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Sample records for brazilian organizations

  1. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

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    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  2. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

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    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  3. Organic food-related educational actions developed by dieticians in Brazilian municipal schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tayse Valdira Vieira; Arlete Catarina Tittoni Corso; David Alejandro González-Chica

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational actions concerning organic foods conducted in Brazilian public schools and investigates how these actions are associated with the weekly workload and duration of employment of the dietician responsible for school meals. METHODS: In 2012 this cross-sectional, census-type study used an electronic questionnaire to collect data from dieticians or others responsible for school meals in all 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. The software Stata 11.0 was ...

  4. Trust within Brazilian New Economy Organizations: an Empirical Investigation of Gender Effects Benchmarked on Brazilian Old Economy Organizations

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    Marco Tulio Zanini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one of the negative aspects of the New Economy has been growing organizational survival-risk both at the firm and the sector levels. This precarious positioning of the firm has profoundly changed the work environment resulting in the dissolution of job-definition-boundaries, thereby raising the intensity of work and finally affecting the level and nature of trust in the workplace. This is the starting point for our study. Using a questionnaire developed by Gillespie, we investigated gender profiles concerning trust in Supervisors, Peers, and Team in the New and the Old Economies for Brazilian managers. The results show that, for the New Economy, Brazilian women are more willing to give trust to Supervisors whereas Brazilian men expressed higher levels of trust when dealing with Team members. The Peer results are mixed. For the Old Economy, men uniformly express higher levels of trust compared to women over all three reference groups. Finally, for gender matched comparisons, those working in the Brazilian Old Economy firms express higher levels of trust compared to their counterparts in the New Economy independent of gender or time worked. We conclude by discussing the control implications of the above results.

  5. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

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    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  6. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  7. Supply chain in brazilian automobile industry: production organization, performance and innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Sacomano Neto; Silvio Roberto Ignacio Pires

    2007-01-01

    This Paper presents the main results of a recent research on Supply Chain Management within the Brazilian Automotive Industry. The research aimed to study how the different forms of configuration of the Automaker’s Supply Chain influence the organization forms of production, the performance measures and the innovations in the Supply Chain Management. The research involves an automaker, two first tier suppliers and two second tier suppliers and it has been conducted through interviews with exe...

  8. Supply chain in brazilian automobile industry: production organization, performance and innovations

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    Mario Sacomano Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents the main results of a recent research on Supply Chain Management within the Brazilian Automotive Industry. The research aimed to study how the different forms of configuration of the Automaker’s Supply Chain influence the organization forms of production, the performance measures and the innovations in the Supply Chain Management. The research involves an automaker, two first tier suppliers and two second tier suppliers and it has been conducted through interviews with executives of those companies involved with the logistics, purchases and production areas. The study shows mainly that the recent structural changes within the Brazilian Automotive Industry have implicated directly in the coordination forms and innovations in the Supply Chain Management.

  9. The organization of the sport process: The perspective of elite volleyball Brazilian coaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Ana Luiza; Dias, Cláudia Salomé Lima; Corte-Real, Nuno José; Fonseca, António Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the coaching knowledge of 24 expert high-performance Brazilian volleyball coaches in the organization of training and competition. A semi-structured interview was used, and the resulting data analyzed following the procedures outlined by Côté and colleagues (Côté & Salmela, 1994, 1996; Côté, Salmela, & Russell, 1995a, 1995b). Overall, the data highlighted that the coaches of male and female teams organized competition and training simi...

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in liver of Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) from southeastern coast of Brazil.

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    Cascaes, M J; Oliveira, R T; Ubarana, M M; Sato, R M; Baldassin, P; Colabuono, F I; Leonel, J; Taniguchi, S; Weber, R R

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 14 livers from specimens of the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii), which is an important economic resource for small-scale fisheries on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The following concentrations (lipid weight) of POPs were found: ∑PCBs: 1019±267 ng g(-1); ∑DDTs: 111±40 ng g(-1) and ∑PBDEs: 10.4±4.78. PCB 153 made the greatest contribution to ∑PCB (21.4%), followed by PCB 138 (14.6%) and PCB 180 (9.94%). Among chlorinated pesticides, only the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD isomers had concentrations above the detection limit. Moreover, levels above the detection limit were found only for PBDE congeners 47 and 100 (BDEs 47>99). On average, BDE 47 accounted for 88% of the total PBDE load. The feeding habits of the Brazilian sharpnose shark close to the Brazilian coastline are likely the most important difference regarding the accumulation of POPs in comparison to oceanic species that feed in deeper waters. Thus, this species may be used to evaluate the pollution of coastal areas as well as human exposure to contaminants, as the Brazilian sharpnose shark is a frequently used for human consumption. Further studies in other areas of Brazil and involving other species are needed to clarify the mechanisms and potential impact of POPs, which can affect the biology of different organisms and cause population declines. PMID:25127497

  11. Environmental Discourses in Organizations: the Case of a Brazilian Mobile Telecommunications Company

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    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse configurations on the environmental theme in business organizations and its relevance to the understanding of the inclusion of ecological discourses in the discourses of organizational members. A case study into a Brazilian telecommunications company offers empirical evidence. It begins with the understanding that organizations adopt several strategies in an attempt to disseminate a certain environmental discourse. As these efforts share space with other pressures, a fragmented discourse emerges. In this paper, the pressures of the environmental theme on organizations are discussed in order to understand this process. The second part of the argument focuses on the context of the case study – Brazilian organizations – and, afterwards, the third part deals with ecological discourses in their insertions in organizational interests. The data of the case study were collected through documental research and 40 semi-structured interviews. The analysis was applied based on Discourse Analysis. In conclusion, an ambiguous discourse configuration was shown that offer elements for the understanding that philanthropy, legal obligation and organizational competitiveness need to be used together to offer legitimacy to the theme of environmental responsibility in business organizations.

  12. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics from Forest to Pasture Conversion in the Brazilian Amazon using Modelling Approach

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    Cerri, C. P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Melillo, J.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and even global carbon cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to use a modelling approach to examine the dynamics of soil carbon when forest is converted to pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from eleven site- specific `forest to pasture' chronosequences with the Century Ecosystem Model and the Rothamsted Carbon Model. The Century and RothC models predicted that forest clearance and conversion to well managed pasture would cause an initial decline in soil C stocks (0-20 cm depth), followed by a slow rise to levels exceeding those under native forest. The only exception to this pattern was found for a chronosequence in Suia-Missu, which is under degraded pasture. Statistical tests were applied to determine levels of agreement between simulated soil organic carbon stocks and observed stocks for all the sites within the 11 chronosequences in the Brazilian Amazon. The models also provided reasonable estimates (coefficient of correlation = 0.8) of the microbial biomass C in the 0-10 cm soil layer for two chronosequences when compared with available measured data. The Century model adequately predicted the magnitude and the overall trend in 13C for the six chronosequences where measured 13C data were available. Our results suggest that modelling techniques can be successfully used for monitoring soil C stocks and changes, allowing both the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions.

  13. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas ch

  14. Proposed entry of organization in bilingual glossaries terminology - sign language and brazilian portuguese language

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    Patricia Tuxi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, which is inserted in the research line of Translation and Terminology, presented as an object of study the basic terms used in political and educational discourses that permeate national conference events. In respect to the Law 10436/2002 and Decree 5626/2005 is right for the Deaf have access to information in Brazilian Sign Language - Libras. One way to ensure this right is the presence of translator and interpreter to act in areas with specialized subjects should retain the knowledge of the specific terminology used in different contexts. The current study is based on the methodology for the preparation of dictionaries and glossaries Faulstich (1995. The research follows the approach of Socioterminology and as following: i recognition and identification of the target audience; ii delimitation of the surveyed area; iii collection and organization of data; iv organization glossary and validity test. The search result is the presentation of a proposal for entry of organizing a Terminology Glossary Bilingual facing the conference area that can serve as a reference source and training of translators and interpreters who work in the national conference events.

  15. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  16. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

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    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  17. HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGIC PRACTICES, INNOVATION PERFORMANCE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR BRAZILIAN ORGANIZATIONS

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    Ursula Gomes Rosa Maruyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology andinnovation development presented new challenges for the twenty-first centurymanager. Besides, aspects of organizational culture and knowledge managementare equally important for corporate success. All the above areas have a growingnumber of studies that seek to deepen the reflections providing a greaterunderstanding of their environmental relationship. Brazilian human resourcemanagement has shown years of late progress, especially due to the prevailingmacroeconomic conditions, with no transformation evidences This current studywith a theoretical-descriptive qualitative approach through literatureanalysis, study the integration model proposed by Chen and Huang (2009. Themediating role of knowledge management to strategic human resource practicesand innovation performance presented by these authors are compared withnational and international literature. The integration conceptual modelproposed to apply in the Brazilian context, consider the three pillarspresented by the Eastern authors, enhanced by cross-checks prospects with axes,approaches or intellectual capital directories, representing the Westernauthors’ contributions. Henceforth, we aim to provide a suitable proposal forthis model in the Brazilian organizational context.

  18. Changes in organic carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado: A review. Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle-Bayer, L.; Batjes, N.H.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on changes in carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado. First, we briefly characterize the savanna ecosystem and summarize the main published data on C stocks under natural conditions. The effects of increased land use pressure in the Cerra

  19. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION BASED ON CHAIN-NETWORK LOGIC TO PROMOTE THE EXPLORATION OF NATIVE AÇAÍ IN WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariluce Paes-de-Souza; Fabiana Rodrigues Riva; Tania Nunes Silva; Diego Cristovão A. Souza Paes

    2013-01-01

    The present paper has the objective to expose a proposition of organization within a chain and network logic, aiming to potentiate the extraction of the Native Açaí Berry at the Western Brazilian Amazon rainforest. This exploratory study involves the municipalities of Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Machadinho D’Oeste, at the Brazilian state of Rondônia, with primary data originating mostly from conservation areas at the lower Madeira River region. As a result, it was possible to infer that fr...

  20. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; Elisabete A. De Nadai Fernandes; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  1. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

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    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  2. Construction and implementation of an organic agriculture legislation: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoncello, Bérangère; Bellon, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Since organic agriculture is getting legitimate, Brazil has also chosen to be involved, while adopting the legislation n°10.831/2003. As a crossroad between international and domestic rules, we explore (i) the opportunities coming from this text and its application, (ii) the attached production patterns and certification processes, (iii) their socio-economical consequences, and especially for small farming.

  3. Organizational Culture and Discourses: a Case of Change in a Brazilian Public Organization

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    Lindomar Pinto da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the use of the discourse as a strategy for the dissemination of new cultural values in a State Secretary beginning in 1995. For this purpose, discourse analysis was used according to the concept by Fiorin (1997 based on the concepts of figures, themes and ways to manipulate discourses. It is a descriptive and exploratory study. The theoretical discussion was based on the concept of organizational culture in the dimensions of artifacts and cultural values. The analysis was carried out from the documents of the organization, including the projects of modernization, plans of action, reports of strategic planning, laws and decrees. Furthermore, the official journal of the organization from 1998 to 2006 was analyzed. For the years 2007 and 2009, the analysis was conducted based on the organization’s website. The results show that there was deep concern with regard to the theme of organizational culture during the whole process of modernization. They also indicate that the organization used different discourse resources to guide the individual behavior of its members such as seduction, temptation, intimidation and provocation. They also show that the official discourses are not in harmony with the various discourses found in the organization due to the plurality of values that are shared by the organizational actors.

  4. SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ORGANIZATION BRAZILIAN CONTEMPORARY: A LITERARY ANALYSIS UNDER THE STRATEGIC PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Di Bartolomeo; Emerson Pereira da Silva; Cesar da Costa Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an approach to organizations under aspects related to vision, attitude, correct sustainable actions and obedience to legal responsibilities as factors of differentiation and competitiveness in the market. Its main objective is that companies use natural resources, such as spontaneous support, in their daily activities. In order to reach the objective, the literature on sustainability and its influence on the increase of customers and business partners has been reviewe...

  5. USING THE BSC FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING OF IT (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BRAZILIAN ORGANIZATIONS

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    Adriano Olímpio Tonelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method that integrates Balanced Scorecard (BSC concepts and IT strategic planning (ITSP processes. The resulting method was applied in two organizations in order to verify contributions of Balanced Scorecard regarding the identified ITSP problems. The development of this work was realized in qualitative, exploratory research based on two case studies. The results show that the use of BSC contributed directly to work with IT strategic planning challenges and involved middle management, multifunctional teams, and top management support, all beyond IT boundaries.

  6. Social organization and control of tuberculosis: the experience of a Brazilian town

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    Alexandre Favero Bulgarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study was aimed at analyzing the participation of a committee formed by representatives of the community in tuberculosis control based on a participatory management model. METHOD: this is a Case Study involving a tuberculosis committee with data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with nine individuals. The data, organized through the Association of Ideas Map technique, were analyzed based on the Social Constructionism perspective. RESULTS: the participation of the Tuberculosis Committee studied was shown to be effective and associated with aspects articulated according to the measures taken by the social parties involved in the committee, culminating with assistances inserted into certain parts of the town's co-management. CONCLUSION: it was concluded that the reality of this case study shows that relationships among civil society can guide the management model in the search for effective processes of tuberculosis control.

  7. Green brazilian propolis action on macrophages and lymphoid organs of chronically stressed mice.

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    Missima, Fabiane; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2008-03-01

    Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H(2)O(2) generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress. PMID:18317551

  8. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

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    Fabiane Missima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress.

  9. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  10. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

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    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  11. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION BASED ON CHAIN-NETWORK LOGIC TO PROMOTE THE EXPLORATION OF NATIVE AÇAÍ IN WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

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    Mariluce Paes-de-Souza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the objective to expose a proposition of organization within a chain and network logic, aiming to potentiate the extraction of the Native Açaí Berry at the Western Brazilian Amazon rainforest. This exploratory study involves the municipalities of Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Machadinho D’Oeste, at the Brazilian state of Rondônia, with primary data originating mostly from conservation areas at the lower Madeira River region. As a result, it was possible to infer that from the native Açai Berry, derives food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for both local consumption and international markets. It was found that beyond Açai Berry plantations availability, the lower Madeira River provides better transport logistic, consumer market and greater possibility of interaction with middleman than most Açai production areas. As a conclusion, it is made a proposition of an organizational arrangement to strengthen the extrativist productive chain of the Native Açaí Berry, based on the network and chain logic, oriented towards an organization based upon social organizations, manufacturing regularization and marketing.

  12. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2014-10-15

    The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley.

  13. High organic loading rate on thermophilic hydrogen production and metagenomic study at an anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a high organic loading rate (OLR) on thermophilic hydrogen production at an up-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery. The APBR, filled with low-density polyethylene, was operated at an OLR of 84.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1). This value was determined in a previous study. The maximum values of hydrogen production and yield were 5,252.6 mL-H2 d(-1) and 3.7 mol-H2 mol(-1)(total carbohydrates), respectively. However, whereas the OLR remained constant, the specific organic load rate (sOLR) decreased throughout operation from 1.38 to 0.72 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1), this decrease negatively affected hydrogen production. A sOLR of 0.98 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1) was optimal for hydrogen production. The microbial community was studied using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Organisms belonging to the genera Caloramator, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Oxobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, and Thermohydrogenium were detected in samples taken from the reactor at operation days 30 and 60, suggesting that these organisms contribute to hydrogen production.

  14. The World Trade Organization and the new opportunities in the international market for Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; A Organizacao Mundial do Comercio e as novas oportunidades do mercado internacional para o setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Marili Arruda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro, Mogi Guacu SP (Brazil); Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This main objective of this work is to present the obstacles to the Brazilian participation in the international ethanol and sugar market, specially in the European Union. Therefore it is emphasized the main reasons which conduct Brazil to discuss in the International Trade Organization the production quota system impositions and the heavy subsidy exportation used in the European Union. In despite of improving the negotiation arguments, it has been felt at the most recent International Trade Organization meeting that the Brazilian interests has got to confront international barriers to punish the Brazilian sugar with an high tax importation as in the European Union. Due to those difficulties, the possibility of opening a larger ethanol market, mainly in those countries which wish to reduce pollution emission, mixing anhydrous alcohol to gasoline appeared as a good alternative. Actually the European Community members have strategic reasons to maintain the sugar production subsidies. Brazil and most of the European Community members have been discussing an agreement to reduce the subsidies. The Brazilian victory on the appeal made in the International Trade Organization, on August the 4th; against the subsidies to the sugar conceded by EU, provoked rejection of many. (author)

  15. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  16. Soil aggregation, organic carbon and CO2 emission in different land uses in Brazilian Savanna, Triangulo Mineiro region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil aggregation and carbon distribution are important indicators of soil quality. Moreover, these attributes are closely related to CO2 fluxes in the soil-atmosphere interface. We sought to evaluate soil aggregation, organic carbon distribution and CO2 evolution in different land uses of Minas Gerais Triangle. Four different land uses were selected: (1 Panicum maximum, (2 Panicum maximum Jacqvr. (Tanzânia, (3 sugarcane, and (4 native Cerrado (control. In each land-use type, soil samples from a 0-10 cm layer were collected. The samples were air-dried and sieved in order to obtain aggregates sized 4-2 mm. The samples were submitted to wet-sieving to evaluate stability and also to obtain aggregates of different sizes: 4-2 mm; 2-1 mm; 1-0.5 mm; and 0.5-0.25 mm. Total organic carbon, humic substances and texture were determined for each aggregate size fraction. The CO2 emission was measured in field and lab conditions, both by the capture in NaOH solution method. The native Cerrado and Panicum maximum Jacqvr. (Tanzânia areas (mostly clay showed the highest soil aggregation. The conventional soil tillage adopted in sugarcane areas contributed significantly to aggregate disruption. In all of the areas, the largest aggregates had higher organic carbon and humic substances. Organic carbon content and soil texture seem to be closely associated with CO2 emissions in the areas studied.

  17. Cultura organizacional em organizações públicas no Brasil Organizational culture in Brazilian public organizations

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    José Calixto de Souza Pires

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute conceitos e abordagens que contribuem para a compreensão de aspectos e traços relacionados à cultura organizacional de organizações públicas no Brasil. Inicialmente, são tratados os conceitos e diferentes abordagens de cultura e cultura organizacional, especificamente de Fleury, Frost, Schein e Hofstede. A seguir, o artigo aborda a cultura de organizações públicas, apresentando um pequeno histórico das organizações públicas no Brasil, bem como seus conceitos e características, entre as quais se destacam a burocracia, o autoritarismo centralizado, o paternalismo, a descontinuidade e a ingerência política. Essas características interferem no modo como os trabalhadores atuam nessas organizações, observando-se o apego às regras e rotinas, a supervalorização da hierarquia, o paternalismo nas relações e o apego ao poder. Isso é importante na definição dos processos internos, na relação com inovações e mudança, na formação dos valores e crenças organizacionais e nas políticas de recursos humanos. Na conclusão, o artigo salienta os aspectos fundamentais a serem considerados ao se lidar com a cultura de organizações públicas no Brasil.This article presents and discusses concepts and views that help understand features and peculiarities of the organizational culture in public organizations in Brazil. It begins by discussing the concepts and different approaches to culture and organizational culture, specifically by Fleury, Frost, Schein, and Hofstede. It then deals with the culture of public organizations, presenting a brief history of these organizations in Brazil, as well as their concepts and features, among which bureaucracy, centralized authoritarianism, patronizing, lack of continuity, and political interference stand out. Such characteristics interfere with the way people work in these organizations, where attachment to rules and routines, hierarchy overrating, patronizing

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  19. Soil organic matter in fire-affected pastures and in an Araucaria forest in South-Brazilian Leptosols

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    Mariana da Luz Potes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution pattern and composition of soil organic matter (SOM and its physical pools of Leptosols periodically affected by fire over the last 100 years in South Brazil. Soil samples at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths were collected from the following environments: native pasture without burning in the last year and grazed with 0.5 livestock per hectare per year (1NB; native pasture without burning in the last 23 years and grazed with 2.0 livestock per hectare per year (23NB; and an Araucaria forest (AF. Physical fractionation was performed with the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil C and N stocks were determined in the three depths and in the physical pools, and organic matter was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The largest C stocks in all depths and physical pools were found under the AF. The 23NB environment showed the lowest soil C and N stocks at the 5-15 cm depth, which was related to the end of burning and to the higher grazing intensity. The SOM of the occluded light fraction showed a greater chemical recalcitrance in 1NB than in 23NB. Annual pasture burning does not affect soil C stocks up to 15 cm of depth.

  20. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  1. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  2. Palaeovegetation dynamics of an ecotone forest-savanna in southern Brazilian Amazon during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in the Brazilian southern Amazon region (Rondonia state and Humaita, southern Amazon state). Carbon isotope data on soil organic matter have been collected along an ecosystem transect of about 750 km that includes a savanna, a wooded savanna (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The main objective is to evaluate the expansion-regression dynamics of these vegetation units in relation to climate changes during the Late Pleistocene (Late Glacial) and Holocene. Large ranges in δ13 values were observed in soil organic matter collected from profiles in the savanna (-27 to -14 per mille and forest regions (-26 to -19 per mille) reflecting changing distribution of 13C-depleted C3 forest and 13C enriched C4 savanna vegetation in response to climate change. 14C data of humin fraction and buried charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is at least 17,000 years BP at 300-cm depth. In this period, the entire ecosystem transect are characterized by δ13C soil depth profiles, generated typically by C3 plants (forest), inferring a humid climate in the southern Amazon region after the end of last glaciation. 13C data also indicate that C4 plants (grasses) have influenced significantly the vegetation at the transitional forest and the cerrado sites of southern Rondonia state and two distinct points in the forest ecosystem in the southern Amazon state. These typical C4 type isotopic signatures probably reflect a drier climate during about 9000-8000 yr BP to 3000 yr BP and the savanna and wooded savanna expansion in distinct points of the transect. The 13C records representing the 3000 yr show an expansion of the forest, due to a climatic improvement, in areas previously occupied by savanna vegetation. This study adds to the mounting evidence that extensive forested areas existed in the Amazon during the last glacial and that savanna vegetation expanded in response to warm and

  3. Anatomy of vegetative organs of Scutellaria agrestis, a medicinal plant cultivated by riverine populations of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria agrestis A. St. -Hil. ex Benth. , Lamiaceae (trevo-roxo is cultivated for medicinal purposes by residents of the riverine communities in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. This study aimed to characterize the anatomy and to make histochemical analysis on vegetative organs of S. agrestis. Samples of the leaf, stem and root were collected from five plants cultivated by the communities located in the Solimões river, Amazon. These samples were fixed and prepared following standard techniques for scanning electron microscopy and for light microscopy. Histochemical tests were carried out on sections to detect the main classes of compounds present in the secretion. Numerous glandular trichomes are seen in both leaf and stem of S. agrestis. The leaves are amphi-hypostomatics and show dorsiventral mesophyll. Hydathodes are present at the tip of the marginal teeth. Anthocyanin pigments occur into the epidermal cells of the stem, petiole, and abaxial leaf surface. The petiole is concave-convex shaped and bears collateral vascular bundles. The stem showed square-shaped, evident endoderm, collateral vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith. The root displays a typical protostelic structure. Idioblasts containing mucilage and phenolic compounds occur in the cortex. These data are important, as they can be useful to identify this species, contributing to the quality control of the medicinal plant.

  4. Cultura organizacional brasileira pós-globalização: global ou local? Brazilian cultural organization in post-globalization: global or local?

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    Rebeca Alves Chu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Um dos grandes desafios para pesquisadores de gestão internacional é compreender a diversidade institucional e cultural dos ambientes de negócios nacionais. Para responder a tal desafio, os pesquisadores recorrem a agrupamentos e generalizações. Embora tal recurso metodológico apresente inegáveis méritos, pode prover quadros relativamente pobres sobre a realidade de cada país. Este artigo procura endereçar essa lacuna. Realizamos uma pesquisa exploratória sobre os traços da cultura organizacional brasileira hoje, após 17 anos de abertura econômica e transformações institucionais, as quais geraram profundos impactos na sociedade e nas organizações. Exploramos a literatura existente sobre traços da cultura organizacional brasileira e apresentamos um estudo de campo baseado em entrevistas com profissionais estrangeiros que trabalham no Brasil e com profissionais brasileiros que já trabalharam fora do país. A comparação entre os estudos anteriores e o presente estudo revela um quadro híbrido, transitório e com ressignificações, típico de um período de transição marcado pela convivência entre traços pré-globalização e traços pós-globalização.A great challenge facing international management researchers is understanding the institutional and cultural diversity of national business environments. In response to this challenge, researchers often resort to pooling and generalizations. Despite the undeniable merits of such a methodological approach, it may provide relatively poor descriptions of each country's reality. The purpose of this article is to address this gap. We carried out an exploratory research of Brazil's organizational culture today, after 17 years of economic openness and institutional changes that have led to deep impacts on society and organizations. We explored the existing literature on traits of Brazil's organizational culture and present a field study based on interviews with foreign

  5. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  6. Sorção do inseticida tiametoxam nas frações orgânica e mineral de um latossolo amarelo Sorption of the insecticide thiamethoxam by organic and mineral fraction from a brazilian oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarlina Lúcia dos Santos Weber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of thiamethoxam in a Brazilian Oxisol was determined in soil samples with and without organic matter for two different dephs (0-0.1 and 0.4-0.7 m. The results indicated a predominant sorption of thiamethoxam on soil without organic matter. The following Kd values of 4.25 mL g-1 (0-0.1 m, r² = 0.8534 and 5.30 mL g-1 (0.4-0.7 m, r² = 0.9884 and Kf values, 7.65 mL g-1 (0-0.1 m, r² = 0.9623 and 7.72 mL g-1 (0.4-0.7 m, r² = 0.9775 were obtained. Those sorption coefficient values indicated a small interaction between thiamethoxam for both original soil and soil without organic matter.

  7. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  8. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    Asiel Bomfin Jr. LIM/CPTEC/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, S.P., Brazil; Eliana Soares de Andrade; Jorge Luiz Martins Nogueira and Silvia Garcia de Castro. The Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Analysis (CPTEC), a division of INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Several of the INPE´s departments and centers, like the CPTEC, have a variety of valuable datasets, many of them freely available and eolic data from SONDA project are also part of them at Meteorological Instrumental Laboratory (LIM). This paper presents the Analiys, processing and validation method applied to the eolic data in a temporal time of ten minutes, to be used in a PC IBM computer. This method is divided in tree separated programs. The first software called "separa.c" has the capability of divide the ingest data set in mensal files, identified by each station group. The second software called "minuto.c" does a syntactical analysis, verifying and correcting eventual lost data with NAN values. The third one called "validacode.c" generates two principal files, one containing the original data and the other with the codes of each variable for each minute analyzed. These codes is based on BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), but with some differences in their analyzed method. This method followed the Webmet.com, The Meteorological Resource Center. Table 1:Validation Codes Code Meaning 0 Quality check procedure is not avaiable for this level 2 The data is suspect 5 Quality check procedure is avaiable for this level, but not can be done 9 The data is correct Table 2: Validation levels for WIND SPEED: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 25 m/s and 0 m/s 1 Can not vary more than 0,1 m/s for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 0,5 m/s for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Table 3: Validation levels for WIND DRECTION: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 360 and 0

  9. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

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    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  10. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  11. Screening for endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugar cane varieties used in organic farming and description of Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Patricia L; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Rocha, Rafael CS; Heloiza R. Barbosa; De Vos, Paul; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    In a study investigating the biodiversity of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane plants, 31 isolates were obtained from roots, stems and leaves. Nitrogen fixation capability was determined by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) and the presence of the nifH gene sequence was detected by dot-blot hybridization. RFLP-PCR patterns and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 different bacterial genera. One strain (ICB 89T), belonging to the genus Stenotro...

  12. Abstracts of the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the short communications of papers presented at the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry, of nuclear interest. The papers are classified in four areas: isotope chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physico-chemical. (E.G.)

  13. Organic biomarker records spanning the last 34,800 years from the southeastern Brazilian upper slope: links between sea surface temperature, displacement of the Brazil Current, and marine productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2016-10-01

    Collective assessment of marine and terrigenous organic biomarkers was performed on a sediment core spanning the last 34,800 years on the upper slope southeast of Brazil to verify the signatures of climatic variations in sea surface temperature (SST), marine productivity, and the flux of terrigenous material in this region. This evaluation is based on marine and terrigenous proxies including alkenones, chlorins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alcohols, and fatty acids. This first report of organic biomarker data for this region confirms a correlation between SST, changes in terrigenous organic matter flow into the ocean, and marine productivity over the last 34.8 ka as a response to the displacement of the Brazil Current. Conditions prevailing during marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 may be considered intermediate between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Late Holocene. For MIS 2, a period of low relative sea level, it was verified that the lowest SSTs were associated with the LGM and higher marine productivity. SST increased by up to 4.4 °C between the LGM and the Holocene. This reveals synchronicity between SST on the southeastern Brazilian upper slope and the North Atlantic Ocean SST records reported in earlier studies.

  14. Organic biomarker records spanning the last 34,800 years from the southeastern Brazilian upper slope: links between sea surface temperature, displacement of the Brazil Current, and marine productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2016-06-01

    Collective assessment of marine and terrigenous organic biomarkers was performed on a sediment core spanning the last 34,800 years on the upper slope southeast of Brazil to verify the signatures of climatic variations in sea surface temperature (SST), marine productivity, and the flux of terrigenous material in this region. This evaluation is based on marine and terrigenous proxies including alkenones, chlorins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alcohols, and fatty acids. This first report of organic biomarker data for this region confirms a correlation between SST, changes in terrigenous organic matter flow into the ocean, and marine productivity over the last 34.8 ka as a response to the displacement of the Brazil Current. Conditions prevailing during marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 may be considered intermediate between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Late Holocene. For MIS 2, a period of low relative sea level, it was verified that the lowest SSTs were associated with the LGM and higher marine productivity. SST increased by up to 4.4 °C between the LGM and the Holocene. This reveals synchronicity between SST on the southeastern Brazilian upper slope and the North Atlantic Ocean SST records reported in earlier studies.

  15. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  16. Preliminary results on organization on the court, physical and technical performance of Brazilian professional futsal players: comparison between friendly pre-season and official match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main aim of this study was to verify possible differences between a friendly pre-season match (FM and an official in-season match (OM regarding physical, technical, and organizational performances of a professional Brazilian futsal team. Ten professional futsal athletes participated in this study. The matches were monitored with video cameras (30 Hz and athlete trajectories obtained with automatic tracking. The values obtained for distance covered per minute, percentage of distance covered at moderate intensity, team coverage area, spread, passes, possessions, ball touches and successful passes per minute were greater for the OM than FM. On the contrary, percentage of distance covered, standing and walking was greater for the FM than OM. We concluded that physical, technical, and tactical performances are different between a FM and an OM in futsal and also these parameters mutually influenced each other distinctly. Future studies should verify whether pre-season tournaments reproduce similar demands to a regular season official match.

  17. Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption; Materia organica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composicao quimica e sorcao de atrazina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Deborah Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-quimica; Martinazzo, Rosane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Knicker, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde; Almeida, Paulo Sergio Gois [Centro de Ensino Superior de Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83%) than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter capacity in retaining the herbicide was favoured by a higher decomposition degree and a smaller carboxylic substitution of the aliphatic chains. (author)

  18. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  19. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) as wax inhibitor of a Brazilian crude oil. Oil viscosity, pour point and phase behavior of organic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Andre L.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Labratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo/Instituto de Macromoleculas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68525, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gonzalez, Gaspar [Petrobras Research Center, Cidade Universitaria, Q.7, RJ 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Several techniques have been used to minimize the problems caused by the wax deposition, and the continuous addition of polymeric inhibitors is considered an attractive technological alternative. The addition of copolymers like polyacrylates, polymethacrylates or poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) permit to inhibit the deposition phenomenon; nonetheless, this effect is specific, i.e. similar copolymers present different performance depending on their physical-chemical properties in solution. In this work, the influence of the EVA vinyl acetate content on the viscosity and the pour point of a Brazilian crude oil were evaluated. A correlation between both results was also obtained. The phase behavior and the solubility parameter of EVA copolymers, with different vinyl acetate contents, were investigated in various solvents together with an evaluation of the efficiency of these copolymers as pour point depressants for two different samples of crude oil. EVA copolymers containing 20, 30, 40 and 80 wt.% of vinyl acetate were used and tests with the crude oil were carried out using 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 ppm of EVA as additive. The results obtained from viscosity measurements showed that only below the temperature at which wax crystals start forming did the copolymer exhibit a strong influence in the reduction of oil viscosity, at an optimum concentration. The pour point results revealed EVA 30 to be the most efficient. The results obtained from both experiments showed that the viscosity and the pour point behaviors do not show good correlation. Not only the solubility parameter and the vinyl acetate content, but also the molecular weight and polydispersity have an important influence on both phase behavior and pour point depression. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the additive must present a reduced solubility at a temperature close to the crude oil cloud point. This, however, is not the only factor that determines the efficiency of the additive as paraffin

  20. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  1. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  2. Organizações multilaterais, estado e políticas de educação infantil: history repeats Multilateral organizations, the Brazilian state and child education policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Rosemberg

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As políticas brasileiras de educação infantil (EI nas últimas quatro décadas apresentam-se como resposta a várias tensões. Nos anos 70, o despertar dos novos movimentos sociais trouxe o tema para a agenda de suas reivindicações. Nos anos 80, pressões em diferentes sentidos provocaram, de um lado, a expansão da EI seguindo, de modo geral, um modelo "a baixo custo" e, de outro, a consciência social da EI como um direito das crianças pequenas à educação e um direito de assistência aos filhos de pais e mães trabalhadores (Constituição de 1988. O artigo descreve e analisa as tensões presentes, e suas conseqüências, em três momentos da história da EI brasileira contemporânea: a fase de expansão durante o governo militar; as inovações trazidas pela Constituição de 1988; o impacto das reformas educacionais contemporâneas sob a égide do "Consenso de Washington". A descrição e análise desses momentos serão efetuadas no contexto dos modelos propugnados pelas organizações multilaterais.Brazilian child education policies over the last four decades have occurred in response to various tensions. In the 1970s, the awakening of social movement placed social demands on the agenda. In the 1980s, pressures in other direction provoked, on the one hand, the expansion of child education generally in line with the "low cost" model, and on the other hand, social consciousness of child education as the right of small children to education and the right to support on the part of working fathers and mothers (the Constitution of 1988. The article describes and analyses the tensions present and their consequences at three moments in the history of contemporary Brazilian child education: the phase of expansion during the military government; the innovations caused by the Constitution of 1988; and the impact of contemporary educational reforms under the aegis of the "Washington Consensus". Description and analysis will be done in the

  3. Global Activism and Social Transformation vis-à-vis Dominant Forms of Economic Organization: Critical Education within Afro-Brazilian and Transnational Pedagogical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, César

    2015-01-01

    Masses of colonial workers are situating their free-for-all labor efforts in a global context due to dominant forms of organization based on a neoliberalist and corporate market economy. New social movements that show concern for democracy and human rights are challenging capitalist priorities of "efficiency" and exploitation. In some…

  4. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  5. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  6. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  7. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa de Moura; Nunes, Jadir; Presgrave, Octavio; de Carvalho, Dermeval; Masson, Philippe; Rivera, Ekaterina; Coecke, Sandra; Kreysa, Joachim; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently taken place in Brazil in order to foster the creation of centers dedicated to alternatives to animal testing. In 2008, Vanessa Sá-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. Octavio Presgrave published a scientific article on "The Need for the Establishment of a Brazilian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods." Also in 2008, Jadir Nunes, together with Dermeval de Carvalho, prepared and presented a proposal to the Brazilian National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for the creation of a Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. ECVAM and other European stakeholders have been involved in the initiatives. Furthermore, also in 2008, a new legislation has been adopted in Brazil regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes ("lei Arouca"). The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. However, the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. In order to streamline the different activities, Chantra Eskes acted as a facilitator by establishing a new joint proposal with the current Brazilian stakeholders, aimed at setting up a Brazilian Center on Alternative Test Methods. PMID:20383476

  8. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  9. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  10. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  11. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  12. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  13. Improvisation and Learning Processes in Organizations: a metaphor applying the Brazilian rhythm choro [Improvisação e Processos de Aprendizagem nas Organizações: uma metáfora a partir do ritmo Brasileiro Choro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Flach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas improvisation has been discussed in international literature mainly from the metaphor of jazz and theater, this essay discusses how the phenomenon of improvisation can contribute to new interpretations of Organizational Learning. We use the metaphor of improvisation in the Brazilian rhythm ‘Choro’ in order to understand the process of improvisation in organizations. Thus, the main objective of the study is to discuss and analyze the role of improvisation in the Organizational Learning process. In the fi nal considerations, we conclude that improvisation plays a signifi cant role in the processes of Organizational Learning. Thus, we argue that the socio-cultural approach in Organizational Learning can help to understand the process of improvisation, with the role of communities of practice, culture, social practices and sensemaking in this phenomenon. ---- Improvisação e Processos de Aprendizagem nas Organizações: uma metáfora a partir do ritmo brasileiro Choro ---- Resumo ---- Considerando que a improvisação tem sido discutida na literatura internacional principalmente a partir da metáfora do jazz e do teatro, este ensaio teórico pretende lançar luzes e discutir como o fenômeno da improvisação pode contribuir para novas interpretações da Aprendizagem Organizacional. Utiliza-se a metáfora da improvisação no ritmo Choro para auxiliar na compreensão do processo de improvisação nas organizações. Desta maneira, o principal objetivo do estudo é discutir e analisar o papel da improvisação nos processos de Aprendizagem Organizacional. Nas considerações levantadas, entende-se que a improvisação exerce importante influência nos processos de Aprendizagem Organizacional e que a perspectiva da aprendizagem baseada em práticas pode auxiliar na compreensão da improvisação organizacional.

  14. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  15. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  16. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  17. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  18. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  19. Occupational health profile of Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Roche, Andrea Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    The occupational health and safety conditions of a sample of Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts are examined in this article. We administered a main survey to a convenience sample of 626 Brazilian immigrant workers of all trades and a supplemental survey to 163 Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts in 2005 and 2006. Survey questions addressed housecleaner demographics, socioeconomic status, working conditions, and hazards of housecleaning work. Housecleaners are exposed to a variety of ergonomic, chemical, and biological hazards. Professional housecleaners' work is fast-paced, requires awkward postures, and involves repetitive movements, use of force, and heavy lifting. The most common symptoms reported include back pain, and pain in the muscles, arms, legs, neck, shoulder, hands, fingers, and feet. To reduce exposures to occupational hazards, we propose the substitution of green cleaners for toxic chemical cleaning products, the use of ergonomic equipment, the use of personal protective equipment, and changes in work organization. PMID:24401486

  20. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  1. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION: There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS: A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS: We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received. For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals.

  2. Opinião e conhecimento da população da cidade de curitiba sobre doação e transplante de órgãos Opinion and knowledge of the population of a brazilian city about organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2007-10-01

    distributions similar to those of the Brazilian population, as defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of respondents were in favor of organ donation. There was no difference in the percentage of respondents in favor of donation in relation to gender, marital status, religion, and income. The main reasons in favor of donation were to save life, to help other persons and to donate life. The main reasons against donation were distrust towards medicine or the Brazilian transplantation organization, the existence of organ sale, and fear of body mutilation. Most respondents believed that wealthy people have a better chance to receive an organ than poor people, that sales of organs exists in Brazil, and that misdiagnosis of brain death may occur. CONCLUSION: Most respondents are in favor of organ donation and have a good knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. The majority distrusts Brazilian organization of organ distribution and brain death diagnosis.

  3. Eletroquímica de latossolos brasileiros após a remoção da matéria orgânica humificada solúvel Eletrochemistry of Brazilian oxisols after removal of soluble organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Dobbss

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A eletroquímica e a concentração de matéria orgânica nos horizontes superficiais de Latossolos correlacionam-se estreitamente. No presente trabalho, avaliaram-se as propriedades eletroquímicas do horizonte superficial de sete Latossolos brasileiros após a remoção das substâncias húmicas em meio alcalino. Os solos foram separados em dois grupos, segundo sua mineralogia, caulinítica e oxídica. O extrator NaOH 0,1 mol L-1 solubilizou substâncias húmicas correspondentes a menos de 3 % da MO total, indicando forte adsorção específica do material orgânico à fração mineral. A extração de ácidos húmicos e fúlvicos foi capaz de inverter o sinal de carga da superfície; no entanto, o efeito mais acentuado da retirada das substâncias húmicas solúveis foi a perda da capacidade-tampão das cargas do solo. A capacidade da dupla camada elétrica, uma medida indireta desse poder-tampão, aumentou de 3 a 15 vezes depois da extração das substâncias húmicas alcalino-solúveis. Solos com mineralogia predominantemente oxídica apresentaram maiores valores do ponto de efeito salino nulo, da capacidade da dupla camada elétrica, além da diminuição na capacidade de troca de cátions do que aqueles de natureza caulinítica.Electrochemistry and organic matter concentrations in the surface horizons of Oxisols are closely related. This study evaluated the electrochemical properties in the surface horizon of seven Brazilian Oxisols after the removal of humic substances by alkaline extraction. Based on their mineralogy the soils were grouped as kaolinitic or oxidic. Less than 3 % of the total organic matter were soluble humic substances extractable by NaOH 0.1 mol L-1, indicating their strong specific adsorption to the inorganic mineral sites. The removal of the humic and fulvic acids reversed the soil surface charge and also led to a marked loss in the buffering capacity of the soil charge. The electric double layer capacity, an indirect

  4. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  5. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  6. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  7. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites;Nanocompositos SBR/argila organofilica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R., E-mail: frrvdiaz@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. Eng. Metalurgica e de Materiais; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  8. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Calabró, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work. PMID:27045850

  9. Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade SBMFC

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine (BJFCM) is a three-monthly publication of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine, aimed at sensitizing professionals and health authorities to this field of interest, stimulating and disseminating Primary Health Care (PHC) issues and investigations, and facilitating interchange between academic institutions, health care services and organized social movements. The periodical also aims to promote an interdisciplinary approa...

  10. Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Lima Wagner

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine (BJFCM) is a three-monthly publication of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine, aimed at sensitizing professionals and health authorities to this field of interest, stimulating and disseminating Primary Health Care (PHC) issues and investigations, and facilitating interchange between academic institutions, health care services and organized social movements. The periodical also aims to promote an interdisciplina...

  11. The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist: knowledge and use by Brazilian orthopedists

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo da Rocha Motta Filho; Lucia de Fatima Neves da Silva; Antonio Marcos Ferracini; Germana Lyra Bahr

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The research examined Brazilian orthopedists' degree of knowledge of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist. Methods: A voluntary survey was conducted among the 3231 orthopedists taking part in the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology in November 2012, using a questionnaire on the use of WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. A statistical analysis was done upon receipt of 502 completed questionnaires. Results: Among the 502 orthopedists, 40.8% ...

  12. Micropolitics of the work in the Brazilian Family Health Program: do caretakers also need care?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Senna de Oliveira Neto

    2011-01-01

    The space of work micropolitics in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy is a scenario where the protagonism of workers and users of health services takes place. The objective of this article was to recognize and study the diverse, creative, and dynamic potential of how the activities in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy are organized and, mainly, to see the other face of the health care technology: the health of the health workers. This is a qualiquantitative exploratory study, developed b...

  13. Return on Investment in Sports Marketing Initiatives: A Study Focusing on a Brazilian Soccer Team

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Mendes Louzada; Andre Lucirton Costa; Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2014-01-01

    Our study analyzes the sports marketing environment, focusing specifically on soccer, in order to determine how a soccer team marketing department operates in terms of organization, planning, development of activities, and professionalization. The method utilized was based on a Brazilian soccer team case study. Data were obtained by means of a semi-structured interview with one of the members of the Brazilian soccer team marketing department, and complementary data were collected from materia...

  14. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  15. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  16. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  17. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  18. Sports and soccer in the social formation of Brazilian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizabel Kowalski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to map the codes of behaviors and manners in social relations and in the recent changes in sport organization in Brazil. Ideological, social, cultural, political and economic dimensions are given relevance here as a methodology in that they organize statements. In bibliographical sources interpreting sociologic discourses and in the outline of Brazilian society development and evolution we observe several characteristics pertaining to self-restraint and emotion control through sport. In the economic sphere, we evidence an explanation of social changes resulting from Brazil’s late development process. However, drawing from the empirical theory, preliminary results show the recent sociocultural phenomenon of soccer as a factor to be considered in the formation of Brazilian social behavior.

  19. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  20. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  1. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  2. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  3. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  4. Quality of the Accounting Information of Brazilian Third Sector Entities

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Maciel Ramos; Roberto Carlos Klann

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to analyze the quality of accounting information of Brazilian non-profit organizations. As for the objective the research is characterized as a descriptive one; as for the research strategy it is documental and as for the approach it is quantitative. In order to measure the quality of the accounting information of the analyzed entities, it was prepared a checklist starting from the accounting rules that guide the accounting practice of the third sector entitie...

  5. Brazilian savanna forest : conservation, medicinal reservoir and bioprospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Bessa, Nélita Gonçalves Faria de

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the Brazilian savanna forest from a Legal Reserve (LR) area from a perspective of conservation, reservoir of organic carbon and medicinal biomass for a prospective use of native medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey was carried out close to a community settled in the rural area in the south of Tocantins, being selected 9 of the most cited species (cajuí- Anacardium othonianum; inharé-Brosimum gaudichaudii; jatobá-Hymenaeae courbaril; j...

  6. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  7. [The internationalization of health: contextual elements and institutional frameworks of Brazilian cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; de Santana, José Paranaguá

    2012-12-01

    The article contextualizes the emergence of an international policy for the Brazilian Unified Health System as the common agenda of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. For this purpose, two contextual axes were explored throughout the work. The first discusses the explicit relationship between the development-cooperation-health triad from an international perspective. The second examines the recent evolution of Brazilian foreign policy, particularly with respect to the role it is playing in South-South cooperation on health matters. The contextual framework that defines Brazilian international cooperation with PAHO is emphasized, above all with regard to the implementation of a specific cooperation agreement. The article concludes that this agreement, within the framework of South-South cooperation, is one of the principal institutional mechanisms established to bring about technical cooperation in health in the current setting.

  8. Quem é quem na saúde ambiental brasileira? Identificação e caracterização de grupos de pesquisas e organizações da sociedade civil Who is who in Brazilian environmental health? Identification and characterization of academic groups and civil society organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos os resultados da primeira fase do projeto "Quem é quem na saúde ambiental brasileira". O objetivo deste projeto é identificar e caracterizar grupos de pesquisas e organizações da sociedade civil atuantes no campo da saúde ambiental, em condições de contribuir tanto ao fortalecimento de suas bases técnicas e científicas quanto a facilitar o diálogo com a sociedade civil organizada. A identificação ocorreu através informações disponíveis no CNPq (diretório dos grupos de pesquisas, na Associação Brasileira de Organizações Não Governamentais (ABONG, no Fórum Brasileiro de ONGs e Movimentos Sociais para o Meio Ambiente e o Desenvolvimento Sustentável (FBOMS e na Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental (RBJA. Os resultados foram apresentados e discutidos tendo como base a evolução temporal, a distribuição geográfica e as áreas de pesquisa e de atuação. As considerações finais apontam para o grande potencial de diálogo entre especialistas e não especialistas, governamentais e não governamentais, para criar as bases de uma comunidade ampliada de pares capaz de combinar políticas, conhecimentos, tecnologias e ações para a compreensão e busca de soluções para a constituição de uma saúde como pré-requisito e como resultado do bem estar e da vida plena.In this paper we present the results of the first phase of the project Who is Who in Brazilian Environmental Health. The aim of this project is to identify and characterize the Academic Groups and Civil Society Organizations acting on the field of environmental health that are able to contribute both to the strengthening of its technical and scientific basis, and to the dialogue with organized civil society. The identification took place through the data source available at CNPq (Research Groups Directory, ABONG (Brazilian Association of Non-Governmental Organizations, FBOMS (Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements for Environment

  9. Brazilian society of hepatology recommendations for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Levy, Cynthia; Porta, Gilda; Silva, Antônio Eduardo Benedito; Terrabuio, Debora Raquel Benedita; Carvalho Filho, Roberto José de; Chaves, Dalton Marques; Miura, Irene Kazue; Codes, Liana; Faria, Luciana Costa; Evangelista, Andreia Silva; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Gonçalves, Luciana Lofêgo; Harriz, Michele; Lopes Neto, Edmundo Pessoa A; Luz, Gustavo Oliveira; Oliveira, Patrícia; Oliveira, Elze Maria Gomes de; Schiavon, Janaina Luz Narciso; Seva-Pereira, Tiago; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In order to draw evidence-based recommendations concerning the management of autoimmune diseases of the liver, the Brazilian Society of Hepatology has sponsored a single-topic meeting in October 18th, 2014 at São Paulo. An organizing committee comprised of seven investigators was previously elected by the Governing Board to organize the scientific agenda as well as to select twenty panelists to make a systematic review of the literature and to present topics related to the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and their overlap syndromes. After the meeting, all panelists gathered together for the discussion of the topics and the elaboration of those recommendations. The text was subsequently submitted for suggestions and approval of all members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology through its homepage. The present paper is the final version of the reviewed manuscript organized in topics, followed by the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology. PMID:26959804

  10. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  11. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  12. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  13. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  14. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  15. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  16. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  17. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    fifty years of scientific activities at the University of Sao Paulo (USP). He dedicated most of his life to the development of experimental nuclear physics in the country. We had a special session where his life and achievements were remembered. The organization of the XXXVII RTFNB 2014 was one more step in a big effort to build in our part of the world a community of physicists engaged in the difficult problems of fundamental and applied nuclear physics. The international contacts bring new knowledge, provide reference framework and stimulate collaborations that are essential for a true participation in the scientific frontier. The Editors, the Organizing Committee and the whole Brazilian community of nuclear physicists were pleased and very grateful to the visitors that were together with us during the five days in Maresias. The Editors

  18. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Edith Magalhaes Fraenkel: The greatest figure of Brazilian Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka Oguisso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe and analyze the career of Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and her important legacy to Brazilian nursing. The methodology chosen was a documentary analysis of her areas of participation based on documents of the Historical Cultural Center of Iberian-American School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP and in the Rectory of the same University. The following thematic topics were categorized: preparation for leadership, moving to São Paulo, creation of the School of Nursing of USP, event organization, and unique developments at the end of her career. We conclude that Mrs. Edith Fraenkel is the most important figure of Brazilian nursing, thanks to her immeasurable work as a leader of the profession, nationally and internationally.

  1. [Adolescence and mental health: a review of the Brazilian literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Sílvia Pereira da Cruz; Ramires, Vera Regina Röhnelt; Schneider, Ana Cláudia; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Guzinski; Tremarin, Daniela

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this work was to review the Brazilian scientific literature from 1995 to 2005 on mental health in adolescence, considering the priorities identified by the World Health Organization (depression, anxiety, substance abuse, behavioral disorders, eating disorders, psychosis, child abuse, and violence). 971 abstracts were identified in the LILACS, MEDLINE, INDEXPsi, and SciELO databases, using descriptors associated with the themes. After selection according to specified criteria, 267 abstracts were analyzed by year, focus, methodological design, and principal conclusions. A qualitative analysis was performed on the main findings. Brazilian publications in this area have increased in the last five years. The majority of the articles aimed to identify the problem, while a smaller proportion dealt with the development of intervention and prevention strategies.

  2. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  3. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  4. Micropolitics of the work in the Brazilian Family Health Program: do caretakers also need care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Senna de Oliveira Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The space of work micropolitics in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy is a scenario where the protagonism of workers and users of health services takes place. The objective of this article was to recognize and study the diverse, creative, and dynamic potential of how the activities in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy are organized and, mainly, to see the other face of the health care technology: the health of the health workers. This is a qualiquantitative exploratory study, developed by the application of instruments for the evaluation of life quality and occupational history, supported by the observation and evaluation of the daily work in a Brazilian Family Health Strategy unit in the town of Jerônimo Monteiro, state of Espírito Santo, in Brazil. The results show that, when targeting his/her own health, the health worker is more concerned about health problems and disorders already installed, neglecting the preventive aspects. Signs of organic and psychic suffering were considered as caused by work overload and by precariousness of links and work conditions. The study also showed that reflections on occupational health in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy also need to be carried out and that health prevention and promotion need to be explored by health workers. It is also important to review the path of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy under the perspective of health workers, aiming at the construction of a humanized work environment. 

  5. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  6. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  7. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Jailson F; Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Tavares, Davi C; Meirelles, Ana C O; Silva, Cristine P N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Roberta A; Wickert, Janaína C; Machado, Rodrigo; Siciliano, Salvatore; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution) have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast. PMID:26730951

  8. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  9. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000

  10. MOBRAL--The Brazilian Adult Literacy Experiment. Educational Studies and Documents No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Brazilian Literacy Movement (MOBRAL-El Movimento Brasileno de Alfabetizacion de Adultos) is discussed in terms of its legal and conceptual bases, organization, participants, technical aspects, and effectiveness. Established by law December 15, 1967 to lower the illiteracy rate in Brazil by improving educational opportunities for the…

  11. Resultados preliminares da utilização de cultivos de anéis de traquéia para o estudo de estirpes brasileiras do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas A preliminary use of tracheal organ cultures for evaluating Brazilian infectious bronchitis virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.B. Epiphanio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal organ cultures (TOC were prepared and used for evaluating four Brazilian isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. IBV field isolates and vaccine strains were titrated in TOC and results compared to those from chicken embrionated eggs. Serum neutralization (SN employing IBV strain-specific serum was performed for evaluating relationships between isolates. Titration results of tests performed in TOC or eggs were in mutual agreement and were considered for validating the adapted TOC methodology as alternative for virological studies in our laboratory. Sera specific to M41 (Massachusetts or A5968 (Connecticut did neutralize their respective IBV strains only. Field strains 208 and 29-78 specific sera did neutralize Massachusetts serotype strains M41 and H120, but PM2 serum did only M41. Strain PM4 specific serum did not neutralize any of the reference IBV analyzed, including M41, A5968 and H120 and may indicate that the isolate is serologically different from the Massachusetts serotype, currently adopted for vaccine strains in Brazil.

  12. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author)

  13. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  14. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  15. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  16. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  17. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  18. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLIED TO BRAZILIAN PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila de Melo Lira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially focused on for-profit companies the Balance Scorecard (BSC has been adopted by many organizations with different objectives, such as higher education institutions (HEIs. However, it is not clear if the adoption of the BSC model is appropriate, or yet is hard to perceive how HEIs have modified and implemented this tool for evaluating educational institutions, public or privates, in Brazil. This study aims to fill the gap existent in the context of using the BSC in organizations. We intend to demonstrate how these organizations use performance indicators to measure their primary activities. A quantitative and exploratory study was developed from the analysis of performance indicators found in the web sites to Brazilian universities. A total of 91 Brazilian private universities evaluation process were reviewed. Even with a considerable amount of private HEIs there are few that have performance indicators guided by numerical and statistical data covering its main activities which is a concern for their managers in terms of managerial control.

  19. An Analysis of Accounting Brazilian Studies Published in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ewerton Alex Avelar; Terence Machado Boina; Lívia Maria de Pádua Ribeiro; Thiago de Sousa Santos

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a research that analyzed features of studies published on the main Brazilian journals of Accounting in the 21st Century. The data were collected from 2,334 papers published in the 17 main Brazilian journals in according to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Primarily, those papers had examined using the content analysis and organized in predefined categories. After that, the data were analyzed using the following techniques: c...

  20. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  1. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  2. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  3. FRANCHISING AS A MEANS OF ACHIEVING INTERNATIONALIZATION: RESEARCH PROPOSITIONS FROM A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY OF BRAZILIAN FASHION RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manoel Cunha de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Brazilian Franchising Association, the number of Brazilian franchises has grown 300% in the last ten years, but only 3% of Brazilian franchises operate in foreign markets, so the opportunity to internationalization is strong. Aiming to get a better understanding of possible distinctive features of Brazilian retail internationalization, this paper explores the determinants of franchising as the choice of internationalization entry mode by Brazilian’s firms in the fashion apparel sector. The multiple-case study was the approach used. The study resulted in eleven research propositions. Results show that government or trade organizations support, geographic distance, political and economic risk may not be determinant to internationalization. However cultural proximity and relationship with local partners can be determinant to internationalization. Moreover, brands that cater to a very specific segment and that their value proposition is closely linked to intangible factors may face problems in expanding to culturally distant international environments.

  4. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  5. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  6. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population.

  7. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population. PMID:26375644

  8. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  9. Evolution of Precambrian life in the Brazilian geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Thomas Rich; Sanchez, Evelyn A. M.; Pacheco, Mírian Liza A. F.; de Moraes Leme, Juliana

    2012-10-01

    Precambrian rocks comprise nearly one-quarter of the surface of Brazil and range from Paleoarchean (ca. 3.6 Ga) to the latest Ediacaran (0.542 Ga) in age. Except for controversial phosphatized `embryo-like' microfossils like those from the lower Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, China and complex rangeomorphs, Brazilian research has revealed all major categories of Precambrian life forms described elsewhere - microbialites, biomarkers, silicified microfossils, palynomorphs, vase-shaped microfossils, macroalgae, metazoans, vendobionts and ichnofossils - but the paleobiological significance of this record has been little explored. At least four occurrences of these fossils offer promise for increased understanding of the following aspects of Precambrian biospheric evolution: (i) the relationship of microbialites in 2.1-2.4 Ga old carbonates of the Minas Supergroup in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais (the oldest Brazilian fossils) to the development of the early oxygenic atmosphere and penecontemporaneous global tectonic and climatic events; (ii) the evolutionary and biostratigraphic significance of Mesoproterozoic to Ediacaran organic-walled microfossils in central-western Brazil; (iii) diversity and paleoecological significance of vase-shaped heterotrophic protistan microfossils in the Urucum Formation (Jacadigo Group) and possibly the Bocaina Formation (Corumbá Group), of Mato Grosso do Sul; and (iv) insights into the record of skeletogenesis and paleoecology of latest Ediacaran metazoans as represented by the abundant organic carapaces of Corumbella and calcareous shells of the index fossil Cloudina, of the Corumbá Group, Mato Grosso do Sul. Analysis of the Brazilian Precambrian fossil record thus holds great potential for augmenting paleobiological knowledge of this crucial period on Earth and for developing more robust hypotheses regarding possible origins and evolutionary pathways of biospheres on other planets.

  10. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  11. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  12. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  13. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  14. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  15. Análise de desempenho econômico da produção orgânica de leite: estudo de caso no Distrito Federal Assessment of economic performance of organic milk production: case study in the brazilian federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Amaral Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar economicamente a produção orgânica de leite. Para esta avaliação foram utilizados os dados obtidos em uma propriedade certificada como orgânica, localizada no Distrito Federal, durante os períodos de 2002 e 2003. A Renda Líquida (RL por litro de leite foi positiva no ano de 2002 e negativa no de 2003, considerando-se o preço do leite a R$ 0,40/ L, (preço histórico pago ao produtor de leite convencional na região, apresentando resultados positivos com o preço simulado de R$ 0,80/L (preço pago aos produtores orgânicos nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Os índices de produtividade foram semelhantes aos observados nas propriedades convencionais. A produção orgânica de leite pode ser uma alternativa economicamente viável para a pecuária, desde que haja uma remuneração superior à praticada para o leite convencional.The objective of the present work is the economical analysis of the organic milk production. For this evaluation, statistics from a farm with organic certificate located in the Brazilian Federal District were appraised, during the period of 2002 and 2003. The Net Operating Revenue (NOR displayed a positive general average per liter of milk for 2002 and a negative average for 2003, considering the milk price at R$ 0.40/l (this being the historical price of the conventional milk in that region, presenting positive results at the simulated price of R$ 0.80/l (this being the common price of organic milk marketed at Southeast and South regions. The productivity indicators were similar to those observed for traditional properties. The organic milk production may become an economically practicable alternative for the national cattle farming, as long as the remuneration stays higher than that practiced for the conventional milk.

  16. Brazilian Civil Society Structures and Financial Resources: The case of Rio 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana De Paula

    2006-01-01

    Silvana De Paula looks at the diversity of Brazilian civil society organization financial arrangements around the Global Citizens' Forum held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. She examines the degree of institutionalization of the different civil society organizations engaged in preparing for the Rio meeting, and how support from international donors impacted on the dynamics of that event. Development (2006) 49, 116–121. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100258

  17. Online Coverage of the 2010 Brazilian Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herscovitz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A framing analysis of mainstream on-line organizations and their bloggers and columnists on the 2010 Brazilian Presidential Elections revealed that framing do have the potential to expose ideological elements on how the media position themselves in the public sphere.Thematic and episodic frames dominated the news with a special focus on press freedom, social and economic problems, corruption and abortion. The main-stream media focused their coverage on the Workers’ Party employing primarily a critical/ adversarial tone as opposed to an interpretive analysis tone. Professional ideology mixed with political preferences both by journalists and mediaowners marked the Brazilian online coverage blurring the lines between the private and the public, exactly in the same way that outgoing President Lula da Silva acted during the presidential campaign. Journalism status quo emerged as a main topic in the coverage as a free press under attack quickly reacted with rage causing a rift between news organizations that criticized the outgoing president and those that supported him. Furthermore, a popular president apparently unaffected by corruption scandals and the country’s most powerful media groups confronted each other in an exhaustive and unfinished battle.

  18. Informalidade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro: uma resenha da literatura Brazilian labor market informality: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ulyssea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.

  19. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  20. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

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    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  1. Adulteration detection of Brazilian gasoline samples by statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.S.M. Wiedemann; L.A. d' Avila; D.A. Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica, Instituto de Quimica

    2005-03-01

    Unfortunately, addition of organic solvents (heavy aliphatic, light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is very frequent, and this illegal practice does not guarantee gasoline quality. Organic solvent adulterations of gasoline samples have been investigated. For characterization and comparison of these samples, physico-chemical parameters together with gas chromatographic analyses data were proposed as the factors for multivariate analysis. Hierarchical clusters analysis was used to improve the detection of the type of solvent and their relative proportion used for this practice. More detailed information of their compositions was revealed. It was found that using physico-chemical properties of gasoline samples together with statistical analysis are a useful method to adulteration detection. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  3. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  4. Brazilian jeitinho versus Chinese guanxi: investigating their informal influence on international business.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio V. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian jeitinho and the Chinese guanxi are considered indigenous forms of informal influence. The first can be described as behavior tactics aimed at resolving social problems. The latter is broadly described as achieving goals through the use of social networks. These influence processes were chosen because they are commonly used in business negotiations in Brazil and China. Thus, understanding their peculiarity is fundamental for the management of organizations involved in business in those two cultures. Therefore, we seek to determine whether such influence processes differ, as it is possible that a process said to be indigenous to a particular cultural context might be, in fact, also found elsewhere. To investigate their uniqueness and the relationship between them, two studies were carried out. In both studies, participants rated representativeness, typicality and positivity of social scenarios, besides completing a 21-item version of the Schwartz’s Portrait Value Survey and a scale regarding attitudes towards corruption. Data were analyzed by a series of mean difference tests and stepwise regressions, separately for each nation, and the results are presented by sample. There were two samples: university students’ sample (with 266 Brazilian and 220 Chinese and managers’ sample (with 101 Singapore Chinese and 246 Brazilian. Brazil scored significantly higher on conservation and selfenhancement values when compared to China. Chinese respondents perceived the guanxi scenarios as more typical of what happens in China than the jeitinho scenarios, with a reverse pattern being observed for Brazilians. Although Brazilian respondents evaluated jeitinho less positively than Chinese respondents evaluated guanxi scenarios, but they also did perceive jeitinho as more positive than. For the managers’ samples, it was observed that Brazilians had a significantly lower score on attitudes toward business corruptibility when compared to Chinese

  5. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  6. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  7. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  8. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  9. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  10. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  11. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  12. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  13. The Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 in Brazilian educational narratives

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    Helenice Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text presents the partial conclusions of the research in which a comparative analysis was made of narratives that address the issue of Brazilian Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 within the set of History textbooks of Elementary School approved by the Brazilian National Textbook Program (Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD/2011. Possible trends of sense production based on reading are looked for in the set of narratives, considering that, in the organization of their components, such texts carry a potential of meanings which are updated at each reading. Since the narratives cover recent historical events, it is concluded that social memory and history play a peculiar role as mechanisms external to narrative that reflect their internal mechanisms and possibilities of history meaning. In this analysis, elements of language studies and theory of history, with regard to its teaching, are broadly present. How to reference this article Rocha, H. (2015. A Ditadura Militar (1964-1985 nas narrativas didáticas brasileiras. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 97-120. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.006

  14. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed. A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03. Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  15. STUDY TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Luiz Neuenfeldt Júnior

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gradual development of the control systems and management of information about the organizations environment through measurement systems made, in this day and age, the reflection of reality. For the Brazilian franchise system this relationship is not different, evidenced by the variation of more than three times the amount raised in comparison to gross revenues achieved since 2001. Given this scenario of growth, this article has for primary objective to propose a performance measurement system for a segment of existing franchises in Brazil, through the elaboration of indicators related to external factors considered business critical success factors, based on financial and non-financial data made available publicly by the Brazilian Franchising Association (ABF. As a result, five performance indicators were developed for the system in question, in addition to the application of this model in a specific thread within the franchise system for the purpose of analyzing the information obtained and testing the reliability of the parameters used, identifying both that the model is reliable in accordance with the criteria established.

  16. Managing brazilian football clubs: Alternative sources of income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as their major income source the transfer of players. After this regulatory change, clubs were obligated to develop alternative sources of income. The current article intends to analyze this new scenario and to propose options to the clubs not only related to the players transfer market. To do that, it will be shown a comparative study between the Brazilian football and the European Football, identifying the strategies and the results. In this context, public support and the relation between clubs and their clients appeared as the major items.

  17. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  18. [Brazilian Nursing Magazine--a history of resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, I; Lopes, M G; da Silva, M T

    1998-01-01

    Part of the conquest of ANEDB, since 1920 the REBEn itself inserting in the professional dispute about the diffusion of the nursing facts. Ought to Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and Rachel Haddock Lobo the inspiration and initiative for the creation, since 1929, within the participation in the I Quadrienal of ICN congress, in Montreal where were discussed facilities, difficulties and advance of nursing newspaper. The ANNAES of nursing, edited by the newspaper "Journal do Brasil--R.J.", in 1932, was the precursor of the REBEn. With her existence, readers, students and Professionals greediness for extend his specifics knowledge, constructors of the historic documentation and the knowledge profession, responsible by the scientific and technologic development and by the concept emission of different period of the Brazilian nursing, has learned to take advantage on his benefits. With more of 50 volumes and 200 edited copies the REBEn has acquired a reference status in the domestic and international of health and human science areas. Already consolidate; spread dissertation results, thesis, and work papers, presented or showed in Brazilian congresses of nursing. It's the most consulted newspaper as source and field scientific investigation. It provides the readers growth, organizer in the editorial process and counselors formation "ad hoc" through the permanent criticism and evaluation.

  19. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  20. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  1. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  2. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  3. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  4. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  5. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  6. The use of renewable energy in Brazilian energy matrix: economic and environmental aspects protected in the Brazilian Federal Constitution; O uso de energias renovaveis na matriz energetica: aspectos economicos e ambientais defendidos na Constituicao Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa Junior, Edinaldo Benicio de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the problems of consolidations of biofuels programs in Brazil, especially in a time when the use of renewable energy is essential for restructuring of the energy matrix of the countries. This wok also highlights the regulatory model and the difficulty of the Brazilian government in organizing a regulatory framework, strictly, responsible for the bioenergy issue in Brazil. (author)

  7. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for 99mTc, 131I, 67Ga, 201Tl and 57Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. - Highlights: • Establishing a comparison program of activity measurements was an important tool to guarantee the satisfactory performance of radionuclide calibrators in the Brazilian northeast region. • In this program 121 measurements performed in the nuclear medicine services of Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe States were obtained. • The analysis of the results demonstrated that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. • The services whose results were outside the recommended limits can be supported the Reference Laboratory in order to identify and to correct eventual unacceptable results

  8. Nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and montmorillonite (MMT Brazilian clay: A tribological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of PMMA+MMT Brazilian clays were developed by mechanical mixing in co-rotational twinscrew extrusion and injection molding with varying weight fraction of MMT Brazilian clays. The clays were purchased in crude form and then washed and purified to extract the organic materials and contaminants. Dynamic friction and wear rate of these composites were studied as a function of concentration of the Brazilian clay. With an increase in the amount of MMT Brazilian clay, the dynamic friction of the nanocomposites increases, a clear but not large effect. It can be explained by sticky nature of clay; clay in the composite is also on the surface and sticks to the partner surface. The wear rate as a function of the clay concentration passes through a minimum at 1 wt% MMT; at this concentration the clay provides a reinforcement against abrasion. At higher clay concentrations we see a dramatic increase in wear – a consequence of clay agglomeration and increased brittleness. The conclusions are confirmed by microscopy results.

  9. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  10. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  11. [The influence of schools of scientific and classical administration on the scientific production of Brazilian nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M A

    1993-04-01

    This paper traces the influence of F. W. Taylor and H. Fayol in the scientific output of brazilian nursing from 1930 to 1980. The scientific output of brazilian nursing is reviewed, looking for work based upon the Scientific and Classical Schools of Administration. The author executes a bibliographic survey based upon two periodicals: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem and Revista Paulista de Hospitais. A total of 68 articles were selected and studied. Findings have shown that Taylor/Fayol had and still have an important influence on the theoretic foundation of nursing output. The central theme of the texts centers upon "Studies on the Organization of Hospital Nursing Services", and "Time and Motion Studies concerning Nursing Techniques and Activities:. The central preoccupation in these texts refers to productivity and rationality of work, regardless of the fact that the organization of health and nursing work is a human task, referring to the satisfaction of health needs.

  12. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Narjara; Machado Lays; da Silva Lisboa Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture i...

  13. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  14. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  15. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  16. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  17. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  18. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  19. Logistics problems in soybeans Brazilian exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Lopes Jaguaribe Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization process, the world-wide nations are having an increase of the international trade. Brazil has, each time more, used the agribusiness as a strategy of insertion in the world-wide economy. The exportations of Brazilian agricultural productscome playing an important paper in the supplying revenues and increase of the domestic income, but a visible problem of the agribusiness for exportation is related to logistic. In theworld-wide marketplace, Brazil presents comparative advantages in the production of agricultural products in relation to the other world-wide producers, but it loses in logistic costs. The importance of this work is in characterizing the logistic problems of the Brazilian exportation of one of the most important commodities national, the soybeans. The soybeans is the agricultural product that more generates volume of exportation for Brazil, demanding sufficiently of the logistic structure of the country. For accomplishment of this work, it was used an general bibliographical research, where if it carried through a detailed survey of themain problems, causes, costs and solutions for the flowing of the soybeans in Brazilian for exportation. From the development of this work, it was perceived that the challenges of the logistic of the soybeans are many and that the resolution of these problems will increase the Brazilian international competitiveness, increasing the trustworthiness in the delivery times and reducing the costs of the inefficiencies in the exportation process.

  20. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  1. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  2. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  3. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  4. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  5. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  6. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  7. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  8. Employment effect of micro-electronic equipment in the Brazilian automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Tauile JR

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the effect of microelectronics technological change on employment and work organization in the Brazilian motor vehicle industry - discusses production, employment and export trends, labour costs, and the extent and pattern of industrial robot and numerical control use; notes that unemployment due to economic recession was much greater than that due to new technology. References and statistical tables.

  9. Characterization of the core microbiota of the drainage and surrounding soil of a Brazilian copper mine

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Bianca Pereira; Renato Vicentini; Laura M. M. Ottoboni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The core microbiota of a neutral mine drainage and the surrounding high heavy metal content soil at a Brazilian copper mine were characterized by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. The core microbiota of the drainage was dominated by the generalist genus Meiothermus. The soil samples contained a more heterogeneous bacterial community, with the presence of both generalist and specialist bacteria. Both environments supported mainly heterotrophic bacteria, including organisms resistant to heavy m...

  10. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Giorgi; Pietro De Marinis; Giuseppe Granelli; Luca Maria Chiesa; Sara Panseri

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headsp...

  11. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  12. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  13. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  14. Deforestation and Biogenic Trace Emissions from Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ravi; Geol, P.

    1996-01-01

    The overall goal of NASA's SCAR (Smoke, Cloud and Radiation) Program is to obtain physical and chemical properties of the smoke produced by biomass burning and the effects of the smoke on the earth's radiation balance and climate. It is a joint project with the Brazilian government and their organizations, including INPE (Instituto Nacional Pesquisas Espaciais) who actively participate in all activities. Appropriate estimates of the biomass buming in the tropics is therefore essential to determine its effect on the atmosphere and on climate. The SCAR series of experiments is designed with that purpose. The present study of evaluating the burnt-out areas is to augment the data collected to date to help evaluate the effect of biomass burning.

  15. Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G; Gomes, Marco A F

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of acidic herbicides (2,4-D, flumetsulam, and sulfentrazone) in soils was estimated by comparing the original and modified AF (Attenuation Factor) models for multi-layered soils (AFi). The original AFi model was modified to include the concept of pH-dependence for Kd (sorption coefficient) based on pesticide dissociation and changes in the accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide. The original and modified models, considering soil and herbicide properties, were applied to assess the leaching potential of selected herbicides in three Brazilian soils. The pH-dependent Kd values estimated for all three herbicides were observed to be always higher than pH-independent Kd values calculated using average Koc data, and therefore the original AFi model overestimated the overall leaching potential for the soils studied. PMID:15656159

  16. Stress at Work: A Challenge for Managers of Brazilian Organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Zille Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El mundo corporativo lleva pasando por mudanzas constantemente, abriendo espacio para una cultura empresarial en que las personas trabajan más horas y más arduamente con la finalidad de alcanzar el suceso profesional y personal. En esta realidad organizacional el tema Estrés Ocupacional gana importancia y proporciones todavía mayores que en períodos anteriores. Considerándose ese contexto, el objetivo general de este trabajo fue identificar los niveles de estrés, las principales fuentes de tensión excesiva en el trabajo y los indicadores de impacto de las consecuencias de esos factores en la productividad de gestores que actúan en organizaciones privadas en el Estado de Minas Gerais. El presente estudio, caracterizado como descriptivo, por medio de survey, apunta que, de los 637 gestores encuestados, 75,7% presentaron manifestaciones de Estrés Ocupacional en niveles que variaron de leve a moderado e intenso. Las fuentes de tensión en el trabajo que más explicaron el estrés fueron tener el día muy ocupado con una serie de compromisos de trabajo asumidos, con poco o nada de tiempo libre, y no conseguir desconectarse de los contextos relacionados al trabajo, aun fuera de ellos. En relación a los indicadores de impacto en la productividad de esos profesionales, los más relevantes fueron: la dificultad de recordar hechos recientes relacionados al trabajo que anteriormente eran fácilmente recordados, dificultad para tomar decisiones y la fuga de las responsabilidades de trabajo, que anteriormente eran asumidas de forma natural.

  17. Brazilian historiography and the environment: contributions by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda and the contemporary environmental history debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Janaina Zito

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, Brazilian historigraphical debate was profoundly marked by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda. The problems of national identity, the occupation of the land, the social organization of Brazil and its civilizatory roots, the cultural exchanges and boundaries in inland parts, the perceptions and forms of appropriation of nature, and other topics covered by the author still echo in contemporary historical research. This article discusses how his main works contribute to environmental history, especially his interpretations of how human societies and the natural environment have affected one another. The role of nature, its metaphors, ideas, or images are the evidence of a history of Brazilian historiography.

  18. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. E. P.,; Easter, M.; K. Paustian; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; P. Falloon; D. S. Powlson; Batjes, N.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the RothC and Century models at estimating soil organic C (SOC) changes under forest-to-pasture conditions in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from 11 site-specific 'forest to pasture' chronosequ...

  19. Proposal of a Methodology of Stakeholder Analysis for the Brazilian Satellite Space Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elizabeth Rocha de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the continuity and growth of space activities in Brazil, it is fundamental to persuade the Brazilian society and its representatives in Government about the importance of investments in space activities. Also, it is important to convince talented professionals to place space activities as an object of their interest; the best schools should also be convinced to offer courses related to the space sector; finally, innovative companies should be convinced to take part in space sector activities, looking to returns, mainly in terms of market differentiation and qualification, as a path to take part in high-technology and high-complexity projects. On the one hand, this process of convincing or, more importantly, committing these actors to space activities, implies a thorough understanding of their expectations and needs, in order to plan how the system/organization can meet them. On the other hand, if stakeholders understand how much they can benefit from this relationship, their consequent commitment will very much strengthen the action of the system/organization. With this framework in perspective, this paper proposes a methodology of stakeholder analysis for the Brazilian satellite space program. In the exercise developed in the article, stakeholders have been identified from a study of the legal framework of the Brazilian space program. Subsequently, the proposed methodology has been applied to the planning of actions by a public organization.

  20. 巴西标准化发展现状概述%Overview of Brazilian Standardization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘薇; Nelson Al Assal Filho; 魏利伟

    2013-01-01

    本文详细介绍了巴西标准化体系、标准化机构概况和标准制修订情况。作者利用较新的数据,对巴西标准制定和分布情况进行了介绍和说明。最后简要介绍了巴西合格评定体系、所涉及的监管机构以及所依据的相关标准。%This paper introduces the Brazilian standardization system, standardization organizations, and the development and revision of standards in Brazil. The authors take advantage of updated data to present the Brazilian standards development and distribution. At last, the authors give a brief introduction to the Brazilian conformity assessment systems, involved regulatory bodies, as well as the relevant standards.

  1. Tea, Coffee, Curare, and Tropical Climate in the Experiments of the Brazilian Experimental Physiology in late Nineteenth-Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vimieiro Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this work deals with the development of the Brazilian experimental physiology in late nineteenth-century. Content: it analyzes some experiments on toxic plants, the nutritional effects of coffee, herb mate, dried meat and the food consumption in hot and cold environments, held at the Laboratory of Experimental Physiology in the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, created in 1880. This laboratory was financed by the Imperial Government, Ministry of Agriculture, and personally supported by the emperor Pedro II. It was created and headed by the Brazilian Physician João Baptista Lacerda and the French physiologist Louis Couty. Conclusions: While its organization was based on the European physiology, its researches privileged national themes. The physiologists were interested not only on the classical issues of physiology, but on the plants and natural products that played a role on the Brazilian economy. They even created their own experimental apparatuses, such as a cold chamber for climatic studies. In order to legitimate the Brazilian physiology, in Brazil and abroad, the researchers associated scientific and practical in­terests in their studies. The chance of social-economical use of their studies could explain the interests of the Brazilian elite and the support of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  3. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  4. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  5. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  6. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  8. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  9. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  10. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  11. FUZZY CLUSTERING: APPLICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL METAPHORS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cobo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors. Nevertheless, a quantitative approach is needed to minimize human subjectivity or bias on metaphors studies. Hence, this paper analyzed the presence of metaphors and clustered them using fuzzy data mining techniques in a sample of 61 Brazilian companies that operate in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose the results of a questionnaire answered by 198 employees of companies in the sample were analyzed by R free software. The results show that it is difficult to find a clear image in most organizations. In most cases characteristics of different images or metaphors are observed, so soft computing techniques are particularly appropriate for this type of analysis. However, according to these results, it is noted that the most present image in the organizations studied is that of “organisms” and the least present image is that of a “political system” and of an “instrument of domination”

  12. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  13. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  14. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  15. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  16. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  17. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  18. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  19. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  20. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  1. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  2. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  3. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  5. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  6. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  7. The growth of Brazilian metrics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Urbizagástegui Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is presented on the growth of the literature on bibliometrics, informetrics, and scientometrics published in Brazil by Brazilian and foreign authors in the form of journal articles, book chapters, and papers presented at conferences. From 1973 to December 2012, close to 2300 documents were published. This literature is growing exponentially at a rate of 24% per year and doubling in size every 3.2 years.

  8. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  9. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  10. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  11. The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist: knowledge and use by Brazilian orthopedists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Rocha Motta Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research examined Brazilian orthopedists' degree of knowledge of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist. Methods: A voluntary survey was conducted among the 3231 orthopedists taking part in the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology in November 2012, using a questionnaire on the use of WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. A statistical analysis was done upon receipt of 502 completed questionnaires. Results: Among the 502 orthopedists, 40.8% reported the experience of wrong site or wrong patient surgery and 25.6% of them indicated "miscommunication" as the main cause for the error. 35.5% of the respondents do not mark the surgical site before sending the patient to the operating room and 65.3% reported lack of knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO Surgical Safety Checklist, fully or partially. 72.1% of the orthopedists have never been trained to use this protocol. Discussion: Medical errors are more common in the surgical environment and represent a high risk to patient safety. Orthopedic surgery is a high volume specialty with major technical complexity and therefore with increased propensity for errors. Most errors are avoidable through the use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. The study showed that 65.3% of Brazilian orthopedists are unaware of this protocol, despite the efforts of WHO for its disclosure.

  12. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  14. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  15. [Brazilian legislation and the international recommendations related to the occupational exposure to biologic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Tanyse; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; de Souza, Wecksley Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Bibliographic review with the objective to identify the Brazilian legislation related to occupational exposure of health workers to biological material and compare it with the main recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The information was searched by access to the websites of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor and Employment, ILO and CDC. The data collected were categorized into five themes for better understanding and analysis. We find that the Brazilian legislation covers most of the international recommendations, but the obligation of providing safety devices was later included in the legislation. It is concluded that workers need information about their rights and duties before the exposure to biological hazards. PMID:21468504

  16. Health research networks on the web: an analysis of the Brazilian presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barreto Lang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to map Brazilian institutions’ web presence in an international network of health research institutions, a study was conducted in 2009, including 190 institutions from 42 countries. The sample was based on WHO (World Health Organization collaborating centers, and the methodology used webometric analyses and techniques, especially interlinks, and social network analysis. The results showed the presence of five Brazilian institutions, featuring the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, showing links to 20 countries and 42 institutions. Through the interface between the health field and the web, the study aims to contribute to future analyses and a plan for strategic repositioning of these institutions in the virtual world, as well as to the elaboration of public policies and recognition of webometrics as an area to be explored and applied to various other fields of knowledge.

  17. Health research networks on the web: an analysis of the Brazilian presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pamela Barreto; Gouveia, Fábio Castro; Leta, Jacqueline

    2014-02-01

    In order to map Brazilian institutions' web presence in an international network of health research institutions, a study was conducted in 2009, including 190 institutions from 42 countries. The sample was based on WHO (World Health Organization) collaborating centers, and the methodology used webometric analyses and techniques, especially interlinks, and social network analysis. The results showed the presence of five Brazilian institutions, featuring the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), showing links to 20 countries and 42 institutions. Through the interface between the health field and the web, the study aims to contribute to future analyses and a plan for strategic repositioning of these institutions in the virtual world, as well as to the elaboration of public policies and recognition of webometrics as an area to be explored and applied to various other fields of knowledge. PMID:24627064

  18. Pesquisas em pneumologia recentemente publicadas em revistas brasileiras Pulmonary research recently published in Brazilian journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Maris Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Revisamos estudos originais no campo da pneumologia que foram recentemente publicados em 12 publicações gerais ou de especialidades - que não o Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - indexadas no Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. A seleção dos artigos foi baseada no conceito de continuously variable rating, e os artigos foram classificados em categorias.We reviewed original articles in the field of pulmonary medicine that had been recently published in 12 Brazilian journals-general or specialty journals-excluding the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology. All were journals indexed for the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. The selection of articles was based on the "continuously variable rating" concept. We have organized the articles by category.

  19. Theorizing ICT and Society in the Brazilian Context: a Multilevel, Pluralistic and Remixable Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Pozzebon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multilevel and pluralistic conceptual framework that is particularly useful for Brazilian researchers investigating information and communication technology (ICT based social changes from a community/societal level of analysis. The framework is influenced by three theoretical perspectives: social shaping of technology, structurationist view of technology and contextualism. It integrates four main concepts – relevant social groups, interpretive frames, negotiation and technology-in-practice – organized in terms of three dimensions – context, process and content. The framework, already applied to 12 different research projects led by Brazilian scholars during the last four years, is seen as a work in permanent transformation and open to reuse, revision, remix and constant revalidation.

  20. THE DIMENSIONS OF IT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ITPM: AN ANALYSIS INVOLVING IT MANAGERS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cunha Dolci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore and validate the dimensions of IT Portfolio Management (ITPM in Brazilian companies, based on three different models. Five case studies were carried out in Brazilian companies that invest more than nine million reals per year in IT. Eight top IT executives from those organizations who had knowledge of the dimensions of ITPM were interviewed. Items were modified and new items included within the dimensions, while examples of equipment or systems applicable to each of the four dimensions were also identified. Research that helps managers to better understand and structure their IT investments by using the dimensions of ITPM is important to assist in the management of such resources. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The authors wish to thank CNPq and CAPES for their financial support during the development of this research.

  1. Health practices and expectations of Brazilians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Teresa Eliot

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic examination of Brazilian immigrant perspectives regarding healthcare in the U.S. included participant observation and interviews with 42 Brazilian transnationals. Data were analyzed using Agar's approach. Findings show that Brazilians accessed allopathic care only as a last resort after self-treatment strategies failed, that they tended to feel that diagnostic testing, referrals, and symptom-relieving prescriptions were imperative to good care, and that they expected more personal warmth, continuity of care, and more affectionate verbal and nonverbal cues than their U.S. clinicians provided. Recommendations to improve quality of healthcare to Brazilian transnationals in the USA are discussed. PMID:19172985

  2. Antiphospholipid antibodies in Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Atta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0% hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95%CI: 21.5-25.4 MPL, only three carriers (<3% had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95%CI: 20.5-25.5 GPL. Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004. IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0% hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95%CI: 52.7-103.9 SAU. Twenty patients (18.0% had IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95%CI: 23.3-70.3 SMU, while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  3. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  4. Sorption study of U{sup +6} in Brazilian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M., E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mantovan@ien.gov.br, E-mail: leonel@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: daniel@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuarias (Embrapa Solos-CNPS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}). The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R{sup 2} values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  5. BRAVO (Brazilian Astrophysical Virtual Observatory): data mining development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, R. R.; Capelato, H. V.; Velho, H. C.

    2007-08-01

    The primary goal of the BRAVO project is to generate investment in information technology, with particular emphasis on datamining and statistical analysis. From a scientific standpoint, the participants assembled to date are engaged in several scientific projects in various fields of cosmology, astrophysics, and data analysis, with significant contributions from international partners. These scientists conduct research on clusters of galaxies, small groups of galaxies, elliptical galaxies, population synthesis, N-body simulations, and a variety of studies in stellar astrophysics. One of the main aspects of this project is the incorporation of these disparate areas of astrophysical research within the context of the coherent development of database technology.Observational cosmology is one of the branches of science experiencing the largest growth in the past few decades. large photometric and spectroscopic surveys have been carried out in both hemispheres. As a result, an extraordinary amount of data in all portions of the electromagnetic spectrum exists, but without standard techniques for storage and distribution. This project will utilize several specific astronomical databases, created to store data generated by several instruments (including SOAR, Gemini, BDA, etc), uniting them within a common framework and with standard interfaces. We are inviting members of the entire Brazilian astronomical community to partake in this effort. This will certainly impact both education and outreach efforts, as well as the future development of astrophysical research. Finally, this project will provide a constant investment in human resources. First, it will do so by stimulating ongoing short technical visits to Johns Hopkins University and Caltech. These will allow us to bring software technology and expertise in datamining back to Brazil. Second, we will organize the Summer School on Software Technology in Astrophysics, which will be designed to ensure that the Brazilian

  6. Sorption study of U+6 in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R2); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICC). The coefficient of determination (R2), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R2 values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  7. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  8. Inclusive business and poverty: prospects in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo dos Santos de Sousa Teodósio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive business is a term currently used to explain the organizations that aim to solve social problems with efficiency and financial sustainability by means of market mechanisms. It can be said that inclusive businesses are those targeted at generating employment and income for groups with little or no market mobility, in keeping with the standards of so-called "decent jobs" and in a self-sustaining manner, i.e., generating profit for the enterprises, and establishing relationships with typical business organizations as suppliers of products and services or in the distribution of this type of production. This article discusses the different concepts found in the scientific literature on inclusive businesses. It also analyses data from a survey conducted with the audiences of Social Corporate Responsibility seminars held by FIEMG. This analysis reveals that prospects, risks and idealizations similar to those found in inclusive business theories can also be found among individuals that run social corporate responsibility projects, even if this designation is new for them. The connection between companies and poverty, especially in relation to inclusive businesses, seems full of stumbling blocks and traps in the Brazilian context.

  9. Quality of the Accounting Information of Brazilian Third Sector Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maciel Ramos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective was to analyze the quality of accounting information of Brazilian non-profit organizations. As for the objective the research is characterized as a descriptive one; as for the research strategy it is documental and as for the approach it is quantitative. In order to measure the quality of the accounting information of the analyzed entities, it was prepared a checklist starting from the accounting rules that guide the accounting practice of the third sector entities made up of seven sections and 59 requisites, which enabled the construction of the Quality Index for Accounting Information. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation and the results indicated a low level of the accounting information quality reported by the analyzed entities, especially when compared to for-profit organizations. One comes to the conclusion, based on the findings, that the analyzed entities present a low level of quality as to the accounting information which may jeopardize the information usefulness reported by these entities users. 

  10. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  11. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  12. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  13. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Sousa Batista; João Veríssimo de Oliveira Lisboa; Mário Gomes Augusto; Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  14. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  15. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  16. Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine Instrução aos autores da Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade

    OpenAIRE

    Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade RBMFC

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine (BJFCM) is a three-monthly publication of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine, aimed at sensitizing professionals and health authorities to this field of interest, stimulating and disseminating Primary Health Care (PHC) issues and investigations, and facilitating interchange between academic institutions, health care services and organized social movements. The periodical also aims to promote an interdisciplina...

  17. Brazilian system for NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    part of the maintenance training center. Computers and audio-visual aids are available. There are two categories of nuclear power plant personnel which are regulated by CNEN: Licensed personnel (Senior Reactor Operators - SRO and Reactor Operators - RO) and Health Physics Supervisors. For these two categories, CNEN sets up rules and regulations which require approval of training programs and certificate them through independent written and oral examinations. All training activities related to these personnel are reviewed by CNEN. Licensed operators are required biannual retraining courses and their licenses are renewed every two years, after the applied programs are evaluated and approved by CNEN . Their requalification training programs, with utilization of full-scope simulators, however, are performed every year, at training centers located in the U.S. and Spain. ELETRONUCLEAR continuously exchanges information with international organizations such as IAEA, INPO, WANO and VGB, in areas of operational experience and guidelines related to training activities. raining Department provides an average of 24.000 mht (man-hour trained) per month, for the several departments of ELETRONUCLEAR and external organizations. It means 8% of total work force dedicated permanently to training programmes. Presently, there are some important issues influencing planning of training activities. During the last two years, production of electrical energy in Brazil could not follow its increasing consumption. Due to this problem, the Federal Government has decided to incentive an expansion of thermal energy production system, which is based mostly on large availability of natural gas in South America. This emerging market has recruited an expressive number of nuclear Personnel, Vienna (AT) salaries usually are higher in comparison with the nuclear market. Additionally, nuclear workers can retire after 25 years of work, following Brazilian legislation. These two aspects cause a expressive

  18. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  19. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  20. Media roles, and ethics: perceptions of Brazilian, American and French journalist

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    Heloiza Herckovitz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes self-perceptions of media roles and ethics of a sample of Brazilian journalists and compares them with American and French journalists. French and American styles of journalism have had major infl uences on Brazilian newspapers at different points in time. The study included a self-administered survey with 402 journalists working for 13 leading news organizations and personal interviews with renowned journalists of Sao Paulo- Brazil’s main media hub.  The typical Brazilian journalist in this study was a young white middle-class male, politically left leaning oriented, more likely to be married and Catholic. Respondents held a pluralistic view regarding media roles and expressed higher tolerance of controversial journalistic practices compared to that of their counterparts. Findings are in line with the social-political environment in which journalists operate. They do not enjoy special rights of access to government information, tend to distrust public institutions and have still been adapting to press freedom since the country’s redemocratization.

  1. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI among elderly Brazilians

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    Barros IMC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI in a group of elderly Brazilians.Methods: The study participants were individuals between 60 and 90 years old, of both sexes, with different levels of education and income. Fifteen of 81 pictograms from the USP-DI were presented to the elderly subjects, individually, without subtitles and in random order, so that the participants’ understanding of the pictograms could be evaluated.Results: The study included 116 participants. Only one of the selected pictograms reached the comprehension criterion established by the International Organization for Standardization 3864. With regard to the relationship between understanding and sociodemographic characteristics, age, wage income, and level of education were all found to be significantly associated with participants’ understanding of some of the pictograms.Conclusion: Most of the USP-DI pictograms evaluated were not well understood by the elderly Brazilians. This finding indicates that such pictograms need to be culturally adapted for the Brazilian context if they are to serve their purpose effectively in this country. Keywords: pictograms, understanding, elderly, Brazil

  2. Accreditation of hospitals in brazilian cities of the Soccer World Cup in 2014

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    Rudimar Antunes da Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Hospital Accreditation as a quality parameter of hospitals in Brazil and the world. The focus was to identify how the hospitals of the host cities of the FIFA World Cup in 2014 are classified by the National Accreditation Organization (ONA and Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCI - the Brazilian Consortium for Accreditation (CBA. The Brazilian Manual of Accreditation establishes three stamps of hospital quality: Level 1: Accredited, Level 2: Fully Accredited and Level 3: Accredited with Excellence. From the methodological point of view the study was regarded as an exploratory approach, with a kind psychographic survey, with the intentional collection of data, ie the host cities. The research had a qualitative and quantitative treatment. Data were collected during March and April 2011 through the official websites of the ONA, JCI-CBA and FIFA on the Internet. It was concluded that the cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte are the best prepared in time for hospital accreditation by ONA and / or JCI-CBA. The hospitals of other offices need to create mechanisms to achieve a quality accreditation of types urgently. Only thus will avoid the negative image of the Brazilian health services to foreigners who, by bad luck, requiring medical and hospital during the World Cup 2014.

  3. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian Bolitoglossa paraensis (Unterstein, 1930 salamanders (Caudata, Plethodontidae

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    Jéssica Barata da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa constitute the largest and most diverse group of salamanders, including around 20% of living caudate species. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of five recognized species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. We present here the first cytogenetic data of a Brazilian salamander, which may prove to be a useful by contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus. Specimens were collected near the "type" locality (Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil. Chromosomal preparations from duodenal epithelial cells and testes were subjected to Giemsa staining, C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 fluorochrome staining. All specimens showed a karyotype with 13 bi-armed chromosome pairs (2n = 26. Nucleolar Organizer Regions, evidenced by CMA3, were located distally on the long arm of pair 7 (7q. DAPI+ heterochromatin was predominantly centromeric, with some small pericentromeric bands. Although the C-banding patterns of other Bolitoglossa species are so far unknown, cytogenetic studies conducted in other Plethodontid salamanders have demonstrated that pericentromeric heterochromatin is a useful cytological marker for identifying interspecific homeologies. Species diversification is usually accompanied by chromosomal changes. Therefore, the cytogenetic characterization of Bolitoglossa populations from the middle and western Brazilian Amazon Basin could identify differences which may lead to the identification of new species.

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

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    Andrea Nastri de Luca Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of São Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees & Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia.

  5. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  6. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  7. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

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    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  8. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

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    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  9. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  10. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...

  11. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  12. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  13. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  14. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic. PMID:318307

  15. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  16. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  17. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Philippe [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Langdon, Esther Jean [Department of Anthropology, Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina PO Box 5104, 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Arts, Jos [Department of Planning, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  18. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  19. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

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    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  20. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  1. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

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    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  2. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

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    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  5. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

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    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  6. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

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    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  7. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  8. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  9. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  10. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  11. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

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    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  12. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

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    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  13. A química na região nordeste: o papel da SBQ Chemistry in northeast Brazil: the role of the Brazilian Chemical Society

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    Mozart Neves Ramos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the opportunity of the 20th year of foundation of the Brazilian Chemical Society, the role of this organization in behalf of the development of Science, in particular of Chemistry, is analysed by the way it is observed by someone that has been working in the Northeast of this Country.

  14. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares - relatorio de atividades - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000.

  15. A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés MALAMUD

    2011-01-01

    Brazilian diplomats and academics alike have long regarded regional leadership as a springboard to global recognition. Yet Brazil’s foreign policy has not translated the country’s structural and instrumental resources into effective regional leadership. Brazil’s potential followers have not aligned with its main goals, such as a permanent seat on the UN Security Council and Directorship-General of the World Trade Organization; some have even challenged its regional influe...

  16. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. Th...

  17. The restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector and the universal access to the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to overview the restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector. Tariffs are also commented

  18. Droughts, Morality, State Politics and the Brazilian Semiarid Landscape: A Study of the São Francisco River Integration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørgum, Claudia Pastor Almeida Soares

    2008-01-01

    The poorest region of Brazil, the Northeast is prone to devastating multi-annual droughts, an inherent part of its geography. The Brazilian state attributes the poverty of the Northeast to the semiarid landscape and a supposed water deficit. The state defends a water diversion project on the biggest river of the region that is rejected by the local population and civil society organizations, as a definitive solution for the water deficit of a section of the semiarid landscape. Based on a larg...

  19. Assessment of the diet of 0- to 6-year-old children in municipal schools in a Brazilian city

    OpenAIRE

    Garbin Clea; Arcieri R; Ferreira N.; Luvizuto E; Alle C

    2005-01-01

    Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP). For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results sho...

  20. The Colombian side of the colombian-brazilian border. An approach using the category of lawless area

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    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the category of lawless areas as an approach to the complex security situation resulting from increasing ties between localized criminality and transnational organized crime networks on the Colombian side of the Colombian-Brazilian border. The permanent presence of illegal armed actors in this border area is largely caused by the absence and weak presence of the Colombian State at its margins. The methodology used is both bibliographic and descriptive.

  1. Raul Seixas and the Brazilian music scene in the 1970s

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    LUCAS MARCELO TOMAZ DE SOUZA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two distinct goals, however they complement each other. The first one aims to think the structural organization of the Brazilian phonographic market during the 70s, focusing on the participation of the singer and songwriter Raul Seixas. The second goal is the analysis of Raul Seixas’ LP Krig-ha Bandolo!, released in 1973 by Philips, as a way of understanding the possible existing relations between him and his musical production and the commercial and symbolic demands that he had to deal with.

  2. Estrutura e organização do sistema de informações georreferenciadas de solos do Brasil (Sigsolos - versão 1.0 Organization and structure of the Brazilian soil information system (SigSolos - version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Chagas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de informação armazenam informações detalhadas sobre o recurso terra, de modo que estas possam ser acessadas, combinadas e analisadas, sob vários pontos de vista, para os mais variados usos. No Brasil, a disponibilização das informações geradas nos levantamentos de solos tem sido pouco eficiente, em razão do grande volume, complexidade e pouca normatização. Assim, com o objetivo de possibilitar o armazenamento, manipulação e disponibilização das informações sobre os solos brasileiros, foi desenvolvido o SigSolos. O SigSolos foi estruturado para permitir o armazenamento de informações oriundas de diferentes fontes, níveis e escalas de levantamentos de solos, tendo, como base, normas e conceitos utilizados na ciência do solo. A entidade "Trabalho" foi estabelecida como entidade central do sistema para reduzir a necessidade de compatibilizações e normatizações na aquisição dos dados, considerando as diferentes fontes e níveis de levantamento de solos existentes no Brasil. A 1ª etapa do SigSolos foi concluída com a disponibilização da versão 1.0, para o armazenamento de dados, e, atualmente, já é possível acessar algumas informações sobre os solos brasileiros, a partir da Iniciativa Solos.br, diretamente na página da Embrapa Solos na internet.Information Systems store detailed information on land resources, so that these can be accessed, combined, and analyzed for several purposes from different points of view. In Brazil, the information produced in soil surveys has not been efficiently made available, due to the great volume, complexity, and little standardization. Thus, with the objective of enabling the storage, manipulation, and disposal of information on Brazilian soils, the SigSolos System was developed. SigSolos was structured to allow the storage of information originated from different sources, levels, and scales of soil surveys, on well-known underlying soil concepts. The entity "Work

  3. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  4. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  5. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  6. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

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    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  7. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

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    James Randall Kahn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

  8. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

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    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  9. Technological capability at the Brazilian official pharmaceutical laboratories

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    José Vitor Bomtempo Martins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technological capability in the Brazilian Official Pharmaceutical Laboratories [OPL]. The technological capability analysis could contribute to organization strategies and governmental actions in order to improve OPL basic tasks as well to incorporate new ones, particularly concerning the innovation management. Inspired in Figueiredo (2000, 2003a, 2003b and Figueiredo and Ariffin (2003, a framework was drawn and adapted to pharmaceutical industry characteristics and current sanitary and health legislation. The framework allows to map different dimensions of the technological capability (installations, processes, products, equipments, organizational capability and knowledge management and the level attained by OPL (ordinary or innovating capability. OPL show a good development of ordinary capabilities, particularly in Product and Processes. Concerning the other dimensions, OPL are quite diverse. In general, innovating capabilities are not much developed. In the short term, it was identified a dispersion in the capacitating efforts. Considering their present level and the absorption efforts, good perspectives can be found in Installations, Processes and Organizational Capability. A lower level of efforts in Products and Knowledge Management could undermine these capabilities in the future.

  10. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Brazilian beach sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sanches, N. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Macario, K. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Iguatemy, M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, J.G. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.M.A. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mosquera, B. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Baptista Filho, M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Umisedo, N.K. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-02-15

    The distribution of natural radionuclide {gamma}-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were determined for sand samples collected along the coast of four Brazilian States: Sao Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espirito Santo (ES) and Bahia (BA). For some specific beaches, the values of the annual effective dose rates or {gamma}-ray radiation hazard indices exceed the average worldwide exposure of 2.4mSvy{sup -1} due to natural sources and the limits proposed by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development for building materials. The average values of the radium equivalent activities were evaluated and found to be 696Bqkg{sup -1} in Mambucaba (RJ), 1621Bqkg{sup -1} in Buena (RJ), 2289Bqkg{sup -1} in Anchieta (ES), 10205Bqkg{sup -1} in Meaipe (ES), 83425Bqkg{sup -1} in Guarapari (ES), 531Bqkg{sup -1} in Vitoria (ES), 2026Bqkg{sup -1} in Serra (ES), 3240Bqkg{sup -1} in Sao Mateus (ES), 3075Bqkg{sup -1} in Porto Seguro (BA) and 1841Bqkg{sup -1} in Itacare (BA). These values are above the limit of 370Bqkg{sup -1} recommended for the safe use of building materials for dwellings by OECD.

  11. A Financial Analysis of Brazilian Hospitals Between 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Artur de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research that aimed at developing a financial analysis of a sample of Brazilian hospitals between 2006 and 2011. The data were collected from financial statements of 23 hospitals and from the Database of United Health System. These secondary data were analyzed through the following techniques: descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, Kruskal-Wallis’ test and Chi-square’s test. It was verified that the sample presents unsatisfactory general results about financial performance, especially when related to financial ratios of profitability and return. However, the analysis of different categories of hospitals displays relevant and significant divergences, especially about the type of hospitals: publics and voluntaries ones. The voluntary hospitals present higher liquidity ratios and the best profitability and their capital structure usually focus on long term financing obtained from external agents. These evidences suggest that those organizations focus on financial leverage to achieve better results without deteriorate their liquidity. On the other hand, the public hospitals present lower liquidity as well as worse profitability and return ratios. It was verified that the large-sized hospitals usually present lower financial ratios (liquidity, profitability and return than the medium-sized hospitals.

  12. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C

    2016-05-31

    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils. PMID:27254453

  13. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  15. Environmental Financial Information: differences in disclosure levels among Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína da Silva Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the environment and sustainability have motivated interests of the academic community and organizations. The current model of society is permeated by excessive production and consumption, which is exacerbating man's relationship with nature. It is a fact that, to subsist, society needs the manufacturing of products and delivery of services, but it is also known that manufacturing products and providing services impact the environment. The impact also differs according to the activity that is developed. In Brazil, Law No. 10.165/2000 determines on the National Environmental Policy and ranks companies according to the environmental impact they cause. This research analyzed the voluntary disclosure of environmental financial information in Brazilian companies, classified into sectors with different environmental impacts. Therefore, we investigated the Standardized Financial Statements of the companies that make up the IBRX-50 index, in its portfolio from May to August 2014, in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The measure ranked the environmental financial information, distributing the data into seven categories and 30 subcategories. The most evidenced category relates to environmental investments, with 58% of the information disclosed. The highest amount presented was in the category of environmental liabilities and contingencies, with R$259.84 billion. The results show that there is a difference in the disclosure of environmental financial information compared to the amount of sentences disclosed without the number of subcategories evidenced. The nonparametric test and content analysis showed that, in the years analyzed, companies with high environmental impact disclose more environmental financial information.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  17. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  18. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  19. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  20. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  1. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  2. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  3. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  4. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  5. DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initiative is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI molecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea turtles that occur in Brazil were generated. These presented widely divergent haplotypes. All observed values were on the same range as those already described for other animal groups: the overall mean distance was 8.2%, the mean distance between families (Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae 11.7%, the mean intraspecific divergence 0.34%, and the mean distance within Cheloniidae 6.4%, this being 19-fold higher than the mean divergence observed within species. We obtained species-specific COI barcode tags that can be used for identifying each of the marine turtle species studied.

  6. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  7. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  8. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  9. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  10. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  11. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  12. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  13. Development of a Brazilian maize core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo R. Coimbra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for developing a Brazilian maize core collection. For an initial survey of the active collection, passport information, as well as characterization and evaluation of accessions, were taken into consideration, these then being divided according to geographic region and kernel-type. Multiple sampling methods were evaluated. The strategy of constant sampling generated extensive alterations in extract accession frequency. The multivariate strategy with dispersion graphs and principal components associated with the Tocher method was considered efficient for identifying the most divergent genotypes. The multivariate strategy generated greater alterations in the variance of traits. The average number of traits revealed few modifications with the various sampling strategies used. Therefore, the active collection could be considered as possessing a satisfactory amount of information for most of its accessions. Moreover, the multivariate strategy generated modifications in the variance of the traits, independent of sampling intensity.

  14. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  15. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  16. Intensive care management of patients with liver disease: proceedings of a single-topic conference sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Terra, Carlos; Parise, Edison Roberto; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Arroyo, Vincent; Fernandez, Javier; Pereira, Gustavo; Maubouisson, Luiz Marcelo; Andrade, Guilherme Marques; Costa, Fernando Gomes de Barros; Codes, Liana; Andrade, Antônio Ricardo; Matos, Angelo; Torres, André; Couto, Fernanda; Zyngier, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Survival rates of critically ill patients with liver disease has sharply increased in recent years due to several improvements in the management of decompensated cirrhosis and acute liver failure. This is ascribed to the incorporation of evidence-based strategies from clinical trials aiming to reduce mortality. In order to discuss the cutting-edge evidence regarding critical care of patients with liver disease, a joint single topic conference was recently sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hepatology in cooperation with the Brazilian Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Brazilian Association for Organ Transplantation. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the aforementioned meeting and it is intended to guide intensive care physicians, gastroenterologists and hepatologists in the care management of patients with liver disease.

  17. BLASTOCYSTIS SP. AND BLASTOCYSTIS RATTI IN A BRAZILIAN PORCUPINE (COENDOU PREHENSILIS) WITH DIARRHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Alexandra M; Heard, Darryl J; Easley, J Roger; Weeden, Amy L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    A hand-raised, 5-mo-old, intact male Brazilian porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) was evaluated for chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and anorexia. On presentation the porcupette was dull, dehydrated, and passing yellow, malodourous, watery diarrhea. Cytologic examination of feces revealed a large number of organisms, morphologically consistent with Blastocystis. Blastocystis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on feces was positive. Direct sequencing on two sequential samples confirmed the presence of Blastocystis ratti and a novel Blastocystis sequence. The porcupette was treated supportively, which included a 4-wk metronidazole course. Diarrhea resolved within 2 wk of treatment, and the animal's growth rate dramatically improved. Recheck PCR was negative for Blastocystis. Although an important and controversial cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised humans, this organism is not well recognized as a potential pathogen and zoonosis in zoo animals. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for disease associated with this organism, especially in immunocompromised animals. PMID:27468042

  18. Social and organizational impacts of the electronic processing system of the brazilian superior tribunal of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Soares de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the social and organizational impacts of the Electronic Processing System (EPS implemented in 2008 by the Brazilian Superior Tribunal of Justice (STJ. This system is part of a wider transformation process involving the implementation of a new management model at the STJ. The theoretical framework is based on the Technology Enactment Theory and other studies on the role of technological innovations in public organizations (Fountain, 2005; Freitas, 2012. The main goal of the research is to identify the most significant factors facilitating or inhibiting the innovation adoption. Results show different impacts of the EPS on professional groups and organizations. Political, cultural and economic aspects influence stakeholders’ perceptions of the innovation, including its sustainability, time and costs savings that impact the rate of adoption and the realization of benefits both to users and the organization investing in its development.

  19. Does the Occasion Justify the Denunciation?: a Multilevel Approach for Brazilian Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo de Abreu Guelber Fajardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frauds represent large losses to the global economy, and one of the main means for their containment is by means of denunciations within organizations: whistle blowing. This research aims to analyze whistle blowing within the Brazilian context, considering the influence of costs and intrinsic benefits as well as aspects of the individual's interaction with his/her organization, profession and society at large. By means of a questionnaire answered by 124 accountants, a multilevel model was applied to analyze these aspects. The results demonstrate the importance of situational aspects as a positive influence in favor of denunciations. These results are useful for organizations and regulatory institutions in developing institutional mechanisms to encourage denunciation. Moreover, the results are also useful for teachers of professional ethics and members of the Federal and Regional Accounting Councils, which are dedicated to the assessment of alleged deviations from the professional code of ethics.

  20. Merger Control Under the New Brazilian Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Mario da Silva Pereira Neto; Paulo Leonardo Casagrande

    2011-01-01

    The approved legal framework will certainly open a new era of the Brazilian competition policy. Caio Mário da Silva Pereira Neto & Paulo Leonardo Casagrande (Brasil, Pereira Neto, Galdino, Macedo Advogados)

  1. Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

  2. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  4. On the Brazilian ground-rent appropriated by landowners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAS GRINBERG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper presents a measurement of the portion of the Brazilian ground-rent appropriated by agrarian landowners during 1955-2005 and assesses its importance relative to other forms of surplus value appropriated in the Brazilian economy. In pursuing this task, the paper also puts forward original estimations of several time-series that are crucial for the study of Brazilian long-term growth and development. Finally, the paper combines the measurements obtained here with those advanced in (Grinberg, 2008, 2013b to present an approximation to the evolution of the total Brazilian ground-rent during 1955-2005. The appendix presents the sources and methodology used for the estimations.

  5. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  6. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  7. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V R; Pimenta, F J G S; Aguiar, M C F; do Carmo, M A V; Naves, M D; Mesquita, R A

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian commercial ethanol propolis extract, also formulated to ensure physical and chemical stability, was found to inhibit oral candidiasis in 12 denture-bearing patients with prosthesis stomatitis candidiasis association.

  8. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  9. Matéria orgânica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composição química e sorção de atrazina Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick; Rosane Martinazzo; Heike Knicker; Paulo Sergio Gois Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83%) than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter cap...

  10. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  11. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  12. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  13. World Cup 2014 – Professional Training Program for Brazilian Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Alves Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of implementing a professional training program for the Brazilian hospitality industry in the 12 cities that will be the headquarters of the World Cup in 2014. This project was developed in the context of the program “Welcoming Cup”, of the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, whose objective is to enable the tourism industry to attain international standards of quality in tourism services.

  14. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  15. Georges Canguilhem and the development of Brazilian Public Heatlh field

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    2016-01-01

    Historical epistemology has played an important role in the development of modern Brazilian Public Health or “Saúde Coletiva” (Collective Health). Born as an academic search for new conceptual foundations of a social committed field of scientific knowledge, as well as a social political movement against civil-military dictatorship implanted in Brazil in 1964, the so called Brazilian Sanitary Reform Movement found in the French historical epistemology, particularly in the works of Georges Cang...

  16. Quantifying price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, B. M.; Takami, M. Y.; Cajueiro, D. O.; Petitinga, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market. We employ a recently developed methodology to test whether the Brazilian stock price returns present a power law distribution and find that we cannot reject such behavior. Empirical results for sub-partitions of the time series suggests that for most of the time the power law is not rejected, but that in some cases the data set does not conform with a power law distribution.

  17. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite; Paulo Sergio Miranda Mendonça; Everton José Buzzo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion...

  18. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  19. CURRENT COGNITION OF ROCK TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING BY BRAZILIAN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Briševac; Trpimir Kujundžić; Sandi Čajić

    2015-01-01

    Tensile strength in rock mechanics is a characteristic more frequently determined in the indirect rather than direct way. This paper presents a historical review of the development of the indirect method called the Brazilian test, comprising the period from 1943 to the present day. It stresses some aspects which are essential for interpreting the results of the Brazilian test due to the different degrees of stress during the testing and the direct method of determining tensile strength. The e...

  20. Clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology: where we are

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement writing standards]. METHODS: The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation, and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. RESULTS: The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (10.50 compared with the Brazilian Group (0.45. The likelihood citation was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (20/20 - 100% compared with the Brazilian Group (8/20 - 40%. The subgroup analysis of the language influence in Brazilian articles showed that the citation counts were statistically significantly higher in the papers published in English (P<0.04. Of 37 possible CONSORT items, the mean for the Foreign Group was 20.55 and for the Brazilian Group was 13.65 (P<0.003. CONCLUSION: The number of citations and the quality of reporting of clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.

  1. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Moura Souza; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Denise Tavares Giannini; Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira; Marize Melo dos Santos; Vanessa Sá Leal; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calcul...

  2. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  3. Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...

  4. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  5. The Brazilian Business World: the difficult adaptation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the internationalization of Brazilian businesses in the current decade. In the 1990s, Brazil embraced economic neoliberalism and promoted a huge opening up of its economy. At that time, Brazilian companies had to adapt rapidly. Twenty years later, the country has reinforced its presence in Latin America and has ensured a better position in the global markets, especially by through agricultural exports.

  6. Prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro R. Gil-Monte; Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Burnout is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress of an interpersonal and emotional nature. Brazilian law have already contemplated burnout syndrome as a mental and behavioural disorder related to work. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers. Methods: The sample was composed of 714 teachers from 8 schools in Porto Alegre and its metropolitan area (Brazil). The levels of burnout were evaluate...

  7. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Arruda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal vascular lesion of low-grade potential that is most often present in mucocutaneous sites and usually also affects lymph nodes and visceral organs. The condition may manifest through purplish lesions, flat or raised with an irregular shape, gastrointestinal bleeding due to lesions located in the digestive system, and dyspnea and hemoptysis associated with pulmonary lesions. In the early 1980s, the appearance of several cases of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men was the first alarm about a newly identified epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In 1994, it was finally demonstrated that the presence of a herpes virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma called HHV-8 or Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus and its genetic sequence was rapidly deciphered. The prevalence of this virus is very high (about 50% in some African populations, but stands between 2% and 8% for the entire world population. Kaposi's sarcoma only develops when the immune system is depressed, as in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which appears to be associated with a specific variant of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  8. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  9. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira, E-mail: fraupp@puc-rio.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Industrial

    2013-07-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  10. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila Reis; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-01

    Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  11. Molecular characterization and physical localization of highly repetitive DNA sequences from Brazilian Alstroemeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, A G J; Kamstra, S A; de Jeu, M J; Visser, R G F

    2002-01-01

    Highly repetitive DNA sequences were isolated from genomic DNA libraries of Alstroemeria psittacina and A. inodora. Among the repetitive sequences that were isolated, tandem repeats as well as dispersed repeats could be discerned. The tandem repeats belonged to a family of interlinked Sau3A subfragments with sizes varying from 68-127 bp, and constituted a larger HinfI repeat of approximately 400 bp. Southern hybridization showed a similar molecular organization of the tandem repeats in each of the Brazilian Alstroemeria species tested. None of the repeats hybridized with DNA from Chilean Alstroemeria species, which indicates that they are specific for the Brazilian species. In-situ localization studies revealed the tandem repeats to be localized in clusters on the chromosomes of A. inodora and A. psittacina: distal hybridization sites were found on chromosome arms 2PS, 6PL, 7PS, 7PL and 8PL, interstitial sites on chromosome arms 2PL, 3PL, 4PL and 5PL. The applicability of the tandem repeats for cytogenetic analysis of interspecific hybrids and their role in heterochromatin organization are discussed. PMID:12296521

  12. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  13. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  14. Youth prolongation and identity: study of the processes of transition to adulthood in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nascimento Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between youth prolongation in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters and the identity construction processes of these individuals. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 young men and women aged 25 to 29 years, half of them from Madrid/Spain and the other half from Fortaleza/Brazil. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, the speeches were organized with the Atlas-ti program through a semantic content analysis. We assume that the postponement of the thresholds of transition to adulthood leads to new experiences, discourses and meanings of "being young", creating a new ideal-typical model of "prolonged youth" and turning it into a possibility of identification for a significant group of young people. In Spain, the youth prolongation is a much more pronounced and evident phenomenon than in Brazil. However, the movement towards a youth prolongation, especially concerning the "feeling younger for longer" is also a trend among young Brazilians.

  15. The Brazilian experience in the implementation of nuclear security activities for the 2007 Pan-American Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions taken by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) related to nuclear and radiological security for the Pan-American Games and for the Para Pan- American Games, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2007, are presented. This was part of a multi-institutional plan for the security of the games, coordinated by the National Secretary of Public Security of the Ministry of Justice (SENASP/MJ). The support provided by the IAEA under a cooperation arrangement with the Brazilian authorities was a key factor for the success of the whole operation. The organization and concept of operations adopted are described, and the results of the survey of venues before the start of the games and of the access control are presented. (author)

  16. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  17. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  18. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Macario, K. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium

  19. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  20. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  1. Matéria orgânica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composição química e sorção de atrazina Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83% than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter capacity in retaining the herbicide was favoured by a higher decomposition degree and a smaller carboxylic substitution of the aliphatic chains.

  2. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  3. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  4. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  5. Export potential of Brazilian industrial firms

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    Bruno César Pino Oliveira de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent astonishing export growth in Brazil came from firms which already exported. The export base was not able to grow at the same pace. Since expanding the export base may have several positive effects on firms' productivity and size, in this paper we provide a four-level classification of Brazilian industrial firms according to their potential to export, and we identify a subset of non-exporting firms which are potential exporters. The effects of export stimulating policies may be improved by focusing more closely on these firms.O recente crescimento das exportações no Brasil se baseou fortemente naquelas firmas já exportadoras, e a base exportadora não conseguiu acompanhar o mesmo ritmo de crescimento. Considerando que expandir a base exportadora pode ter efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade e tamanho das firmas, neste artigo classificamos as firmas industriais brasileiras em quatro níveis de acordo com o potencial exportador, e especialmente identificamos um subconjunto de firmas que não exportam mas que são potenciais exportadoras. Os efeitos das políticas de promoção às exportações podem ser maximizados se elas forem focalizadas nestas firmas.

  6. Dementia in Parkinson's disease: a Brazilian sample

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    Beatriz Baldivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PD-D in a Brazilian sample adopting clinical and diagnostic procedures recommended by the Movement Disorders Society (MDS. Sixty-seven patients were consecutively submitted to neurological, neuropsychological and functional examinations. PD-D was established according to MDS clinical criteria (Level II and clinical procedures for PD-D (Level I and prevalence rate was compared between the levels adopted. Ten patients (14.9% were diagnosed as demented by Level I criteria whereas sixteen (23.8% were diagnosed based on Level II criteria. Level I criteria had low sensitivity in detecting PD-D (31.25%, but greater specificity (90.19. The PD-D group had significantly worse performance on all neuropsychological tests, were older (p<0.001, had an older age of onset ofdisease (p<0.01, had lower educational level (p<0.02 and had higher scores on functional scales. Current age (p=0.046 and Hoehn & Yahr score (p=0.048 were predictors for developing PD-D.

  7. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

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    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  8. Sleep habits in native brazilian bororo children

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    REIMÃO RUBENS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep behavior patterns in childhood are influenced by familial, cultural and environmental factors. In understanding sleep in Native Brazilian Bororo children, one should consider the influence of their culture on the child's sleep. This research analyzes sleep habits of Native Bororo children from the Meruri village, located in an Indian Reservation in the state of Mato Grosso. Fourty four children ( 24 M; 20 F were evaluated; ages ranged from one month to 10 years, with a mean age of 4.9 years. Sleep characteristics were assessed by means of a standard questionnaire applied to the mothers. Cosleeping - sleeping together with family members - was a remarkable finding, in every child 0-2 year old and in 81.5% in the 2-10 years group. The second characteristic was sleeping with many people in the same room. There was an average of 5.1 people per room in the younger group and 3.9 people in the older group

  9. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

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    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  10. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  11. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  12. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

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    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  13. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  14. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field. PMID:24676181

  15. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  16. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  17. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

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    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  18. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

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    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  19. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

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    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  20. The territorial logic in brazilian health policy

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    Eliane Cristina Lopes Brevilheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the territorial dimension has been addressed in the current Brazilian health policy. Provides an initial approximation of the theoretical discussion about the category territory and its implications for social policy. Then we analyze how this category was included in the principles and guidelines of the National Health System, deployed in key programs and normative instruments of health policy from 1990. It is concluded that: the territorial dimension was present from conception through SUS guideline regionalization of activities and services. In the main programs implemented in the 1990s, the territorial dimension had a character cutouts geographical and normative instruments gave centrality to the process of decentralization. However, from the 2000s, the regionalization strategy, pointing to the territorial perspective, gains greater significance. However, we still need to overcome the logic purely political-administrative and act so as to identify the real needs of the people, their potential, diversity and particularities, towards "used territory" referred to Milton Santos.

  1. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  2. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

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    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs, who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott’s and Larson’s theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil.

  3. Brazilian gasoline quality: study of adulteration by statistical analysis and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Larissa S.M.; Azevedo, Debora de A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.br; D' Avila, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2005-02-01

    The addition of organic solvents (heavy aliphatic, light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice does not guarantee gasoline quality. Organic solvent adulterations of gasoline samples have been investigated. For characterization and comparison of these samples, physico-chemical parameters were selected as the factor for hierarchic multivariate analysis (Cluster Analysis). However, these parameters are not efficient to detected all kinds of adulteration. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. More detailed information of their compositions was revealed. The use of physico-chemical properties of gasoline samples for hierarchic multivariate analysis and gas chromatographic fingerprints is a practicable method to adulteration detection. (author)

  4. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  6. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  8. External gamma-ray dose rate and radon concentration in indoor environments covered with Brazilian granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R M; Juri Ayub, J; Cid, A S; Cardoso, R; Lacerda, T

    2011-11-01

    Health hazard from natural radioactivity in Brazilian granites, covering the walls and floor in a typical dwelling room, was assessed by indirect methods to predict external gamma-ray dose rates and radon concentrations. The gamma-ray dose rate was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation method and validated by in-situ measurements with a NaI spectrometer. Activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (40)K in an extensive selection of Brazilian commercial granite samples measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry were found to be 4.5-450 Bq kg(-1), 4.9-160 Bq kg(-1) and 190-2029 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum external gamma-ray dose rate from floor and walls covered with the Brazilian granites in the typical dwelling room (5.0 m × 4.0 m area, 2.8 m height) was found to be 120 nGy h(-1), which is comparable with the average worldwide exposure to external terrestrial radiation of 80 nGy h(-1) due to natural sources, proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Radon concentrations in the room were also estimated by a simple mass balance equation and exhalation rates calculated from the measured values of (226)Ra concentrations and the material properties. The results showed that the radon concentration in the room ventilated adequately (0.5 h(-1)) will be lower than 100 Bq m(-3), value recommended as a reference level by the World Health Organization. PMID:21729819

  9. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  10. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  11. Brazilian Association of Technical Norms (ABNT); Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas (ABNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Newton Reis de [Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas (ABNT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: newton.moura@petrobras.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the main responsibilities as the only forum recognized by the brazilian government for coordination of technical normalization committees, and the administration of the process of elaboration of brazilian norms.

  12. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  13. BETWEEN GOOD AND BAD SAVAGE: FICTION AND ALTERITY IN THE BRAZILIAN CINEMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Gonçalves Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in an analysis of the indians image on the brazilian, achieved through the study of how the indian character is built and disseminated through the brazilian fiction films.

  14. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  15. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  16. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  17. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  18. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  19. luxury marketing: internationalization strategies for brazilian jewelry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaline Gasperini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to make an analysis of the luxury market and of Brazilian jewelry companies. The main objective is to analyze the attraction of external marketing to luxury brands internationalization, emphasizing Brazilian jewelry companies. First, the national environment of luxury market an jewelry in Brazil is presented. In sequence, it will address the possible goals, risks and opportunities that internationalized jewelry companies face in the expansion process and its difficulties in foreign markets. Finally, some forms of internationalization will be presented based on the case of the Brazilian jewelry companies H Stern and Talento Jóias. The methodology used in this article is exploratory, with documental analysis and in depth interview. As theoretical foundations for the article, the themes luxury, exportations, company internationalization and global market were addressed. The main author(s researched were: Allérès (2006, Almeida (2007, Czinkota (2001, Grande (2007, Lipovetsky e Roux (2005. Among the main conclusions, Brazilian jewelry companies have great advantages compared to other countries, having the possibility to use Brazilian nature resources, like precious stones and gems, thus, it become more interesting and viable to innovate and conquer external market. Besides, jewelry market attractions make several entrepreneurs interested in opening business in this field, and lately internationalize them, such as H Stern case.

  20. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  1. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  2. The scientific production of Brazilian neurologists: 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrini, Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    The Brazilian scientific production saw more than a four-fold increase from the 1990s onwards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of scientific production by Brazilian clinical neuroscientists over the last 10 years. A search in the PubMed identified 295 clinical neuroscientists and their publications. Brazilian production corresponded to 2.37% of the papers published by the 20 indexed periodicals that regularly publish clinical neuroscience research. If only the first and last two years are compared, there was a real growth of 75.1%. More than 40% of the Brazilian papers were published in Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. When only those periodicals with impact factor higher than one are considered, the percentage falls to 0.86% in the whole 10-year period, but attains 1.23% in 2004. Epilepsy and infectious diseases were the sub-areas with the highest scientific production.

  3. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  4. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICE OF BRAZILIAN FOOTWEAR-EXPORTING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Gomes, Clandia Maffini; Crespam, Cristina Ceribola

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze social and environmental management practices adopted by Brazilian footwear-exporting companies. To that end, we reviewed the literature on the Brazilian footwear industry and its socio-environmental management, which serves to frame our empirical survey of Brazilian footwear manufacturers having international operations, according to the Brazilian Footwear Association [ABICALÇADOS]. We undertook a descriptive study by using the survey method as a data collec...

  5. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little research available on the…

  6. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities involved in the program are: production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; radiation detectors and nuclear instrumentation; radiation protection and dosimetry; education and training of human resources; applied research and new technologies. The guiding and actions that the section will adopt to attend the growing necessities of Brazilian society, considering technological powers, management, available substructure and associated difficulties are defined. (M.C.K.)

  7. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m-3) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geo-genic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. (authors)

  8. Allocation of foreign direct investment across brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mesquita Bortoluzzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has become increasingly important for the Brazilian economy: the ratio of FDI inflow to the country's gross domestic product (GDP increased from a 0.6% average in the 1980's to 2.5% from 2001 to 2010, according to data from UNCTAD. However, there is great inequality in the distribution of this investment among Brazilian federation units. This study aims at investigating the determining factors for the location of foreign direct investment across Brazilian states, based on an econometric study with panel data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The results showed that foreign investment responded positively to consumer market size, quality of labor and transport infrastructure, but negatively to cost of labor and tax burden.

  9. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    covering the demand and supply sides, as well as the evolution of the wage level. This is an exercise of analyzing a sector-specific labor market in order to explore potential areas where adjustments might be necessary to address an imbalance. The econometric methodology of this research using multivariate...... is a scarce resource that must cope with the current and forecasted labor demand of the maritime shipping sector. Despite being one of the most lucrative occupational category, seafaring is relatively unpopular to the general Brazilian labor market. To address the perceived current and future imbalance...... in the Brazilian seafaring labor market, it is relevant to research the interaction between various factors that can provide insights regarding the nature of this distinct labor sector. This paper explores the economic indicators that can possibly influence the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market...

  10. Systematic risk variations (beta convertible debenture brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Drumond Pinto Coelho Antonino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of issuing convertible debentures on the systematic risk of Brazilian companies. Some applied researches in the U.S. capital market (STEIN, 1992; LEWIS et al, 2002; RAI, 2005 indicate that convertible debentures may be used as an alternative financing source when adverse selection problem makes stock issuing unattractive financing source. The analysis of Brazilian companies that issued convertible debentures recorded in the period from 1998 to 2006 and that presented liquidity on the market indicated that variation in beta, on average, is positive. These results are coherent with the signaling hypothesis and with the absence of convertible debenture issuing in 2005 and 2006 on the Brazilian market. They also may be related to the precarious financial situation of issuing companies, observed by the analysis of some financial indicators in year of issue and in two pre- e post-issuing years.

  11. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

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    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  12. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

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    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  13. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  14. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

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    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  16. 3rd Brazilian consensus on Helicobacter pylori 3º Consenso Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.Os avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Segundo Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 2004, em São Paulo, justificam este terceiro consenso. O evento foi organizado pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, departamento da Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia, tendo sido realizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS, nos dias 12 a 15 de abril de 2011. Contou com a participação de 30 delegados provenientes das cinco regiões brasileiras e um convidado internacional, incluindo gastroenterologistas

  17. I RBH - First Brazilian Hypertension Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Malachias, Marcus V. Bolívar; Gomes, Marco Mota; Moreno Júnior, Heitor; Barbosa, Eduardo Costa Duarte; Póvoa, Rui Manoel dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. Objective: To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. Methods: National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis < 1 year. Evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The parameters that will be evaluated include anthropometric data, lifestyle habits, BP levels, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. Results: The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of

  18. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  19. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  20. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvão, Angelo Mondaini; Crokidakis, Nuno; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970-2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v) of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v) has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v), yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population.

  1. Forensic Accounting: Bibliometric Analysis in Brazilian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Lopes Salles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper used a bibliometric research to compare and draw an overview of scientific production on forensic Accounting area, published in Brazilian journals in the period between 2005 and 2014 regarding the number of publications, characteristics of the authors, published topics, methodologies and its subclasses and and journals that publish in the area. It was collected and analyzed 48 articles the information as variation of year publication, subjects treated by, authors and their characteristics, Qualis classification, methodology, methodological nature applied, description of the empirical method and journals that have published articles in the area. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. As a result it was found that the main subjects considered are related to the "work of the expert accountant", "expert opinion" and expertise within the context of judicial proceedings. Regarding the authors the vast majority produce only one article in the area over the 10 years examined, and these authors, 64,58% were male. The Qualis extract of the articles is located between C and B1, indicating that the publications fail to achieve high standards of academic quality. On the methodology it was found that 91.67% are empirical research, of these 78% ranked in quantitative or qualitative and 83% are publications opting for descriptive techniques. Regarding the journals, it was found that 50% have only one publication on "forensic accounting", indicating that it is not repeated exposure, as the number of publications ranging from two to five in the other 50% of journals. It is concluded that scientific research in forensic accounting area are still relatively embryonic, lacking certain softening related to the subjects, number of publications and quality of intellectual production.

  2. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: DIAGNOSIS AND PROPOSALS FOR A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is the part of public policy of a larger research project on Brazilian Outward ForeignDirect Investment - OFDI. The text analyses the viability to adopt policies to enhance FDI,particularly outward. Based on statistical data and on literature review, the policy agenda framesthe underling questions surrounding the theme. There is not yet a theoretical framework to dealwith emergent countries’ FDI and related policies. There exist strong evidences that capital flowsthrough FDI generate externalities in the following domains: macroeconomics, microeconomicsand foreign relations particularly in areas related to industrial organization and innovation. Thetheoretical proposition is that international capital flows are compatible to monetary stability,commercial openness, investment promotion and industrial innovation policies. A betterpositioning of national enterprises internationally may result in growing partnership within theforeign environment. Brazil has not a set of policies to deal with inward and outward BrazilianFDI flows. These policies do not necessarily jeopardize macroeconomic policy and the relatedmonetary and currency stabilization goals. It contends that FDI stimulus by means of publicpolicies may contribute not just to a better competitiveness and innovation of Brazilianenterprises, but also assure a balanced growing and economic structural change.

  4. BRAZILIAN FOREST SEEDS: A PRECARIOUS BEGINNING, A HEADY PRESENT AND THE FUTURE, WILL IT BE PROMISING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815738By analyzing the trajectory of forest seed sector, it is widely known the relationship between the studies on native species and the Brazilian Forest Legislation. The Brazilian market for forest seed species is mostly informal and there are only a few species with laboratory tests registered in the Rules for Seed Testing (RAS. However, Law number 10,711, when ruling as to the marketing of seeds and seedlings, granted legal subsidies to promote the formalization of the forest seeds industry. Compliance with this law is conditioned to standardized laboratory methodologies for evaluating seed quality. For this reason, the formulation of a supplement or specific RAS for native forest seeds seems to be near. This fact will certainly consolidate the national seed industry sector. However, what were the paths that native forest seed science had to walk down to reach this standardization? What are the prospects for the future relating to the native forest seed sector? These are just some of the questions this work intends to answer, based on the perspectives of forestry and environmental organizations, such as the Seeds Networks.

  5. Community structure of rhodolith-forming beds on the central Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Alexandre B.; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu

    2014-03-01

    The community structure of rhodoliths beds in the central Brazilian continental shelf was studied under the hypothesis that nongeniculate coralline algae are the major contributors of the individual rhodoliths. Samples were collected from five localities within a single area at 17-18 m depth. At each locality, rhodoliths were collected in 10 random quadrat samples along a 20-m transect. Our results show that dead cores of rhodoliths were significantly composed by nongeniculate coralline red algae rather than bryozoans, corals, or inorganic material. The live outer layers of the rhodoliths are composed mainly of 7 species of nongeniculate red coralline algae ( Lithophyllum coralline, L. johansenii, L. depressum, L. stictaeformis, Neogoniolithon brassica- florida, Spongites fruticosus, and Lithothamnion muellerii) associated with other encrusting organisms such as bryozoans, sponges, corals, barnacles, and Peyssonnelia red algae. Significant differences were found in the proportion of Lithophyllum species in relation to other red coralline algae found in this study. Our results show that on the Brazilian continental shelf, the rhodolith-forming species are quite higher in size than in any other studied areas in the world. There was no difference in the proportion of live-to-dead rhodolith materials, suggesting an old bed deposit. Also, the amount of calcium carbonate material in the specimens is relevant to take in account in terms of the CO2 balance worldwide.

  6. Quality assurance programmes and normalization for the Argentine-Brazilian integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the tasks developed by the Argentine-Brazilian Contractors Coordination Committee in the nuclear area, which was at the beginning promoted by the Contractor Committee of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology, a working team was created between both countries in order to analyze the existing regulations and the Quality Assurance systems applied in Brazil and Argentina for their nuclear projects. This paper describes the steps to be followed so as to fulfill the compatibility of the rules, quality assurance and firm certification, laboratories, personnel and materials, and the applicable quality assurance programmes. At first, the methodology applied was the collection of the information and the existing regulations in each one of the countries, to exchange them, analyze them and arrange joint meetings and organize a seminar with experts from both countries to develop and discuss the objectives of this working team. As a result of these activities, the criteria adopted will allow, together with another actions, that both Argentine and Brazilian firms make exchanges and integrations in the nuclear field to supply Atucha II and Angra II. (Author)

  7. Oral administration of Brazilian propolis exerts estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Kojima, Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Propolis, a natural product derived from plants by honeybees, is a mixture of several hundred chemicals, including flavonoids, coumaric acids, and caffeic acids, some of which show estrogen-like activity. In this study, the estrogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Brazilian propolis was determined using several in vitro and in vivo assays. Propolis was found to bind to human estrogen receptors (ERs). Furthermore, propolis induced the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in ER-positive MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. These in vitro assays suggest that propolis exerts estrogenic activity; therefore, in vivo experiments were conducted using ovariectomized rats. Oral administration of propolis (55 or 550 mg/kg/day for 3 days) significantly increased uterine wet weight and luminal epithelium thickness in comparison with the corresponding values in the corn oil-treated control group. Moreover, propolis induced ductal cell proliferation in the mammary glands. These effects were completely inhibited by full ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that the effects of propolis are mediated by the ER. Our data show that oral intake of propolis induces estrogenic activity in ER-expressing organs in vivo and suggest that Brazilian propolis is a useful dietary source of phytoestrogens and a promising treatment for postmenopausal symptoms. PMID:25786527

  8. COMPARATIVE EVIDENCE ABOUT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER BETWEEN BRAZILIAN AND FOREIGN FRANCHISE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Stival Morgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the process of transferring knowledge in franchising between Brazilian and international companies operating in Brazil. Franchising has shown an important phenomenon in many countries, with considerable evidence of growing globally. It is a new type of business organization as an object of academic research field offering great reviews, but also limitations as references and studies of depth of field. The traditional literature in management emphasis on franchising, in large part to its importance as a way to circumvent resource constraints, as their characteristics and definition of business practices among its different parts. The transfer of knowledge in franchising is still a gap especially among companies in different countries. In addition, we adopted a methodology that this study followed a qualitative research with in-depth interviews of franchisees. The results show that Brazilian firms oriented transfer of knowledge in franchising for more lawsuits based on tacit knowledge, thus using more informal and less number of transfer mechanisms in these processes. International companies operating in Brazil for franchising rely on formal processes with periodic meetings, training and technological resources, and therefore have a greater control over the process of transferring knowledge to the franchised units. Thus, this study seeks to help we better understand franchising, development processes and their expansion in emerging markets like Brazil.

  9. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

  10. Adaptation and validation of the psychosocial values questionnaire to the context of Brazilian and Portuguese teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to adapt and validate the Psychosocial Values Questionnaire (PVQ-24 for application to Portuguese and Brazilian adolescents and to test the content, structure and compatibility hypotheses of the societal approach to values. A total of 730 adolescents participated in the study, 482 Brazilian (213 boys and 269 girls with average age of 15 years (SD= 1.1 and 238 Portuguese (117 boys and 121 girls with average age of 15.4 years (SD= 1.8. In both samples, the PVQ-24 showed satisfactory internal consistency, and the proposed factor structure was confirmed (four systems: materialistic, religious, hedonistic, and post-materialist. The post-materialist system was organized into three subsystems: social well-being, individual well-being and occupational well-being. In both samples, confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling supported the hypotheses regarding content (four systems and three subsystems, structure (two dimensions and compatibility (positive correlations between systems.

  11. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system.

  12. Trends in elderly psychiatric admissions to the Brazilian public health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate trends in psychiatric bed occupancy by elderly inpatients in the Brazilian public health care system between 2000 and 2010 and to determine the leading psychiatric diagnosis for hospital admissions. Methods: Data from all 895,476 elderly psychiatric admissions recorded in the Brazilian Public Health Care Database (DATASUS between January 2000 and February 2010 were analyzed. Polynomial regression models with estimated curve models were used to determine the trends. The number of inpatient days was calculated for the overall psychiatric admissions and according to specific diagnoses. Results: A moderate decreasing trend (p < 0.001 in the number of inpatient days was observed in all geriatric psychiatric admissions (R2 = 0.768 and in admissions for organic mental disorders (R2 = 0.823, disorders due to psychoactive substance use (R2 = 0.767, schizophrenia (R2 = 0.680, and other diagnoses (R2 = 0.770, but not for mood disorders (R2 = 0.472. Most admissions (60 to 65% were due to schizophrenia. Conclusion: There was a decreasing trend in inpatient days for elderly psychiatric patients between 2000 and 2010. The highest bed occupancy was due to schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders.

  13. A three-pronged approach to social business: a Brazilian multi-case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Comini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Social businesses present a new paradigm to capitalism, in which private companies, non-profit organizations and civil society create a new type of business with the main objective of solving social problems with financial sustainability and efficiency through market mechanisms. As any new phenomenon, different authors conceptualize social businesses with distinct views. This article aims to present and characterize three different perspectives of social business definitions: the European, the American and that of the emerging countries. Each one of these views was illustrated by a different Brazilian case. We conclude with the idea that all the cases have similar characteristics, but also relevant differences that are more than merely geographical. The perspectives analyzed in this paper provide an analytical framework for understanding the field of social businesses. Moreover, the cases demonstrate that in the Brazilian context the field of social business is under construction and that as such it draws on different conceptual influences to deal with a complex and challenging reality.

  14. Consequences of suppressing natural vegetation in drainage areas for freshwater ecosystem conservation: considerations on the new "Brazilian forest code"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The input of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM, respectively from terrestrial ecosystem drainage basins is an important energy and nutrient source in limnic food chains. Studies indicated that semi-deciduous seasonal forests located in drainage areas in Brazil have the potential to produce 7.5 - 10.3 Mg ha−1/year of POM. The global increase in vegetation destruction, such as forests, threatens this allochthonous resource and can have significant impacts on river and lake communities and food chains. Therefore, it is critical that exploitation and occupation protocols are updated to protect the transition areas between terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This review highlights the existing knowledge of these ecosystem interactions and proposes responsible sustainable methods for converting the vegetation in drainage basins. This was based on Brazilian ecosystem data and the new "Brazilian Forest Code." This study also considers the importance of including flood tracks in permanently protected areas to improve Brazilian legislation and protect hydric resources.

  15. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  16. Economical and strategical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategical and economical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement are analyzed in three aspects: 1) The nuclear agreement in the context of the Brazilian economic - and social development process, considering the availability of energetic resouces of the country. Political implications. Considerations about creation and transfer of technology. 2) The economy aspects involved in the agreement. Comparison costs of electrical energy generated in a nuclear power plants and hydroelectric plant in Brazil. Impacts on the industrial development. 3) Strategical aspects. (E.G.)

  17. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Antropologia; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coimbra, M.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Elmore, D. [Purdue Univ., IN (United States). Purdue Rare Isotopes Measurement Lab.

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by {sup 14} C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  18. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance

  19. CURRENT COGNITION OF ROCK TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING BY BRAZILIAN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Briševac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tensile strength in rock mechanics is a characteristic more frequently determined in the indirect rather than direct way. This paper presents a historical review of the development of the indirect method called the Brazilian test, comprising the period from 1943 to the present day. It stresses some aspects which are essential for interpreting the results of the Brazilian test due to the different degrees of stress during the testing and the direct method of determining tensile strength. The estimate of the direct tensile strength and the influence of sample saturation on the results of indirect tensile strength testing have been specifically elaborated.

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  1. INFANTILE DRAWING AND IDENTITY BETWEEN MEXICAN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS AND CENTER-WEST BRAZILIAN POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Grubits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate some fundamental aspects identified in the cultures of Brazilians indigenous social organizations and Mexicans indigenous organizations, start a short presentation of the more significant aspects of culture and the social organization for each chosen group and finally, a brief conclusion that shows similarity and differences between the referred groups of Brazil and Mexico, and identify some variables that are linked with infantile identity, this ones could be taken in the future to promote the child indigenous development. It is presented a data collected from center-west of Brazil, with infantile population (Bororo, Guarani and Kadiweu and three samples in Mexico, the first is with Mayo community in the north-west Mexico, others were from the south with Tzotsil and Nahualt people. We carried out participatory observation, interviews with families and analysis of drawings of the children, which show us similarities and differences among various native groups with the conformation of their ethnic identity. Center-west Brazilian sample it is possible notice high homogeneity, an integration among Kadiweu, and conflicts in the construction of the Guarani identity and between the Bororo people. Mayo and Tzotsil people of Mexico, their practices rituals abound the syncretism: in one hand is the catholic religion and in the other hand is the worship of the nature and the presence of both mixed during the pray, songs, dance, wear, etc. During observations in different communities and the analysis of infantile drawing, it was made evident the great influence since the first years of life from culture of the ethnic group and the non Indian culture in the building of the identity, social representations, etc. and often creating conflicts.

  2. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  3. The relationships between organic farming and agroecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellon, Stephane; Lamine, Claire; Ollivier, Guillaume; Abreu, Lucimar

    2009-01-01

    While acknowledging an extension of agroecology in the organic sector and a growing influence of agroecology in the academic world, we explore their relationships. These relationships cannot be reduced to an opposition between a scientific field and a practical domain. A Brazilian case study based on the analysis of researchers and social actors trajectories exemplifies the diversity of existing relations, whether inclusive or exclusive. With a literature review, this allows characterising th...

  4. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  5. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  6. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  7. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  8. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  9. Articles with authors affiliated to Brazilian institutions published from 1994 to 2003 with 100 or more citations: II - identification of thematic nuclei of excellence in Brazilian science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Meneghini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Articles with 100 citations or more in the scientific literature and with at least one author with Brazilian affiliation, were identified in the Thomson-ISI (Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science bibliometric database covering a 10-year period, from 1994 to 2003 (see Packer and Meneghini 2006; 248 (0.23% out of a total of 109,916 articles with Brazilian affiliation were identified. This study was primarily carried out to identify thematic nuclei of excellence in research that had major impact in the international literature. Twelve of these nuclei in the fields of Biomedicine, Medicine, Biology, Physic, Chemistry and Astronomy were considered outstanding and their genesis and development were described. The weight of factors such as international collaboration and network organization are distinct in these areas and the reasons for that are discussed.Foram identificados os artigos com um mínimo de 100 citações na literatura científica e com ao menos uma filiação brasileira, segundo Thomson-ISI (Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science bibliometric database, no período de 10 anos entre 1994 e 2003 (veja Packer and Meneghini 2006. Este levantamento foi feito primordialmente para identificar núcleos temáticos de excelência em pesquisa que tiveram maior impacto na literatura internacional. Doze núcleos, nas áreas biomédica, médica, biológica, física, química e astronomia foram considerados proeminentes e suas gêneses e desenvolvimento foram descritos. Os pesos de fatores como colaboração internacional e organização de trabalho em rede são distintos em cada uma dessas áreas. São discutidas as razões para isso.

  10. Proceedings of 2. Brazilian Geochemical Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some works about geochemistry are presented, including themes about geochemical exploration, lithogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, analytical geochemistry, geochemistry of carbonatites and rare earth elements and organic geochemistry. (C.G.C.)

  11. Expert consensus (SBC/SBHCI) on the use of drug-eluting stents: recommendations of the Brazilian society of interventional cardiology/ Brazilian society of cardiology for the Brazilian public single healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Valter C; Mattos, Luiz Alberto P; Caramori, Paulo R A; Perin, Marco A; Mangione, José A; Machado, Bruno M; Coelho, Wilson M C; Bueno, Ronaldo R L

    2006-10-01

    National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). During this stage the interested company submits to the regulatory agency, results from clinical studies that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the new device or pharmaceutical product. Frequently, in addition to clinical studies, approval records for clinical use from the regulatory agencies of other countries, mainly the United States of America and the European Community are also submitted. The successful completion of this stage means that the medication or device may be prescribed or used by the physicians in Brazil. The second stage in the incorporation of new healthcare technology involves the reimbursement or financing of the treatment that was approved in the previous stage based on its efficacy and safety. This stage can be more complex than the first one since the new technology, whether a substitution for established treatment methods or the introduction of a new treatment concept, are usually more expensive. The incorporation of new technology requires a cost-effectiveness analysis so that fund administrators can make decisions based on the universal scenario of limited resources to finance healthcare with treatments that are more and more burdensome. The difficulties of funding management are aggravated by medical and social ethical implications that arise when a treatment is approved based on its efficacy and safety but is not made available to patients who could benefit greatly from it. In Brazil, assessment methods for the incorporation of new technology based on reimbursement or financing have not been fully developed for either the private healthcare plans or the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS). The implementation of new technology in both healthcare systems is a slow process and frequently the implementation is a result of the requirements of patients or the organizations that represent them and at times is the result of legal proceedings or political pressure imposed by physicians and their

  12. Greenhouse gas contributions from deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year's clearing of forest and savanna in the Brazilian Amazon is now contributing to the atmosphere 270 x 106 MT of carbon. This figure is almost 3 times as much as Brazil's use of fossil fuels. The fate of this biomass carbon and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is discussed in this chapter

  13. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  14. Interview with Brazilian astrophysicist Luciana da Cunha Ferreira

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, CERN hosted Brazilian astrophysicist, Luciana da Cunha Ferreira, in a weeklong teacher-training programme. Luciana was the first indigenous person from the Amazon region to visit CERN, and plans to share her new found knowledge of the LHC with other indigenous people on her return to Brazil.

  15. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  16. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  17. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  18. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  19. The 8th Brazilian Workshop on Building Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto ANDERY

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 8th Brazilian Workshop on Building Design Management In conjuntion with: Design Management in the Architectural Engineering and Construction Sector CIB W096 Architectural Management & CIB TG49 Architectural Engineering University of São Paulo, Brazil, 4-8 November 2008

  20. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Brazilian propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittencourt, M.L.F.; Ribeiro, Paulo R.; Franco, R.L.P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Castro, de R.D.; Fernandez, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The production of propolis by honeybees results from a selective collection of exudates from various plant species and present many potentialities in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical profile of Brazilian propolis, as well as their in vitro a