcool de população adulta em cidade do sul do Brasil Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city

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    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo do tipo observacional e transversal envolvendo 707 indivíduos do município de Joaçaba (SC, que visa conhecer a prevalência de usuários regulares de álcool, bem como seu perfil. Os resultados mostram que 45,5% (322 fazem uso de álcool de forma regular e consumiram álcool ao menos uma vez no último mês. O consumo regular de álcool ocorre predominantemente no sexo masculino (p This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322 of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p <0.001, in people under 39 years old (p =0.007, occurring predominantly with ones working comparing to the ones not working, (p <0.001, have more than 8 years of education (p <0.001 and with income greater than 1738.00 reais - Brazilian currency (p <0.001. The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006, also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013. The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade dos dados populacionais e cobertura dos registros de óbitos para as regiões brasileiras Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions

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    Neir Antunes Paes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade dos dados populacionais e a cobertura dos registros de óbitos para as Unidades da Federação Brasileira (UF, por sexo, no ano de 1990. MÉTODOS: Os dados populacionais extraídos dos Censos Demográficos foram avaliados através de métodos demográficos clássicos. Os registros de óbitos, extraídos da Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e do Ministério da Saúde, foram avaliados através de três técnicas de mensuração do sub-registro de óbitos. RESULTADOS: A precisão das declarações das idades das UF, em sua maioria, passou do status de "pouco preciso" ou "moderado" para "preciso" na década de 80. A cobertura dos óbitos, em 1990, foi classificada como "boa" ou "satisfatória" para todos os Estados do Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e para os do Nordeste, abaixo do Rio Grande do Norte. O restante dos estados foram classificados como "regular" ou "insatisfatório". CONCLUSÕES: Houve uma melhora importante na qualidade das declarações da população recenseada e aumento da cobertura de óbitos e que, para muitas UF, é possível gerar confiáveis indicadores de mortalidade.OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. METHOD: The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. RESULTS: The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80’s. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States

  13. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnts, Hisse; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Padberg, George W.; Verschuuren, Jan J.G.M.; Bakker, Egbert; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Verbeek, André L.M.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. Methods: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in any of the 3 sources. To this end, symptomatic individuals with FSHD were available from 3 large population-based registries in the Netherlands if diagnosed within a 10-year period (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010). Multiplication of the incidence and disease duration delivered the prevalence estimate. Results: On average, 52 people are newly diagnosed with FSHD every year. This results in an incidence rate of 0.3/100,000 person-years in the Netherlands. The prevalence rate was 12/100,000, equivalent to 2,000 affected individuals. Conclusions: We present population-based incidence and prevalence estimates regarding symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including an estimation of the number of symptomatic individuals not present in any of the 3 used registries. This study shows that the total number of symptomatic persons with FSHD in the population may well be underestimated and a considerable number of affected individuals remain undiagnosed. This suggests that FSHD is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25122204

  14. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  15. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  16. Comparison of genetic damage in Brazilian footwear-workers exposed to solvent-based or water-based adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Vanina Dahlström; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo

    2005-05-01

    Research has shown that workers employed in footwear manufacture are at increased risk of some cancers, the strongest evidence being for nasal cancer and leukemia. Footwear-workers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of solvents in degreasers, cleaners, primers, and adhesives used in the production process as toluene, n-hexane, acetone, and possibly dust particles, additives in shoe materials and degradation products of materials. The recognition of the potential health-hazards of solvent-based adhesives (SBAs) has lead to the development of adhesives with no organic solvents, the water-based adhesives (WBA). We investigated footwear-workers (all males) exposed to SBA (n=29) (for 3.98+/-4.13 years), and WBA (n=16), which had spent the six months previous to the study employed in an experimental section which used only water-based adhesives, although they had previously worked in sections which used solvent-based adhesives (for 5.80+/-4.03 years); 25 healthy subjects were used as controls. The Comet assay and the micronucleus test were used as endpoints, while the traditional parameters for assessing exposure to toluene in organic mixtures by measuring the concentration of urinary hippuric acid were also assessed. Our results showed a significantly lower mean concentration of hippuric acid in the control group than found in the SBA (Pdamage index for the SBA (Pcomparison to the WBA group and control (Pwater-based adhesives are clearly a better option for safeguarding the health of footwear-workers, even with possibility of isocyanate presence, while the positive results observed in SBA group might be explained by chloroprene presence in the adhesive.

  17. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

  18. [Validity of indicators on physical activity and sedentary behavior from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity. PMID:25317515

  19. [Validity of indicators on physical activity and sedentary behavior from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity.

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E Silva; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by g...

  1. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend <0.01, but had a negative association with extremely severe mental disability (p for trend <0.01. Moreover, wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  2. A Population-Based Clinical Trial of Irinotecan and Carboplatin

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    Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Phase I trials of anticancer drugs are commonly conducted using the method of modified Fibonacci. We have developed a population-based design for phase I trials of combining anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and carboplatin. Patients and Methods. Intrapatient dose escalation of irinotecan and carboplatin was performed according to a predetermined schema to reach individual dose-limiting toxicity (DLT in 50 patients with solid tumors refractory to previous chemotherapy. The individual toxicity-limiting dose levels were analyzed for normal distribution using the method of Ryan-Joiner and subsequently used to determine a population-based maximum tolerated dose (pMTD. For comparison, a simulation study was performed using the method of modified Fibonacci. Results. The most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs included neutropenia (58%, thrombocytopenia (16%, and diarrhea (8%. The frequency of individual toxicity-limiting dose levels of 50 patients approximated a normal distribution. The dose levels associated with individual limiting toxicities ranged from level 1 (irinotecan 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 4 mg/mL x min to level 8 (irinotecan 350 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6. The pMTD was determined to be dose level 3 (150 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC = 5 for carboplatin. In contrast, the MTD was determined to be dose level 4 (200 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC 5 for carboplatin by modified-Fibonacci simulation. Conclusions. The population-based design of phase I trial allows optimization of dose intensity and derivation of a pMTD. The pMTD has been applied in phase II trial of irinotecan and carboplatin in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

  3. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns.

  4. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  5. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

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    Cyro José de Moraes Martins

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH, endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  6. A population-based study of large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M V; Hook, C C; Call, T G; Go, R S

    2016-01-01

    Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disorder of cytotoxic cells. T-cell LGL (T-LGL) leukemia is characterized by accumulation of cytotoxic T cells in blood and infiltration of the bone marrow, liver or spleen. Population-based studies have not been reported in LGL leukemia. We present clinical characteristics, natural history and risk factors for poor survival in patients with LGL leukemia using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) and the United States National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). LGL leukemia is an extremely rare disease with the incidence of 0.2 cases per 1 000 000 individuals. The median age at diagnosis was 66.5 years with females likely to be diagnosed at 3 years earlier compared with males. Analysis of patient-level data using NCDB (n=978) showed that 45% patients with T-LGL leukemia required some form of systemic treatment at the time of diagnosis. T-LGL leukemia patients have reduced survival compared with general population, with a median overall survival of 9 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age >60 years at the time of diagnosis and the presence of significant comorbidities were independent predictors of poor survival. PMID:27494824

  7. Optimal inverse functions created via population-based optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Alan L; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    Finding optimal inputs for a multiple-input, single-output system is taxing for a system operator. Population-based optimization is used to create sets of functions that produce a locally optimal input based on a desired output. An operator or higher level planner could use one of the functions in real time. For the optimization, each agent in the population uses the cost and output gradients to take steps lowering the cost while maintaining their current output. When an agent reaches an optimal input for its current output, additional agents are generated in the output gradient directions. The new agents then settle to the local optima for the new output values. The set of associated optimal points forms an inverse function, via spline interpolation, from a desired output to an optimal input. In this manner, multiple locally optimal functions can be created. These functions are naturally clustered in input and output spaces allowing for a continuous inverse function. The operator selects the best cluster over the anticipated range of desired outputs and adjusts the set point (desired output) while maintaining optimality. This reduces the demand from controlling multiple inputs, to controlling a single set point with no loss in performance. Results are demonstrated on a sample set of functions and on a robot control problem. PMID:24235281

  8. Copula-Based Approach to Synthetic Population Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byungduk; Lee, Wonjoon; Kim, Deok-Soo; Shin, Hayong

    2016-01-01

    Generating synthetic baseline populations is a fundamental step of agent-based modeling and simulation, which is growing fast in a wide range of socio-economic areas including transportation planning research. Traditionally, in many commercial and non-commercial microsimulation systems, the iterative proportional fitting (IPF) procedure has been used for creating the joint distribution of individuals when combining a reference joint distribution with target marginal distributions. Although IPF is simple, computationally efficient, and rigorously founded, it is unclear whether IPF well preserves the dependence structure of the reference joint table sufficiently when fitting it to target margins. In this paper, a novel method is proposed based on the copula concept in order to provide an alternative approach to the problem that IPF resolves. The dependency characteristic measures were computed and the results from the proposed method and IPF were compared. In most test cases, the proposed method outperformed IPF in preserving the dependence structure of the reference joint distribution. PMID:27490692

  9. Copula-Based Approach to Synthetic Population Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Generating synthetic baseline populations is a fundamental step of agent-based modeling and simulation, which is growing fast in a wide range of socio-economic areas including transportation planning research. Traditionally, in many commercial and non-commercial microsimulation systems, the iterative proportional fitting (IPF) procedure has been used for creating the joint distribution of individuals when combining a reference joint distribution with target marginal distributions. Although IPF is simple, computationally efficient, and rigorously founded, it is unclear whether IPF well preserves the dependence structure of the reference joint table sufficiently when fitting it to target margins. In this paper, a novel method is proposed based on the copula concept in order to provide an alternative approach to the problem that IPF resolves. The dependency characteristic measures were computed and the results from the proposed method and IPF were compared. In most test cases, the proposed method outperformed IPF in preserving the dependence structure of the reference joint distribution. PMID:27490692

  10. Manifestações orais em pacientes com AIDS em uma população brasileira Oral manifestations in HIV - infected patients in a Brazilian population

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    Lélia Batista de SOUZA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados l00 pacientes HIV+/AIDS no Hospital Giselda Trigueiro - Natal/RN, Brasil no período de l996-97 quanto a presença de manifestações orais nestes pacientes. Setenta e quatro pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 26 do feminino. A idade média dos pacientes do sexo masculino foi 40 anos, variando de 24 a 67 anos e no feminino 29,8 anos variando de 17 a 48 anos. As manifestações orais mais freqüentes foram candidíase (homens - 79,7%; mulheres - 80,7%, gengivite e periodontite (homens - 79,7%; mulheres - 73,0%, leucoplasia pilosa (homens - 6,7%; mulheres - 3,8%, herpes labial (homens - 5,4%; mulheres - 7,6%, sarcoma de Kaposi (homens - 6,7%.Verificou-se que 62,2% dos homens eram homo- ou bissexuais e 100% das mulheres eram heterossexuais. Nossos resultados revelam semelhanças com outros trabalhos realizados em pacientes de outras regiões do mundo.One hundred HIV+/AIDS Brazilian patients (74 men and 26 women were examined in the Giselda Trigueiro Hospital, in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil in the period from l996 to 1997. The men’s mean age was 40 years, ranging from 24 to 67 years and the women’s was 29.8 years, ranging from 17 to 48 years. One or more oral findings were observed in theses patients. The most common oral lesions were candidiasis (men - 97.2%; women - 80.7%, gingivitis and periodontitis (men - 79.7%; women - 7.3%, hairy leukoplakia (men - 6.7%; women - 3.8%, herpes simplex (men - 5.4%; women - 2.7%, and Kaposi’s sarcoma (men - 6.7%. From the men, 62.1% were homo-/bisexual, and 100% of the women were heterosexual.

  11. Merluccius hubbsi (Teleostei: Merlucciidae: stock identification based on reproductive biology in the south-southeast brazilian region

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    André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi, a demersal-pelagic species found from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to the Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, has become an important target of the Brazilian bottom-trawler fleet since 2001. Earlier studies focusing on the species have suggested that more than one stock might occur off the Brazilian coast, in accordance with environmental features. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, fish were collected from four different areas in the Brazilian waters in which the hake is distributed, during the summers and winters of 1996-2001 and 2004, the females being used to analyze and compare spatial-temporal variations in ovarian maturation. Gonad indexes were also applied for the same purpose. Results indicate a north-south spawning gradient occurring as from summer at around 21°S to winter near 34°S, leading to the identification of two distinct stocks: one located between 21°S and 29°S (Southeastern stock and the other between 29°S and 34°S (Southern stock, this latter shared with Uruguay and Argentina. Brazilian stocks present clear signs of overexploitation, the situation calling for an urgent solution.A merluza Merluccius hubbsi, espécie demerso-pelágica distribuída desde o Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, até a Terra do Fogo, Argentina, tornou-se alvo das frotas de arrasto de fundo da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil desde 2001. Estudos anteriores sobre a biologia da espécie sugeriram a existência de mais de um estoque em águas brasileiras, relacionados a características ambientais. Para verificar esta hipótese, exemplares oriundos de quatro áreas em águas brasileiras foram coletados durante o verão e o inverno nos períodos 1996-2001 e 2004, sendo as fêmeas utilizadas para analisar variações espaço-temporais na maturação gonadal. Para corroborar estas análises também foram aplicados índices gonadais. Os resultados mostraram a ocorrência de um gradiente norte-sul para a desova, que é mais intenso no

  12. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  13. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

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    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  14. Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Fabio H. Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most have focused on advanced monitoring systems, simulation models, and GIS approaches to analyze the interaction of both dimensions, i.e., livelihoods and forest cover change. Although the current toolbox of methods has proved successful in increasing our understanding of these interactions, the models and approaches employed do not consider small farmers' perspectives. On the assumption that local small farmers are agents of land-cover change, understanding how they perceive their own situation is essential to elucidate their actions. Our objective is to explore future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability as envisaged by local small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous livelihood cluster analysis of small farmers located in southeast Pará was integrated with fuzzy cognitive mapping to determine present perceptions and to explore future changes, using global scenarios downscaled to the local situation. Overall, system description differs only on details; all results indicate a strong trade-off between livelihood security and environmental sustainability in all livelihood systems, as identified by the small farmers. However, fundamentally different outcomes are obtained from the future analysis, depending on the livelihood strategy cluster. Achieving win-win outcomes does not necessarily imply a positive scenario, especially if small farmers are dependent on income transfers from the government to provide their livelihood.

  15. Alcohol consumption among Brazilian Adolescents according to the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Brazilian students and identify the sociodemographic factors associated alcohol consumption in the last 30 days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a cluster sample of 109,104 9th grade students in Brazilian public and private schools in 2012. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of the indicators of alcohol consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the students analyzed, 50.3% (95%CI 49.0 - 51.6 experimented one dose of alcoholic beverages or more. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was 26.1% (95%CI 24.5 - 27.7, and there was no difference in prevalence between students from public and private schools. Drunkenness episodes were reported by 21.8% (95%CI 21.1 - 22.5 of the students. The perception of students about the negative reaction of their family if they came home drunk occurred in 89,7% (95%CI 89,6 - 89,9 of cases, and 10% (95%CI 8.9 - 11.1 of them reported having problems with their families or friends because they had been drinking. Among adolescents aged less than 14 years old, the first alcoholic drink intake was predominantly at 12 to 13 years old. The most common way to get a drink was at parties, with friends, buying in them in supermarkets, stores or bars and at home. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was less frequent among boys, increasing with age. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the extension of alcohol as a problem, making it important to advance in measures such as the improvement of protective legislation for children and adolescents and stricter enforcement in alcohol sales.

  16. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  17. Spike-based population coding and working memory.

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    Martin Boerlin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Compelling behavioral evidence suggests that humans can make optimal decisions despite the uncertainty inherent in perceptual or motor tasks. A key question in neuroscience is how populations of spiking neurons can implement such probabilistic computations. In this article, we develop a comprehensive framework for optimal, spike-based sensory integration and working memory in a dynamic environment. We propose that probability distributions are inferred spike-per-spike in recurrently connected networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. As a result, these networks can combine sensory cues optimally, track the state of a time-varying stimulus and memorize accumulated evidence over periods much longer than the time constant of single neurons. Importantly, we propose that population responses and persistent working memory states represent entire probability distributions and not only single stimulus values. These memories are reflected by sustained, asynchronous patterns of activity which make relevant information available to downstream neurons within their short time window of integration. Model neurons act as predictive encoders, only firing spikes which account for new information that has not yet been signaled. Thus, spike times signal deterministically a prediction error, contrary to rate codes in which spike times are considered to be random samples of an underlying firing rate. As a consequence of this coding scheme, a multitude of spike patterns can reliably encode the same information. This results in weakly correlated, Poisson-like spike trains that are sensitive to initial conditions but robust to even high levels of external neural noise. This spike train variability reproduces the one observed in cortical sensory spike trains, but cannot be equated to noise. On the contrary, it is a consequence of optimal spike-based inference. In contrast, we show that rate-based models perform poorly when implemented with stochastically spiking neurons.

  18. Hypervolemia for Hypertension Pathophysiology: A Population-Based Study

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    Ender Hür

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hypertension and hypervolemia relationship was proven among renal disease, although it is not known in normal population. Present study determines the fluid distribution defects in relation to blood pressure. Material and Methods. In a population-based survey in Turkey demographics, height, weight, blood pressure, urine analysis, and serum creatinine measurements were recorded. Bioimpedance measured with the Body Composition Monitor. Results. Total 2034 population of 71.6% male, mean age 47 ± 12.6 (18–89 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP 134.7 ± 20, diastolic blood pressure 77.9 ± 11.6 mmHg. Body mass index (BMI was 28.5 ± 4.5 (15.8–50.6 kg/m2; overhydration was 0.05 ± 1.05 L. There was a correlation between extracellular water (ECW/height and SBP (r = 0.21, P < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with the performance of 0.60 (P < 0.001 that showed cut-off value of ECW/height was 10.06 L/m, with the 69% sensitivity and 45% specificity for SBP: 140 mmHg values. Risk factors for high SBP were increase of ECW/Height, age, BMI and presence of diabetes. ECW/height, SBP, and fat tissue index (FTI increased in BMI categories (low, normal, and obese and in diabetics. SBP and FTI were lower in smokers. Conclusions. High blood pressure may be accompanied by increased extracellular volume indices. In the future volume status assessment could be of use in evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacological intervention in the treatment of hypertension.

  19. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

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    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  20. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  1. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  3. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:β = 0.96, p diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. PMID:26626824

  4. Predictors of Childhood Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Kingston

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety.To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5.Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316 from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety.Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth.Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods.

  5. Estudo quantitativo da lágrima pelo teste de fenol vermelho na população brasileira Quantitative tear study using the red phenol test in the Brazilian population

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    Richard Yudi Hida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar parâmetros normais do teste de fenol vermelho na população brasileira, e comparar entre diferentes raças, idade e sexo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, com o teste de fenol vermelho, 280 indivíduos (560 olhos da raça branca e 280 indivíduos (560 olhos da raça não branca, que foram divididos de acordo com a idade e o sexo. Foram excluídos indivíduos com qualquer doença ocular, usuários de lente de contato e que usavam medicação ocular. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.120 olhos avaliados, o resultado médio foi de 19,77±7,90 mm. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado médio encontrado foi um valor intermediário entre as duas populações previamente estudadas (japonesa e norte-americana.PURPOSE: To detect normal values of red phenol thread test in the Brazilian population and compare it between different races, age and sex. METHODS: 280 white individuals (560 eyes and 280 non-white individuals (560 eyes were analyzed regarding sex and age, and analyzed using the Phenol Red test. Individuals with ocular diseases, contact lens or ocular drug users were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 1,120 evaluated eyes, the mean ± standard deviation result was 19,77±7,90 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The mean result found in this study was an intermediate value compared to the previously studied populations (Japanese and American.

  6. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional stud...

  7. Evolving effective behaviours to interact with tag-based populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Osman; Crawford, Chad; Sen, Sandip

    2015-07-01

    Tags and other characteristics, externally perceptible features that are consistent among groups of animals or humans, can be used by others to determine appropriate response strategies in societies. This usage of tags can be extended to artificial environments, where agents can significantly reduce cognitive effort spent on appropriate strategy choice and behaviour selection by reusing strategies for interacting with new partners based on their tags. Strategy selection mechanisms developed based on this idea have successfully evolved stable cooperation in games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game but relies upon payoff sharing and matching methods that limit the applicability of the tag framework. Our goal is to develop a general classification and behaviour selection approach based on the tag framework. We propose and evaluate alternative tag matching and adaptation schemes for a new, incoming individual to select appropriate behaviour against any population member of an existing, stable society. Our proposed approach allows agents to evolve both the optimal tag for the environment as well as appropriate strategies for existing agent groups. We show that these mechanisms will allow for robust selection of optimal strategies by agents entering a stable society and analyse the various environments where this approach is effective.

  8. Estrogen and Alzheimer′s disease in Aging Population: Population based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.

  9. Dental Approach in the Pediatric Oncology Patient: Characteristics of the Population Treated at the Dentistry Unit in a Pediatric Oncology Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Carrillo; Heloisa Vizeu; Luis Alberto Soares-Júnior; Marcelo Fava; Vicente Odone Filho

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to characterize the population seen at the dentistry unit of the hematology-oncology service of the Oncology-Hematology Service, Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Oral problems resulting from cancer therapy increase the risk of infection, length of hospital stay, treatment cost and negative impact on the course and prognosis of the disease. METHOD: Of the 367 medical records of cance...

  10. Object-Based Method Outperforms Per-Pixel Method for Land Cover Classification in a Protected Area of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.RITTL; M.COOPER; R.J.HECK; M.V.R.BALLESTER

    2013-01-01

    Conventional image classification based on pixels hinders the possibilities to obtain information contained in images,while modern object-based classification methods increase the acquisition of information about the object and the context in which it is inserted in the image.The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of different classification methods for land cover mapping in the vicinity of the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park,a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest area.Two classification methods were tested,including i) a hybrid per-pixel classification using the image processing software ERDAS Imagine version 9.1 and ii) an object-based classification using the software eCognition version 5.In the first method,six different classes were established,while in the second method,another two classes were established in addition to the six classes in the first method.Accuracy assessment of the classification results presented showed that the object-based classification with a Kappa index value of 0.8687 outperformed the per-pixel classification with a Kappa index value of 0.2224.Application of the user's knowledge during the object-based classification process achieved the desired quality;therefore,the use of inter-relationships between objects,superclasses,subclasses,and neighboring classes were critical to improving the efficiency of land cover classification.

  11. Compact atomic clock prototype based on coherent population trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danet Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toward the next generations of compact atomic clocks, clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT offer a very interesting alternative. Thanks to CPT, a quantum interfering process, this technology has made a decisive step in the miniaturization direction. Fractional frequency stability of 1.5x10-10 at 1 s has been demonstrated in commercial devices of a few cm3. The laboratory prototype presented here intends to explore what could be the ultimate stability of a CPT based device. To do so, an original double-Λ optical scheme and a pulsed interrogation have been implemented in order to get a good compromise between contrast and linewidth. A study of two main sources of noise, the relative intensity and the local oscillator (LO noise, has been performed. By designing simple solutions, it led to a new fractional frequency limitation lower than 4x10-13 at 1 s integration. Such a performance proves that such a technology could rival with classical ones as double resonance clocks.

  12. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

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    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  13. Influence of the βs haplotype and α-thalassemia on stroke development in a Brazilian population with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Igor F; Falcão, Diego A; Hatzlhofer, Betania L; Cunha, Anderson F; Santos, Magnun N; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Fertrin, Kleber Y; Costa, Fernando F; Azevedo, Renata C; Machado, Cíntia G; Araújo, Aderson S; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio R; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is a catastrophic complication of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and is one of the leading causes of death in both adults and children with SCA. Evidence suggests that some genetic polymorphisms could be related to stroke development, but their association remains controversial. Here, we performed genotyping of five published single nucleotide polymorphisms, the α-thalassemia genotype, the G6PD A (-) variant deficiency, and the β(S) haplotype in a large series of SCA patients with well-defined stroke phenotypes. Of 261 unrelated SCA patients included in the study, 67 (9.5 %) presented a documented, primary stroke event. Markers of haemolysis (red blood cell (RBC) counts, p = 0.023; reticulocyte counts, p = 0.003; haemoglobin (Hb) levels, p haplotype (odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 4.31; p = 0.003) and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.11 to 0. 83; p = 0.02) were associated with increased and decreased stroke risk, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the β(S) haplotype was independently associated with stroke development (OR 2.26, 95 % CI 1.16 to 4.4; p = 0.016). Our findings suggest that only the β(S) haplotypes and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype modulate the prevalence of stroke in our SCA population. Genetic heterogeneity among different populations may account for the irreproducibility amongst different studies. PMID:24493127

  14. On the Estimation of Heritability with Family-Based and Population-Based Samples

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    Youngdoe Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a family-based sample, the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix can be parameterized to include the variance of a polygenic effect that has then been estimated using a variance component analysis. However, with the advent of large-scale genomic data, the genetic relationship matrix (GRM can be estimated and can be utilized to parameterize the variance of a polygenic effect for population-based samples. Therefore narrow sense heritability, which is both population and trait specific, can be estimated with both population- and family-based samples. In this study we estimate heritability from both family-based and population-based samples, collected in Korea, and the heritability estimates from the pooled samples were, for height, 0.60; body mass index (BMI, 0.32; log-transformed triglycerides (log TG, 0.24; total cholesterol (TCHL, 0.30; high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 0.38; low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 0.29; systolic blood pressure (SBP, 0.23; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 0.24. Furthermore, we found differences in how heritability is estimated—in particular the amount of variance attributable to common environment in twins can be substantial—which indicates heritability estimates should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Prevalence of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the urban Brazilian population Prevalência da pirose e da doença gastroesofágica numa população urbana brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Prado P. Moraes-Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological aspects of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease have been object of growing interest in the last decade because of its increasing prevalence and the complications of the disease. AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease as well as their main characteristics in the Brazilian urban population. METHODS: A national inquire enrolling 13,959 adults was conducted in 22 Brazilian cities. The inclusion criteria were the presence of heartburn at least once a week ("heartburn group" and age greater than 16 years old. Individuals with heartburn with frequency of more than once a week were considered as having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD group. Factors related to the complaint were asked such as predisposing factors, habits (tobacco, alcohol and coffee intake and body mass index. In this populational study a probabilistic model was used. RESULTS: The results are presented in absolute and relative frequency, which were ponderated estimates of the respective population figures. The global prevalence of heartburn was 11.9% (1,651 persons. Heartburn once a week was present in 4.6% (637 persons and GERD in 7.3% (1,014 persons. The average ages of both groups were similar (men: 36.9 ± 15.0; women: 39.6 ± 15.1 yrs. Females were more affected in both groups. The occurrence of GERD increased with age and was more prevalent after 55 years old. The body mass index was in the normal range and similar in both groups (men: 24.7 ± 4.6; women: 25.3 ± 5.2 kg/m². In both groups the individuals related their symptoms to food intake, fatty and spicy foods (heartburn group: 64.7%, 28.5%, 17.7%; GERD group: 55.0%, 25.9%, 11.7% respectively. In GERD group, stress (24.2%, health problems (22.3% were more related to the symptoms than in heartburn group (20.0% and 15.0% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The global prevalence of heartburn (11.9% is relatively high in the Brazilian urban

  16. Sonolência excessiva diurna na população geral de um município brasileiro Excessive daytime sleepiness in the general population of Brazilian city

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    José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Buscou-se avaliar a prevalência da sonolência excessiva diurna (SED na população geral de um município brasileiro. MÉTODO: Foram feitas 198 entrevistas domiciliares entre os adultos, em amostra representativa da população geral de Ribeirão do Largo, BA. A amostragem foi aleatória simples. Tinham SED as pessoas com 11 ou mais pontos na Escala de Sonolência de Epworth (ESE. Usaram-se os testes de qui-quadrado, Fisher e ANOVA; nível de significância 5%. RESULTADOS: Tinham SED 21,5% da população (DP = 2,9%; IC 15,8% a 27,2%; não houve associação significativa entre SED e idade (p = 0,924, nem IMC (p = 0,197, sexo (p = 0,095, instrução (p = 0,700, estado civil (p = 0,414 e uso de hipnóticos (p = 0,176. Houve associação com o despertar precoce (p = 0,046. CONCLUSÃO: Foi alta a prevalência de SED na população estudada.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESD in general population of a Brazilian city. METHODS: It was determined by means of 198 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Ribeirão do Largo city, Brazil. The random sample was simple. ESD was considered in those with index 11 or more in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Statistics used chi-square, Fisher and ANOVA; the significance level was 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of ESD was 21.5% of population (SD = 2.9%; CI 15.8%-27.2%. No significant association was found between ESD and age (p=0.924, nor with body mass index (p=0.197, sex (p=0.095, schooling (p=0,700, marital status (p=0.414 and the use of hypnotics (p=0.176. There was significant association with early awakening (p=0.046. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of ESD in the population.

  17. Resistance of Brazilian diamondback moth populations to insecticides Resistência de populações brasileiras de traça das brássicas a inseticidas

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    Alexandre Conte de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella is a recurring pest on cruciferous crops around the world. In Brazil, it typically requires large number of insecticide sprays, which may lead to fast evolution of resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Brazilian diamondback moth populations to the insecticides abamectin, deltamethrin, and spinosad. Leaf dip bioassays were used to determine mortality data obtained after 48 h of exposure to insecticides and subjected to Probit analysis. The population from Bonito, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, had the highest toxicity ratio (20.2 - fold to abamectin compared to the reference population. The LC50 values for deltamethrin ranged from 85.2 to 360.1 mg L-1, demonstrating a high survival of populations in relation to this insecticide field dose rate (7.5 mg L-1. The toxicity ratios of the estimated LC50s, however, were very low (varying from 2.2 - to 4.2 - fold. Most populations exhibited toxicity ratios for spinosad, ranging from 2.3 - to 5.1 - fold, while both the LC50 and LC95 values reflected a high susceptibility to the spinosad field dosage (120 mg L-1. Only the Bonito - PE population resisted to abamectin, while all P. xylostella populations were resistant to deltamethrin, but particularly susceptible to spinosad because of the absence of selection pressure with it in these areas.Plutella xylostella é uma praga recorrente em brássicas de todo o mundo. No Brasil, normalmente exige grande número de pulverizações de inseticidas, que pode levar à rápida evolução da resistência. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade de populações brasileiras da traça das crucíferas aos inseticidas abamectina, deltametrina e espinosade. Bioensaios de imersão de folhas foram utilizados para determinar a mortalidade, sendo os dados obtidos após 48 h de exposição aos inseticidas e submetidos à análise de Probit. A população de Bonito-PE apresentou a maior razão de toxicidade (20,2 vezes para abamectina em

  18. A spatial analysis of patterns of growth and concentration of population based on homogeneous population censuses: Spain (1877-2001

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    Xavier Franch Auladell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes a contribution to the analysis of long term patterns of population concentration applied to the case of Spain. The proposed methodology is based on the homogenisation of both data and administrative units which takes the municipal structure of the 2001 census as its base reference. This work seeks to show how applying spatial analysis techniques to this type of homogeneous data series allows us to make more detailed studies of population patterns within a given territory. The most important conclusions that we reached was that, in Spain, sustained population growth has followed a spatial pattern that has become increasingly consolidated over time. The tendencies observed have produced an uneven distribution of population within the national territory marked by the existence of a series of well-defined, and often very localised, areas that spread beyond the limits of the official administrative boundaries.

  19. Biophysical Properties of Cultivated Pastures in the Brazilian Savanna Biome: An Analysis in the Spatial-Temporal Domains Based on Ground and Satellite Data

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    Fernando M. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd in the world, with cattle ranching being particularly prominent in the 200-million ha, Brazilian neotropical moist savanna biome, known as Cerrado, one of the world’s hotspots for biodiversity conservation. As decreasing productivity is a major concern affecting the Cerrado pasturelands, evaluation of pasture conditions through the determination of biophysical parameters is instrumental for more effective management practices and herd occupation strategies. Within this context, the primary goal of this study was the regional assessment of pasture biophysical properties, through the scaling of wet- and dry-season ground truth data (total biomass, green biomass, and % green cover via the combined use of high (Landsat-TM and moderate (MODIS spatial resolution vegetation index images. Based on the high correlation found between NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and % green cover (r = 0.95, monthly MODIS-based % green cover images were derived for the 2009–2010 hydrological cycle, which were able to capture major regional patterns and differences in pasture biophysical responses, including the increasing greenness values towards the southern portions of the biome, due to both local conditions (e.g., more fertile soils and management practices. These results corroborate the development of biophysically-based landscape degradation indices, in support of improved land use governance and natural area conservation in the Cerrado.

  20. ROLE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AND LIFESTYLE HABITS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRODUODENAL DISEASES IN A POPULATION FROM THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira VINAGRE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Although more than half of the world's population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori, it remains unknown why this organism is able to produce severe disease in some hosts and be innocuous in others. The clinical outcome of infection is determined by several factors, including differences in the host response to bacterial stimulation, specific virulence factors of the organism and environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. Objectives This study compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors (infection with CagA+ strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and inadequate eating habits between patients with different gastrointestinal disorders and associated these risk factors with the histopathological findings. Methods In a prospective study, samples were collected from 442 patients and a standardized questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits (excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating habits was applied. The presence of H. pylori and of the cagA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Gastric biopsies were obtained for histological assessment. Results The frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, inadequate diet and infection with CagA+ H. pylori was higher among patients with peptic ulcer and adenocarcinoma when compared to those with gastritis. Gastric inflammation was more pronounced in patients infected with CagA+ strains. Conclusion We conclude that infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inadequate eating habits increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma.

  1. Analysis of the DF508 mutation in a Brazilian cystic fibrosis population: comparison of pulmonary status of homozygotes with other patients

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    Maróstica P.J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-one cystic fibrosis patients admitted for check-up or antibiotic treatment were enrolled for genetic and clinical evaluation. Genetic analysis was performed on blood samples stored on neonatal screening cards using PCR techniques to determine the presence of DF508 mutations. Clinical evaluation included Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores, age at onset of symptoms and diagnosis, spirometry, awake and sleep pulse oximetry, hyponychial angle measurement and presence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. Eighteen patients (29.5% were homozygous for the DF508 mutation, 26 (42.6% had one DF508 mutation and 17 (27.9% were noncarriers, corresponding to a 50.8% prevalence of the mutation in the whole population. Analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of genetic status with continuous variables or by the chi-square test and logistic regression for dichotomous variables showed no significant differences between any two groups for a = 0.05. We conclude that genetic status in relation to the DF508 mutation is not associated with pulmonary status as evaluated by the above variables

  2. Higher migraine risk in healthcare professionals than in general population: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Wan-Yin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background High stress levels and shift work probably trigger migraine in healthcare professionals (HCPs). However, the migraine risk differences between HCPs and the general population is unknown. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Physicians (50,226), nurses (122,357), and other HCPs (pharmacists, technicians, dietitians, rehabilitation therapists, social workers, etc.) (45,736) were enrolled for the study cohort,...

  3. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  4. Multicenter study for efficacy and safety evaluation of a fixeddose combination gel with adapalen 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (Epiduo® for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, José Alexandre de Souza; da Costa, Adilson; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Follador, Ivonise; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; de Castro, Lia Cândida Miranda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The current options for the treatment of acne vulgaris present many mechanisms of action. For several times, dermatologists try topical agents combinations, looking for better results. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a topical, fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the Brazilian population. METHODS This is a multicenter, open-label and interventionist study. Patients applied 1.0 g of the fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on the face, once daily at bedtime, during 12 weeks. Lesions were counted in all of the appointments, and the degree of acne severity, overall improvement, tolerability and safety were evaluated in each visit. RESULTS From 79 recruited patients, 73 concluded the study. There was significant, fast and progressive reduction of non-inflammatory, inflammatory and total number of lesions. At the end of the study, 75.3% of patients had a reduction of >50% in non-inflammatory lesions, 69.9% in inflammatory lesions and 78.1% in total number of lesions. Of the 73 patients, 71.2% had good to excellent response and 87.6% had satisfactory to good response. In the first week of treatment, erythema, burning, scaling and dryness of the skin were frequent complaints, but, from second week on, these signals and symptoms have reduced. CONCLUSION The fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is effective, safe, well tolerated and apparently improves patient compliance with the treatment. PMID:27168522

  5. Avaliação de teratógenos potenciais na população brasileira Evaluation of potential teratogens in Brazilian population

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    Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O fato de agentes ambientais, nomeadamente fármacos, infecções maternas, e agentes químicos ou físicos poderem causar danos ao embrião ou feto em desenvolvimento é um problema reconhecido principalmente a partir do século 20. Nos países em desenvolvimento, existem características especiais que podem tornar esse problema mais agudo. Essas características incluem níveis educacionais e econômicos baixos da população, alta incidência de doenças infecciosas e carenciais, escassos recursos para saúde e pesquisa, prática freqüente e sem controle de automedicação, facilidade de obtenção de medicações que deveriam estar submetidas à prescrição médica e, finalmente, proibição legal de interrupção da gestação. Além disso, pode somar-se uma qualidade ambiental precária ou mesmo condições de trabalho insalubres durante a gravidez. No presente trabalho apresentamos as principais metodologias para detecção e monitorização de potenciais teratógenos, com ênfase especial nos programas desenvolvidos no Brasil e América Latina.The fact that environmental agents, namely drugs, maternal infections, other chemical or physical agents could harm the developing embryo or fetus is a problem recognized specially since the XXth century. In developing countries there are some special characteristics that can make this problem more severe. These include low educational and economical level of the population, high incidence of infectious and carential diseases, habits of self-medication associated to easy ways to obtain prescription drugs and, finally no legal permission for pregnancy termination. More than that, sometimes there are also bad environmental conditions or unhealthy working conditions during pregnancy. In this article we present the main methodologies to detect and to monitorize potential teratogens, with special emphasis in present programs going on in Brazil and Latin America.

  6. Scalable Entity-Based Modeling of Population-Based Systems, Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, A J; Smith, S G; Vassilevska, T K; Jefferson, D R

    2005-01-27

    The goal of this project has been to develop tools, capabilities and expertise in the modeling of complex population-based systems via scalable entity-based modeling (EBM). Our initial focal application domain has been the dynamics of large populations exposed to disease-causing agents, a topic of interest to the Department of Homeland Security in the context of bioterrorism. In the academic community, discrete simulation technology based on individual entities has shown initial success, but the technology has not been scaled to the problem sizes or computational resources of LLNL. Our developmental emphasis has been on the extension of this technology to parallel computers and maturation of the technology from an academic to a lab setting.

  7. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  8. Estimation of statistical binding properties of ligand population during in vitro selection based on population dynamics theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi; Husimi, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro selection process, it is very valuable to monitor the binding properties of the ligand population in real time, particularly the population average of the association constant in the population. If this monitoring can be realized, the selection process can be controlled in a rational way. In this paper, we present a simple method to estimate the binding properties of the ligand population during in vitro selection. The framework of the method is as follows. First, the number of all the collected ligand molecules, which are eluted after incubation and washing, is measured. Ideally, this number corresponds to the number of all the ligand molecules bound with the target-receptor or other materials in a test tube. This measurement is performed through several successive rounds of selection. Second, the measured numbers of molecules are subjected to a theoretical analysis, based on the mathematical theory of population dynamics in the selection process. Then, we can estimate the probability density of the binding free energy in the ligand population. The validity of our method was confirmed by several computer simulations based on a physicochemical model. PMID:24239675

  9. Emergy diagnosis and reflections towards Brazilian sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an environmental emergy-based diagnosis of Brazil compared with Russia, India, China, South Africa and United States. Reflections on the Brazilian sustainable development are presented and discussed based on the evaluations published since 1979. The variation of the emergy per capita for Brazil from 1979 to 2007 indicates that the country's growth is tied to the exploitation of non renewable natural resources which do not directly reflect in the welfare of the population. The total emergy exported per unit of gross domestic product increased in the period, suggesting that the country exports more emergy than that contained in the money received for the exportation. With the help of the emergy indices, the future development of Brazil is explored and discussed. The comparison among the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries and United States indicates that what may be appropriate and usable within one country may not be within another and that to achieve the global sustainability two concomitant actions may occur: (i) the reduction of the total emergy use in developed economies, and (ii) the reduction of indigenous resources exportation in developing economies. - Highlights: • Future Brazilian development is explored from the energy perspective. • Solution is to increase exports of raw resources and the creation of a national market. • Brazilian development path is limited by the demand for money provided by exportation. • The need to increase the economic performance along with a decrease in emergy requirements. • It is essential to understand that there are limits for economic growth

  10. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  11. Sleep and multisystem biological risk: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E Carroll

    Full Text Available Short sleep and poor sleep quality are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and mortality. This study examines the contribution of sleep duration and sleep quality on a multisystem biological risk index that is known to be associated with morbidity and mortality.Analyses include a population-based sample from the Midlife Development in the United States survey recruited to the Biomarker substudy. A total of 1,023 participants aged 54.5 years (SD = 11.8, 56% female and 77.6% white, were included in the analyses. A multisystem biological risk index was derived from 22 biomarkers capturing cardiovascular, immune, lipid-metabolic, glucose-metabolic, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems. Self-reported average sleep duration was categorized as short (5 sleep.Linear mixed effect models adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, BMI, and health status were performed. As compared to normal sleepers, multisystem biological risk in both short (B(SE = .38(.15, p<.01 and long sleepers (B(SE = .28(.11, p<.01 were elevated. Poor quality sleep alone was associated with elevated multisystem biological risk (B(SE = .15(.06, p = .01, but was not significant after adjustment for health status. All short sleepers reported poor sleep quality. However in the long sleepers, only those who reported poor sleep quality exhibited elevated multisystem biological risk (B(SE = .93(.3, p = .002.Self-reported poor sleep quality with either short or long sleep duration is associated with dysregulation in physiological set points across regulatory systems, leading to elevated multisystem biological risk. Physicians should inquire about sleep health in the assessment of lifestyle factors related to disease risk, with evidence that healthy sleep is associated with lower multisystem biological risk.

  12. Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi diagnosed using a polycarbonate membrane in a riverside population of Lábrea in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Mansonella ozzardi is a widely distributed filaria worm in the Amazon region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of M. ozzardi infection in riverine communities of Lábrea municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. METHODS A diagnostic blood filtration method in a polycarbonate membrane was used. RESULTS M. ozzardi was found in 50.3% of the sample, with the highest prevalence in farmers/fishermen (69.4%; χ 2 = -19.14, p<0.001. The prevalence was higher in longer-term residents (≥11 years; 60.2%. CONCLUSIONS M. ozzardi infection rates are high near the Purus River, much greater than those previously reported based on diagnosis using thick blood smears.

  13. Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi diagnosed using a polycarbonate membrane in a riverside population of Lábrea in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Fontes, Gilberto; Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida Aranha; Vera, Luana Janaína Souza; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Mansonella ozzardi is a widely distributed filaria worm in the Amazon region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of M. ozzardi infection in riverine communities of Lábrea municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. METHODS A diagnostic blood filtration method in a polycarbonate membrane was used. RESULTS M. ozzardi was found in 50.3% of the sample, with the highest prevalence in farmers/fishermen (69.4%; χ 2 = -19.14, p<0.001). The prevalence was higher in longer-term residents (≥11 years; 60.2%). CONCLUSIONS M. ozzardi infection rates are high near the Purus River, much greater than those previously reported based on diagnosis using thick blood smears. PMID:27163575

  14. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  15. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  16. PCA-based population structure inference with generic clustering algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Chun-Hsi; Abdool Ali; Lee Chih

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Handling genotype data typed at hundreds of thousands of loci is very time-consuming and it is no exception for population structure inference. Therefore, we propose to apply PCA to the genotype data of a population, select the significant principal components using the Tracy-Widom distribution, and assign the individuals to one or more subpopulations using generic clustering algorithms. Results We investigated K-means, soft K-means and spectral clustering and made compari...

  17. Prevalência dos transtornos mentais na população adulta brasileira: uma revisão sistemática de 1997 a 2009 Prevalence of mental disorders in the Brazilian adult population: a systematic review from 1997 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élem Guimarães dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Esta revisão sistemática de literatura se propõe a verificar os índices de prevalência dos transtornos mentais na população adulta brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Medline e Lilacs, no período de 1997 a 2009, utilizando os seguintes descritores: "transtornos mentais", "estudos de prevalência", "Brasil" e seus correspondentes em inglês "mental disorders", "cross-sectional studies", "Brazil". Foram excluídos os artigos: sem resumo/abstract, sem descrição de estudo tipo transversal, sem descrição ou referência a estimativas que verificassem a prevalência de transtornos mentais, estudos com populações específicas, estudos com crianças, adolescentes e idosos e, ainda, os estudos escritos em outros idiomas diferentes do português, inglês e espanhol. Esses critérios resultaram na seleção de 25 artigos. RESULTADOS: Nos estudos analisados foram encontrados altos índices de prevalência geral de transtornos mentais na população adulta. Esses índices variaram entre 20% e 56%, acometendo principalmente mulheres e trabalhadores. DISCUSSÃO: Os estudos analisados nesta revisão mostraram um panorama geral dos transtornos mentais na população adulta brasileira, descrevendo como se dá a sua distribuição nessa população, apontando para taxas elevadas, muitas vezes associadas a sexo, idade, condições socioeconômicas, condições de trabalho e estilos de vida dos indivíduos.INTRODUCTION: This systematic review of literature aims to verify prevalence rates of mental disorders in the Brazilian adult population. METHODS: We searched the Medline and Lilacs in the period from 1997 to 2009 using the following descriptors: "mental disorders", "cross-section studies", "Brazil". Exclusion criteria of articles were: no abstract, no description of cross-sectional study, did not contain the estimate that would verify the prevalence of mental disorders, studies with specific populations and further

  18. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada; Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins; Daniela Silva Canella; Larissa Galastri Baraldi; Renata Bertazzi Levy; Rafael Moreira Claro; Jean-Claude Moubarac; Geoffrey Cannon; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used ...

  19. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  20. Knowing the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in childhood: a contribution of the theory of multiple intelligence for environmental education

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie Nicollier; Fermin Garcia C. Velasco

    2009-01-01

    This study is grounded in the cognitive sciences and represents a comprehensive inquiry into children's environmental knowledge. It started with an investigation of a specific situation: studying an urban population – stigmatized by a history of local environmental destruction, unconsciously wrought upon an area that is nowadays acknowledged as a natural biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT), that describes the presence of s...

  1. Droughts, Morality, State Politics and the Brazilian Semiarid Landscape: A Study of the São Francisco River Integration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørgum, Claudia Pastor Almeida Soares

    2008-01-01

    The poorest region of Brazil, the Northeast is prone to devastating multi-annual droughts, an inherent part of its geography. The Brazilian state attributes the poverty of the Northeast to the semiarid landscape and a supposed water deficit. The state defends a water diversion project on the biggest river of the region that is rejected by the local population and civil society organizations, as a definitive solution for the water deficit of a section of the semiarid landscape. Based on a larg...

  2. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ralil da Costa; César Coelho Xavier; Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade; Fernando Augusto Proietti; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH) utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old) who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, p...

  3. Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, Ronald J.; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment necessitates a public health approach. In the U.S. Triple P System Population Trial, 18 counties were randomly assigned to either dissemination of the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program system or to the services-as-usual control condition. Dissemination involved Triple P professional training for the existing workforce (over 600 service providers), as well as universal media and communication strategies. Large effect sizes were found for three independent...

  4. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  5. [Relative validity of dietary indicators from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Brito, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of the dietary indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample included 174 students. The following indicators were evaluated: regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy eating, markers for unhealthy eating, and routine eating habits (having meals with parents or guardians (MEAL), having breakfast (breakfast), and eating while studying or watching TV. The results of the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. For all the markers of healthy eating, there was no difference in the proportion of regular consumption when comparing the two methods. The rates detected by the questionnaire were higher for packaged snacks and crackers and lower for cold cuts and MEAL. The indicators for regular consumption of markers for healthy eating and that referring to BREAKFAST were those with the highest accuracy. The dietary indicators used by the PeNSE survey showed satisfactory validity. PMID:24936819

  6. Attitudes of a group of Brazilian orthodontists towards the diagnosis and management of primary headache (migraine: an electronic-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Leite Martins Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of orthodontists in the diagnosis and management of migraine without aura. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants were dentists, recruited among members of the Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (ABOR. An e-mail was sent to all ABOR members, with a link to a website, especially prepared for this research. Dentists were presented to a report of a fictional patient fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a primary headache disorder, known as migraine without aura. Participants were asked to describe how they would relieve the patient's pain. Professional procedures were classified as "adequate" or "inadequate" according to the answers given. RESULTS: 161 valid answers were received (18.8% response rate. Of them, 36% of the actions were considered to be "adequate" procedures, while 64% were "inadequate". The results yielded 12 main procedures, based on common characteristics. Eighty-two orthodontists suggested orthodontic treatment with or without orthognathic surgery, and some suggested using stabilization appliances prior to the orthodontic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants proposed inadequate therapies, and 51% suggested orthodontic correction of occlusion, including orthognathic surgery. Educational activities on migraine should also target orthodontists.

  7. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

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    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  8. Development and validation of an individual based Daphnia magna population model: The influence of crowding on population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preuss, T.G.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Hommen, U.; Rubach, M.N.; Ratte, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    An individual-based model was developed to predict the population dynamics of Daphnia magna at laboratory conditions from individual life-history traits observed in experiments with different feeding conditions. Within the model, each daphnid passes its individual life cycle including feeding on alg

  9. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  10. Clincal and population-based epidemiology of vertigo, migraine and migrainous vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2010-01-01

    This cumulative habilitation thesis is based on studies on various aspects of the clinical and population-based epidemiology of vertigo, migraine and migrainous vertigo. A large study of the general population by validated neurotologic interviews shows that vertigo is a frequent and underdiagnosed symptom in the general population. Vertigo has considerable personal impact and leads to a high health care utilisation. Data on the epidemiology of migraine in Germany are presented based on a...

  11. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  12. Epidemiology of fatty liver in an islander population of China:a population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Fen Dai; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Xi-Cheng Zhang; You-Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of dififculty in evaluating fatty liver disease in islander populations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of fatty liver and its risk factors in an islander population of East China. METHODS: Randomized multistage stratiifed cluster sampling from the islander population was used in a population-based case-control study. Then interview, physical examination, and ultrasonography were done. RESULTS: Univariate logistic-regression analysis showed that male gender, smoking, daily alcohol intake ≥20 g, duration of drinking≥5 years, total alcohol intake≥36.5 kg, hypertension and obesity were closely related to fatty liver (all P CONCLUSIONS: The duration of drinking≥5 years and obesity were two important risk factors for fatty liver in the islander population of East China. The prevalence of fatty liver in this population was high. An alcoholic threshold effect may be more important than a dose-response effect on the morbidity of fatty liver.

  13. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  14. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (PZika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in

  15. Neonatal outcomes in obese mothers: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsart Anne-Frederique

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If it is well known that obesity increases morbidity for both mother and fetus and is associated with a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, then few studies have assessed the relation between obesity and neonatal outcomes. This is the aim of the present study after taking into account type of labor and delivery, as well as social, medical and hospital characteristics in a population-based analysis. Methods This study used 2009 data from the Belgian birth register data pertaining to the regions of Brussels and Wallonia and included 38,675 consecutive births. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for admission to neonatal intensive care unit, Apgar score, and perinatal mortality were calculated by logistic regression analyses adjusting for medical, social and hospital characteristics using obesity as the primary independent variable. The impact of analyzing all delivery sites together was tested using mixed-effect analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio for neonatal intensive care unit admission was higher for obese mothers by 38% compared to non-obese mothers (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.22-1.56, and by 45% (CI: 1.21-1.73 and 34% (CI: 1.10-1.63 after spontaneous and induced labour respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (CI: 0.86-1.63 after caesarean section. The adjusted odds ratio for 1 minute Apgar score inferior to 7 was higher for obese mothers by 31% compared to non-obese mothers (CI: 1.15-1.49 and by 26% (CI: 1.04-1.52 and 38% (CI: 1.12-1.69 after spontaneous and induced labour respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.50 (CI: 0.96-2.36 after caesarean section. The adjusted odds ratio for perinatal mortality was 1.36 (CI: 0.75-2.45 for obese mothers compared to non-obese mothers. Conclusions Neonatal admission to intensive care and low Apgar scores were more likely to occur in infants from obese mothers, both after spontaneous and induced labor.

  16. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  17. Spontaneous preterm delivery among primiparous women at low risk in Denmark: a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Jacobsson, Bo;

    2006-01-01

    can be compared internationally. DESIGN: Population based study. PARTICIPANTS: 99.8% of all deliveries in Denmark, 1995-2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of babies born at less than 37 weeks' completed gestation for each year in the overall population and in a standard population at low risk...

  18. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4 of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. CONCLUSION: In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  19. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

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    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  20. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Langtimm, C.A.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (8) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016?1.056) and 1.062 (1.037?1.081), respectively. The Southwest region has a growth rate of 0.989 (0.946?1.024), suggesting this population has been declining at about 1.1% per year. The estimated growth rate in the Atlantic region is 1.010 (0.988?1.029), but there is some uncertainty about whether adult survival rates have been constant over the last 10 yr; using the mean survival rates from the most recent 5-yr period, the estimated growth rate in this region is 0.970 (0.938?0.998). Elasticity analysis indicates that the most effective management actions should seek to increase adult survival rates. Decomposition of the uncertainty in the growth rates indicates that uncertainty about population status can best be reduced through increased monitoring of adult survival rate.

  1. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total o

  2. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  3. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  4. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION BASED ON CHAIN-NETWORK LOGIC TO PROMOTE THE EXPLORATION OF NATIVE AÇAÍ IN WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariluce Paes-de-Souza; Fabiana Rodrigues Riva; Tania Nunes Silva; Diego Cristovão A. Souza Paes

    2013-01-01

    The present paper has the objective to expose a proposition of organization within a chain and network logic, aiming to potentiate the extraction of the Native Açaí Berry at the Western Brazilian Amazon rainforest. This exploratory study involves the municipalities of Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Machadinho D’Oeste, at the Brazilian state of Rondônia, with primary data originating mostly from conservation areas at the lower Madeira River region. As a result, it was possible to infer that fr...

  5. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  6. Health Literacy in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Tuyen; Lin, I-Feng; Sorensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van Den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2015-11-01

    Data on health literacy (HL) in the population is limited for Asian countries. This study aimed to test the validity of the Mandarin version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) for use in the general public in Taiwan. Multistage stratification random sampling resulted in a sample of 2989 people aged 15 years and above. The HLS-EU-Q was validated by confirmatory factor analysis with excellent model data fit indices. The general HL of the Taiwanese population was 34.4 ± 6.6 on a scale of 50. Multivariate regression analysis showed that higher general HL is significantly associated with the higher ability to pay for medication, higher self-perceived social status, higher frequency of watching health-related TV, and community involvement but associated with younger age. HL is also associated with health status, health behaviors, and health care accessibility and use. The HLS-EU-Q was found to be a useful tool to assess HL and its associated factors in the general population. PMID:26419635

  7. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Šidlová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holstein to 159.22 in Ayrshire. The highest number of short ROH (ancient inbreeding was found in Simmental, followed by Ayrshire. The Ayrshire and MRI had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH. The highest level of inbreeding from the investigated breeds was found out in Ayrshire with the same tendency for all length categories compared to Slovak Pinzgau with higher ancient inbreeding. Ancient inbreeding was only observed in Holstein population. A similar trend is becoming apparent even for Slovak Pinzgau, showing the second smallest recent inbreeding. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the given population in the original phenotype and prevent further increase of inbreeding especially in endangered breeds.

  8. Risk of cardiovascular disease in a traditional African population with a high infectious load: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J E Koopman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To test the inflammatory origin of cardiovascular disease, as opposed to its origin in western lifestyle. Population-based assessment of the prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in an inflammation-prone African population, including electrocardiography and ankle-arm index measurement. Comparison with known prevalences in American and European societies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Traditional population in rural Ghana, characterised by adverse environmental conditions and a high infectious load. Population-based sample of 924 individuals aged 50 years and older. Median values for cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Prevalence of myocardial infarction detected by electrocardiography and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease detected by ankle-arm index. When compared to western societies, we found the Ghanaians to have more proinflammatory profiles and less cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Prevalences of cardiovascular disease were also lower. Definite myocardial infarction was present in 1.2% (95%CI: 0.6 to 2.4%. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 2.8% (95%CI: 1.9 to 4.1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data indicate that for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease inflammatory processes alone do not suffice and additional factors, probably lifestyle-related, are mandatory.

  9. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  10. Population-based treatment and outcomes of Stage I uterine serous carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, L.J.M. van der; Hoskins, P.; Tinker, A.; Lim, P.; Aquino-Parsons, C.; Kwon, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a rare type of endometrial cancer that often recurs in patients with Stage I disease. Our objective was to evaluate treatment and outcomes in Stage I USC in the context of a population-based study. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort

  11. Universal Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Fitting a Population-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Nowell, Kerri P.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have begun to adopt a population-based method to conceptualizing assessment and intervention of students; however, little empirical evidence has been gathered to support this shift in service delivery. The present study examined the fit of a population-based model in identifying students' behavioral and emotional functioning using a…

  12. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moema Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS) adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from t...

  13. Life Satisfaction in Brazil: Testing the Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in Five Brazilian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Milfont, Taciano L.; da Fonseca, Patricia Nunes; Coelho, Jorge Artur Pecanha de Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), presenting evidence of its reliability and construct and criterion-related validity. A large Brazilian sample (2,180 participants), from five different populations (undergraduate and high school students, general population,…

  14. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn;

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used...... and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite...... assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios....

  15. Population based ranking of frameless CT-MRI registration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opposits, Gabor; Kis, Sandor A.; Tron, Lajos; Emri, Miklos [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Berenyi, Ervin [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory and Imaging Science; Takacs, Endre [Rotating Gamma Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Dobai, Jozsef G.; Bognar, Laszlo [Debrecen Univ., Medical Center (Hungary). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Szuecs, Bernadett [ScanoMed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    Clinical practice often requires simultaneous information obtained by two different imaging modalities. Registration algorithms are commonly used for this purpose. Automated procedures are very helpful in cases when the same kind of registration has to be performed on images of a high number of subjects. Radiotherapists would prefer to use the best automated method to assist therapy planning, however there are not accepted procedures for ranking the different registration algorithms. We were interested in developing a method to measure the population level performance of CT-MRI registration algorithms by a parameter of values in the [0,1] interval. Pairs of CT and MRI images were collected from 1051 subjects. Results of an automated registration were corrected manually until a radiologist and a neurosurgeon expert both accepted the result as good. This way 1051 registered MRI images were produced by the same pair of experts to be used as gold standards for the evaluation of the performance of other registration algorithms. Pearson correlation coefficient, mutual information, normalized mutual information, Kullback-Leibler divergence, L{sub 1} norm and square L{sub 2} norm (dis)similarity measures were tested for sensitivity to indicate the extent of (dis)similarity of a pair of individual mismatched images. The square Hellinger distance proved suitable to grade the performance of registration algorithms at population level providing the developers with a valuable tool to rank algorithms. The developed procedure provides an objective method to find the registration algorithm performing the best on the population level out of newly constructed or available preselected ones.

  16. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  17. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  18. Coexistence of structured populations with size-based prey selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    maximum adult sizes and population size distributions. We explore the assembly and potential for coexistence of small communities where all species experience ontogenetic trophic niche shifts. The life-history of each species is described by a physiologically structured model and species identity is......Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending on the...

  19. High contrast atomic magnetometer based on coherent population trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance excited on the D1 line of 87Rb atoms by bichromatic linearly polarized laser light. The experimental results show that a lin ‖ lin transition scheme is a promising alternative to the conventional circular—circular transition scheme for an atomic magnetometer. Compared with the circular light transition scheme, linear light accounts for high-contrast transmission resonances, which makes this excitation scheme promising for high-sensitivity magnetometers. We also use linear light and circular light to detect changes of a standard magnetic field, separately. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Julia

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total of 1076 persons participated in an additional sleep study, in which their sleep was ‘measured’ with a sleep diary and with actigraphy, a method that infers sleep and wakefulness from the presenc...

  1. Mammography-based screening program: preliminary results from a first 2-year round in a Brazilian region using mobile and fixed units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikel Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The use of mobile mammography units to offer screening to women living in remote areas is a rational strategy to increase the number of women examined. This study aimed to evaluate results from the first 2 years of a government-organized mammography screening program implemented with a mobile unit (MU and a fixed unit (FU in a rural county in Brazil. The program offered breast cancer screening to women living in Barretos and the surrounding area. Methods Based on epidemiologic data, 54 238 women, aged 40 to 69 years, were eligible for breast cancer screening. The study included women examined from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2005. The chi-square test and Bonferroni correction analyses were used to evaluate the frequencies of tumors and the importance of clinical parameters and tumor characteristics. Significance was set at p Results Overall, 17 964 women underwent mammography. This represented 33.1% of eligible women in the area. A mean of 18.6 and 26.3 women per day were examined in the FU and MU, respectively. Seventy six patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (41 (54% in the MU. This represented 4.2 cases of breast cancer per 1000 examinations. The number of cancers detected was significantly higher in women aged 60 to 69 years than in those aged 50 to 59 years (p Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that this mammography screening program is feasible for implementation in a rural Brazilian territory and favor program continuation.

  2. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  3. Nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira Nation and nationalism based on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lessa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pensar nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira exige um mergulho desde as raízes coloniais até a modernidade. Essa trajetória é marcada por descompassos, e desde o Estado Nacional até a sedimentação da nação e o sentimento de auto-estima com uma "identidade brasileira" transcorre-se mais de um século. Tanto o conceito de Brasil-nação quanto as versões nacionalistas jamais têm alta dramaticidade; as passagens históricas fundamentais - abolição, proclamação da República, Estado Novo - se sucedem com poucos traumas preliminares e, em seqüência, a trajetória opera uma rápida "conservatização". Do ponto de vista econômico, as forças produtivas se desenvolvem dinâmica e intensamente. Apesar da expansão demográfica, da ocupação territorial, da transformação e emergência de novos grupos sociais no campo e na cidade, é preservada a exclusão social de amplas frações da nacionalidade dos benefícios do dinamismo econômico. É ciclotímica a leitura dos nacionais de suas próprias características. A cultura, tanto das elites quanto a popular, fornece chaves para entender as mutações do pensar nacional em relação ao Brasil e o desdobramento de múltiplas características.This essay aims to analyze both Nation and Nationalism concepts according to the viewpoint of brazilian experience, from colonial roots to our times, from national state’s birth to the settlement of the Nation and national self-stee. The main historical landmarks happen with few preliminary traumas and are "conservative-zed". Productive forces develop dynamically; demographic expansion and territory occupation continue as society changes and new groups emerge; however, large population segments keep excluded from the welfare economic development should provide. Natives' self-perception is rather cyclothymical. Both popular and elite’s culture provide the keys to understand the mutations of national thinking about Brazil, as

  4. Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum isolates: investigation of candidate polymorphisms for artemisinin resistance before introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenthal Philip J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to better understand the genetic diversity of known polymorphisms in pfatpase6 and pfmdr1 genes before the introduction of ACT in Brazil, in order to get a genotypic snapshot of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that may be used as baseline reference for future studies. Methods Parasites from P. falciparum samples collected in 2002, 2004 and 2006-2007 were genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246 for pfmdr1 gene, and 243, 263, 402, 431, 623, 630, 639, 683, 716, 776, 769 and 771 for pfatpase6 gene. Results A pfmdr1 haplotype NEF/CDVY was found in 97% of the samples. In the case of pfatpase6, four haplotypes, wild-type (37%, 630 S (35%, 402 V (5% and double-mutant 630 S + 402 V (23%, were detected. Conclusion Although some polymorphism in pfmdr1 and pfatpase6 were verified, no reported haplotypes in both genes that may mediate altered response to ACT was detected before the introduction of this therapy in Brazil. Thus, the haplotypes herein described can be very useful as a baseline reference of P. falciparum populations without ACT drug pressure.

  5. A paradox in individual-based models of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The standard dynamic energy budget model is widely used to describe the physiology of individual animals. It assumes that assimilation rate scales with body surface area, whereas maintenance rate scales with body volume. When the model is used as the building block of a population model, only limited dynamical behaviour, the so-called juvenile-driven cycles, emerges. The reason is that in the model juveniles are competitively superior over adults, because juveniles have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio. Maintenance requirements for adults are therefore relatively large, and a reduced assimilation rate as a result of lowered food levels will easily become insufficient. Here, an alternative dynamic energy budget model is introduced that gives rise to adult-driven cycles, which may be closer to what is often observed in reality. However, this comes at the price of a rather odd description of the individual, in that maintenance scales with body area and assimilation rate with body volume, resulting in unbounded exponential body growth. I make a plea to solve the paradox and come up with reliable descriptions at both the individual and the population level. PMID:27413533

  6. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  7. Avaliação do desempenho dos testes functional reach e lateral reach em amostra populacional brasileira Assessment of performance in the functional reach and lateral reach tests in a Brazilian population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRM Silveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os padrões de desempenho dos testes Functional Reach e Lateral Reach em uma amostra de indivíduos saudáveis de 20 a 87 anos e verificar a influência do gênero, idade, estatura do indivíduo, peso corporal, comprimentos do braço e do pé. MÉTODO: foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal com 98 pessoas de ambos os gêneros, que residiam na capital e interior de São Paulo. Os voluntários tiveram suas medidas descritivas registradas e posteriormente foram submetidos aos testes Functional Reach e Lateral Reach. RESULTADOS: Para o FR, todas as variáveis tiveram influência, exceto o comprimento do braço (p=0,057, o peso corporal (p=0,746 e a base de suporte usada no momento da avaliação (p=0,384. As variáveis que exerceram maior influência foram o gênero (p=0,001, a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the performance in the functional reach test (FR and lateral reach test (LR among a sample of healthy individuals aged 20 to 87 years and to verify the influence of gender, age, height, body weight, arm length and foot length. METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 98 people of both genders living in the city of São Paulo and other places in the State of São Paulo. The volunteers were measured and then underwent FR and LR. RESULTS: All the variables had an influence on FR, except arm length (p=0.057, body weight (p=0.746 and the support base used at the time of assessment (p=0.384. The variables exerting greatest influence were the individual's gender (p=0.001, age (p<0.001 and height (p=0.004. This analysis showed that women had less anterior and lateral functional reach than men. There was a substantial positive correlation (r=0.696 between the left and right LR findings. FR had a moderate positive correlation of 0.405 with the left LR and a substantial positive correlation of 0.614 with the right LR. For LR, the height, weight, foot length and arm length

  8. Building Social and Cultural Capital among Young People in Disadvantaged Communities: Lessons from a Brazilian Sport-Based Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaaij, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of social and cultural capital as analytical tools for investigating the capacity of sport-based intervention programs to contribute to the personal, social and professional development of disadvantaged young people. It draws on survey data (n = 129) and qualitative interviews (n = 53) with participants of the…

  9. An Exploratory Investigation on Modularity Adoption in Design and Production Through a Case-Based Research in a Brazilian Automaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauchick Miguel, Paulo Augusto; Hsuan, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    to what extent the adoption of modularity varies according to such tradeoffs. Case-based research is employed as the methodological approach. The unit of analysis is a business unit of an international leading manufacturer of trucks and buses, being the latter within the scope of the present investigation...

  10. Reproductive cycle and population structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae on southeast Brazilian continental slope Ciclo reproductivo y estructura poblacional del camarón de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae en el talud continental del sureste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "alistado shrimp" (Aristeus antillensis is one of the targets of the trawling fleet operating since 2002 along the continental slope of the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone between 700 and 800 m depth. Catches of the species occur mainly in two small fishing grounds located on the east coast of Espirito Santo State (19-22°S. This paper aimed to obtain the first biological data for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 13,797 individuals were sampled aboard fishing vessels by observers on almost all fishing hauls, corresponding to 10 to 20% of the total catch recorded in the period. Males and females are sexually mature at 25.4 and 40.2 mm carapace length, respectively, based on an analysis of the proportions of individuals with fused petasma (males and spermatophores in the thelycum (females. The proportion of impregnated females was higher than 80% year round, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle, although preliminary in-formation on gonadal development points to possible seasonal reproduction. In general, mature females, which attain larger sizes than males, domínate the catches (M:F = 0.12:1. However, populational groups including males and juveniles of both sexes occupy the fishing grounds in different periods of the year, probably reflecting migratory movements whose directions and driving forces are not completely understood yet. A depth-stratified population structure by sex and size is hypothesized.La gamba de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis es uno de los recursos explotados por la flota de arrastre, que está operando desde el año 2002 en el talud continental de la Zona Econômica Exclusiva de Brasil, entre 700 y 800 m de profundidad. Las capturas de esta especie se realizan básicamente en dos pequeños fondos de pesca que se encuentran en la costa este de la región de Espirito Santo (19-22°S. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo obtener los primeros antecedentes biológicos de esta especie en la costa

  11. Population-based register of acute myocardial infarction: manual of operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pajak, Andrzej;

    2007-01-01

    Set) to build up comparable and reliable indicators (attack rate and case fatality) for the surveillance of acute myocardial infarction/acute coronary syndrome at population level.This manual of operations is intended for health professionals and policy makers and provides a standardized and simple...... model for the implementation of a population-based register. It recommends to start from a minimum data set and then follow a stepwise procedure.Before implementing a population-based register, it is important to identify the target population under surveillance which should preferably cover a well...

  12. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  13. Collect model to the paper’ reverse channel in an brazilian federal university based in theory of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Firmino da Silva Neto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The universities must develop models to reduce, reutilize and recycle the material used in their activity, in order to minimize the impact to environment. The paper is a residue is this type of organization and can be used at the recycling process, but is necessary the existence of the reverse logistics channels to collect this material. This paper aims the proposition of a model to collect the paper generated inside the campus of a federal university of Brazil based on the Graph Theory. An exploratory research was done to get an estimation of the quantity of material generated. After this, a model was proposed to define a route to material collection based in collect points, minimizing the time waste in this process. The model is efficient and reduced thirty percent the time of the collect process. This model can be used to other universities.

  14. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from the electrical and electronics industry in South Brazil. Data w ere collected through in - dep th interviews , documents , and direct observation. According to the research, t he main motivations for adopting GS are faster access to new technologies and establish ing a presence in global markets. It was also found that the opportunity to offer diversified products u sing the distribution channels already developed by companies motivate s GS adoption , a situation that prior literature has not identified . Despite the risks, t he absence of a broad local supply - base prompts companies to adopt GS. Further, the failure to fo rmalize barrier analysis processes creates difficulties f or companies . Th e main results associated with GS relate to innovation and reductions in the time taken to develop product s and reach market s . In this regard, c ompanies face a challenge to develop th e abilities required to compete for the advantages that t he global market can offer.

  15. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders - a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiologic studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea and celiac...... disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobactor pylori (HP) infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49,475 patients with rosacea, and 4,312,213 general...... population controls were identified using nationwide administrative registers. We established the prevalence of the aforementioned disorders, and used Cox regression to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of new-onset CeD, CD, UC, HP infection, SIBO, and IBS, respectively, in patients with rosacea...

  16. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2013 - calendar year 2012: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2013 - ano base 2012: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2012; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  18. Brazilian energy balance 2014 - calendar year 2013: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2014 - ano base 2013: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2013; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  19. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2015: ano base 2014 - relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  20. Brazilian energy balance 2012 - calendar year 2011: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2012- ano base 2011: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2011; Chapter 2 - Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4

  1. Factors associated with perceived discrimination in health services of Brazil: Results of the Brazilian National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Ferreira, Arthur Pate de Souza; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with perceived discrimination in the health services of Brazil. It is a population-based epidemiological study using data from the 2013 National Health Survey, which had a complex sample design in three phases. For each domicile sampled, one individual aged 18 or over was selected (resulting in n = 62,202). The outcome analyzed was: Perception of discrimination by doctors or health professionals, suffered in the health services. A logistic regression model was estimated, adjusted for confounding factors. Discrimination was reported by 10.5% of the Brazilian population. The factors most frequently indicated were: lack of money (5.7%); and social class (5.6%). The adjusted model showed that the groups with the highest chance of feeling discriminated against were: women; individuals without complete primary education; non-whites; and those without a health insurance plan. The fact that one-tenth of the Brazilian population reported feeling discriminated against in the health services shows the need for regulation and wide debate in relation to the Brazilian laws that guarantee universal and equal access to the public and private health services. PMID:26910145

  2. Morphological Discrimination of Greek Honey Bee Populations Based on Geometric Morphometrics Analysis of Wing Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charistos Leonidas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees collected from 32 different localities in Greece were studied based on the geometric morphometrics approach using the coordinates of 19 landmarks located at wing vein intersections. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, and Canonical variate analysis (CVA detected population variability among the studied samples. According to the Principal component analysis (PCA of pooled data from each locality, the most differentiated populations were the populations from the Aegean island localities Astypalaia, Chios, and Kythira. However, the populations with the most distant according to the canonical variate analysis performed on all measurements were the populations from Heraklion and Chania (both from Crete island. These results can be used as a starting point for the use of geometric morphometrics in the discrimination of honey bee populations in Greece and the establishment of conservation areas for local honey bee populations.

  3. Addendum to "Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2016-04-01

    A previous article published several years ago (Prinz et al. Prevention Science, 10, 1-12, 2009) described the main results of a place-randomized-design study focused on the prevention of child-maltreatment-related outcomes at a population level through the implementation of a multilevel system of parenting and family support (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program). The current report, prepared at the encouragement of the journal, provides additional details about procedures, measures, and design-related decisions, presents an additional analysis of the main outcome variables, and poses questions about the study and its implications. We also offer guidance about how the field can move forward to build on this line of research. From the outset, the three designated primary child maltreatment outcomes were county-wide rates for substantiated child maltreatment cases, out-of-home placements, and hospital-treated child maltreatment injuries, derived from independent data sources available through administrative archival records. Baseline equivalence between the two intervention conditions was reaffirmed. The additional analysis, which made use of a 5-year baseline (replacing a 1-year baseline) and ANCOVA, yielded large effect sizes for all three outcomes that converged with those from the original analyses. Overall, the study underscored the potential for community-wide parenting and family support to produce population-level preventive impact on child maltreatment. Issues addressed included (1) the need for replication of population-oriented maltreatment prevention strategies like the one tested in this randomized experiment, (2) the need to demonstrate that a parenting-based population approach to maltreatment prevention can also impact children's adjustment apart from child abuse, and (3) the role of implementation science for achieving greater population reach and maintenance over time. PMID:26780665

  4. [Negotiating knowledge and power: the National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare and the Brazilian Society of Urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rita Flores; Birman, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the negotiations and disputes between different kinds of knowledge and power in the history of the Brazilian National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare based on the creation in 2008 of the Technical Area for Men's Health within the Ministry of Health's Department of Strategic Programs. We observed the Brazilian Society of Urology's position as the policy was being drawn up, including the discourse adopted, based on interviews held with managers from the Ministry of Health and the assistant representative of the United Nations Population Fund in Brazil. We analyzed the visibility of the male body in signs of resistance to the interventions of biopower in the expression of the right to health.

  5. Fluorometric Discrimination Technique of Phytoplankton Population Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shanshan; SU Rongguo; DUAN Yali; ZHANG Cui; SONG Zhijie; WANG Xiulin

    2012-01-01

    The discrete excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectra(EEMS)at 12 excitation wavelengths (400,430,450,460,470,490,500,510,525,550,570,and 590 nm)and emission wavelengths ranging from 600-750 nm were determined for 43 phytoplankton species.A two-rank fluorescence spectra database was established by wavelet analysis and a fluorometric discrimination technique for determining phytoplankton population was developed.For laboratory simulatively mixed samples,the samples mixed from 43 algal species(the algae of one division accounted for 25%,50%,75%,85%,and 100% of the gross biomass,respectively),the average discrimination rates at the level of division were 65.0%,87.5%,98.6%,99.0%,and 99.1%,with average relative contents of 18.9%,44.5%,68.9%,73.4%,and 82.9%,respectively;the samples mixed from 32 red tide algal species(the dominant species accounted for 60%,70%,80%,90%,and 100% of the gross biomass,respectively),the average correct discrimination rates of the dominant species at the level of genus were 63.3%,74.2%,78.8%,83.4%,and 79.4%,respectively.For the 81 laboratory mixed samples with the dominant species accounting for 75% of the gross biomass(chlorophyll),the discrimination rates of the dominant species were 95.1% and 72.8% at the level of division and genus,respectively.For the 12 samples collected from the mesocosm experiment in Maidao Bay of Qingdao in August 2007,the dominant species of the 11 samples were recognized at the division level and the dominant species of four of the five samples in which the dominant species accounted for more than 80% of the gross biomass were discriminated at the genus level;for the 12 samples obtained from Jiaozhou Bay in August 2007,the dominant species of all the 12 samples were recognized at the division level.The technique can be directly applied to fluorescence spectrophotometers and to the developing of an in situ algae fluorescence auto-analyzer for

  6. Diphtheria antitoxin levels in the Netherlands: a population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    de Melker, H. E.; Berbers, G A; Nagelkerke, N. J.; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study in the Netherlands, diphtheria antitoxin antibodies were measured with a toxin-binding inhibition assay in 9, 134 sera from the general population and religious communities refusing vaccination. The Dutch immunization program appears to induce long-term protection against diphtheria. However, a substantial number of adults born before the program was introduced had no protective diphtheria antibody levels. Although herd immunity seems adequate, long-term population...

  7. Vitamin D levels and associated factors: a population-based study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Guessous, I.; Dudler, V; Glatz, N; Theler, J M; Zoller, O; Paccaud, F.; Burnier, M.; M. Bochud

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To update the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to identify factors associated with vitamin D status in the Swiss adult population. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2011 Swiss Study on Salt intake, a population-based study in the Swiss population, was used. Vitamin D concentration in serum was measured by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. Major factors that influence vitamin D levels were taken into account. Survey statistical procedures were used t...

  8. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Morters, M.K.; Restif, O.; Hampson, K.; Cleaveland, S.; Wood, J.L.N.; Conlan, A J K; Boots, M.

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historic...

  9. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  10. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  11. Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...

  12. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302

  13. Gaussian process-based Bayesian nonparametric inference of population size trajectories from gene genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Julia A; Minin, Vladimir N

    2013-03-01

    Changes in population size influence genetic diversity of the population and, as a result, leave a signature of these changes in individual genomes in the population. We are interested in the inverse problem of reconstructing past population dynamics from genomic data. We start with a standard framework based on the coalescent, a stochastic process that generates genealogies connecting randomly sampled individuals from the population of interest. These genealogies serve as a glue between the population demographic history and genomic sequences. It turns out that only the times of genealogical lineage coalescences contain information about population size dynamics. Viewing these coalescent times as a point process, estimating population size trajectories is equivalent to estimating a conditional intensity of this point process. Therefore, our inverse problem is similar to estimating an inhomogeneous Poisson process intensity function. We demonstrate how recent advances in Gaussian process-based nonparametric inference for Poisson processes can be extended to Bayesian nonparametric estimation of population size dynamics under the coalescent. We compare our Gaussian process (GP) approach to one of the state-of-the-art Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) methods for estimating population trajectories. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that our method has better accuracy and precision. Next, we analyze two genealogies reconstructed from real sequences of hepatitis C and human Influenza A viruses. In both cases, we recover more believed aspects of the viral demographic histories than the GMRF approach. We also find that our GP method produces more reasonable uncertainty estimates than the GMRF method.

  14. [Consumption of nutrients among the elderly living in Porto Alegre in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Sgnaolin, Vanessa; El Kik, Raquel Milani; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; da Silva Filho, Irenio Gomes; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on a random sample of 427 elderly individuals living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, to establish the nutrient consumption profile and verify its association with sociodemographic and health variables. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour Food Recall Survey and the Dietetic Research Investigation technique. Seventy percent of the elderly respondents were women: 48.5% were between 60 and 69 years old; 68.8% had less than 8 years of schooling; 39% had a family income of between 2 and 5 minimum wages and 58.4% took no physical exercise. Hypertension was the most prevalent disease among the elderly and 54.9% were underweight. Men consumed more calories, protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins than women. Carbohydrate and calcium intake increases with advancing age, while zinc intake decreases. Physical exercise increased the intake of calories, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. The higher the schooling the greater the intake of vitamins B6 and B12; the higher the family income, the greater the consumption of vitamin B6 and folic acid. The results show that there are nutritional deficiencies in the daily diet of the Brazilian elderly population, especially among women and individuals over 80 years of age. PMID:26691795

  15. Resource-based View as a Perspective for Public Tourism Management Research: Evidence from Two Brazilian Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Shizue Massukado-Nakatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted the Resource-Based View approach to analyse two public organizations located in Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. The focus was to verify how organizational and tourist resources are being used for planning and public management in these cities. Data collection was made by adopting semi-structured interviews with two groups: public and private sector managers. The insights of these two groups and the use of documentary secondary data made it possible to infer that the main resource for the implementation of public policies was organizational architecture. However, the most influential resource in public tourism management is the existence of tourist resources and organizational resources related to internal and external relationships and organizational culture. The analysis demonstrated that the researched cities do not use or do not know how to use the available resources in value-creating activities for local tourist management. Both cities present imperfections that do not earmark the full exploitation of organizational resources, compromising the exploration of available tourist resources.

  16. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. PMID:27578347

  17. An individual-based model for population viability analysis of humpback chub in Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, William Pine; Healy, Brian; Smith, Emily Omana; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Valdez, Rich; Yard, Mike; Walters, Carl; Ahrens, Rob; Vanhaverbeke, Randy; Stone, Dennis; Wilson, Wade

    2013-01-01

    We developed an individual-based population viability analysis model (females only) for evaluating risk to populations from catastrophic events or conservation and research actions. This model tracks attributes (size, weight, viability, etc.) for individual fish through time and then compiles this information to assess the extinction risk of the population across large numbers of simulation trials. Using a case history for the Little Colorado River population of Humpback Chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon, Arizona, we assessed extinction risk and resiliency to a catastrophic event for this population and then assessed a series of conservation actions related to removing specific numbers of Humpback Chub at different sizes for conservation purposes, such as translocating individuals to establish other spawning populations or hatchery refuge development. Our results suggested that the Little Colorado River population is generally resilient to a single catastrophic event and also to removals of larvae and juveniles for conservation purposes, including translocations to establish new populations. Our results also suggested that translocation success is dependent on similar survival rates in receiving and donor streams and low emigration rates from recipient streams. In addition, translocating either large numbers of larvae or small numbers of large juveniles has generally an equal likelihood of successful population establishment at similar extinction risk levels to the Little Colorado River donor population. Our model created a transparent platform to consider extinction risk to populations from catastrophe or conservation actions and should prove useful to managers assessing these risks for endangered species such as Humpback Chub.

  18. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  19. A MODIS-Based Energy Balance to Estimate Evapotranspiration for Clear-Sky Days in Brazilian Tropical Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadvinder S. Malhi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET plays an important role in global climate dynamics and in primary production of terrestrial ecosystems; it represents the mass and energy transfer from the land to atmosphere. Limitations to measuring ET at large scales using ground-based methods have motivated the development of satellite remote sensing techniques. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of the SEBAL algorithm for estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes at regional scale, using 28 images from MODIS. SEBAL estimates are compared with eddy-covariance (EC measurements and results from the hydrological model MGB-IPH. SEBAL instantaneous estimates of latent heat flux (LE yielded r 2= 0.64 and r2 = 0.62 over sugarcane croplands and savannas when compared against in situ EC estimates. At the same sites, daily aggregated estimates of LE were r 2 = 0.76 and r2 = 0.66, respectively. Energy balance closure showed that turbulent fluxes over sugarcane croplands were underestimated by 7% and 9% over savannas. Average daily ET from SEBAL is in close agreement with estimates from the hydrological model for an overlay of 38,100 km2 (r2 = 0.88. Inputs to which the algorithm is most sensitive are vegetation index (NDVI, gradient of temperature (dT to compute sensible heat flux (H and net radiation (Rn. It was verified that SEBAL has a tendency to overestimate results both at local and regional scales probably because of low sensitivity to soil moisture and water stress. Nevertheless the results confirm the potential of the SEBAL algorithm, when used with MODIS images for estimating instantaneous LE and daily ET from large areas.

  20. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  1. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to de

  2. Survival in Mediterranean Ambulatory Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. A Population-based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigola Capell, E.; Comin-Colet, J.; Davins-Miralles, J.; Gich-Saladich, I.J.; Wensing, M.; Verdu-Rotellar, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. METHODS: We carried out a population-based retrospective

  3. Drug-induced renal function impairment : a population-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The knowledge that drugs can affect renal function is mainly based on experimental studies or case reports. Thus, it has only been investigated in selected populations. Here we describe drug groups associated with altered renal function in the general population. Methods To study this, we us

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  5. Psychology data from the “BAFACALO project: The Brazilian Intelligence Battery based on two state-of-the-art models – Carroll’s Model and the CHC model”

    OpenAIRE

    Golino, Hudson F; Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The BAFACALO’s dataset contains the answers from 292 Brazilian high-school students from a public school to 18 cognitive tests developed to assess different hierarchical levels of intelligence structure. Most of the participants were girls (53.40%), with ages ranging from 14 to 20 years old (Mean = 15.71, Standard Deviation = 1.15) and the average monthly household income varying from R$ 1,751 to R$ 3,500 (Reais). The BAFACALO’s tests were constructed by Gomes [1,2] based on the Educational T...

  6. Physical Inactivity and Related Barriers: A Study in a Community Dwelling of Older Brazilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Sebastião; Sebastião, Emerson; Papini, Camila Bosquiero; Nakamura, Priscila Missaki; Valdanha Netto, Américo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical inactivity and related barriers in older Brazilian adults. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted, and a stratified random sampling procedure was used. A total of 359 older adults were interviewed. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Questionnaire of Barriers to Physical Activity Practice were used to assess physical activity level and barriers, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed on the prevalence of physical inactivity in either gender or age groups. Regarding barriers, the proportion of 9 out of 22 barriers was statistically significant between men and women. Self-reported physical inactivity/activity in older Brazilian adults continues to be a concern. Uncommonly, older males reported a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared to their counterparts. Additionally, physical inactivity prevalence continued to increase with the aging process. Yet, personal barriers such as lack of time and poor health were strongly associated with physical inactivity. The results of this study may help health professionals and public policy makers to better address the issues related to a healthy lifestyle among older adults and promote physical activity among Brazilian older adults and in other countries with similar characteristics. PMID:23209906

  7. Physical Inactivity and Related Barriers: A Study in a Community Dwelling of Older Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gobbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical inactivity and related barriers in older Brazilian adults. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted, and a stratified random sampling procedure was used. A total of 359 older adults were interviewed. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and the Questionnaire of Barriers to Physical Activity Practice were used to assess physical activity level and barriers, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed on the prevalence of physical inactivity in either gender or age groups. Regarding barriers, the proportion of 9 out of 22 barriers was statistically significant between men and women. Self-reported physical inactivity/activity in older Brazilian adults continues to be a concern. Uncommonly, older males reported a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared to their counterparts. Additionally, physical inactivity prevalence continued to increase with the aging process. Yet, personal barriers such as lack of time and poor health were strongly associated with physical inactivity. The results of this study may help health professionals and public policy makers to better address the issues related to a healthy lifestyle among older adults and promote physical activity among Brazilian older adults and in other countries with similar characteristics.

  8. Exploring self care in Tehran, Iran: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: self care empowers individuals to self manage their minor ailments, chronic conditions, and to exert more control over their lives. Self care includes activities such as influencing prevention, health maintenance, and treatment of illness by individuals, this study was conducted to assess views about self care among the general population living in south of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This survey was cross-sectional study by using of two-stage random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals aged 17 years and over was surveyed regarding self care. A structured closed validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were finally analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson Chi-square, Fisher exact test and linear by linear association. Questionnaire has totally five parts including knowledge, attitude, performance toward self care, views regarding general health and demographic characteristics as well. Furthermore; project number is 4276-62-02-85. Results: The mean age of subjects was 27.9 years (SD = 5.2; 50.2% ( n = 603 were female; 54% ( n = 643 were married (deleted, (55%, n = 658 reported that they were not knowledgeable about self care and (82%, n = 986 were interested in self care. Only 4% ( n = 53 of subjects indicated they drank ≥ 7 glasses of water daily; fewer reported they consumed at least five portions of fruits/vegetables daily (3%, n = 31; and (4%, n = 51 engaged in physical activity more than 3 h weekly. There were statistically significant relationships between knowledge and interest ( P < 0.01, knowledge and practice ( P < 0.001, and interest and practice regarding self care ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: The vast majority of subjects approximately two third felt satisfied with their health, most of subjects reported "feeling healthy" despite engaging in unhealthy life styles, it is revealed that more educated people, and likely those with more income, were interested in and knowledgeable regarding self care and were actually

  9. Incidence of zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemia: a multi-national population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Lyytikäinen, Outi;

    2009-01-01

    in a large multi-national population and to evaluate temporal and regional differences. Methods: Population-based laboratory surveillance for all zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemias was conducted in five regions (Finland, Canberra, Australia, North Jutland Region, Denmark, and Calgary and Sherbrooke......, Canada; combined population 7.5 million residents annually) during 2000-2007. Results: A total of 480 zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemias were identified for an overall annual incidence of 8.1 per million population. The incidence was lowest in the spring and highest in the summer, and progressively...

  10. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our

  11. Perfil da incidência e da sobrevida de pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide oral em uma população brasileira Incidence and survival profile of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Brazilian population

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    Lucinei Roberto de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência do câncer bucal no Brasil é uma das mais altas do mundo. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o perfil, os fatores de risco e a sobrevida de pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma epidermóide oral entre 1982 e 2002 em uma população brasileira. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Idade, gênero, local da lesão, história pregressa, consumo de tabaco e bebidas alcoólicas, exposição actínica, traumatismo por prótese, recidivas, metástases e sobrevida foram obtidos dos prontuários. RESULTADOS: Dos 340 pacientes 84,4% eram homens e 15,6%, mulheres (5,4:1. As lesões linguais foram as mais freqüentes (27,9%. Vinte por cento dos pacientes relataram traumatismo por prótese e em 73,8% das lesões em lábio inferior foi relatada exposição actínica desprotegida. Não houve diferença entre as regiões anatômicas e o consumo de tabaco em relação a recidivas, metástases regionais e metástases à distância. O tempo médio de história pregressa foi de 13 meses, havendo diferença entre as regiões anatômicas. A sobrevida em cinco anos foi de 24%. A sobrevida dos pacientes com recidivas e/ou metástases variou conforme a idade analisada ( 60 anos, mas não houve diferença quanto à história pregressa e às regiões anatômicas. A discrepância homem/mulher encontrada foi alta, diminuindo conforme o aumento da idade. O consumo de tabaco e álcool é elevado nessa população, mas não influenciou as recidivas e as metástases da doença. Foi grande o tempo de evolução das lesões até a procura pelo serviço. CONCLUSÕES: Os baixos índices de sobrevida refletem a necessidade de uma maior atenção ao câncer bucal nessa população.BACKGROUND: The buccal cancer incidence in Brazil is one of the highest in the world. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate profile, risk factors and survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma between 1982 and 2002 in a Brazilian population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Age, gender, tumor site, previous clinical history

  12. Survival trends in metastatic bladder cancer in the United States: A population based study

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    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This population-based study shows that decreases in 6-month and 12-month relative survival rates among patients with MBC in 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000, specifically, more pronounced among CC men and Oth men.

  13. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  14. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8. A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66, with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23. Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81, insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05, not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89, and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19 and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146. CONCLUSION: Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.

  15. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  16. An enhanced single base extension technique for the analysis of complex viral populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R Webster

    Full Text Available Many techniques for the study of complex populations provide either specific information on a small number of variants or general information on the entire population. Here we describe a powerful new technique for elucidating mutation frequencies at each genomic position in a complex population. This single base extension (SBE based microarray platform was designed and optimized using poliovirus as the target genotype, but can be easily adapted to assay populations derived from any organism. The sensitivity of the method was demonstrated by accurate and consistent readouts from a controlled population of mutant genotypes. We subsequently deployed the technique to investigate the effects of the nucleotide analog ribavirin on a typical poliovirus population through two rounds of passage. Our results show that this economical platform can be used to investigate dynamic changes occurring at frequencies below 1% within a complex nucleic acid population. Given that many key aspects of the study and treatment of disease are intimately linked to population-level genomic diversity, our SBE-based technique provides a scalable and cost-effective complement to both traditional and next generation sequencing methodologies.

  17. Potencial de produção de óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera spp de populações naturais do sudoeste da Amazônia Oil resin production potential of Copaifera spp natural populations in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofra Cleuza Rigamonte-Azevedo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de produção de óleo-resina extraído de Copaífera spp foi avaliado em duas populações naturais do sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira (municípios de Tarauacá e Xapuri, nos anos de 2000 e 2001. Foram selecionadas 388 árvores adultas de copaíbas das duas populações, sendo identificados em cada árvore o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, a produção de óleo-resina, a posição da árvore no relevo local (baixio ou terra firme e a tipologia florestal local (floresta aberta ou densa, além do nome regional da copaíba, com base em características morfológicas da casca: Copaifera reticulata: copaíba-branca, vermelha, amarela e preta e Copaifera paupera: mari-mari. Os resultados indicam que a copaíba mari-mari possui maior proporção de indivíduos produtivos (80%, enquanto os demais morfotipos apresentaram apenas de 22 a 40% de seus indivíduos produtivos. Com relação a todas as árvores amostradas, a produção de óleo-resina variou de 0 a 18 L árvore-1, com a copaíba mari-mari tendo a maior produção média (1,33 L árvore-1, porém sem diferir significativamente dos demais morfotipos. Após excluir da análise as árvores não produtivas, a copaíba-preta apresentou significativamente a maior produção média de óleo-resina (2,92 L árvore-1. A tipologia florestal, posição da árvore no relevo e o DAP não se mostraram relacionados a produção de óleo-resina.The potential for production of oil resin extracted from Copaifera spp natural populations was studied in two natural populations (municipalities of Tarauacá and Xapuri in the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon, in 2000 and 2001. Three hundred and eighty-eight adult trees were selected within these two populations. DBH, oil production, topographic position, regional common names (based on bark appearance; White, Red, Yellow, Black for Copaifera reticulata, and Mari-Mari for C. paupera and forest typology were recorded for each individual. Copaiba Mari

  18. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwiak Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. P-values Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%, vitamin A (92.4% and vitamin C (85.1% in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  19. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; de Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  20. Epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism in Denmark: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Knudsen, Nils;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few population-based studies have described the epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring two well-defined Danish cohorts in Aalborg with moderate iodine deficiency (nZ311 102) and Copenhagen with only mild iodine deficiency (...... standardized incidence rate (SIR) per 100 000 person-years was 81.6, and was higher in Aalborg compared with Copenhagen (96.7 vs 60.0, P...

  1. Heritability of blood pressure in the swiss population: the family-based skipogh study

    OpenAIRE

    Alwan H.; Ehret G.; Ponte B.; Pruijm M.; Ackermann D.; Guessous I.; Pechère-Bertschi A.; Paccaud F.; Burnier M; Bochud M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Blood pressure is known to aggregate in families. Yet, heritability estimates are population-specific and no Swiss data have been published so far. Moreover, little is known on the heritability of the white-coat effect. We investigated the heritability of various blood pressure (BP) traits in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods: SKIPOGH (Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension) is a family-based multi-centre (Lausanne, Bern, Geneva) cross-sectional study that examines th...

  2. Heritability of neck pain: a population-based study of 33,794 Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in a large population-based study of twins. METHODS: Data on lifetime prevalence of neck pain from a population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish twins were used. To assess twin similarity, the probandwise concordance rates, zygosity...... gradually less important with increasing age, and environmental factors dominate almost completely in the older age groups....

  3. Family- and population-based designs identify different rare causal variants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xue; He Hua; Ding Lili; Baye Tesfaye M; Kurowski Brad G; Martin Lisa J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Both family- and population-based samples are used to identify genetic variants associated with phenotypes. Each strategy has demonstrated advantages, but their ability to identify rare variants and genes containing rare variants is unclear. To compare these two study designs in the identification of rare causal variants, we applied various methods to the population- and family-based data simulated by the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 with knowledge of the simulated model. Our results...

  4. flowCL: ontology-based cell population labelling in flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, Mélanie; Meskas, Justin; Diehl, Alexander D.; Droumeva, Radina; Gottardo, Raphael; Jalali, Adrin; Taghiyar, Mohammad Jafar; Maecker, Holden T.; McCoy, J. Philip; Ruttenberg, Alan; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Finding one or more cell populations of interest, such as those correlating to a specific disease, is critical when analysing flow cytometry data. However, labelling of cell populations is not well defined, making it difficult to integrate the output of algorithms to external knowledge sources. Results: We developed flowCL, a software package that performs semantic labelling of cell populations based on their surface markers and applied it to labelling of the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies Human Immunology Project Consortium lyoplate populations as a use case. Conclusion: By providing automated labelling of cell populations based on their immunophenotype, flowCL allows for unambiguous and reproducible identification of standardized cell types. Availability and implementation: Code, R script and documentation are available under the Artistic 2.0 license through Bioconductor (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/html/flowCL.html). Contact: rbrinkman@bccrc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25481008

  5. Reliability of the Brazilian version of HCR-20 Assessing Risk for Violence Confiabilidade da versão brasileira do HCR-20 Assessing Risk for Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lisieux Elaine de Borba Telles; Vivian Peres Day; Jorge Oscar Folino; José Geraldo Vernet Taborda

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing risk for violence is a complex task often based on not objective or structured clinical evaluations. HCR-20 Assessing Risk for Violence has been used in several countries to increase the accuracy of this exam. The purpose of this study was to inform on central aspects of this instrument, as well as the results of the reliability assessment of the HCR-20 Assessing Risk for Violence in a Brazilian inpatient criminal population. METHOD: Two examiners independently assessed a...

  6. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P scoliosis in 1 twin whose other twin has scoliosis is smaller than believed up until now....

  7. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  8. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  9. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  10. SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA IN RURAL POPULATION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhutuja A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in patients aged 40 years and above attending Tertiary Care Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Visual acuity, anterior segment examination and anterior chamber depth assessment by slit lamp, digital tension, non-contact tonometry, confrontation field test, fundus examination, direct ophthalmoscopy and fundus imaging was done. Gonioscopy and automated perimetry was done in glaucoma suspects. RESULTS 7600 eyes of 3800 patients were examined, 108 eyes were diagnosed to have glaucoma. Based on the best corrected visual acuity, 15(13.8% eyes and 8(0.22% persons had visual impairment and 33(30.5% eyes and 20(31.7% persons were blind. The prevalence of glaucoma in eyes was 1.42%. The prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in eyes was 0.43% and person was 0.52%. The prevalence of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in eyes was 1%, Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in eyes was 0.15%, Neovascular glaucoma in eyes was 0.07%, Lens Induced Glaucoma in eyes was 0.17% and Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma in eyes was 0.03%. IOP>20mmHg was present in 50(36.1% glaucomatous eyes, majority of the eyes being in Open Angle Glaucoma 24(31.5% eyes; 58(53.7% glaucomatous eyes had IOP in the range 11-20mmHg, among them 38 eyes were on treatment and 20 eyes were operated. CONCLUSION Being an irreversible disease if diagnosed early, blindness can be avoided. So screening is very important for early diagnosis and their proper management thereon.

  11. Genetic Relationship of Wickham and IRRDB 1981 Rubber Population Based on RAPD Markers Analysis

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    FETRINA OKTAVIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubber hand pollination in Indonesian Rubber Research Institute program currently uses Wickham population which genetic analysis showed that genetic diversity of this population is narrow. The development of breeding activity has made the genetic base narrower by inbreeding. In order to solve this problem can use a new genetic resource that is the rubber germplasm IRRDB 1981 population. The genetic relationship between these populations is important to choose parents to avoid closely related genotypes in hand pollination. Therefore RAPD analysis was carried out using four selected primers i.e. OPH-03, OPH-05, OPH-18 and OPN-06. The result showed that Wickham and IRRDB 1981 population were separated into two different big groups with genetic similarity value of 0.64, and those big groups were separated further into many small sub groups with some genetic similarity level. The genetic similarity matrix showed that Wickham and IRRDB 1981 population has a range of genetic similarity 0.37– 0.98. The highest genetic similarity was found between RRIM 600 and PN 621, while the lowest was between BPM 1 and RRIC 100. Value in this matrix showed the genetic diversity between each clone. Based on this result, rubber genotypes of Wickham population could be crossed with genotypes of IRRDB 1981 population by choosing genotypes that have low genetic similarity.

  12. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  13. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  14. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities