WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian national sheet

  1. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-01

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd 2 O 3 -Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10 5 neutrons thermic/cm 2 .s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  2. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron; Desenvolvimento de uma tela cintiladora nacional conversora de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-15

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10{sup 5} neutrons thermic/cm{sup 2}.s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  3. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  4. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  5. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  6. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of the implementation of Brazilian National Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes is increasing and it already justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. The Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is legally responsible for designing and constructing intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes generated in all Country, in accordance to Federal Law No. 10308. Additionally, the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA) lately is imposing to the implementation of new nuclear installations (e.g. Angra 3 NPP and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) that the National Repository should be in construction, before the start-up of those ones. In November 2009, the RBMN Project Charter was signed. The RBMN Project aims at the implantation of a National Repository to dispose the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Some aspects about the Repository construction are very challenging, mainly due to the licensing process, which will be made for two different regulatory bodies, nuclear and environmental. The main achievements obtained till now are the establishment of the current Brazilian radioactive waste inventory, the conceptual design and the selection of candidate sites for the repository. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  8. A National Identity Management Strategy to Enhance the Brazilian Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Sousa Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the several problems with the Brazilian e-government services (e-Gov, many of them are related to the fact that Brazil does not have a National Strategy for Digital Identity Management (IdM. To design a  national strategy, it is crucial to analyze the solutions adopted in other countries and take into account Brazilian characteristics, such as its area, population, digital inclusion index, socio-political and economic profile, the current national identity registration system and the fraud rate. In this context, this paper aims to propose a national strategy for IdM for the Brazilian e-Gov program. This strategy was built upon by a literature review of the experiences of European countries and, mainly, the peculiarities inherent to Brazil.

  9. National Bioethics Council: a Brazilian proposal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrafa, V.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2010-01-01

    The number of national bioethics commissions has burgeoned since the establishment of the first one in 1983. They provide an arena in which stakeholders with widely differing moral views can discuss, interact and negotiate about controversial matters. The establishment of the Brazilian committee is

  10. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  11. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  12. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  13. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12. ENFIR), the 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  14. The genesis of the Brazilian nation in XIX century’s iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verediana C. da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the genesis of the idea of Brazilian nation through the nineteenth century’s iconography, approaching the study of images and deepening into the analysis of four artworks: Engenho da cachoeira. Corte de cana-de-açúcar by Hércule Florence, Primeira Missa no Brasil by Victor Meirelles, O Grito do Ipiranga by Pedro Américo and Evangelho das Selvas by Benedito Calixto. Besides the pictures we paid attention to the texts belonging to the same period, mainly those produced by the cultural elite related to the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, to the travel reports as text-images, as well as to the emergence of the Instituto and of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes (AIBA in a context of pursuit of homogeneity in the promising Brazilian nation.

  15. A gas phase work station for the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, G.G.B. de

    1988-01-01

    A gas phase work station which has been proposed to the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory is described with emphasis on the broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes which can be studied with the incorporated instrumentation. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. The Brazilian National Graduate Program, Past, Present and Future: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Barreto, Francisco César; Domingues, Ivan; Borges, Mário Neto

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the current structure of the Brazilian National Graduate Program. It describes the development of the courses from their starting point in the Thirties focusing on the last six decades. It demonstrates that after the country set up the two national agencies to foster science and technology, CAPES and CNPq,…

  17. Formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints"), opening mode fractures subparallel to the Earth's surface, has been a classic unresolved problem in geology. Diverse new observations and analyses support the hypothesis that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than the conventional explanation that the joints form as a result of removal of overburden by erosion (hypothesis 2). The opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface (N) rather than a pressurized fluid. An absolute tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if a plot of N as a function of depth normal to the surface (z) has a positive slope at the surface (z=0). The differential equations of static equilibrium require that this slope (derivative) equals k2 P22 + k3 P33 - ?g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface-parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ? is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if the surface-parallel stress in at least one direction is sufficiently compressive (negative) and the curvature in that direction is sufficiently convex (negative). Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being tested using geologic mapping and aerial LIDAR data from Yosemite National Park, California. The abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges there, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2. At several sites with sheeting joints, measurements of the current topographic curvatures and the current surface

  18. End-stage renal failure and national resources: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, João Egídio

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest and the fifth most populous nation in the world. Its economy rivals Mexico as the strongest in Latin America and ranks among the 15 largest economies in the world. Despite these achievements, a substantial fraction of the Brazilian population still lives in poverty, and many still have limited access to medical assistance. There are currently about 380 patients on hemodialysis per million populations (pmp), approximately one third of the U.S. prevalence, suggesting that a large fraction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are not diagnosed and treated properly. In Brazil, access to renal replacement therapy (RRT), including renal transplantation, is universal, and the corresponding costs, including those of medications (immunosuppressors and treatment of ESRD complications), are covered by the Brazilian government. However, given the continuous growth of the ESRD population and of the costs incurred by RRT, the efficacy and reach of this system may be severely limited in years to come. In the current struggle against the ESRD epidemics, the Brazilian medical community and health authorities face a triple challenge: to limit the incidence of renal disease, slow or detain the progression of established chronic nephropathies, and ensure that access to quality RRT remains granted to all those who, despite all efforts, reach ESRD.

  19. Characterization of the intensity of effort of blind athletes from the Brazilian Football 5-A-Side national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Pereira Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football 5-a-side is a sport played by blind athletes that takes part in the Paralympic Games since 2004. The Brazilian national team is currently considered the best team in the world in this sport. Objective: To analyze the variations of intensity of effort (average per position and group average made by blind athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side national team during six matches simulations. Methods: The sample on this research is the intentional type, made with eight blind male players,  ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old (23.8 ± 3.3, all of them part of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National team, which played in the 2012 Paralympics Games in England. In was evaluated the VO2máx and the heart rate during six simulations of official matches. Results: The intensity of effort of the blind athletes of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National Team is intermittent and remains 52.5 % of the total time of a match (50 minutes with an intensity of effort between the zone 2 (between threshold ventilation and respiratory compensation point and the zone 3 (above the respiratory compensation point averaging 89.8 % of the HR max. Conclusion: The intensity of effort is greater than the Football of 11 and, that in the Futsal players.

  20. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  1. To Understand the “Brazilian Way” of School Management: How National Culture Influences the Organizational Culture and School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Albuquerque Moreira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify characteristics of national culture in the culture of Brazilian school management and leadership. Considering the broad literature that deals with the peculiarities of Brazilian culture and its influence on Brazilian management, it is assumed that as an institution belonging to a particular society, the school offers internal dynamics that are organized under influences of historical and cultural determinants of this society. This work is an exploratory study that uses secondary data found in studies on the profiles of principals, leadership, climate, and organizational culture in schools and primary data from research applied in public secondary schools located in the Federal District, Brazil. The results demonstrate that the initial premise—national culture influences the organizational culture and school leadership—has been confirmed and aspects that merit further analysis are identified.

  2. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  3. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Carneiro, F M; Borges, P P; Machado, K B; Huszar, V L M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI). The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  6. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  7. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  8. Dengue endemic and its impact on the gross national product of BRAZILIAN'S economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeler, Everlam Elias; Oliveira, Daniel Ribeiro de

    2018-02-01

    In history disease has caused social and economic damage. Dengue is an illness typically found in the tropics that has affected more and more people. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2013 at least 12.9% of the population (25.8 million) reported already having had dengue in their life. So, how wide are the economic impacts that dengue's contagion has on the gross national product? Using Leontief's method, it became possible to estimate the direct and indirect impact on the workforce and output by one country. Workforce absenteeism reduced the national productiveness and welfare state where we found maximum inoperability of 0.027% and a minimum of 0.002%. This paper develops a methodology for estimation of the impact dengue has incurred in each sector of an economy; designing a ranking with sectors that have been more affected and forecasting the propagation of the endemic throughout a region. This research measures the impact of dengue on economy, the result was that the total loss of the Brazilian economy in 2013 was around BRL 1,023,174,876.83; the importance of 0.02% of the Gross Domestic Product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SEARCH FOR NATIONAL SOCIOLINGUISTIC IDENTITY RECOGNITION: A DISCUSSION ON VARIABLE PHENOMENA OF BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Portuguese, the national language,spoken and used in Brazil, has its socio-historical originst i ed  to European Por tugue s e .  The   e s tabl i shment  of  astandard norm (grammar took as its basis the manner ofspeaking and writing of the Portuguese. Although thedi f f e r enc e s  be twe en  the   two  language s  ar e   c l ear  andperceived by both peoples, Brazilians still learn, wrongly,rules related to the language spoken in Portugal, leavinga s i d e   f e a t u r e s   a n d  ma r k   t h a t   r e p r e s e n t   t h e   n a t i o n a lsociolinguistic identity. This research investigates andfeatures, considering the attitude of the speakers in front ofthe variable phenomena of the Portuguese language, aspectsof the Brazilian spoken language that points to possibletraces of a Brazilian sociolinguistic identity. The researchwas exploratory and quantitative, with the theoretical andmethodological model of the variationist Sociolinguistics. Linguistic recognition tests were used in order to promotethe evaluation, the recognition and the appreciation oflanguage varieties in Brazil. It was found in this work thatthe selected educated speakers showed an awareness of thee s s e n t i a l   q u e s t i o n   o f   r e c o g n i z i n g   t h i s   B r a z i l i a nsoc iol ingui s t i c   ident i t y,   e valuat ing and  judging  somevariable phenomena of Brazilian Portuguese as their closestlinguistic repertoire in less monitored speech situations.This contributes even more to an actual awareness of theexistence and recognition of a language that might beBrazilian in the future.

  10. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  11. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  12. Bridging Nuclear Knowledge to a Brazilian Decree: A Case Study at the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguet-Haisman, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Since the term“knowledge management”was coined, it has gained more and more attention in an effort to re-structure organizations. A good deal of effort has been done in order to better implement a knowledge management culture in organizations throughout all the work sectors. The Brazilian Federal Government through the Decree no.5.707, dated February 23, 2006, democratically created a national policy for human development. This initiative made equally available additional education opportunities for all staff in order to form a competent workforce which included official recognition of work-related skills. In the field of nuclear energy, the National Nuclear Energy Commission is a Brazilian governmental authority which has long served as the leader in the matter. In this respect, and in the light of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear knowledge management role and the perspective of the first and third dimensions, the aim of this paper is to share the outcome of the Government programme in the National Nuclear Energy Commission. (author

  13. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  14. [Use of health technology assessment in decision-making processes by the Brazilian Ministry of Health on the incorporation of technologies in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva

    2013-11-01

    Policies for scientific development and knowledge production in health have increased in recent decades. In Brazil, incentives for research, development, and innovation have been part of the National Health Act since 1990, and science and technology policies for health, including health technology assessment (HTA), have been implemented since 1994, as in many other countries. The emphasis is now on impact evaluation of HTA policies in the incorporation of technologies by health services and systems. The article presents a case study of HTA utilization in decision-making processes in the Brazilian Ministry of Health, analyzing participation by the Department of Science and Technology (DECIT), responsible for the production of assessments used in the Commission on Technology Incorporation (CITEC) of the Ministry of Health from 2008 to 2010. CITEC used 103 assessments in its decisions during this period, of which DECIT produced 80%. Nearly all were literature reviews on therapeutic technologies. An increase in knowledge production was observed. A methodological and political learning process appears to have occurred in the use of HTA, but its impact on Brazilian Unified National Health System remains unclear.

  15. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen R. Mendes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.

  16. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  19. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  20. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  1. Strategies of implementation and effects of national technological development big programmes: experiences of Brazilian Navy nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    The science and technology development, for which creativity and innovation must be always present, are supported by three fundamental principles: the first is related to existence of human brains and good conditions for its realizations; the second could be located in people and institution mobilization for accomplishment of objectives and goals which generate strategic or social benefits; the third are relates to a national effort, making sufficient resources reach the scientific and technological areas. Brazilian Navy, trough its Technological Center in Sao Paulo, developed a particular approach to follow these principles in order to get a technological 'jump' which will give Brazilian Naval Power, through submarine nuclear propulsion, the capabilities required by the nation's importance in the international scene. This Program, started in the early 80's, has presented very impressive results, not only in the vertical sense pointing to its goal, but also in the horizontal sense of diversification, referring to a deliberate change of activities away from purely nuclear, and spin-offs, referring to application of results of nuclear R and D outside nuclear sector. (author)

  2. The brazilian alcohol program in the national energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Araujo, J.L.R.H. de

    1987-01-01

    The new national as well as international energy context demands revision of the Brazilian Alcohol Program. This revision should aim at the preservation of alcohol as an energy source while reducing subsidies. To this end a moratorium on new distilleries should be enforced till the middle of the next decade, accompanied by a policy focusing on cost reductions and improvements in productivity aimed at making alcohol competitive in the middle term, as well as a motor fuel policy which acts on demand and makes this moratorium viable while preserving the existing production structure. Concrete mechanisms to implement such a policy are proposed which segment the market for new vehicles and preserve the stability of alcohol and gasoline markets for existing vehicles. The effects of this policy were analyzed through simulation of 7 scenarios through the year 2005, which showed its feasibility; the continuation of the present policy, on the other hand, implies heavy additional subsidies. (author)

  3. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  4. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  6. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  7. Teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian national health system (SUS in Brazilian healthcare professionals' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the role of teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS in dentists' training, at a public university in the south of Brazil. A qualitative methodological approach (case study was used. Interviews were conducted with 12 dentistry students, six dentists who were preceptors working in public primary healthcare services and three teachers connected with this curricular training. Our findings showed that the curricular training in SUS primary healthcare services had an impact on the dentists' education through establishment of bonds, autonomy in problem-solving and multiprofessional teamwork. It was seen that they learned about how healthcare services function, about healthcare and about development of cultural competence. There is a need to maintain constant questioning regarding these practices, and to ensure the presence of infrastructure and qualified professionals for teaching at these services.

  8. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  9. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Letícia; Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  10. Brazilian energy statistics - 1990. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of major importance in Brazil's energy scenario. The Brazilian Power Sector's Environmental Master Plan is also described including the expansion planning and the handling of socio-environmental issues; the power sector's evolution in the treatment of socio-environmental issues; the guidelines for socio-environmental planning and management and the institutional and technical development in the socio-environmental area. 15 figs., 16 tabs

  11. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. Reverse Transfers of Innovation and National Development: Evidence from Brazilian Subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Alves Bezerra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for innovation has become an important motivation for the internationalization of companies in emerging countries. In that context, this study tests the impact that a nation’s development has on whether subsidiaries transfer innovation of products or that of processes. Survey data collected from 73 subsidiaries of Brazilian companies indicate that companies located in developed markets tend to transfer more product-oriented innovations than do those based in emerging countries. Furthermore, the size and age of a subsidiary has an impact on the transfer process. The larger and younger the subsidiary, the more likely a company is to favor the flow of product innovation into its headquarters. The level of national development was not identified as an influence on the flow of process innovation.

  13. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Brazilian routine childhood national immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-05-27

    Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2016 GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; Futuro nuclear: refletindo para construir. Anais do 5. Encontro nacional de aplicacoes nucleares; 8. Congresso geral de energia nuclear; 12. Encontro nacional de fisica de reatores e termo-hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12. ENFIR), the 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed.

  16. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; Futuro nuclear: refletindo para construir. Anais do 12. Encontro nacional de fisica de reatores e termo-hidraulica; 8. Congresso geral de energia nuclear; 5. Encontro nacional de aplicacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed.

  17. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective-The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q; Lins, Erick S.; Alvarenga, Marcelo B.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements

  18. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective--the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q; Lins, Erick S; Alvarenga, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

  19. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective-The Brazilian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q [Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco D, Annex B, Room 436, Zip code 70043-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: angelo.mauricio@agricultura.gov.br; Lins, Erick S.; Alvarenga, Marcelo B. [Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco D, Annex B, Room 436, Zip code 70043-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

  20. Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Parra, Flavia C; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Silva, Hilton P; Pena, Sergio Dj

    2010-12-01

    Brazilian Amerindians have experienced a drastic population decrease in the past 500 years. Indeed, many native groups from eastern Brazil have vanished. However, their mitochondrial mtDNA haplotypes, still persist in Brazilians, at least 50 million of whom carry Amerindian mitochondrial lineages. Our objective was to test whether, by analyzing extant rural populations from regions anciently occupied by specific Amerindian groups, we could identify potentially authentic mitochondrial lineages, a strategy we have named 'homopatric targeting'. We studied 173 individuals from Queixadinha, a small village located in a territory previously occupied by the now extinct Botocudo Amerindian nation. Pedigree analysis revealed 74 unrelated matrilineages, which were screened for Amerindian mtDNA lineages by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A cosmopolitan control group was composed of 100 individuals from surrounding cities. All Amerindian lineages identified had their hypervariable segment HVSI sequenced, yielding 13 Amerindian haplotypes in Queixadinha, nine of which were not present in available databanks or in the literature. Among these haplotypes, there was a significant excess of haplogroup C (70%) and absence of haplogroup A lineages, which were the most common in the control group. The novelty of the haplotypes and the excess of the C haplogroup suggested that we might indeed have identified Botocudo lineages. To validate our strategy, we studied teeth extracted from 14 ancient skulls of Botocudo Amerindians from the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. We recovered mtDNA sequences from all the teeth, identifying only six different haplotypes (a low haplotypic diversity of 0.8352 ± 0.0617), one of which was present among the lineages observed in the extant individuals studied. These findings validate the technique of homopatric targeting as a useful new strategy to study the peopling and colonization of the New World, especially when direct

  1. The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Information Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This story map journal is an interactive version of the NAIP information sheet provided on the Aerial Photography Field Office web site. This map journal provides...

  2. [Budget impact of the incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System, Brazil, 2013-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Ferreira Teixeira; Steffen, Ricardo; Entringer, Aline; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca da; Trajman, Anete

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed. Incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF would cost BRL 147 million (roughly USD 45 million) in five years and would have an impact of 23 to 26% in the first two years and some 11% between 2015 and 2017. The results can support Brazilian and other Latin American health administrators in planning and managing the decision on incorporating the technology.

  3. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  4. Smoking: what has been addressed in Brazilian journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Morais, Anna Miethke; Martins, Stella Regina; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula

    2012-12-01

    The topic of tobacco smoking, in its several aspects, has been receiving increasing attention among researchers over the past few years, which has been reflected in more data and more solid scientific literature on the subject in national journals. This article aims to review the studies that focused on smoking published between January 2010 and June 2012, in Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia (Brazilian Archives of Cardiology), Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Clinics (Sao Paulo), Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia (Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology), Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (Journal of the Brazilian Medical Association) and Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery). During the aforementioned period 58 articles were published, 52 of which were original ones, addressing several aspects of smoking, such as effects on health, epidemiology, cessation and experimental studies.

  5. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  6. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  7. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  9. National Politics of Territorial Management: The Brazilian Case Política nacional de ordenamiento territorial: el caso de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gregório de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of the Brazilian Territorial Politics, we can observe the option for the elaboration and implementation of Politics for Territorial Arrangement, in a national level, which contemplates the contemporary management methodologies. This means, the decentralization and consequent social participation as also the articulation of actions between the different government instances, together with the idea of sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion regarding the national politics of Territorial Arrangement through the case of Brazil. The discussion is supported by observations, experiences and studies of the author, based on lectures and primary and secondary analysis, mainly on statistical and cartographical material from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, publications of the Brazilian National Integration Ministry (MIN, books and scientific magazine papers.En la historia reciente de las políticas territoriales brasileñas se observa la opción por la elaboración e implantación de Políticas de Ordenamiento Territorial a nivel nacional, las cuales contemplan las metodologías de gestión contemporánea, o sea, la descentralización y consecuente participación social como también la articulación de acciones entre las diferentes instancias del gobierno. Asimismo se presenta la idea de sostenibilidad del desarrollo. El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir para la discusión respecto a las políticas nacionales de Ordenamiento Territorial trayendo el caso de Brasil. La discusión es fruto de observaciones, experiencias y estudios de la autora, con lecturas y análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias, sobre todo material estadístico y cartográfico del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE, publicaciones del Ministerio de Integración Nacional de Brasil (MIN, libros y artículos de revistas científicas.

  10. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  11. Love and the Brazilian Imaginary in National Fiction and Popular Cinema: From O Guaraní to As Melhores Coisas do Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sawyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s national and cultural self-conception arguably begins with, and was definitely impacted by, the Romantic fictional narratives of José de Alencar, most notably Iracema and O Guaraní. In establishing racial hybridity as a positive and uniquely Brazilian characteristic, Alencar appropriated that most universal of themes, love, as the vehicle by which the Brazilian culture was established and continues to define itself. More than one hundred and fifty years later, the pervasiveness of Alencar’s idea, as well as his subversive appropriation of distinctly foreign elements to declare a separate identity, is evident even in artistic narratives that do not explicitly examine questions of national identity. As Melhores Coisas do Mundo, a coming-of-age film set in modern-day São Paulo, illustrates the degree to which Alencar’s ideas continue to inform the most basic assumptions in individual and collective identity precisely because the movie’s narrative presents no conscious meditation on such issues.             Keywords: identity formation, foundational literature, popular cinema

  12. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  13. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  14. Brazilian energy statistics - 1991. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 13 figs., 22 tabs

  15. The Brazilian biofuels programme and trends for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penteado Neto, Renato de Arruda; Cunha, Ricardo Brasil Correa

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil the use of biofuels has increased along the last decades and the participation on the national energy matrix is expected to be more relevant in the near future. Ethanol and biodiesel are the main types of biofuel used in the transport sector. Brazil was responsible for 41% of the total world ethanol production in 2006. As far as vehicles are concerned, the participation of flexfuel cars in the Brazilian market in 2007 was 65%. The Brazilian Government implemented in 2005 its Biodiesel National Programme. In 2008 a mixture of 2% in diesel is mandatory, representing 840 million litres per year. (author)

  16. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and conditional paths of consumption: data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana T.S. Massaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate nationally representative prevalence rates of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS use and to identify consumption-associated factors, proposing a conditional model of direct and indirect consumption paths. Method: Using data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, this cross-sectional study analyzed a subsample of 3,828 participants between 15 and 64 years old, gathering information on the use of psychoactive substances in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian household population. Results: Rates of lifetime and last-year ATS use were, respectively, 4.1 and 1.6%. Economically privileged individuals and users of other substances were more at risk for using ATS. The results suggest that higher education decreases the chances of ATS consumption. The conditional model showed that higher income increased ATS use, higher education lowered the odds of such an increase, and cocaine use cancelled that associative effect. Conclusion: Brazil presents high rates of ATS use. Prevention and treatment strategies should focus on the protective effect of higher education levels and should target polydrug use. Knowledge of ATS-associated factors and user profiles is the starting point for developing effective treatments and tailored prevention strategies.

  17. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufalino, L; Mendes, L M; Tonoli, G H D; Fonseca, A; Rodrigues, A; Cunha, P I; Marconcini, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers

  18. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  19. [Sedentary leisure time and food consumption among Brazilian adolescents: the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE), 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (95%CI) were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color, school administration (public versus private), household assets index, and household composition. The results indicate the need for integrated interventions to promote healthy leisure-time activities and healthy eating habits among young people.

  20. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  1. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  2. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  3. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  4. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices and 19.77% (market prices of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68% was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%, despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  5. Reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women: estimates from a Brazilian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Saraceni, Valéria; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the coverage of the reporting of cases of HIV-infected pregnant women, to estimate the increase in the coverage of the reporting with the routine search of data in other Brazilian health information systems, and to identify missed opportunities for identification of HIV-infected pregnant women in Brazilian maternity hospitals. This is a descriptive study on the linkage of Brazilian databases with primary data from the "Nascer no Brasil" study and secondary database collection from national health information systems. The "Nascer no Brasil" is a national-based study carried out in 2011-2012 with 23,894 pregnant women, which identified HIV-infected pregnant women using prenatal and medical records. We searched for cases of HIV-infected pregnant women identified in the "Nascer no Brasil" study in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, the Control System for Laboratory Tests of the National CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Count and HIV Viral Load Network, and the Logistics Control System for Medications. We used the OpenRecLink software for the linkage of databases. We estimated the notification coverage, with the respective confidence interval, of the evaluated Brazilian health information systems. We estimated the coverage of the reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases as 57.1% (95%CI 42.9-70.2), and we located 89.3% of the HIV-infected pregnant women (95%CI 81.2-94.2) in some of the Brazilian health information systems researched. The search in other national health information systems would result in an increase of 57.1% of the reported cases. We identified no missed opportunities for the diagnosis of HIV+ in pregnant women in the maternity hospitals evaluated by the "Nascer no Brasil" study. The routine search for information in other Brazilian health information systems, a procedure carried out by the Ministry of Health for cases of AIDS in adults and children, should be adopted for cases of HIV in

  6. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  7. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  8. Agenda 21 nacional e indicadores de desenvolvimento sustentável: contexto brasileiro National agenda 21 and sustainable development indicators: the brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Fabricio Malheiros

    2008-03-01

    organized Civil Society to implement guidelines established by international commitment instruments. Indicators have also been proposed to follow up results and impacts arising out of the implementation of policies. In 2002, Brazil approved its Agenda 21. It was prepared through a participative process, a significant experience in a scenario of great social, environmental, and economic diversity, although the Brazilian government does not have yet a consolidated monitoring and assessing system tailored to its National Agenda 21. Following the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development guiding and support, the IBGE - Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute - published in 2002 the document IDS - Sustainable Development Indicators, Brazil 2002. Even though both efforts have been carried out simultaneously, and have had the same focus - Brazilian sustainable development -, the non-integration of both processes has produced gaps within the set of indicators, weakening the opportunity of creating conditions for assessment and revision of the national sustainable development plan and the several local agendas 21. This is the focus of this document, as it presents an integrated analysis of Brazilian Agenda 21 preparation, understood as a National Strategic Plan for Brazilian Sustainable Development, and of the construction of Brazil's Sustainable Development Indicators as proposed by IBGE, presenting positive aspects, advances, opportunities, gaps, and perspectives.

  9. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  10. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  11. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  12. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  13. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  14. Brazilian energy statistics - 1989. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some aspects about nuclear energy in Brazil. Graphs, annual statistics and historical data of electric power, petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 17 figs., 12 tabs

  15. National plan on climate change - NPCC - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This document becomes a relevant milestone for the integration of public policies, following the the general directives of the National Policy addressed this year for approval of the Brazilian National Congress. The objectives established in this document are extremely important considering the contribution potential for the reduction of the greenhouse emissions, and takes into consideration the following aspects: the brazilian emissions and the process of inventory improvements; the brazilian commitments in multilateral instruments; national plan on climate changes; mitigation opportunities; impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation; research and development; education, capacitation and communication; instruments for the action implementations

  16. Fact Sheets: Air Toxics Rules for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 1999 fact sheet for the proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins and a September 2014 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP

  17. Is there publication bias towards brazilian articles on cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. Methods: A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term “neoplasm” with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Results: Fortythree national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Conclusion: Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community. PMID:23579739

  18. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  19. Formation of Sheeting Joints as a Result of Compression Parallel to Convex Surfaces, With Examples from Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of sheeting joints has been an outstanding problem in geology. New observations and analyses indicate that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than by removal of overburden by erosion, as conventionally assumed (hypothesis 2). Opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface rather than a pressurized fluid. Consideration of a plot of this tensile stress as a function of depth normal to the surface reveals that a true tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if the rate of that tensile stress change with depth is positive at the surface. Static equilibrium requires this rate (derivative) to equal P22 k2 + P33 k3 - ρ g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface- parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ρ is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if at least one principal curvature is sufficiently convex (negative) and the surface-parallel stresses are sufficiently compressive (negative). At several sites with sheeting joints (e.g., Yosemite National Park in California), the measured topographic curvatures and the measured surface-parallel stresses of about -10 MPa combine to meet this condition. In apparent violation of hypothesis 1, sheeting joints occur locally at the bottom of Tenaya Canyon, one of the deepest glaciated, U-shaped (concave) canyons in the park. The canyon-bottom sheeting joints only occur, however, where the canyon is convex downstream, a direction that nearly coincides with direction of the most compressive stress measured in the vicinity. The most compressive stress acting along the convex

  20. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  1. Energetic transition in the electric sector: Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian electric sector is essentially based on a source of renewable energy -hydroelectricity, and the national economy has increased its dependence of the electricity. The use of the electricity for unit of GDP increased in continuous form from 1970 and the country has serious difficulties in the financing of the expansion of the electric production. Energetic politics, in what concerns to the sustainable development in the Brazilian case, should direct its efforts toward a bigger investment in efficiency and energy conservation. a bigger use of supply options that they are renewable and decentralized will depend on high degree of the regulation of the electric sector during the privatization. The transition stage of the Brazilian electric sector will imply more efforts toward a handling based on the demand and a bigger efficiency

  2. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  3. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  4. Spread-sheet application to classify radioactive material for shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    A spread-sheet application has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to aid the shipper when classifying nuclide mixtures of normal form, radioactive materials. The results generated by this spread-sheet are used to confirm the proper US DOT classification when offering radioactive material packages for transport. The user must input to the spread-sheet the mass of the material being classified, the physical form (liquid or not) and the activity of each regulated nuclide. The spread-sheet uses these inputs to calculate two general values: 1)the specific activity of the material and a summation calculation of the nuclide content. The specific activity is used to determine if the material exceeds the DOT minimal threshold for a radioactive material. If the material is calculated to be radioactive, the specific activity is also used to determine if the material meets the activity requirement for one of the three low specific activity designations (LSA-I, LSA-II, LSA-III, or not LSA). Again, if the material is calculated to be radioactive, the summation calculation is then used to determine which activity category the material will meet (Limited Quantity, Type A, Type B, or Highway Route Controlled Quantity). This spread-sheet has proven to be an invaluable aid for shippers of radioactive materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. (authors)

  5. [Brazilian nursing and the democratization of health: notes on the National Policy of Popular Education in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Bonetti, Osvaldo Peralta; da Silva, Maria Rocineide Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the role of Brazilian nursing as a socially committed practice, in the political and pedagogic plan. The concepts of popular participation, representative and participatory democracy, and education in health are recovered, enlightened by the recent history of the constitution of social network of practices and reflections called Popular Education and Health. The construction process and the ethical-political principles of a National Policy of Popular Education in Health are presented, discussing the participation of nursing in the changes of educational practices, in spaces of political representation and formulation of public policies, with a perspective of achieving a fair and equal social order.

  6. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  7. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Andre Wallace Nery da Costa; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado; Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs,...

  8. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p73   This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“not affected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMSwas RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performance impact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.1 95%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and the kind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  9. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“notaffected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMS was RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performanceimpact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.195%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and thekind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  10. State, federalism and educational policies: implications in brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Silva Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship between state and federalism as a political and administrative organizational form of the state and its implications in Brazilian educational policy. For that, we follow the analysis of the concepts of State, federalism, and educational policies from the classics of Machiavelli (2001, Locke (1998, Rousseau (1999, Hamilton, Jay and Madison (2003, Abrucio Arretche (1996, among others. Therefore, we see that the new Brazilian federalism based on the model proposed by the American Constitution brings the local powers – the municipalities – as new agents within the educational policy and the collaboration regime as a means of effecting cooperative federalism in Brazil. We conclude that the federalism, in Brazilian model, presents itself as demos constraining the national sub-governments.

  11. Mulheres brasileiras na mídia portuguesa Brazilian women at the portuguese media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pontes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das representações sobre as mulheres brasileiras na mídia portuguesa, explorando questões relativas a gênero em intersecção com nacionalidade/ etnicidade. Nestas representações são verificados processos de essencialização e exotização da identidade nacional brasileira e a sexualização destas mulheres. Relaciono tais processos com o contexto atual de intensificação da imigração brasileira em Portugal.This article deals with the representations of Brazilian women in Portuguese media, exploring gender issues in interaction with nationality/ethnicity. In these representations there are essencialization and exoticization processes of Brazilian national identity and sexualization of these women. I relate these processes with contemporary increase of Brazilian immigration to Portugal.

  12. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  13. Recommendations on the use of biosimilars by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease--Focus on clinical evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Valderílio Feijó; Meirelles, Eduardo de Souza; Kochen, Jussara de Almeida Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cristina; Miszputen, Sender J; Teixeira, Fábio Vieira; Damião, Adérson Osmar Mourão Cintra; Kotze, Paulo Gustavo; Romiti, Ricardo; Arnone, Marcelo; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Maia, Cláudia Pires Amaral; de Carvalho, André Vicente E

    2015-09-01

    The Brazilian Societies of Rheumatology (SBR) and Dermatology (SBD), the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) and the Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (GEDIIB) gathered a group of their respective specialists on the topic of interest to discuss the most relevant issues regarding the clinical use of biosimilar medicines in Brazil. The main aim of that meeting was to prepare a document with recommendations to guide medical specialists and to help the national regulatory and policy-making agencies as concerns the authorization for marketing biosimilars used in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and ulcerative colitis. In addition to considerations on the typical differences between innovator medicines and biosimilars, the specialists established a set of seven recommendations on regulatory advances related to clinical studies, indication extrapolation, nomenclature, interchangeability, automatic substitution and pharmacovigilance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  15. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  16. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Seigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and

  18. Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Seigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and Brazilian racial

  19. Global ice sheet/RSL simulations using the higher-order Ice Sheet System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, E. Y.; Ivins, E. R.; Adhikari, S.; Schlegel, N.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.

    2017-12-01

    Relative sea-level rise is driven by processes that are intimately linked to the evolution ofglacial areas and ice sheets in particular. So far, most Earth System models capable of projecting theevolution of RSL on decadal to centennial time scales have relied on offline interactions between RSL andice sheets. In particular, grounding line and calving front dynamics have not been modeled in a way that istightly coupled with Elasto-Static Adjustment (ESA) and/or Glacial-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Here, we presenta new simulation of the entire Earth System in which both Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are tightly coupledto an RSL model that includes both ESA and GIA at resolutions and time scales compatible with processes suchas grounding line dynamics for Antarctica ice shelves and calving front dynamics for Greenland marine-terminatingglaciers. The simulations rely on the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and show the impact of higher-orderice flow dynamics and coupling feedbacks between ice flow and RSL. We quantify the exact impact of ESA andGIA inclusion on grounding line evolution for large ice shelves such as the Ronne and Ross ice shelves, as well asthe Agasea Embayment ice streams, and demonstate how offline vs online RSL simulations diverge in the long run,and the consequences for predictions of sea-level rise.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  20. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  1. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  2. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  3. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  4. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled...

  5. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality...

  6. luxury marketing: internationalization strategies for brazilian jewelry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaline Gasperini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to make an analysis of the luxury market and of Brazilian jewelry companies. The main objective is to analyze the attraction of external marketing to luxury brands internationalization, emphasizing Brazilian jewelry companies. First, the national environment of luxury market an jewelry in Brazil is presented. In sequence, it will address the possible goals, risks and opportunities that internationalized jewelry companies face in the expansion process and its difficulties in foreign markets. Finally, some forms of internationalization will be presented based on the case of the Brazilian jewelry companies H Stern and Talento Jóias. The methodology used in this article is exploratory, with documental analysis and in depth interview. As theoretical foundations for the article, the themes luxury, exportations, company internationalization and global market were addressed. The main author(s researched were: Allérès (2006, Almeida (2007, Czinkota (2001, Grande (2007, Lipovetsky e Roux (2005. Among the main conclusions, Brazilian jewelry companies have great advantages compared to other countries, having the possibility to use Brazilian nature resources, like precious stones and gems, thus, it become more interesting and viable to innovate and conquer external market. Besides, jewelry market attractions make several entrepreneurs interested in opening business in this field, and lately internationalize them, such as H Stern case.

  7. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  8. The Brazilian National Intercomparison Program (PNI/IRD/CNEN): evaluation of 15 years of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, Luiz; Vianna, Maria Elizabeth Couto M.; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Braganca, Maura Julia C.; Clain, Almir Faria; Quelvia de Faria, Rute

    2006-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria has been coordinating the National Intercomparison Program (PNI) for 15 years, from 1991 to 2005. The objective is to evaluate the analytical performance of the laboratories in low-level activity concentration radionuclide assays in environmental samples. This work presents an evaluation of PNI data from 42 intercomparison runs, which distributed to 22 Brazilian laboratories 2511 samples evaluating 5768 radionuclide assays involving 32 radionuclides in the period from 1991 to 2004. The laboratory performance was evaluated using the Normalized Standard Deviation used by the U.S. EPA. For comparison aims, the Normalized Deviation, used by BIPM was also applied. Laboratory performance were grouped and evaluated in three periods of 5 years each. The first period shows, an average value of good performance of 71.2%, the second shows an average of 78.6% and the last an average of 82.3%. Performance for each kind of radionuclide is also presented

  9. Home advantage in the soccer: comparison between the Brazilian championship and the main national leagues of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage is a phenomenon that has been investigated in many sporting competition. Nevertheless, data from Brazilian soccer and comparisons between different leagues are rare in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a survey of the advantage of playing at home in the first division of the Brazilian Championship (Série A, by means of percentage of available points won while playing at home, and to compare this with the principal national leagues of the world for the seasons from 2002/03 to 2006/07. The results showed that there was a significantly greater advantage to playing at home for teams in the Brazilian Championship (64.9 ± 2.2%; p Resumo ResumoA vantagem em casa é um fenômeno que tem sido investigado em muitos confrontos esportivos. Contudo, dados do futebol brasileiro e comparações entre ligas são limitados na literatura. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi fazer um levantamento da vantagem em casa do Campeonato Brasileiro da primeira divisão (Série A, por meio do percentual de aproveitamento dos pontos em casa, e compará-la com as principais ligas nacionais do mundo nas temporadas de 2002/03 a 2006/07. Os resultados demonstraram que o Campeonato Brasileiro obteve vantagem em casa significantemente maior (64,9 ± 2,2%; p<0.05 em comparação com as ligas da Alemanha, Argentina, Espanha, Inglaterra, Itália e Portugal. Apenas na comparação com a liga francesa não houve diferença estatística (p=0,050. Conclui-se que no Campeonato Brasileiro a vantagem em casa foi maior do que as principais ligas nacionais de futebol do mundo no período analisado. Possíveis fatores que contribuíram para isso foram discutidos.

  10. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  11. The quest for recognition: Brazilian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    'Hispanic' and 'Latino' are imprecise umbrella terms often used in the United States to designate nationals from Central and South America. The labelling of Brazilians in this manner generates inaccurate demographic information, including a significant undercount of the migrant population. Research data indicates that Brazilians object to being designated Hispanics, since Brazilians speak Portuguese and have no Spanish heritage. The labelling of ethnic groups has been criticized as a stereotypical and racist system, which primarily responds to non-scientific demands. This commentary appeals for reform in the way researchers and institutions refer to minority citizens as well as for continued research to investigate racism and ethnic prejudice. The development of new approaches and methodologies to examine social networks, migration and the geographic concentration of poverty is advocated.

  12. [The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency performance evaluation at the management contract model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Elka Maltez de Miranda; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) is supervised by the Ministry of Health by means of a management contract, a performance evaluation tool. This case study was aimed at describing and analyzing Anvisa's performance evaluation model based on the agency's institutional purpose, according to the following analytical categories: the management contract formalization, evaluation tools, evaluators and institutional performance. Semi-structured interviews and document analysis revealed that Anvisa signed only one management contract with the Ministry of Health in 1999, updated by four additive terms. The Collegiate Board of Directors and the Advisory Center for Strategic Management play the role of Anvisa's internal evaluators and an Assessing Committee, comprising the Ministry of Health, constitutes its external evaluator. Three phases were identified in the evaluation model: the structuring of the new management model (1999-2000), legitimation regarding the productive segment (2001-2004) and widespread legitimation (2005). The best performance was presented in 2000 (86.05%) and the worst in 2004 (40.00%). The evaluation model was shown to have contributed little towards the agency's institutional purpose and the effectiveness measurement of the implemented actions.

  13. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo. Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v, pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. RESULTS: When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v to 0.16% (m/v. One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. CONCLUSION: 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence.

  14. Brazilian human resources in a polarized Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Fátima Rosa Veloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of human resource strategies employed by Brazilian companies in a polarized region of Latin America. Firstly, we highlighted the concerns of Brazilian managers in respect to the coming years, and to identify the current strategic approach of prominent companies in the Brazilian market. Secondly, we identified possible strategies for internationalization, particularly in the context of Latin America. The results of two surveys were used: one prospecting management trends by 2015 and another consisting of a sample of 541 companies that participate in a national survey in which HR managers answered a questionnaire. Among the results, it is noteworthy that the main issues of concern for Brazilian managers in the coming years. We found most the companies concerned with these challenges in the industries of information technology, iron and steel, and health services. Forty-nine of a total of 541 companies intend to internationalize, 17 of them towards Latin American. Their profile characterization allowed us to divide them into two groups: those focusing on the local needs of Latin American, and those looking to meet the expanding needs of Brazil or the country of their parent company.

  15. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  16. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1992. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. A brief picture of Brazil's electric power status with regard to bordering countries is also presented, giving an idea of the prospects for progress in electric power integration through the implementation of new international electric power interconnection projects. (author). 13 figs., 19 tabs

  18. A sustainability analysis of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, I.J.; Perrotta, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The project of a new research reactor in Brazil for radioisotope production, support of the nuclear energy program and scientific research has received a positive sign of the government and is starting to be developed by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy. International Atomic Energy Agency points out that the implementation of a new research reactor is a major undertaking for a country, requiring an analysis to identify to which extent the conditions of the national nuclear program are proper and adequate to lead to a sustainable research reactor life cycle. This paper introduces the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Project (RMB) and describes the sustainability analysis performed, which has shown that the national nuclear infrastructure presents a very favourable condition to the implementation of the RMB project as well as to provide a sustainable life cycle for this new research reactor. (author)

  19. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  20. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  1. Biotypology, regionalism, and the construction of a plural Brazilian bodily identity, 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates regional biotypological studies and the construction of biological deterministic discourses about the Brazilian identity in the 1930s. Biotypological research was undertaken to determine the normal body type of the Brazilian man, using its peculiar classificatory lexicon. Studies into the bodily profile of specific regions, like the northeast and São Paulo state, featured in this research. In the context of the contemporary debates about race, miscegenation, and national identity, these investigations were geared towards biological determinism and the influence of the environment and social and cultural aspects on the bodily development of Brazilians. It is shown how regional biotypological studies echoed racial, normalizing, exclusive viewpoints and contributed to the construction of a miscegenated Brazilian bodily identity.

  2. Influences of economic development in the Brazilian energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main goal to present some of the issues regarding the effects of the Brazilian economy in the effectiveness of national energy efficiency projects in order to provide some guidelines for optimizing the energy saving actions. The replacement of traditional electric motors with high efficiency motors has been considered, or that brings innovation and increases the need to search for new technologies for Brazilian industries. We must consider whether this new paradigm requires a strong federal government's investment in Brazil in order to allow the implementation of energy efficiency programs, mainly in small and medium industries. This document is divided into three main parts. The first part deals with some aspects of the economic crisis. The second presents the most important data of the National Electricity Conservation (PROCEL and Energy Efficiency Program of the ANEEL (National Electric Energy Agency. The third shows data on Small and Medium Industries and how their energy efficiency programs were affected.

  3. Amateur filmmaking in the history of Brazilian cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Silva Foster

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As in many national cinemas, the history of Brazilian amateur film is still in its early stages of investigation. In addition to this historiographical deficit, there are many ways in which amateur cinema is a small and less visible production: films shot in 16mm, 9.5mm and Super 8 are dispensable and Brazilian film archives and cinemateques only started cataloguing these materials in recent years. In the following paper we wish to establish a set of theoretic and historical guidelines to analyse amateur films that express different forms of amateur production. Through the collection of home movies from Alves de Lima family deposited at Cinemateca Brasileira (São Paulo, the amateur fictional films from Cinemateca Capitólio (Porto Alegre and Raymond Chauvin's  experimental films belonging to Hipólito José da Costa Communications Museum (Porto Alegre we want to give visibility to films that are not yet part of Brazilian cinema history.

  4. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  5. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  6. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  7. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira Nation and nationalism based on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lessa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pensar nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira exige um mergulho desde as raízes coloniais até a modernidade. Essa trajetória é marcada por descompassos, e desde o Estado Nacional até a sedimentação da nação e o sentimento de auto-estima com uma "identidade brasileira" transcorre-se mais de um século. Tanto o conceito de Brasil-nação quanto as versões nacionalistas jamais têm alta dramaticidade; as passagens históricas fundamentais - abolição, proclamação da República, Estado Novo - se sucedem com poucos traumas preliminares e, em seqüência, a trajetória opera uma rápida "conservatização". Do ponto de vista econômico, as forças produtivas se desenvolvem dinâmica e intensamente. Apesar da expansão demográfica, da ocupação territorial, da transformação e emergência de novos grupos sociais no campo e na cidade, é preservada a exclusão social de amplas frações da nacionalidade dos benefícios do dinamismo econômico. É ciclotímica a leitura dos nacionais de suas próprias características. A cultura, tanto das elites quanto a popular, fornece chaves para entender as mutações do pensar nacional em relação ao Brasil e o desdobramento de múltiplas características.This essay aims to analyze both Nation and Nationalism concepts according to the viewpoint of brazilian experience, from colonial roots to our times, from national state’s birth to the settlement of the Nation and national self-stee. The main historical landmarks happen with few preliminary traumas and are "conservative-zed". Productive forces develop dynamically; demographic expansion and territory occupation continue as society changes and new groups emerge; however, large population segments keep excluded from the welfare economic development should provide. Natives' self-perception is rather cyclothymical. Both popular and elite’s culture provide the keys to understand the mutations of national thinking about Brazil, as

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  10. Tudo Pela Patria: The Brazilian Navy's Drive to Blue Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conners, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Navy is unique among most world navies today. Since the end of the Cold War, most nations have reduced their naval power, yet Brazil has maintained a determination to possess a blue-water fleet...

  11. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  13. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  14. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  15. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Selva

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  16. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  17. The Brazilian national para-petroleum industry and the role played in the competitiveness of the Brazilian 'petroleum diamond'; A industria para-petroleira nacional e o seu papel na competitividade do 'diamante petroleiro' brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Maria Regina Macchione de Arruda

    1999-07-01

    The author uses the Michael Porter framework, (from the University of Harvard), about the 'Competitive Advantage of Nations', as a theoretical instrument to analyze the Brazilian oil industry. The document studies, specifically, the related and supporting industries, one of the four determinants that, according to the author, promote the creation of national competitive advantages; the others are: the factors conditions; the demand conditions; and the firm strategy, structure and rivalry. The study aims at building a general view of competitiveness for the so called supply industries to the oil sector, which have a fundamental role in this model. Although Brazil has developed, with the leadership of PETROBRAS, a complex industrial system, this structure of related and supporting industries will have to face new challenges, having to improve efficiency, reduce costs and redefine its global strategies. (author)

  18. Brazilian jeitinho versus Chinese guanxi: investigating their informal influence on international business.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio V. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian jeitinho and the Chinese guanxi are considered indigenous forms of informal influence. The first can be described as behavior tactics aimed at resolving social problems. The latter is broadly described as achieving goals through the use of social networks. These influence processes were chosen because they are commonly used in business negotiations in Brazil and China. Thus, understanding their peculiarity is fundamental for the management of organizations involved in business in those two cultures. Therefore, we seek to determine whether such influence processes differ, as it is possible that a process said to be indigenous to a particular cultural context might be, in fact, also found elsewhere. To investigate their uniqueness and the relationship between them, two studies were carried out. In both studies, participants rated representativeness, typicality and positivity of social scenarios, besides completing a 21-item version of the Schwartz’s Portrait Value Survey and a scale regarding attitudes towards corruption. Data were analyzed by a series of mean difference tests and stepwise regressions, separately for each nation, and the results are presented by sample. There were two samples: university students’ sample (with 266 Brazilian and 220 Chinese and managers’ sample (with 101 Singapore Chinese and 246 Brazilian. Brazil scored significantly higher on conservation and selfenhancement values when compared to China. Chinese respondents perceived the guanxi scenarios as more typical of what happens in China than the jeitinho scenarios, with a reverse pattern being observed for Brazilians. Although Brazilian respondents evaluated jeitinho less positively than Chinese respondents evaluated guanxi scenarios, but they also did perceive jeitinho as more positive than. For the managers’ samples, it was observed that Brazilians had a significantly lower score on attitudes toward business corruptibility when compared to Chinese

  19. Brazilian Microbiome Project: revealing the unexplored microbial diversity--challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Ortega, José Miguel; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Hirsch, Penny Ruth; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; da Costa da Silva, Artur Luiz; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Duarte, Gabriela Frois; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Seldin, Lucy; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Hungria, Mariangela; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-02-01

    The Brazilian Microbiome Project (BMP) aims to assemble a Brazilian Metagenomic Consortium/Database. At present, many metagenomic projects underway in Brazil are widely known. Our goal in this initiative is to co-ordinate and standardize these together with new projects to come. It is estimated that Brazil hosts approximately 20 % of the entire world's macroorganism biological diversity. It is 1 of the 17 countries that share nearly 70 % of the world's catalogued animal and plant species, and is recognized as one of the most megadiverse countries. At the end of 2012, Brazil has joined GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility), as associated member, to improve the access to the Brazilian biodiversity data in a free and open way. This was an important step toward increasing international collaboration and clearly shows the commitment of the Brazilian government in directing national policies toward sustainable development. Despite its importance, the Brazilian microbial diversity is still considered to be largely unknown, and it is clear that to maintain ecosystem dynamics and to sustainably manage land use, it is crucial to understand the biological and functional diversity of the system. This is the first attempt to collect and collate information about Brazilian microbial genetic and functional diversity in a systematic and holistic manner. The success of the BMP depends on a massive collaborative effort of both the Brazilian and international scientific communities, and therefore, we invite all colleagues to participate in this project.

  20. Technology development in materials working for nuclear sector and its consequences for the Brazilian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volta, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The technology transfer model adopted in materials development for Brazilian nuclear sector is described. Materials are very important for the industrial development and the National nuclear program has contributed with others areas, for example, metallurgical, siderurgical, equipment sectors, etc. Grafenrheinfeld Power Plant is used like reference plant for Angra-1, a Brazilian nuclear power plant. (M.V.M.)

  1. Capoeira Angola and its relations with the myth of Brazilian racial democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Balaguer

    2017-01-01

    Capoeira is a cultural manifestation widely known as part of Brazilian identity and culture both by Brazilians and foreigners. Nevertheless, for being originally a black popular culture, it must be understood in relation to the dominant culture, where elements of resistance and consent are present (HALL, 2013). In the nineteenth and in the beginning of the twentieth century, capoeira was strongly repressed by the State, driving the blacks away from the construction of national identity based ...

  2. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2009-01-01

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  3. Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in five Brazilian capitals with a high incidence of the disease *

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Normeide Pedreira; Lírio, Monique; Passos, Louran Andrade Reis; Dias, Juarez Pereira; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in the greater metropolitan areas of five Brazilian capitals where the incidence of tuberculosis was high in 2010-Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Cuiabá, Porto Alegre, and Belém-using tabulations obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (National Case Registry Database). The degree of completeness was highest in Porto Alegre and Cuiabá, whereas it was lowest in Rio de Janeiro, where there are more reported cases of tuberculosis than in any other Brazilian capital. A low degree of completeness of these forms can affect the quality of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Program, which will have negative consequences for health care and decision-making processes. PMID:23670508

  4. MAMA-AFRICA REPRESENTATIONS IN THE MOZAMBICAN AND AFRO-BRAZILIAN POETRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Donizeth; USP

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of poems, “Sangue negro”, by the Mozambican poet Noémia de Sousa, “Regressão” and “Elo”, by the Afro-Brazilian poet Oliveira Silveira, the article shows that Mother-Africa is represented in a Mozambican poetry as the biological black mother, the nation and the African continent, while in the Afro-Brazilian, besides being the progenitor of the black mankind, the African continent, is also the promised land, the lost paradise. Através da análise dos poemas “Sangue negro”...

  5. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  6. 1970-1997 energy balance-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to bring together a consistent and harmonized set of statistical data on energy economics in the French territory. The information is based on the global and structural approach of the different energy balance-sheets published between 1970 and 1997. The first chapter gives a general idea of the energy situation of the passed year and outlines the evolution of the main aggregates (production, primary and final consumption etc..) comparatively to those of the general economy. The second chapter is devoted to the history of energy economics. Time series of indicators and diagrams allow to precise the structural modifications that occurred during the last decades. The main transformations in the national energy production and the development of the different energy sources in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors and in the transportation sector are described too. The third chapter gives numerical data on energy for the last 28 years using the common Mtpe unit (million of tons of petroleum equivalent). These balance sheets are based on new energy keeping methods and use identical equivalence coefficients. The last chapter presents the energy balance sheets for the last three years, using the proper units for coal, petroleum, gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  7. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  8. Fact sheet: National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet contains a summary of what the regulations will do, establish, and provide; regulatory impact in regards to benefits and costs; treatment technique requirements; tap water monitoring for lead and copper; water quality monitoring (other than lead and copper); monitoring schedules, regulatory schedules for large, medium-sized, and small systems

  9. The nuclear energy in the context of Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work has as its objective the study of nuclear activity within the context of Brazilian Law. It focuses on the organizational structure in which, as part of the Directives of the National Nuclear Energy Policy, this activity is being developed through specific legal norms. (Author) [pt

  10. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  11. [Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Aranha, Francisco; Bastos, Francisco I

    2008-06-01

    To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population. A population survey was carried out in 2005 on a representative sample of 5,040 interviewees. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out in 1998, when possible. Most interviewees selected the "sex is evidence of love" option when describing the meaning of sex. As in 1998, the majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage (63.9% for women vs. 52.4% for men initiation); results differed among religions. School teenage education on the use of condoms was supported by 97% of the interviewees across all social groups. The proportion of Brazilians who agreed with having access to condoms in health services (95%) and at school (83.6%) was high. Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, in 2005, in the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the 1998 survey. The younger generations tend to be more tolerant and egalitarian. As observed in other countries, this study confirms the difficulty in establishing a single dimension that guides sexual life ("liberal" vs "conservative"). The study suggests that the normativity concerning sexual activity should be understood in the light of the local culture and social organization of sexuality, considered by the STD/Aids programs. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and discriminating against homosexual minorities. The design of laical policies on sexuality allow for the dialog across different perspectives.

  12. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  13. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Characteristics Derived from Passive Microwave Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Greenland ice sheet melt extent data, acquired as part of the NASA Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA), is a daily (or every other day, prior...

  14. [Anthropometrical profile of Brazilian junior volleyball players for different sports requirement levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Toledo, Cláudio; Roquetti, Paula; Fernandes-Filho, José

    2010-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the anthropometrics characteristics of male Brazilian junior volleyball players, organised into 3 sports requirement groups: high qualification (HQ) formed by the national team, middle qualification (MQ) formed by athletes playing in the Brazilian national championships and low qualification (LQ) formed by players at school level. 101 athletes were observed, HQ (n=16), MQ (n=68) and LQ (n=17), aged 16.7 ± 0.5; 16.6 ± 0.5 and 16.2 ± 0.7 years, respectively. There following were evaluated: body mass, height, standing reach height, % body fat and Heath & Carter somatotype. The statistical analysis was descriptive and inferential, the Kruskal Wallis test being used for detecting differences between groups (pcharacteristics and requirement levels, considering psports' selection instrument for young talented volleyball players.

  15. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Luíza Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012. Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  16. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Perry, Katia da Silva Peixoto; Teruya, Dirceu Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  17. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  18. Regionalization and political dynamics of Brazilian health federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Daniel de Araujo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2011-02-01

    The implications from the Brazilian federal structure on the regionalization of health actions and services in the National Unified Health System (SUS) were analyzed, considering that the regional health planning in Brazil takes place within the context of intergovernmental relations as an expression of cooperative federalism in health. The analysis was based on a historical approach to Brazilian health federalism, recognizing two development periods, decentralization and regionalization. Regional health planning of SUS was explored in light of the theoretical framework of federalism. It is concluded that relative centralization of the process is needed in intergovernmental committees to actualize federal coordination and that it is essential to consider formalizing opportunities for dissent, both in regional management boards and in the intergovernmental committees, so that the consensus decision-making can be accomplished in healthcare regionalization.

  19. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  20. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  1. An overview of applications and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.J.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  2. Lunch quality and sociodemographic conditions between Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of lunch consumed by adults in Brazil and its sociodemographic determinants in each Brazilian region. A cross-sectional study was carried out and a representative sample of regional populations was used. The sample comprised of 16,096 adults from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, part of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF. The lunch quality was evaluated by applying the main meal quality index (MMQI, comprised of 10 items of equal weights that resulted in a score that ranged from zero to 100 points. Linear regression models measured the association between lunch quality and sociodemographic factors. The average energy consumption at lunch was 704kcal (SD = 300, and the meal quality score mean was 57 points (SE = 0.30. The North Region had the worst MMQI score (56 points, SE = 0.07, while the Central had the best MMQI adjusted score (59 points, SE = 0.05. The MMQI final score was positively associated with male gender and ages between 20-39 years, and was inversely associated with having eight years or more of education, per capita income of at least three minimum wages, and with the consumption of meals prepared away from home. Despite differences among sociodemographic factors, all Brazilian regions had a lunch composed of foods rich in sugars and fats, with insufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, resulting in a low meal quality.

  3. Fact Sheets - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Guard About Us By the Numbers Contact Us FAQ Federal Mission History Join Us Leaders Director of March Today in Guard History Leadership CNGB VCNGB SEA DANG DARNG Joint Staff J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 J-6 J Marshal Office of the Joint Surgeon PARC Small Business Programs Chaplain Diversity NGB-GOMO Resources

  4. [Influence of income on food expenditures away from home among Brazilian families, 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2009-11-01

    This study describes and evaluates the influence of income on the percentage of food expenditures away from home for Brazilian families. Food acquisition data from the National Household Budget Survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 (POF 2002/2003) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) or National Census Bureau was used in the analysis. Information on food-and-drink expenditures away from home was analyzed. The influence of income on the share of food purchased away from home in the household budget, adjusted for socio-demographic variables, was analyzed through elasticity coefficients estimated in multiple linear regression. Food purchased away from home accounted for 21% of total food expenditures by Brazilian households. A 10% increase in income increased the share of food purchased away from home by 3%. Income elasticity was high, especially for the lowest income families. The results demonstrate an important influence of income on food expenditures away from home, and higher income is associated with a greater share of food purchased away from home.

  5. Capoeira Angola and its relations with the myth of Brazilian racial democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Balaguer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capoeira is a cultural manifestation widely known as part of Brazilian identity and culture both by Brazilians and foreigners. Nevertheless, for being originally a black popular culture, it must be understood in relation to the dominant culture, where elements of resistance and consent are present (HALL, 2013. In the nineteenth and in the beginning of the twentieth century, capoeira was strongly repressed by the State, driving the blacks away from the construction of national identity based on racial and ethnic grounds (REIS, 2000. In the 30's, a new narrative of Brazilian identity, known as Brazilian racial democracy, treasured the cultural and biological integration of the three existing races in Brazil (SCHWARZ, 2012; MUNANGA, 1996. Along with other cultural and religious manifestations, capoeira is now valued and integrated into the State (PIRES, 2010. The text aims at raising aspects that allow a reappraisal of how the Angola capoeira relates to racial and ethnic issues, based on questioning the myth of racial democracy and the contribution of cultural studies (MUNANGA, 1996; CARONE; BENTO, 2002; HALL, 2013.

  6. Fact Sheet: National Space Policy. Appendix F-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    For over three decades, the United States has led the world in the exploration and use of outer space. Our achievements in space have inspired a generation of Americans and people throughout the world. We will maintain this leadership role by supporting a strong, stable, and balanced national space program that serves our goals in national security, foreign policy, economic growth, environmental stewardship, and scientific and technical excellence. Access to and use of space are central for preserving peace and protecting US national security as well as civil and commercial interests. The United States will pursue greater levels of partnership and cooperation in national and international space activities and work with other nations to ensure the continued exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The goals of the US space program are to: (a) Enhance knowledge of the Earth, the solar system, and the universe through human and robotic exploration; (b) Strengthen and maintain the national security of the United States; (c) Enhance the economic competitiveness and scientific and technical capabilities of the United States; (d) Encourage State, local, and private sector investment in, and use of, space technologies; (e) Promote international cooperation to further US domestic, national security, and foreign policies. The United States is committed to the exploration and use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all humanity. "Peaceful purposes" allow defense and intelligence-related activities in pursuit of national security and other goals. The United States rejects any claims to sovereignty by any nation over outer space or celestial bodies, or any portion thereof, and rejects any limitations on the fundamental right of sovereign nations to acquire data from space. The United States considers the space systems of any nation to be national property with the right of passage through and operations in space without

  7. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among brazilian university students: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. METHODS: This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1% and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%. Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug. RESULTS: Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83, marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11 and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79 compared to FR students. CONCLUSION: Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  8. National report of Brazil on nuclear safety convention - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy

  9. Article-level metrics and the periphery: an exploration of articles by Brazilian authors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, I.V.P.; Gouveia, F.C.

    2016-07-01

    This work-in-progress paper describes an ongoing PhD study that aims to explore article-level metrics from a set of articles published by Brazilian researchers. It is argued that article-level metrics can offer a more nuanced and accurate picture of the influence of a particular work in comparison to journal-level metrics. However, if these new metrics rely on sources that exclude a large part of research from the periphery, they are at risk of simply preserving the present inequalities in the scholarly communication system. In order to understand how article-level metrics are or could be useful to the scientific community in the peripheries, we need to see what metrics are currently available, identify possible biases, and understand their meaning. We aim to contribute to this discussion with a case study focused on exploring a set of both traditional and alternative article-level metrics related to publications authored by Brazilian researchers. So far, few studies analyse article-level metrics for Brazilian publications, and most focus on Brazilian journals instead of researcher's affiliation. Our study will collect articles with DOIs registered by Brazilian researchers at the Lattes Platform, an information system maintained by the national Science, Technologies and Communications ministry. This exploration aims to address the following questions: (a) Which are the main article-level metrics available for journal articles authored by Brazilian researchers? What are the main sources of ALM data for Brazilian publications?; (b) Are there any disciplines, institutions, locations etc. that attract more mentions in the case of Brazilian articles? How do these metrics compare among themselves?; and (c) Do articlelevel metrics of publications by Brazilian researchers reflect patterns and trends observed in studies with researchers from other countries? (Author)

  10. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  11. [Obesity in Brazilian women: association with parity and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regicely Aline Brandão; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino

    2015-05-01

    To determine the influence of reproductive history on the prevalence of obesity in Brazilian women and the possible modifying effect of socioeconomic variables on the association between parity and excess weight. A retrospective analysis of complex sample data collected as part of the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health, which included a group representative of women of childbearing age in Brazil was conducted. The study included 11 961 women aged 20 to 49 years. The association between the study factor (parity) and the outcome of interest (obesity) was tested using logistic regression analysis. The adjusted effect of parity on obesity was assessed in a multiple regression model containing control variables: age, family purchasing power, as defined by the Brazilian Association of Research Enterprises (ABEP), schooling, and health care. Significance level was set at below 0.05. The prevalence of obesity in the study population was 18.6%. The effect of parity on obesity was significant (P for trend parity and age. Family purchase power had a significant odds ratio for obesity only in the unadjusted analysis. In the adjusted model, this variable did not explain obesity. The present findings suggest that parity has an influence on obesity in Brazilian women of childbearing age, with higher prevalence in women vs. without children.

  12. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  13. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  14. The Brazilian national para-petroleum industry and the role played in the competitiveness of the Brazilian 'petroleum diamond'; A industria para-petroleira nacional e o seu papel na competitividade do 'diamante petroleiro' brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Maria Regina Macchione de Arruda

    1999-07-01

    The author uses the Michael Porter framework, (from the University of Harvard), about the 'Competitive Advantage of Nations', as a theoretical instrument to analyze the Brazilian oil industry. The document studies, specifically, the related and supporting industries, one of the four determinants that, according to the author, promote the creation of national competitive advantages; the others are: the factors conditions; the demand conditions; and the firm strategy, structure and rivalry. The study aims at building a general view of competitiveness for the so called supply industries to the oil sector, which have a fundamental role in this model. Although Brazil has developed, with the leadership of PETROBRAS, a complex industrial system, this structure of related and supporting industries will have to face new challenges, having to improve efficiency, reduce costs and redefine its global strategies. (author)

  15. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; Howat, Ian M.; Neumann, Thomas; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey; Chambers, Don P.; Evans, Katherine J.; Kennedy, Joseph H.; Lenaerts, Jan; Lipscomb, William H.; Perego, Mauro; Salinger, Andrew G.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework - the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) - that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013, using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin-scale and whole-ice-sheet-scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate a predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes that have occurred on Greenland over the past few decades. An extensible design will allow for continued use of the CmCt as future altimetry, gravimetry, and other remotely sensed data become available for use in ice sheet model validation.

  16. Participation in Sports and Civic Engagement. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Moore, Kimberlee

    2006-01-01

    One reason to offer sports in school is to teach youth the values, skills, and habits that will make them more active, engaged, and responsible citizens. Past evidence on the civic effects of sports is mixed, but points to some potential positive civic effects. This fact sheet uses recent data from the 2002 National Youth Survey of Civic…

  17. Modelos nacionais e regionais de família no pensamento social brasileiro National and Regional Family Patterns in Brazilian Social Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANDICE VIDAL E SOUZA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As revisões sobre os estudos clássicos de família no Brasil convergem na crítica ao patriarcalismo como modelo genérico e fixo de descrição dessa instituição, propondo que a família brasileira era uma pluralidade dispersa de experiências. Sugerimos que já nas narrativas ensaísticas sobre a identidade nacional existem modelos plurais de família brasileira, diversificados em termos da compreensão dos arranjos locais de relações familiares. Com esse objetivo, relemos, sob o eixo família-nação-região, dois conjuntos de ensaístas significativos para a construção de identidades regionais particulares (primeiro, Alfredo Ellis Jr. e Cassiano Ricardo; segundo, Alceu Amoroso Lima e Sylvio de Vasconcellos, pensadores/produtores de visões de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais, respectivamente, enquanto culturas e sociedades em grande parte caracterizadas por suas experiências de organização familiar própria.Revisions of classical studies of the family in Brazil agree in criticizing patriarchalism as a general and fixed model describing this institution, arguing that the Brazilian family was a plurality of dispersed experiences. We suggest that in the essay narratives of national identity there are already plural models of the Brazilian family, which are diversified according to local arrangements of family relations. Considering the themes family-nation-region, we review the work of two groups of important essayists on the construction of particular regional identities: Alfredo Ellis Jr. e Cassiano Ricardo; Alceu Amoroso Lima e Sylvio de Vasconcellos. We argue that these essayists articulated visions of São Paulo and Minas Gerais as cultures and societies characterized in a significant way by experiences of a proper family organization.

  18. An assessment of Brazilian conservation units – a second look

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, José Augusto Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This is a second overview of the Brazilian conservation unit system for mid-2010. It updates author et al, 2009. It examines six dimensions of federal and state protected areas – age, numbers, types of units, absolute and average sizes, distribution by states and biomes, and degree of compliance with CBD-inspired goals. Major findings: (i) the system maintained a rapid growth rate; (ii) national parks and national forests are the most prominent units; (iii) distribution of units by region and...

  19. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  20. The Brazilian Unified National Health System: Proposal of a Cost-effectiveness Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Unified National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] is in a prominent position compared to the existing social policies. One of the new tools used by SUS is known as Performance Index of the Unified Health System (Índice de Desempenho do Sistema Único de Saúde [IDSUS], which is intended to measure the performance of each municipality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a model of cost-effectiveness to compare IDSUS performance against total revenues achieved in Homogeneous Group 2, consisting of 94 municipalities and analysed using data from IDSUS and the System Information of the Public Budget for Health Care (Sistema de Informação do Orçamento Público em Saúde [SIOPS] for the year 2011. After structuring this data, we carried out descriptive statistical and cluster analysis in order to group similar municipalities in accordance with established variables: IDSUS performance, population and total revenue in health per capita. Even with the division of municipalities into homogeneous groups and after using variables such as population and revenue to regroup them, the results showed there are municipalities with heterogeneous characteristics. Another finding is in the use and intersection of two distinct databases (IDSUS and SIOPS, which allowed for visualizing the impact of health care revenue on the municipalities performance.

  1. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  2. Brazilian status in blood irradiation in Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, E.G. de; Borges, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview of the Brazilian reality concerning Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) is presented. Suggestions of policies and procedures to optimise GVHD prevention are reported. A national irradiator device using cobalt teletherapy unit is proposed for irradiation of blood and cellular components

  3. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gomes, Rogerio dos; Magalhaes Ennes Ennes, Edson Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CORES FOR MINI MOTORS FROM LAMINATED SHEETS OF ELECTRIC STEEL ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards 35F 420M WITH THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halston Mozetic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper were to study the thermal treatment of Fe-Si sheet, as well as the sheet cutting concerning the topology of a mini stepper motor and mini motor simulation using finite element software. The research consisted of the execution of an "Inductive Reheating" thermal treatment of Iron Silicon sheets, NM71-2000/35F 420M with GNO (Grain Non Oriented, and 0.35mm width. The new technique has the benefit of minimizing magnetic losses produced by the cut on the edge of electric sheets. To carry out the process, the system includes a furnace, an induction coil, and a power supply that, when activated in a controlled way, causes relevant changes to the crystalline structure of the material. Related to the cut of the sheets, the topology of a three phase mini stepper motor was considered. The sheets were initially cut using the geometry of the rotor and stator cores. Firstly, a die cutting process was used and later a wire electroerosion cutting process was employed, which provided parts with excellent finishing. Finally, the mini motor was simulated using the finite element software FEMM 4.2 in order to analyze the airgap flow and torque development of the axis end, in comparison to a solid block of the same material (Fe-Si

  5. Food Insecurity and the Negative Impact on Brazilian Children's Health-Why Does Food Security Matter for Our Future Prosperity? Brazilian National Survey (PNDS 2006/07).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblacion, Ana Paula; Cook, John T; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas A C; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2016-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling. Participants were 3923 children Insecurity Scale were dichotomized as food secure (food security/mild FI) or food insecure (moderate FI/severe FI). Poisson regression was used to test for associations between FI and various health indicators. Models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic variables showed that children hospitalized for pneumonia or diarrhea were 30% more prevalent in FI households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3; 1.1-1.6). Underweight children were 40% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.4; 1.1-1.7). Children who didn't eat meat and fruits and vegetables every day were 20% and 70% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.2; 1.1-1.4 and aPR: 1.7; 1.3-2.3), respectively. Children who grow up in food-insecure households have been shown to have worse health conditions than those in food-secure households. Consequently, their human capital accumulation and work-life productivity are likely to be reduced in the future, leading them into adulthood less capable of generating sufficient income, resulting in a cycle of intergenerational poverty and FI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  7. Institutional change and political decision-making in the creation of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Márcia Franke; Labra, Maria Eliana

    2007-06-01

    This article examines the decision-making process that led to the creation of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in 1999. The authors begin by discussing the history of the Agency's predecessor, the Health Surveillance Secretariat, and the need for its modernization to adjust the quality of the products under its control to domestic and international demands. From the theoretical perspective of neo-institutionalism, the article goes on to analyze the social and political context surrounding the debate on the proposed alternatives to adjust Health Surveillance to new rules in line with such requirements, focusing especially on the formulation of the new policy, the decision-making arena, and the actors with specific interests in the sector. The research drew on extensive documentary and media material, plus interviews with key actors. The article concludes that a determinant factor for the creation of ANVISA was the favorable domestic political context, fostering a positive correlation of forces that (in an extremely short timeframe, 1998-1999) allowed the creation of the first regulatory agency in the social policies area in Brazil.

  8. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  9. Disclosure Level of CPC 29 Biological Assets: Analysis of Determining Factors in Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research question guiding this research is "What are the Determining Factors of CPC 29 Disclosure in Brazilian Companies?". In this aspect, the research objective was to evaluate the main factors that affect the disclosure of information related to biological assets. For this, 5 variables highlighted in the literature were selected as evidence influencers. The sample was composed of Brazilian companies with biological assets in the Balance Sheet. From this list, financial statements, explanatory notes, corporate management level and independent auditing company for the 6 years (2010 to 2015 were collected. With the collected information, the dependent variable (Disclosure level of CPC 29 and the independent variables of each year were verified. At the end (after exclusions, 100 observations were analyzed. The results indicated that the variables Size, Representativeness of Biological Assets and Effectiveness of OCPC 07 positively impacted the level of Disclosure. The first two confirmed the predicted hypothesis and OCPC 07 presented a relation that was different from what was expected, showing an increase and not a reduction in the number of disclosures in the years 2014 and 2015.

  10. [Validation of National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to be use with Brazilian college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Carolina da; Colares, Viviane

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to translate, to adapt and to validate the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to apply at Brazilian college students. 208 college students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) and University of Pernambuco (UPE) participated in the study. The validation was carried through in five stages: (1) translation; (2) retrotranslation; (3) correction and semantic adaptation (cultural adaptation); (4) face validation; (5) test-retest. Adaptations were done to deal with any semantic disagreements found between translation and retrotranslation. After face validation, the questionnaire was reduced from 96 to 52 questions. From the 11 items analyzed, the majority presented good and perfect Kappa: security and violence (Kappa=0.89); suicide (Kappa=1.00); use of the tobacco (Kappa=0.90); drinking consumption (Kappa=0.78); cocaine and other drugs consumption (Kappa=0.70); sexual behavior (Kappa=0,88) and corporal weight (Kappa=0.89). Only the item about feeding presented weak Inter-examiner Kappa (Kappa = 0.26) and the topic on health information presented moderate Kappa (Kappa=0.56). The average Kappa for all items was good (0.76). The instrument may be considered validated in the Portuguese language in Brazil with acceptable reproducibility.

  11. A Constructivist Perspective on Leadership Thought among Brazilian and North-American Scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'Anna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an exploratory, inductive cataloguing of the views of Brazilian and U.S. academics regarding current leadership theory and development. Semi structured interviews with academics from a variety of institutional settings in Brazil and the U.S. were content analyzed to identify major themes and tendencies across the two countries. Our analyses revealed that neither Brazilian nor U.S. academics adopted the bulk of current formal leadership thought uncritically. Instead, both the Brazilian and North American business education fields adopted theories selectively and formulated idiosyncratic approaches to the field. The U.S. interviewees appeared to vary much more from one another than the Brazilian scholars, whose positions were more critical but more homogeneous overall. There was also considerable variation across the two national settings. We found Bourdieu’s practice theory useful in interpreting our results, particularly the concepts of field differentiation and heteronomy, habitus, and cultural capital. Still, much research remains to be done to disentangle the purely historical and cultural factors from the impacts of the social construction of the field of business education in the two countries.

  12. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  13. Brazilian Alcohol Program (Proalcool): economic re-evaluation and demand adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da; Rocha Ferreira, L. da

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the economic impact on the Brazilian National Alcohol Programme caused by changes in the energy scenery, in view of recent oil price fall in the international market, and evaluate the necessary adjustments of the Programme according to the new Brazilian economic reality. The economic analysis concludes that the alcohol production, considering current production capacity and its investments, could be economically feasible at international oil prices near US$ 30.00. Excluding investments, its feasibility would be between US$ 18.00 and US$ 20.00 per equivalent oil barrel. Based on these conclusions, proposals for adjusting the PROALCOOL are discussed, including alternative pricing, fiscal and credit policies to control the alcohol-fuel demand. (author)

  14. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  15. The Performative Force of Bodies: Affective Realism in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brandão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n3p161 This paper traces the emergence of a younger generation of Brazilian filmmakers whose works bypass traditional themes in Brazilian cinema such as urban violence and historical revisionism to engage in post-identity politics avoiding narratives of nation, class and gender. One of the most prominent features in these recent works is a questioning of the status of the image, which vacillates between fiction and documentary without a point of resolution. This vacillation can be understood in terms of the performative nature of films like The Monsters, The Residents, The Earth Giveth, The Earth Taketh and Avenida Brasilia Formosa. Such films are centered around improvisations that open up the image to the real. Therefore, these films produce a space between fiction and documentary, between reality and artifice that is productive and politically charged. This proposal aims at discussing this “Brand New” Brazilian Cinema (Novísssimo Cinema Brasileiro and the performative force of bodies in its affective realism. No longer a referent for a sociological truth about Brazilian society, realism is taken as something that the image does, i. e., as an affect that challenges the viewer's response-ability.

  16. African American Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…

  17. [Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazil: inclusion in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and integration with primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.

  18. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  19. A composição e interpretação de Victor Assis Brasil em Pro Zeca: hibridismo entre o baião e o bebop The composition and interpretation by Victor Assis Brasil in Pro Zeca: hybridism between the Brazilian baião and bebop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Linhares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo sobre o reconhecimento de elementos composicionais e interpretativos característicos do baião e do bebop na Introdução e Tema da música Pro Zeca de Victor Assis Brasil (1945-1981, a partir de três fontes primárias: (1 a lead sheet editada que reproduz o manuscrito autógrafo do compositor (ASSIS BRASIL, sem data a, (2 uma lead sheet manuscrita de caligrafia anônima (ASSIS BRASIL, sem data b e (3 a lead sheet editada da transcrição a partir da gravação do compositor (ASSIS BRASIL, 1974, incluindo sua improvisação, que está publicada às p.39-44 nesse volume de Per Musi. Fundamentada por referenciais históricos e teóricos das práticas de performance da música brasileira (GIF-FONI, 1997; SIQUEIRA, 1981; SÉVE, 1999 e do jazz (GRIDLEY, 2006; LAWN, 1995; HOBSBAWM, 1990, BAKER, 1987, esta análise comparativa revela um hibridismo entre elementos do bebop e do baião, no qual as características desses dois gêneros populares de países diferentes às vezes permanecem distintas e às vezes se entrelaçam em uma síntese.Study about the recognition of compositional and intrepretive elements typical of bebop and baião in the Introduction and Theme of Pro Zeca by Brazilian composer and saxophonist Victor Assis Brasil (1945-1981 departing from three primary sources: (1 the edited lead sheet that reproduces the composer's autograph (ASSIS BRASIL, sem data a, (2 an anonymous lead sheet manuscript (ASSIS BRASIL, sem data b and (3 the lead sheet of the transcription based on the composer's recording (ASSIS BRASIL, 1974 included at the end of this article. Resorting to historical and theoretical references of performance practices in jazz (GRIDLEY, 2006; LAWN, 1995; HOBSBAWM, 1990, BAKER, 1987 and Brazilian music (GIFFONI, 1997; SIQUEIRA, 1981; SÉVE, 1999, this comparative analysis reveals hybridization between bebop and the Brazilian baião, in which the characteristics of these popular genres from two different countries sometimes

  20. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  1. 8th Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    THE EIGHTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2015) The United Nations celebrated 2015 as the International Year of Light. By a curious coincidence, many notable events in science and technology completed a multiple of 50 or 100 years in 2015. From the pioneering work of the wise Ibn Al-Haytham in 1015, through Fresnel, Maxwell, Einstein, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, to the use of optical fibres in communications in 1965. Electromagnetic radiation is present in our daily lives in countless applications. It is remarkable that there is no way to think about these applications without thinking of measurements. From entangled photons to more prosaic public illumination of our daily life, we are intrinsically connected all the time with the luminous phenomena. Among other things, the light allows global communication on a large scale. It strengthens the internationalization of production processes, which brings considerable changes in relations, processes and economic structures, as well as it orients the social, political and cultural behaviour of any country. These conditions of this internationalization require interchangeability of parts of complex systems, translated into strict adherence to the standards and specifications that use increasingly accurate measurement techniques, as well as the growing demand from consumer markets for products and higher quality services. They also require innovation and improvements in domestic production to boost the competitiveness of industries in domestic and foreign markets. Thus, if the Science of Measurements is taken as a serious concern, countries are better prepared to evolve towards economic and social development. In this 8"t"h edition of the Brazilian Congress on Metrology (METROLOGIA 2015), in addition to the thematic sessions in various areas of Metrology and Conformity Assessment, we hold several satellite events. They are already traditional events or highlight important current issues

  2. Authors and authorship in brazilian information science journals

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Del Carmen Bohn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses issues of authorship. It presents the analysis of 86 journal articles with 1528 bibliographical entries. The articles were all published in 2001 in four Brazilian journals of Information Science. Several characteristics of the authors were considered. Among them are the authors’ academic qualification, function and job held; individual and joint authorship, language of publication, papers published by sex and nationality and self-citation. Data show that the most signif...

  3. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  4. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  5. Fact Sheets and Questions and Answers for the Final Air Toxics Rules for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the July 1995 final rule fact sheet and the January 2015 proposed rule fact sheet that contains information on the National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, as well as a 2001 Q&A document on the rule

  6. The relative age effect on Brazilian Elite Futsal: Men and Women Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Ruiz Morales Júnior

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The relative age effect (RAE has been a research subject in several fields of society. RAE is present in different sports, influencing the young athlete’s opportunities of participation. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of RAE in Brazilian elite men and women futsal. METHODS Birthdate of 376 athletes from Brazilian Men National Futsal League (LNF/2013 and 227 from Brazilian Women National Futsal League/2014 were collected on leagues’ homepages and divided into four quarters (Q1:January-March, Q2:April-June, Q3:July-September and Q4:October-December and two semesters (S1:January-June, S2:July-December. In men case, results were compared with Penna and Moraes (2010 data on LNF/2009. Chi-square test was used to analyze differences between distributions of birthdates by quarters and semesters. The significance level was set at α<0.05, with Bonferroni correction when necessary. RESULTS there is RAE in men futsal, predominantly on athletes born in first semester. In women futsal, there is no evidence of RAE. CONCLUSIONS On men futsal, there is a need for offering similar opportunities to young players, while on women, the small amount of athletes in Brazil must be regarded as an alert to the culture of futsal as a men social space, which deters the entry of new practitioners.

  7. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy.

  8. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy

  9. In the beginning was the word: school culture and vernacular language teaching in Brazilian secondary education (1759-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Schmoeller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain the requirements that forged the School Culture around the vernacular language teaching in the Brazilian secondary education through historical analysis of the process of constitution of the Portuguese course, which begins with the imposition of the Portuguese language as the national mother tongue – 1759 – until the beginning of the school democratization process that will modify it significantly – 1960. We will see that the birth of the subject is linked to the formation of the Brazilian nation and the nationalist sentiment, which will reverberate in the way of seeing and thinking vernacular language teaching until today.

  10. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  11. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  12. The Brazilian 2010 oil regulatory framework and its crowding-out investment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florêncio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Investment is an essential variable in the oil sector. It is even more important in the vast Brazilian pre-salt domains, where the technological requirements are high and sophisticated. The Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras, is facing severe financial limitations to undertake these disbursements. Other oil companies will therefore have to be significantly engaged in the endeavour, which reinforces further the importance of attracting investments in Brazil. Yet this article shows that the governance architecture established in the 2010 Brazilian oil framework will deter investments in several ways, giving rise to agency problems among entities and moral hazard situations because of contractual legal liabilities. There are some credible indications that the government of President Lula overestimated the attractiveness of the Brazilian pre-salt oil discoveries and their capacity to draw investments when proposing the 2010 changes. Little attention was given to the careful examination of how the framework would affect investors, under the assumption that the favourable geological conditions would be sufficiently attractive in themselves. Even though the 2010 reforms have brought some minor advancements and there have been some signs that the government has been recently attempting to mitigate some of the problems examined in this article, that is not enough. - Highlights: • The Brazilian regulatory oil framework deters investments in the country. • The governance setting between entities is one of its worse aspects. • It causes agency problems and moral hazard situations. • Brazil has to urgently tackle these investment hindrances.

  13. Brazilian university patents: profile of inventors and production per knowledge area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stefani Cativelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2016v21n47p67 The study characterizes the inventions of patents of Brazilian universities concerning authorship and subject area to identify the institutions’ possible departments and areas that concentrate efforts on or are more easily able to produce and achieve the patent grants in Brazil. For the data collection of the universities, we used the E-mec platform; the database of the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI for the collection of information concerning patents; and the International Patent Classification (IPC to determine the covered knowledge areas. Thus, we analyzed the production of patents by Brazilian region; the universities with patents granted; the number of inventors per patent; the profile of the main inventors; and the patents granted according to the IPC. The results indicate that the characteristics of the patents granted to Brazilian Public Universities belong predominantly to the areas of Chemistry and Metallurgy. They are developed by professors with graduation in Chemistry or Mechanical Engineering and most of them belong to the State University of Campinas.

  14. MODERNIZATION, NATIONALISM AND THE ELITE: the Genesis of Brazilian jiu-jitsu, 1905-1920 MODERNIZAÇÃO, NACIONALISMO E A ELITE: a origem do jiu-jitsu brasileiro, 1905-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cairus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5965/2175180303022011100 This article is based on a chapter of my dissertation entitled The Gracie Clan and the Making of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu: National Identity, Performance and Culture, 1905-1993. It analyzes the introduction, creolization, popularization and globalization of the martial art known as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, by examining the trajectory of the principal agents of these events, the Gracie family who reinvented the Japanese martial art by creating a complex, ritualistic hyper-masculinized life style, forged from the clash between tradition and modernity embed in violence “made in Brazil.” The article is divided in two sections in which I analyzed the introduction of Japanese jiu-jitsu as part of a turn-of- the-century global modernization. In the first part the narrative takes place in Rio de Janeiro in early twentieth century and examines the introduction of Japanese jiu-jitsu as modern school of physical education patronized by the military. This section is represented in the vignette “Round 1”. In the second part the narrative shifted to the Amazon where a modern school of jiu-jitsu was established as a result of a transnational encounter between a troupe of Japanese martial artists and a Scottish-Brazilian family. This section is represented in the vignette “Round 2”.

  15. UWBRAD: Ultra Wideband Software Defined Microwave Radiometer for Ice Sheet Subsurface Temperature Sensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing space and airborne remote sensing instruments have pushed the state-of-the-art in the characterization of ice sheet behaviors with the exception of one key...

  16. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jones Flores Cassenote

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.

  17. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Silva Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors, as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI. Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1% had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23, with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56, that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34, whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10 and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status.

  18. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  19. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  20. DIGITAL INCLUSION AND THE MAIN CHALLENGES IN THE BRAZILIAN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prioste

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT has increased within the Brazilian population. However, according to the digital inclusion ranking established by ITU (2015, Brazil still presents important gaps in comparison to other evaluated countries. In view of this problem, the present article aims at analyzing the challenges of the digital inclusion in the Brazilian education, looking into understanding its obstacles. This study has grounds in a qualitative, exploratory research methodology, through which data of national and international researches were collected. The analysis was established based in seven indicators: connectivity, capability, content, confidence, continuity, literacy, and the inclusion of people with disabilities. The results suggest that the digital inclusion has been limited, mostly due to problems in the education quality. Without a consistent educational background, the use of ICTs is mostly directed to consumption and entertainment. It was concluded that Brazilian public schools face serious gaps of technological infrastructure and teacher support. In this context, the exclusion of people with disabilities also perpetuates. Problems in the basic literacy processes are important obstacles for proper technological resources appropriation in favor of better life conditions and social participation.

  1. International HR Strategy of Brazilian Technology Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morilha Muritiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.

  2. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  3. [Uses and influence of health evaluation in two studies on the Brazilian National Dengue Fever Control Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Hartz, Zulmira; Samico, Isabella; Cesse, Eduarda Angela Pessoa

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation aims to provide information, promote improvement in programs, and determine the merit and value of the object of evaluation. However, the challenge for evaluators is not only to promote, but also to document the usefulness of studies. Given this challenge, the article aimed to systematize the uses and influence of the process and findings in two evaluations on Brazilian National Dengue Fever Control Program, for decision-making by the respective public health administrators and professionals. Based on a theoretical analytical model, an exploratory study was performed with documental analysis for identification of events and registrations in the evaluations and their circulation in terms of possible uses and influence, from 2007 to 2010. Favorable factors for the use of evaluations were the mode of production of contextual knowledge and definition of evaluations with a focus on utility. The results, indicating greater instrumental use and immediate process and collective use may indicate the studies' pertinence to stakeholders and their usefulness to program management at different levels in the health system.

  4. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Final Report. Coupled simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/ocean interactions using POP and CISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar Storm [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potdam (Germany)

    2015-12-30

    The project performed under this award, referred to from here on as CLARION (CoupLed simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/Ocean iNteractions), included important advances in two models of ice sheet and ocean interactions. Despite its short duration (one year), the project made significant progress on its three major foci. First, together with collaborator Daniel Martin at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), I developed the POPSICLES coupled ice sheet-ocean model to the point where it could perform a number of pan-Antarctic simulations under various forcing conditions. The results were presented at a number of major conferences and workshops worldwide, and are currently being incorporated into two manuscripts in preparation.

  6. Prevalence of angina pectoris in the Brazilian population from the Rose questionnaire: analysis of the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Vieira, Maria Lucia; Bensenor, Isabela Martins

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of angina pectoris in the Brazilian adult population with the use of the Rose questionnaire for angina in the National Health Survey (PNS 2013). Population survey representing the Brazilian population aged 18 years and older, with probability carried out sampling in three stages. The interview records of 60,202 individuals were obtained in the country. The respondent was presented with the short Rose questionnaire with three questions, adapted by Lawlor in 2003 and validated in Brazil, to identify angina pectoris grade I (mild) and II (moderate/severe). The prevalence rate was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) according to sex, age, education, and race/color. The prevalence of mild angina (grade I) was of 7.6% (95%CI 7.2 - 8.0) for the entire population, more frequently in women - 9.1% (95%CI 8.5 - 9.7) - than in men - 5.9% (95%CI 5.3 - 6.4). The frequency of moderate/severe angina (grade II) was of 4.2 (95%CI 3.9 - 4.5), also more common in women - 5.2% (95%CI 4.7 - 5.6) - than in men - 3.0% (95%CI 2.7 - 3.4). The prevalence of angina by age group increased progressively with age. The prevalence of angina of any sort was inverse to years of formal study. Despite the higher value of the presence of angina in black people, there was no significant difference by race/skin color. The high prevalence rate of angina pectoris in the population aged 18 years and above was consistent with studies in other countries, revealing the importance of coronary heart disease as a public health problem.

  7. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  8. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  9. Outreach/education interface for Cryosphere models using the Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.; Romero, V.; Cheng, D. L.; Perez, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decade, great strides have been made in the development of models capable of projecting the future evolution of glaciers and the polar ice sheets in a changing climate. These models are now capable of replicating some of the trends apparent in satellite observations. However, because this field is just now maturing, very few efforts have been dedicated to adapting these capabilities to education. Technologies that have been used in outreach efforts in Atmospheric and Oceanic sciences still have not been extended to Cryospheric Science. We present a cutting-edge, technologically driven virtual laboratory, geared towards outreach and k-12 education, dedicated to the polar ice sheets on Antarctica and Greenland, and their role as major contributors to sea level rise in coming decades. VISL (Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory) relies on state-of-the art Web GL rendering of polar ice sheets, Android/iPhone and web portability using Javascript, as well as C++ simulations (back-end) based on the Ice Sheet System Model, the NASA model for simulating the evolution of polar ice sheets. Using VISL, educators and students can have an immersive experience into the world of polar ice sheets, while at the same exercising the capabilities of a state-of-the-art climate model, all of it embedded into an education experience that follows the new STEM standards for education.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  10. Housing Policy. A Critical Analysis on the Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nascimento Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has revealed significant advancements on social housing in Brazil. Along with the implementation of the National Housing Policy (2004, the National Housing System (2005, and the National Housing Plan (2008, a consistent model to face the Brazilian housing deficiency was created. The prime period of the actions and resources taken by the various government levels and private agents took place during the implementation of Minha Casa Minha Vida [My Home My Life] program (PMCMV, whose goal was to build a million houses. Based on the outlined context, this paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between National Housing Policy and PMCMV, discussing its implications on housing outlook in the country. A bibliographical and documentary research showed theoretical and conceptual unbalance between these two policies, allowing speculation on the prevalence of the economic component over the social one.

  11. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  12. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio T.; Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Taveira, Gerson L.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  13. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Elizabeth Z; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Viana, Maria C; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Mitsuhiro, Sandro; Madruga, Clarice S

    2016-01-01

    To compare intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012) of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%). The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men), as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence) (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample). Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6) and perpetrator (OR = 2.4) of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  14. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  15. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  16. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  17. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  18. Public health policy and the building up of a Brazilian medical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Santos, L A

    2005-12-01

    Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further

  19. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  20. 2015 Plan. Project 2: the electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This project shows the economic and the energetic view of the Brazilian electric power sector, mentioning the actual conjuncture; the economy evolution; some sector forecasts; demographical aspects; international price of petroleum and National Energetic Matrix. (C.G.C.)

  1. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  3. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k 0 -standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  4. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  5. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  6. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  7. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 5 - Developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet acknowledges that global change affects developed and developing countries alike, and the fact that most developing countries do not have the human, financial and technical capacity to effectively address climate change issues without help from the industrialized nations. The fact sheet also puts Canada on record as being in agreement with the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol to encourage the participation of developing countries in global efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development and reaffirms Canada's willingness to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to play a meaningful part in this global effort. In this context, the fact sheet briefly describes the new Canada Climate Change Development Fund which has been set up to reduce the growth of GHG emissions and support carbon sink activities in developing countries, to strengthen the capacity of developing conuntries to reduce their vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change, and to participate in global efforts to combat them

  8. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  9. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  10. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  11. LNLS: a Brazilian project for technological development, scientific investigation and manpower formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The process of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light National Laboratory creation, growth and consolidation is described. This institute aims he project and construction of a electron accelerators group for utilization as high intensity and wide spectrum light source, from the infrared to X-rays for application in physics, chemistry, biology and material science

  12. SEEG initiative estimates of Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions from 1970 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Tasso Rezende; Costa Junior, Ciniro; Brandão Junior, Amintas; Cremer, Marcelo dos Santos; Piatto, Marina; Tsai, David Shiling; Barreto, Paulo; Martins, Heron; Sales, Márcio; Galuchi, Tharic; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Morgado, Renato; Ferreira, André Luis; Barcellos e Silva, Felipe; Viscondi, Gabriel de Freitas; dos Santos, Karoline Costal; Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Manetti, Andrea; Coluna, Iris Moura Esteves; Albuquerque, Igor Reis de; Junior, Shigueo Watanabe; Leite, Clauber; Kishinami, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the SEEG platform, a 46-year long dataset of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Brazil (1970–2015) providing more than 2 million data records for the Agriculture, Energy, Industry, Waste and Land Use Change Sectors at national and subnational levels. The SEEG dataset was developed by the Climate Observatory, a Brazilian civil society initiative, based on the IPCC guidelines and Brazilian National Inventories embedded with country specific emission factors and processes, raw data from multiple official and non-official sources, and organized together with social and economic indicators. Once completed, the SEEG dataset was converted into a spreadsheet format and shared via web-platform that, by means of simple queries, allows users to search data by emission sources and country and state activities. Because of its effectiveness in producing and making available data on a consistent and accessible basis, SEEG may significantly increase the capacity of civil society, scientists and stakeholders to understand and anticipate trends related to GHG emissions as well as its implications to public policies in Brazil. PMID:29809176

  13. SEEG initiative estimates of Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions from 1970 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Tasso Rezende; Costa Junior, Ciniro; Brandão Junior, Amintas; Cremer, Marcelo Dos Santos; Piatto, Marina; Tsai, David Shiling; Barreto, Paulo; Martins, Heron; Sales, Márcio; Galuchi, Tharic; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Morgado, Renato; Ferreira, André Luis; Barcellos E Silva, Felipe; Viscondi, Gabriel de Freitas; Dos Santos, Karoline Costal; Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Manetti, Andrea; Coluna, Iris Moura Esteves; Albuquerque, Igor Reis de; Junior, Shigueo Watanabe; Leite, Clauber; Kishinami, Roberto

    2018-05-29

    This work presents the SEEG platform, a 46-year long dataset of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Brazil (1970-2015) providing more than 2 million data records for the Agriculture, Energy, Industry, Waste and Land Use Change Sectors at national and subnational levels. The SEEG dataset was developed by the Climate Observatory, a Brazilian civil society initiative, based on the IPCC guidelines and Brazilian National Inventories embedded with country specific emission factors and processes, raw data from multiple official and non-official sources, and organized together with social and economic indicators. Once completed, the SEEG dataset was converted into a spreadsheet format and shared via web-platform that, by means of simple queries, allows users to search data by emission sources and country and state activities. Because of its effectiveness in producing and making available data on a consistent and accessible basis, SEEG may significantly increase the capacity of civil society, scientists and stakeholders to understand and anticipate trends related to GHG emissions as well as its implications to public policies in Brazil.

  14. Dietary cumulative acute risk assessment of organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids insecticides for the Brazilian population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira; Brito, Alessandra Page; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Boon, Polly E; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    Cumulative acute dietary risk assessments of organophosphorus (OPs), carbamates (CBs) and pyrethroids (PYs) were conducted for the Brazilian population. Residue data for 30786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from two national monitoring programs and one University laboratory, and consumption data

  15. Innovation in the strategies of Internationalization of Brazilian Multinationals: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions: A Study Case of the Meat Processing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rovai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries

  16. Association between drug use and urban violence: Data from the II Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rigacci Abdalla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18years old. The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators. Results: Approximately 9.3% of the Brazilian population has been victim of at least one form of urban violence. This proportion increases to 19.7% among cocaine users and to 18.1% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD. Perpetration of violence was reported by 6.2% of the sample. Cocaine use and AUD increased in almost four times the chances of being an aggressor. Being religious and married decreased the chances of being a victim and/or perpetrador of urban violence. Higher education also decreased the chances of involvement in both victimization or perpetration of violence. Both Parallel Mediation Models considering cocaine use as a predictor of urban violence (victimization or perpetration were valid and alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms were mediators of this relationship. Conclusions: This study presents relevant data of interest to Brazil as this country is one of the major consumer market of cocaine and also is among the most violent countries worldwide. Keywords: Urban violence, Cocaine, Alcohol use disorder, Household survey, Epidemiology

  17. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  18. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  19. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-09-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data of the national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI). 7,280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1%) had had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51 / 1.02 to 2.23), with tooth decay (3.08 / 2.08 to 4.56), that realized the need for dental treatment (3.96 / 2.48 to 6.34), whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47 / 1.04 to 2.10) and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76 / 3.90 to 8.49). The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Literature Review of the Brazilian Music History Based on the Historiographical Theory of Jörn Rüsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Cristina Larsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes four narratives of the Brazilian music history, using to this purpose the typology of constitutions of meaning by Jörn Rüsen. The analysis will focus on the premises of the narrations about the Brazilian musical past. The goal is to understand the position of the authors in relation to the musical experience in Brazil, their relationship with nationalism and their concepts about music. Finally, the analysis intends to motivate reflections about the methodology of current musical historiography.

  1. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  2. Practical and conceptual issues of clinical trial registration for Brazilian researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gomes Freitas

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical trial registration is a prerequisite for publication in respected scientific journals. Recent Brazilian regulations also require registration of some clinical trials in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC but there is little information available about practical issues involved in the registration process. This article discusses the importance of clinical trial registration and the practical issues involved in this process. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study conducted by researchers within a postgraduate program at a public university in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Information was obtained from clinical trial registry platforms, article reference lists and websites (last search: September 2014 on the following topics: definition of a clinical trial, history, purpose and importance of registry platforms, the information that should be registered and the registration process. RESULTS: Clinical trial registration aims to avoid publication bias and is required by Brazilian journals indexed in LILACS and SciELO and by journals affiliated to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE. Recent Brazilian regulations require that all clinical trials (phases I to IV involving new drugs to be marketed in this country must be registered in ReBEC. The pros and cons of using different clinical trial registration platforms are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical trial registration is important and various mechanisms to enforce its implementation now exist. Researchers should take into account national regulations and publication requirements when choosing the platform on which they will register their trial.

  3. New Legislation in Brazilian Music Education: Studying the Law and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Dwight; Kamil, Marilia

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, Brazilian legislators approved a law that added music on a mandatory basis to the basic national school curriculum. Despite the possibilities afforded by this legislation, music educators affirm that many questions remain due to its ambiguity. Given the 2012 deadline for the implementation of this law, there is a need to understand how it…

  4. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. TV Viewing in 60,202 Adults From the National Brazilian Health Survey: Prevalence, Correlates, and Associations With Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Cyrino, Edilson S; Collings, Paul J; Ronque, Enio R V; Szwarcwald, Célia L; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Danilo R

    2018-03-15

    This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire. Data on covariables (including chronological age, educational status, skin color, sodium consumption, sugar consumption, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity) were also self-reported. Logistic regression models and population attributable fractions were used for the etiological analyses. The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of >4 hours per day of TV viewing was 12.7% (12.0-13.4) in men and 17.5% (16.8-18.3) in women. Men and women being younger or older, moderately educated, living alone, smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol were associated with higher reported TV viewing time. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) revealed that >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes [male: 1.64 (1.23-2.17) and female: 1.33 (1.09-1.63)], hypertension [male: 1.36 (1.14-1.63) and female: 1.20 (1.05-1.37)], and heart disease [male: 1.96 (1.43-2.69) and female: 1.30 (1.00-1.68)]. Exceeding 4 hours per day of TV viewing was responsible for 6.8% of type 2 diabetes, 3.7% of hypertension, and 7.5% of heart disease cases. Independent of covariates, >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. High volumes of TV viewing are prevalent and appear to contribute to chronic disease burden.

  6. Spatiotemporal Variability of Meltwater Refreezing in Southwest Greenland Ice Sheet Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Hock, R.; Tedesco, M.; Corti, G.; Covi, F.; Miège, C.; Kingslake, J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Munsell, S.

    2017-12-01

    A substantial fraction of the summer meltwater formed on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn, while the remaining portion runs to the ocean through surface and subsurface channels. Refreezing of meltwater in firn can create impenetrable ice lenses, hence being a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff. To quantify the impact of refreezing on runoff and current and future Greenland surface mass balance, a three year National Science Foundation funded project titled "Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance" started this past year. Here we present an overview of the project and some initial results from the first field season in May 2017 conducted in proximity of the DYE-2 site in the percolation zone of the Southwest Greenland ice sheet at elevations between 1963 and 2355 m a.s.l.. During this fieldwork two automatic weather stations were deployed, outfitted with surface energy balance sensors and 16 m long thermistor strings, over 300 km of ground penetrating radar data were collected, and five 20-26 m deep firn cores were extracted and analyzed for density and stratigraphy. Winter snow accumulation was measured along the radar tracks. Preliminary work on the firn-core data reveals increasing frequency and thickness of ice lenses at lower ice-sheet elevations, in agreement with other recent work in the area. Data collected within this project will facilitate advances in our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of firn refreezing and its role in the hydrology and surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  7. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  8. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs

  9. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  10. Sheet production apparatus for removing a crystalline sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets located above and below the crystalline sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Thronson, Gregory D.

    2017-06-14

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  11. The judgment on the phosphoethanolamine case and the jurisprudence of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebulum J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of the synthetic substance phosphoethanolamine, known as the cancer pill, was recently reported among patients with malignant neoplasm. However, the substance was not registered in the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency and the clinical studies necessary to guarantee its effectiveness and safety had not even been completed. Neverthe-less, the federal government enacted Law number 13.269/2016, authorizing provision by the Brazilian National Public Health System under certain conditions, and various injunctions were granted that forced the state to provide it. The question was considered by the Supreme Court in two important judgments in which the Court suspended all injunctions granted and suspended the effectiveness of the law based on evidence of unconstitutionality. In this article, we analyze the legal grounds of the decisions in the context of previous positions of the Court and the guidelines established in judgment of STA 175-AgR/CE.

  12. National guidelines for high-cost drugs in Brazil: achievements and constraints of an innovative national evidence-based public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Paulo D; Beltrame, Alberto; Banta, David

    2013-04-01

    The translation of best evidence into practice has become an important purpose of policy making in health care. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities, the dissemination and use of the best-evidence in policy making is a critical issue for the healthcare system. The main purpose of this study is to describe an evidence-based public health policy with special emphasis on guidelines creation for high-cost medicines. We also describe how that strategy was diffused to the judiciary system and to other parts of the healthcare system. We present an 11-year follow-up of a national project for creating and updating guidelines for high-cost medicines in Brazil. A total of 109 national guidelines were published (new or updated versions) for 66 selected diseases, the first such effort in Brazilian history. The project influenced the Brazilian legislature, which has recently established a Federal Law requiring national guidelines for any new technology listed for payment by the Brazilian public healthcare system. We were able to involve many different stakeholders in a partnership between academia and policy makers, which made possible the widespread dissemination of the clinical practice guidelines. Problems and constraints were also encountered. This evolving public health strategy might be useful for other developing countries.

  13. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  14. [The Indian in Brazilian photography: incursions into image and medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacca, Fernando de

    2011-03-01

    The article explores contradictions and convergences between a medium (photography) and the image of the Brazilian Indian from the perspective of the history of Brazilian photography. During the first of three distinct moments, the image of the Indian was of someone exotic, in contradiction with the modern meaning of photography under the Second Empire. During the second moment, in the first fifty years of the twentieth century, the boundaries between ethnography and Brazil as a nation were blurred, as exemplified by the Rondon Commission/Indian Protection Bureau's Research Section (Serviço de Proteção ao Índio) and Brazil's modern photojournalism, as found in the magazine Cruzeiro. During the third moment, the expressions of an ethno-poetry present in the photographs of Cláudia Andujar can be seen to blend medium and image as an ethnographic space in contemporary art.

  15. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Mason, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards authorities

  16. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mason, Peter, E-mail: peter.mason@ch.doe.gov [New Brunswick Laboratory (DOE/NBL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards

  17. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  18. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. Greenland Regional and Ice Sheet-wide Geometry Sensitivity to Boundary and Initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, L. C.; Narayanan, S. H. K.; Greve, R.; Heimbach, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice sheet and glacier model outputs require inputs from uncertainly known initial and boundary conditions, and other parameters. Conservation and constitutive equations formalize the relationship between model inputs and outputs, and the sensitivity of model-derived quantities of interest (e.g., ice sheet volume above floatation) to model variables can be obtained via the adjoint model of an ice sheet. We show how one particular ice sheet model, SICOPOLIS (SImulation COde for POLythermal Ice Sheets), depends on these inputs through comprehensive adjoint-based sensitivity analyses. SICOPOLIS discretizes the shallow-ice and shallow-shelf approximations for ice flow, and is well-suited for paleo-studies of Greenland and Antarctica, among other computational domains. The adjoint model of SICOPOLIS was developed via algorithmic differentiation, facilitated by the source transformation tool OpenAD (developed at Argonne National Lab). While model sensitivity to various inputs can be computed by costly methods involving input perturbation simulations, the time-dependent adjoint model of SICOPOLIS delivers model sensitivities to initial and boundary conditions throughout time at lower cost. Here, we explore both the sensitivities of the Greenland Ice Sheet's entire and regional volumes to: initial ice thickness, precipitation, basal sliding, and geothermal flux over the Holocene epoch. Sensitivity studies such as described here are now accessible to the modeling community, based on the latest version of SICOPOLIS that has been adapted for OpenAD to generate correct and efficient adjoint code.

  1. The accountability of the brazilian regulatory agencies: the experience of the National Petroleum Agency; O controle externo das agencias reguladoras: o caso da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Borges, Heloisa Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia. Grupo de Economia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    During the reform process for which passed the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry, the academic debate was centered mostly in the sectorial restructuring process, in the contract designs and regulatory environment for the industries in change, particularly the desired attributes of its institutions. The debate tends, in the present, to converge towards the existence of different possible combinations between market structures and institutional structures (the regulators among them) that would lead to a desirable result. Thus, the various characteristics and configurations, originally appointed as necessary conditions for the success of any reform, are not dealt with such great deference anymore. The hypothesis that the existence of a independent regulator is a determinant choice for the success of structural and institutional reforms was relaxed as general rule, but there are still strong economic reasons to justify the option, adopted in Brazil. The creation of the Oil National Agency (ANP), the Brazilian regulator for the Oil and Gas Industry is a recent phenomenon. And few studies specifically approach the issue of its accountability, institutional role that in Brazil is delegated mostly, but not exclusively, to the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao). Therefore, the objective of this work will be to discuss the different possibilities of accountability over the ANP, evaluating the paper and the functions of the TCU and the forms of external control on the Agency, pointing out the possibilities, the impediments and the challenges, as well as the economic consequences to the Natural Gas Industry of the current configuration. (author)

  2. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  3. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  4. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  5. Viability study of a construction of invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.; Pereira, M.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work has studied the parameters for the construction of an invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI. This study took into consideration the necessity of quality control of the of X-rays equipment required by Ministry of Health - MS, through the regulation N.453. To satisfy the demands of the MS, the recommendation of the norm IEC 61676 was analyzed by using the quantity of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) in the measurements of the voltage discharge applied to the X-rays tubes, the infra structures of metrology available in the country to offer tracking the components of the high voltage meter through INMETRO and the difficulty of adaptation of the high voltage meter analyser III U in relation to the Pan tak HF160 equipment in which respect the connection of the high voltage cable and the voltage limitations due to the electric configuration of the high voltage generator of the constant potential Pantak HF160 equipment. (author)

  6. Determinants of outpatient expenditure within primary care in the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camilo Turi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One of the big challenges facing governments worldwide is the financing of healthcare systems. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors and key components associated with healthcare expenditure. The aim here was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with direct healthcare expenditure within primary care, among adults attended through the Brazilian National Health System in the city of Bauru. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in five primary care units in Bauru (SP, Brazil. METHODS: Healthcare expenditure over the last 12 months was assessed through medical records of adults aged 50 years or more. Annual healthcare expenditure was assessed in terms of medication, laboratory tests, medical consultations and the total. Body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, age, sex, physical activity and smoking were assessed through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The total healthcare expenditure for 963 participants of this survey was US$ 112,849.74 (46.9% consultations, 35.2% medication and 17.9% laboratory tests. Expenditure on medication was associated with overweight (odds ratio, OR = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07-3.01, hypertension (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.91-4.82 and moderate physical activity (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38-0.81. Expenditure on consultations was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.12-2.47 and female sex (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.14-2.55. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that overweight, lower levels of physical activity and hypertension were independent risk factors associated with higher healthcare expenditure within primary care.

  7. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  8. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  9. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  10. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  11. DILMA ROUSSEFF IN THE BRAZILIAN PRESS: From the reelection to the impeachment process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjovanes Thadeu S. de Almeida (coord.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight how the Brazilian press has been addressing the re-election process and impeachment concerning the government of President Dilma Rousseff. To achieve this objective, the newspaper O Globo, in its electronic version, was selected since it addresses both national and international issues and has a more significant exposure than other existing media in the country. In this regard, the newspaper has been publishing several reports about the current Brazilian political context considering the government Dilma Rousseff during the first and second presidential terms. The events of re-election and the process of impeachment were presented in a particular way by the selected newspaper, focusing on the construction of a negatively distorted image of both the president and the government in question. This construction has shown a given editorial position upon the domestic political conjuncture. Firstly, the article addresses reflections on the influence of the media on the formation of political perceptions in/about the Brazilian scene. Secondly, it analyses the approach of the newspaper concerning the aforementioned subject matter. Finally, it stresses the importance of the diversification of means of media, which still remain under monopoly of few family companies. These three questions point to not only a deeper view of the democratic experience, but also the relevance of political and ideological plurality in the contemporary Brazilian society.

  12. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  13. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  14. The stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Pedro Guilherme Costa; Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino; Souza, Reinaldo Castro

    2015-01-01

    The size and characteristics of the Brazilian Electrical Sector (BES) are unique. The system includes a large-scale hydrothermal power system with many hydroelectric plants and multiple owners. Due to the historical harnessing of natural resources, the National Interconnected System (NIS) was developed outside of the economic scale of the BES. The central components of the NIS enable energy generated in any part of Brazil to be consumed in distant regions, considering certain technical configurations. This interconnection results in a large-scale complex system and is controlled by robust computational models, used to support the planning and operation of the NIS. This study presents a different vision of the SEB, demonstrating the intrinsic relationship between hydrological stochasticity and the activities executed by the system, which is an important sector of the infrastructure in Brazil. The simulation of energy scenarios is crucial to the optimal manner to operate the sector and to supporting decisions about whether expansion is necessary, thus, avoiding unnecessary costs and/or losses. These scenarios are an imposing factor in the determination of the spot cost of electrical energy, given that the simulated quantities of water in the reservoirs are one of the determinants for the short-term energy price. - Highlights: • The relationship between the hydrological regimes and the energy policy and planning in Brazil; • An overview about the stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector; • The stochasticity associated with the Brazilian electrical planning; • The importance of hydro resources management for energy generation in Brazil;

  15. Emergy diagnosis and reflections towards Brazilian sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetti, B.F.; Demétrio, J.F.C.; Bonilla, S.H.; Agostinho, F.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental emergy-based diagnosis of Brazil compared with Russia, India, China, South Africa and United States. Reflections on the Brazilian sustainable development are presented and discussed based on the evaluations published since 1979. The variation of the emergy per capita for Brazil from 1979 to 2007 indicates that the country's growth is tied to the exploitation of non renewable natural resources which do not directly reflect in the welfare of the population. The total emergy exported per unit of gross domestic product increased in the period, suggesting that the country exports more emergy than that contained in the money received for the exportation. With the help of the emergy indices, the future development of Brazil is explored and discussed. The comparison among the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries and United States indicates that what may be appropriate and usable within one country may not be within another and that to achieve the global sustainability two concomitant actions may occur: (i) the reduction of the total emergy use in developed economies, and (ii) the reduction of indigenous resources exportation in developing economies. - Highlights: • Future Brazilian development is explored from the energy perspective. • Solution is to increase exports of raw resources and the creation of a national market. • Brazilian development path is limited by the demand for money provided by exportation. • The need to increase the economic performance along with a decrease in emergy requirements. • It is essential to understand that there are limits for economic growth

  16. Adjustable focus laser sheet module for generating constant maximum width sheets for use in optical flow diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J; Mayer, S

    2011-01-01

    A general design of a laser light sheet module with adjustable focus is presented, where the maximum sheet width is preserved over a fixed region. In contrast, conventional focusing designs are associated with a variation in maximum sheet width with focal position. A four lens design is proposed here, where the first three lenses are employed for focusing, and the last for sheet expansion. A maximum sheet width of 1100 µm was maintained over a 50 mm long distance, for focal distances ranging from 75 to 500 mm, when a 532 nm laser beam with a beam quality factor M 2 = 29 was used for illumination

  17. Open Innovation and Business Model: A Brazilian Company Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo Alves Aranha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Innovation is increasingly being introduced in international and national organizations for the creation of value. Open innovation is a practical tool, requiring new strategies and decisions from managers for the exploitation of innovative activities. The basic question that this study seeks to answer is linked to the practice of open innovation in connection with the open business model geared towards the creation of value in a Brazilian company. This paper aims to present a case study that illustrates how open innovation offers resources to change the open business model in order to create value for the Brazilian company. The case study method of a company in the sector of pharma-chemical products was used. The results indicate that internal sources of knowledge, external sources of knowledge and accentuate working partnerships were adopted by company as strategies to offer resources to change the open business model in order to create value.

  18. Structural steels for fixed offshore platforms: technical challenges at the Brazilian national supply chain; Acos estruturais para plataformas fixas offshore: desafios tecnicos junto a cadeia de suprimentos nacional brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fabio Modesti Orsini de [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the main technical requirements for structural steel applied to the construction of bottom fixed offshore platforms, based on the most widely adopted and recognized actual standards. The mechanical properties and lab tests necessary to fulfill the Risk Management and E and P companies requirements are presented aiming to build the theoretical bases necessary for the engineering design of projects of this kind. The main types of steel available in the national market are presented at the end, giving an overall look at the Brazilian steel supply chain. (author)

  19. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  20. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  1. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  2. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...

  3. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Signorelli, Carla de A.; Conti, Claudio de C.; Lauria, Dejanira da C.; Ferreira, Ingryd M.; Carvalho, Laercio L. de; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Trindade Filho, Octavio Luiz; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Silva, Tadeu Augusto de A.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Cunha, Fernanda G. da

    2011-01-01

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  4. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  5. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Labor and Employment in Brazilian Northeastern Agriculture: a look at the 2004-2014 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Valentim Balsadi

    Full Text Available Abstract: The labor market in the Brazilian Northeastern agriculture is characterized by many forms of occupation, ranging from the salaried work to the various forms of family work. In a heterogeneous and diverse agriculture, there is a complex labor market, with changes in recent times. Therefore, it is necessary to keep a watchful eye on important structural features. As a result, this paper aims to analyze the main aspects related to work and employment relations in the Brazilian Northeastern agriculture in the 2004-2014 period. The sources of information are special tabulations from the National Survey by Household Sample (PNAD, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The results pointed to a continuing decline in Northeastern PEA (Economically Active Population occupied in agriculture, partially offset by the growth of Northeastern rural residents occupied in non-agricultural activities, in addition to the people occupied in self-consumption production. Women and young people were the ones who mostly left the agricultural activities, reinforcing the “ageing” process of the occupied PEA. The crops with the largest reduction in the occupied in agricultural PEA were: cassava, rice, coffee, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, vegetables and fruits. On the other hand, the number of occupied people increased in: corn and grape cultivation, services for agriculture, swine and poultry farming and integrated agricultural and livestock production systems. An increase in schooling of the occupied PEA was registered, though it is still below the national average.

  7. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  8. Ice_Sheets_CCI: Essential Climate Variables for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, R.; Sørensen, L. S.; Khan, A.; Aas, C.; Evansberget, D.; Adalsteinsdottir, G.; Mottram, R.; Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Merryman, J.; Hvidberg, C.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Nagler, T.; Rott, H.; Scharrer, M.; Shepard, A.; Ticconi, F.; Engdahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (www.esa-cci.org) a long-term project "ice_sheets_cci" started January 1, 2012, in addition to the existing 11 projects already generating Essential Climate Variables (ECV) for the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The "ice_sheets_cci" goal is to generate a consistent, long-term and timely set of key climate parameters for the Greenland ice sheet, to maximize the impact of European satellite data on climate research, from missions such as ERS, Envisat and the future Sentinel satellites. The climate parameters to be provided, at first in a research context, and in the longer perspective by a routine production system, would be grids of Greenland ice sheet elevation changes from radar altimetry, ice velocity from repeat-pass SAR data, as well as time series of marine-terminating glacier calving front locations and grounding lines for floating-front glaciers. The ice_sheets_cci project will involve a broad interaction of the relevant cryosphere and climate communities, first through user consultations and specifications, and later in 2012 optional participation in "best" algorithm selection activities, where prototype climate parameter variables for selected regions and time frames will be produced and validated using an objective set of criteria ("Round-Robin intercomparison"). This comparative algorithm selection activity will be completely open, and we invite all interested scientific groups with relevant experience to participate. The results of the "Round Robin" exercise will form the algorithmic basis for the future ECV production system. First prototype results will be generated and validated by early 2014. The poster will show the planned outline of the project and some early prototype results.

  9. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  10. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  11. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  12. Uncertainty Quantification for Ice Sheet Science and Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, C.; Schlegel, N.; Limonadi, D.; Schodlok, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Watkins, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better quantify uncertainties in global mean sea level rise projections and in particular upper bounds, we aim at systematically evaluating the contributions from ice sheets and potential for extreme sea level rise due to sudden ice mass loss. Here, we take advantage of established uncertainty quantification tools embedded within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) as well as sensitivities to ice/ocean interactions using melt rates and melt potential derived from MITgcm/ECCO2. With the use of these tools, we conduct Monte-Carlo style sampling experiments on forward simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet, by varying internal parameters and boundary conditions of the system over both extreme and credible worst-case ranges. Uncertainty bounds for climate forcing are informed by CMIP5 ensemble precipitation and ice melt estimates for year 2100, and uncertainty bounds for ocean melt rates are derived from a suite of regional sensitivity experiments using MITgcm. Resulting statistics allow us to assess how regional uncertainty in various parameters affect model estimates of century-scale sea level rise projections. The results inform efforts to a) isolate the processes and inputs that are most responsible for determining ice sheet contribution to sea level; b) redefine uncertainty brackets for century-scale projections; and c) provide a prioritized list of measurements, along with quantitative information on spatial and temporal resolution, required for reducing uncertainty in future sea level rise projections. Results indicate that ice sheet mass loss is dependent on the spatial resolution of key boundary conditions - such as bedrock topography and melt rates at the ice-ocean interface. This work is performed at and supported by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Supercomputing time is also supported through a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere program.

  13. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  14. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119 Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  15. [Panorama of purchasing food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Elisa Braga; da Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Cerqueira, Gabrielle Fernandes; Chagas, Carolina Martins dos Santos; Toral, Natacha

    2013-04-01

    This article seeks to describe the viewpoint of purchasing food products from family farmers, analyzing their performance within the new guidelines of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE). It is a critical assessment based on a review of the literature and the official data provided by the National Fund for the Development of Education/Ministry of Education relating to 2010. The program budget in 2010 was approximately R$2.5 billion and attended 45.6 million children, adolescents and adults. From the total amount, R$150,397,052.68 was allocated for the purchase of agricultural products from family farmers. In Brazil, 47.4% of the local councils acquired food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program and the purchase percentage was, on average, 22.7%. Given the nature of recent legislation, other aspects should be explored in order to strengthen the compliance with the regulations in different Brazilian contexts and thus contribute both to local economic development and the provision of school meals which fulfill the principles of a healthy and adequate diet.

  16. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to consumers between 1990 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstensen, Jonas; Peters, Glen P; Andrew, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to reduce deforestation to mitigate climate change and to conserve biodiversity are taking place on a global scale. While many studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation, few studies have quantified the domestic and international drivers sustaining deforestation rates. In this study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and production of cattle and soybeans, and allocate emissions between 1990 and 2010 along the global supply chain to the countries that consume products dependent on Brazilian deforestation. We find that 30% of the carbon emissions associated with deforestation were exported from Brazil in the last decade, of which 29% were due to soybean production and 71% cattle ranching. The share exported is growing, with industrialized nations and emerging markets (especially Russia and China) greatly increasing imports. We find a correlation between exports (and hence global consumption) of Brazilian cattle and soybeans and emissions from deforestation. We conclude that trade is emerging as a key driver of deforestation in Brazil, and this may indirectly contribute to loss of the forests that industrialized countries are seeking to protect through international agreements. (letter)

  17. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  18. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  19. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  1. Nuclear energy: Brazilian Nuclear Program behind the scenes and the reflections in the national society and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear energy in the world, the Brazilian nuclear program, the industrial and social risks of nuclear segment, 20th century and the radiation accidents, the ionizing radiation effects in living beings, radioactive wastes, the Earth Letter and a list of CNEN regulations are presented

  2. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  3. The Legitimacy Deficit in the Political Process Brazilian . Democracy Theory of Violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lôbo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to reflect on the legitimacy deficit of the Brazilian political pro- cess, in that it withdraws control over the elections and political terms from the people, refusing protection and concretion of the fundamental right of participation, backbone of the democratic state governed by the rule of law. It also seeks to identify activation mechanisms of public pools as measurement methods of the popular will, which cannot be replaced by what is read in the printed review. To achieve its objectives a slight expla- nation of the Brazilian electoral judicial bodies was made, identifying the control actions of the elections that can only be filed by for legitimates (candidate, political party, party coalitions and prosecutors office, and a justification of the application discourse for the minimal participation and excess jurisdiction (activism versus minimalism was presented as well.

  4. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  5. The brazilian midwest and its economic transformations from 1970 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Marcos Bittar; Pastre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The Midwest is the Brazilian region comprising the Central Highlands in the Country. It is the second least populated region of Brazil. Its vegetation is predominantly composed of the Cerrado ecosystem and the region holds important fresh water reserve and focuses the headwaters of rivers belonging to the main river basins of South America. Politically, the Midwest is the seat of the national political administrative decisions, housing the Federal District. Economically, after the decline of ...

  6. Fabrication of mechanical components and piping design for Brazilian nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppe, L.O.

    1987-01-01

    The supply of Brazilian equipment and piping design for Angra 2 (and Angra 3 in some cases) have reached an advanced status in spite of the continuous outside difficulties which affect these nuclear power plants. The achieved quality is similar to the quality achieved in foreign countries and the nationalization program foreseen in 1975 is being largely surpassed. In this paper the actual situation is presented as well as the future perspectives. (Author) [pt

  7. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  8. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the "Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" for the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Kiiti; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a major public health problem and it is therefore crucial that modifiable risk factors be known prior to onset of dementia in late-life. The "Australian National University - Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" (ANU-ADRI) is one of the potential tools for primary prevention of the disease. The aim of this study was to devise an adapted version of the ANU-ADRI for use in Brazil. The instrument was translated from its original language of English into Portuguese and then back-translated into English by bilingual translators. It was subsequently reviewed and evaluated as to the degree of translation issues and equivalence. In this study, the ANU-ADRI was applied using individual (face-to-face) interviews in a public hospital, unlike the original version which is applied online by self-report. The final version (pretest) was evaluated in a sample of 10 participants with a mean age of 60 years (±11.46) and mean education of 11 years (±6.32). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (inter-rater) was 0.954 (P<0.001 for a confidence interval (CI) of 95%=[0.932; 0.969]). Cultural equivalence was performed without the need for a second instrument application step. After cross-cultural adaptation, the language of the resultant questionnaire was deemed easily understandable by the Brazilian population.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of the "Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" for the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kiiti Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD represents a major public health problem and it is therefore crucial that modifiable risk factors be known prior to onset of dementia in late-life. The "Australian National University - Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index" (ANU-ADRI is one of the potential tools for primary prevention of the disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to devise an adapted version of the ANU-ADRI for use in Brazil. Methods: The instrument was translated from its original language of English into Portuguese and then back-translated into English by bilingual translators. It was subsequently reviewed and evaluated as to the degree of translation issues and equivalence. In this study, the ANU-ADRI was applied using individual (face-to-face interviews in a public hospital, unlike the original version which is applied online by self-report. The final version (pretest was evaluated in a sample of 10 participants with a mean age of 60 years (±11.46 and mean education of 11 years (±6.32. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (inter-rater was 0.954 (P<0.001 for a confidence interval (CI of 95%=[0.932; 0.969]. Cultural equivalence was performed without the need for a second instrument application step. Conclusion: After cross-cultural adaptation, the language of the resultant questionnaire was deemed easily understandable by the Brazilian population.

  11. Management of pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Areda, Camila Alves; Galato, Dayani; Oliveira, Aline Gomes de; Álvares, Juliana; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To identify limiting factors in the management of pharmaceutical services in the primary health care provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This study was based on the data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), and it was conducted by interviews with professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, in 2015. To identify the management limiting factors, we considered the organizational, operational, and sustainability indicators of the management. For the analyses, we included the weights and structure of analysis plan for complex samples. The results were expressed by frequencies and measures of central tendency with 95% confidence interval, considering the Brazilian geographic regions. We identified the following limiting factors: lack of pharmaceutical services in the Municipal Health Secretariat organization chart (24%) and in the health plan (18%); lack of participation of managers in the Health Board and the absence of reference to this topic in the agenda of meetings (58.4%); lack of financial autonomy (61.5%) and lack of knowledge on the available values (81.7%); lack of adoption of operational procedures (about 50%) for selection, scheduling, and acquisition; and the fact that most professionals evaluate the organization of pharmaceutical services as good and great (58.8%), despite the worrisome indicators. Pharmaceutical services management is currently supported by a legal and political framework that should guide and contribute to improve the pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian Unified Health System primary health care. However, there is a mismatch between the goals established by these guidelines and what is actually happening.

  12. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  13. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  14. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  15. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  16. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  17. Testing of Lubricant Performance in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Friis, Kasper Leth

    2008-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged a number of sheet metal forming companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. The problems are especially pronounced, when forming tribologically...... of the lubricant film causing pick-up of work piece material on the tool surface and scoring of subsequent work piece surfaces. The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the authors’ research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing...

  18. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Sales, Marcio H.

    2011-10-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  19. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A; Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H

    2011-01-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  20. Using smooth sheets to describe groundfish habitat in Alaskan waters, with specific application to two flatfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Reid, Jane A.; Golden, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In this analysis we demonstrate how preferred fish habitat can be predicted and mapped for juveniles of two Alaskan groundfish species – Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) – at five sites (Kiliuda Bay, Izhut Bay, Port Dick, Aialik Bay, and the Barren Islands) in the central Gulf of Alaska. The method involves using geographic information system (GIS) software to extract appropriate information from National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets that are available from NGDC (the National Geophysical Data Center). These smooth sheets are highly detailed charts that include more soundings, substrates, shoreline and feature information than the more commonly-known navigational charts. By bringing the information from smooth sheets into a GIS, a variety of surfaces, such as depth, slope, rugosity and mean grain size were interpolated into raster surfaces. Other measurements such as site openness, shoreline length, proportion of bay that is near shore, areas of rocky reefs and kelp beds, water volumes, surface areas and vertical cross-sections were also made in order to quantify differences between the study sites. Proper GIS processing also allows linking the smooth sheets to other data sets, such as orthographic satellite photographs, topographic maps and precipitation estimates from which watersheds and runoff can be derived. This same methodology can be applied to larger areas, taking advantage of these free data sets to describe predicted groundfish essential fish habitat (EFH) in Alaskan waters.

  1. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  2. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  3. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  4. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  5. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  6. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  7. Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 2: a geomorphologically-driven model of ice sheet growth, retreat and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Clark, Chris D.

    2009-12-01

    The ice sheet that once covered Ireland has a long history of investigation. Much prior work focussed on localised evidence-based reconstructions and ice-marginal dynamics and chronologies, with less attention paid to an ice sheet wide view of the first order properties of the ice sheet: centres of mass, ice divide structure, ice flow geometry and behaviour and changes thereof. In this paper we focus on the latter aspect and use our new, countrywide glacial geomorphological mapping of the Irish landscape (>39 000 landforms), and our analysis of the palaeo-glaciological significance of observed landform assemblages (article Part 1), to build an ice sheet reconstruction yielding these fundamental ice sheet properties. We present a seven stage model of ice sheet evolution, from initiation to demise, in the form of palaeo-geographic maps. An early incursion of ice from Scotland likely coalesced with local ice caps and spread in a south-westerly direction 200 km across Ireland. A semi-independent Irish Ice Sheet was then established during ice sheet growth, with a branching ice divide structure whose main axis migrated up to 140 km from the west coast towards the east. Ice stream systems converging on Donegal Bay in the west and funnelling through the North Channel and Irish Sea Basin in the east emerge as major flow components of the maximum stages of glaciation. Ice cover is reconstructed as extending to the continental shelf break. The Irish Ice Sheet became autonomous (i.e. separate from the British Ice Sheet) during deglaciation and fragmented into multiple ice masses, each decaying towards the west. Final sites of demise were likely over the mountains of Donegal, Leitrim and Connemara. Patterns of growth and decay of the ice sheet are shown to be radically different: asynchronous and asymmetric in both spatial and temporal domains. We implicate collapse of the ice stream system in the North Channel - Irish Sea Basin in driving such asymmetry, since rapid

  8. Pre-LGM Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We here reconstruct the paleotopography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the glacial maxima of marine isotope stages (MIS 5b and 4.We employ a combined approach, blending geologically based reconstruction and numerical modeling, to arrive at probable ice sheet extents and topographies for each of these two time slices. For a physically based 3-D calculation based on geologically derived 2-D constraints, we use the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UMISM to calculate ice sheet thickness and topography. The approach and ice sheet modeling strategy is designed to provide robust data sets of sufficient resolution for atmospheric circulation experiments for these previously elusive time periods. Two tunable parameters, a temperature scaling function applied to a spliced Vostok–GRIP record, and spatial adjustment of the climatic pole position, were employed iteratively to achieve a good fit to geological constraints where such were available. The model credibly reproduces the first-order pattern of size and location of geologically indicated ice sheets during marine isotope stages (MIS 5b (86.2 kyr model age and 4 (64 kyr model age. From the interglacial state of two north–south obstacles to atmospheric circulation (Rocky Mountains and Greenland, by MIS 5b the emergence of combined Quebec–central Arctic and Scandinavian–Barents-Kara ice sheets had increased the number of such highland obstacles to four. The number of major ice sheets remained constant through MIS 4, but the merging of the Cordilleran and the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet produced a single continent-wide North American ice sheet at the LGM.

  9. Brazilian scientific publications of obstetrical nurses on home delivery: systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Feyer, Iara Simoni Silveira; Monticelli, Marisa; Volkmer, Cilene; Burigo, Renata Angeloni

    2013-01-01

    This review study of national journals aimed at characterizing the scientific production of Brazilian nurses regarding home delivery and identifying the results achieved. A total of 27 studies were found, of which ten studies complied with the inclusion criteria, with eight constituting the analytical corpus in accordance with the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Data were synthesized using the meta-ethnographic approach, following the interpretation of the reciprocal translation. Three cat...

  10. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  11. [Horus: technological innovation in pharmaceutical assistance within the Brazilian unified health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Nascimento, José Miguel do

    2012-12-01

    To analyze results of the Horus Information System, comparing elements of this system with some international experiences. Horus is a technological innovation introduced in 2009 in the Pharmaceutical management information system of the Sistema Único de Saúde (Brazilian Unified Health System). In 2011, local managers and health professionals of 1,247 municipalities (16 states) that adhered to Horus answered questionnaires on pharmaceutical assistance in primary care and about the Horus system. This is a descriptive and exploratory study, developed with the use of quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Multivariate tools were used for data collection and interpretative support of the statistical inference and thematic analysis. The main changes identified after the implementation of this system were: improvement on technical and scientific quality control of Pharmaceutical Assistance, improvement on the supply of medications and health care; training of human resources and knowledge management; improvement on the relationship health managers/users; development in the administrative management and greater inter-state management; and improvement on the technological infrastructure. In terms of health information systems, these categories are consistent with programs and obstacles observed in international experiences. The biggest gap identified was the fact that Horus was not included in a national policy of health information systems, which is in a process of consolidation in Brazil. The national database of actions and services within the Pharmaceutical Assistance will enable the collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding integrated pharmaceutical assistance in the Brazilian context. The Horus System is a technological innovation that enables the management of the Pharmaceutical Assistance. The national base will enable the definition and agreement on national indicators of Pharmaceutical Assistance, aiming to produce evidence of

  12. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    presented 28 papers. The last one, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais had 3000 participants with 66 conferences and keynotes and more than 4000 papers presented. The next will happen in August 2013 in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina and is also limited to 3000 participants. Beside the national soil science meetings, in its 65 years, the Society also promoted 26 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Management and Conservation of Soil and Water, 23 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, 6 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Fertility and Soil Biology and six editions the Brazilian Simposium on Soil Education, and co-sponsored the ten editions of the Soil Classification and Correlation Meeting. In the last years it is also increasing the number of regional meetings organized by the regional nuclei. In 2011, during the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science, a new Board of Directors (known as the Council) was elected. Since then the Society is setting up a modernization process in its structures and external relations through a renewed statute and new by-laws. The Council, composed by 20 members, is developing an agenda and strategic planning for the next years that reinforces that the Society should aim to: (a) become more influent in Brazilian environmental public policies, (b) reach leadership in public soil awareness in a continental-sized country like Brazil and (c) interact more actively with other scientific societies due to the transdisciplinary nature of Soil Science, and work hard to go out of the agronomical box. At present, the society is busy with the organization of the 21st World Congress of Soil Science to happen in 2018, for the first time in Brazil. Preceding it the Society is organizing a wide range of activities and events to celebrate and call public attention to Soils, in special on the occasion of the International Year of Soils, in 2017.

  13. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  14. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  15. Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoshen; Wu, Chuanyu; Gao, Zepu; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension-tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.

  16. Brazilian program on science, technology and innovation for hydrogen economy - ProH{sub 2}; Programa brasileiro de ciencia, tecnologia e inovacao para a economia do hidrogenio - ProH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Filho, Adriano

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents in a generic way the Brazilian Program of Science, Technology and Innovation for the economy of hydrogen - ProH{sub 2}, comprehending the following global objectives: consolidation of a brazilian technology of the fuel cell and hydrogen production from renewable energies, in particular the ethanol; technological and scientific innovation resulting in the cost reduction according to the brazilian reality; obtention of stationary power modules with the greatest possible nationalization index; clean and distributed energy generation.

  17. Proposed systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in residues produced in Brazilian natural gas pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    2003-11-01

    Since the 80's, the potential radiological hazards due to the handling of solid wastes contaminated with Rn-222 long-lived progeny - Pb-210 in special - produced in gas pipes and removed by pig operations have been subject of growing concern abroad our country. Nevertheless, little or no attention has been paid to this matter in the Brazilian plants up to now, being these hazards frequently underestimated or even ignored. The main purpose of this work was to propose a systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in black powder samples from some Brazilian plants, through the evaluation of direct Pb-210 gamma spectrometry and Bi-210 beta counting technical viabilities. In both cases, one in five samples of black powder analysed showed relevant activity (above 1Bq/kg) of Pb-210, being these results probably related to particular features of each specific plant (production levels, reservoir geochemical profile, etc.), in such a way that a single pattern is not observed. For the proposed methodology, gamma spectrometry proved to be the most reliable technique, showing a 3.5% standard deviation, and, for a 95% confidence level, overall fitness in the range of Pb-210 concentration of activity presented in the standard sample reference sheet, provided by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. In the Brazilian scene, however, the availability of statistically supported evidences is insufficient to allow the potential radiological hazard due to the management of black powder to be discarded. Thus, further research efforts are recommended in order to detect the eventually critical regions or plants where gas exploration, production and processing practices will require a regular program of radiological surveillance, in the near future. (author)

  18. Health services management modalities in the Brazilian Unified National Health System: a narrative review of research production in Public Health (2005-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravioli, Antonio Franco; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho De; Scheffer, Mário César

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to systematically analyze trends and priorities in the theoretical and conceptual approaches and empirical studies on specific health services management modalities in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. A narrative review of the literature identified, in 33 publications, the location and nature of services, management models, methodological procedures, and study outcomes. The research deals mainly with the models' conceptual and legal characteristics and management practices, in addition to addressing contracts, procurement, human resources, financing, and control mechanisms. In conclusion, the literature is limited and concentrated in the State of São Paulo, showing little theoretical diversity and methodological weaknesses, while it is nonconclusive as to the superiority of one management model over another. New evaluation studies are needed that are capable of comparing different models and assessing their performance and their effects on the quality of health services' provision, the population's health, and the health system's organization.

  19. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  20. Secular trend in height in enlisted men and recruits from the Brazilian Navy born from 1970 to 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available This study presents data from a survey on height trends in Brazilian Navy enlisted men and recruits born from 1970 to 1977. The sample consisted of 52,574 enlisted men and 4,459 recruits ranging in age from 18.00 to 18.99 years. The statistical processing employed two-way analysis of variance procedure, simple linear regression comparing height and year of birth and multiple analysis controlling for schooling (regression coefficient and the chi-square. The results show that enlisted men and recruits displayed height increments, characterizing a contemporary process of secular trend. Such increments were also present in the country's various macro-regions. The results were compared to a recent investigation of a national scope the National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN and both enlisted men and recruits displayed higher median height than that reported by the PNSN. Level of schooling for individuals in the Navy is high, far superior to that of the Brazilian population as a whole. This set of data suggests that young men enlisting in the Navy are on average of a higher socioeconomic status than the Brazilian population in general, which limits possibilities for extrapolating the findings from this research.

  1. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  2. Nuclear energy generation and the safety criteria for Brazilian power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gustavo Brandão e

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the use of nuclear technology can help to diversify the national electricity matrix in a sustainable and efficient way. For this, an analysis of the current situation of the Brazilian electric sector will be made, exposing its fragilities and highlighting the advantages of the nuclear source as an alternative to integrate the necessary thermoelectric base to the reliable supply of electricity in the country. In addition, the objective of the work is to detail the process of exploiting atomic energy in Brazil from raw material mining, through the stages involving the manufacture of nuclear fuel, to the current operation and situation of Brazilian power plants. By taking the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant as a case study, the safety criteria adopted in its design and operation will be highlighted. Particular attention will also be given to the electric supply alternatives and to the active safety systems of the plant

  3. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  4. Cell sheet technology and cell patterning for biofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Imen Elloumi; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    We have developed cell sheet technology as a modern method for the fabrication of functional tissue-like and organ-like structures. This technology allows for a sheet of interconnected cells and cells in full contact with their natural extracellular environment to be obtained. A cell sheet can be patterned and composed according to more than one cell type. The key technology of cell sheet engineering is that a fabricated cell sheet can be harvested and transplanted utilizing temperature-responsive surfaces. In this review, we summarize different aspects of cell sheet engineering and provide a survey of the application of cell sheets as a suitable material for biofabrication and clinics. Moreover, since cell micropatterning is a key tool for cell sheet engineering, in this review we focus on the introduction of our approaches to cell micropatterning and cell co-culture to the principles of automation and how they can be subjected to easy robotics programming. Finally, efforts towards making cell sheet technology suitable for biofabrication and robotic biofabrication are also summarized. (topical review)

  5. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.) [pt

  6. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira

    2012-06-10

    Forensic age estimation is an important element of anthropological research, as it produces one of the primary sources of data that researchers use to establish the identity of a person living or the identity of unknown bodily remains. The aim of this study was to determine if the chronology of third molar mineralization could be an accurate indicator of estimated age in a sample Brazilian population. If so, mineralization could determine the probability of an individual being 18 years or older. The study evaluated 407 panoramic radiographs of males and females from the past 5 years in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molars. The evaluation was carried out using an adaptation of Demirjian's system. The results indicated a strong correlation between chronological age and the mineralization of the mandibular third molars. The results indicated that modern Brazilian generation tends to demonstrate an earlier mandibular third molar mineralization than older Brazilian generation and people of other nationalities. Males reached developmental stages slightly earlier than females, but statistically significant differences between the sex were not found. The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saccani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece, to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants and Canada (2,400 infants. Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  8. The participation of the production sector in the research projects financed by CTPETRO - National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas; A participacao do setor produtivo nos projetos financiados pelo CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fabiana; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: fabiana@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper emphasizes the participation of the equipment and services suppliers for the petroleum sector in the projects financially supported by CTPETRO (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas), according to the edit 03/2000.

  9. African Literatures and Afro-Brazilian in the Early Childhood Education Nursery. Challenges to Diversity Etnicorracial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudionor Renato Da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available African and Afro-brazilian literature are rising in national educational practice mainly after the publication of the Laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08 turning mandatory the teaching of African, Afro-arazilian and indigenous history and culture, offering the opportunity to treat racial ethnic relationships in basic education. The article aims to present a reflection based on the results of a weekly pedagogical practice, approaching the education of the racial ethnic relationships through African and Afro-brazilian infantile literature in a classroom of "maternal I" (2 and 3 year old children of a nursery school. Based on a qualitative approach, this research used the method of participant research with the elaboration of a research report. The observation registers in the report allowed us to confirm the resistence to treat racial questions in scholar space. It was also possible to verify that African and Afro-brazilian literatures are substitutes for some literatures that affirm and fortify the myth of racial democracy and are, therefore, obstacles for the laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08 in schools of basic education.

  10. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  11. Comprehension of hazard communication: effects of pictograms on safety data sheets and labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelhouwer, Eric; Davis, Jerry; Franco-Watkins, Ana; Dorris, Nathan; Lungu, Claudiu

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations has proposed the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals to make hazard communication more uniform and to improve comprehension. Two experiments were conducted to test whether the addition of hazard and precautionary pictograms to safety data sheets and product labels would improve the transfer of information to users compared to safety data sheets and product labels containing text only. Additionally, naïve users, workers, and experts were tested to determine any potential differences among users. The effect of adding pictograms to safety data sheets and labels was statistically significant for some conditions, but was not significant across all conditions. One benefit of the addition of pictograms was that the time to respond to the survey questions decreased when the pictograms were present for both the SDS and the labels. GHS format SDS and labels do provide benefits to users, but the system will need further enhancements and modifications to continue to improve the effectiveness of hazard communication. The final rule to modify the HCS to include the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals announced by OSHA (2012b) will change the information content of every chemical SDS and label used in commerce. This study suggests that the inclusion of GHS hazard pictograms and precautionary pictograms to SDS and labels may benefit the user. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  13. The Idea of Science of Brazilian Physiologist Miguel Ozório de Almeida (1890-1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological considerations of philosophers and scientists from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century guided Brazilian physiologist Miguel Ozório de Almeida (1890-1953 in formulating his researches and participating in national and international scientific debates. With his siblings, Álvaro Ozório de Almeida and Branca de Almeida Fialho, he participated in debates on Brazilian educational and scientific system’s reform and in international organizations. The family’s residence in Rio de Janeiro housed a laboratory that became a reference in experimental physiology researches in Brazil. This article aims to present Miguel Ozório de Almeida’s conception of science, constructed mainly within the private laboratory’s sociability, providing new aspects of scientific work production in Brazil in the early twentieth century. I argue that Ozório de Almeida’s stand as an internationalist physiologist in national and international contexts was related to his reading of texts by Ernest Mach, Pierre Duhem, Henri Poincaré and William James.

  14. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  15. Modeling the Alzheimer Abeta17-42 fibril architecture: tight intermolecular sheet-sheet association and intramolecular hydrated cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Jang, Hyunbum; Ma, Buyong; Tsai, Chung-Jun; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-11-01

    We investigate Abeta(17-42) protofibril structures in solution using molecular dynamics simulations. Recently, NMR and computations modeled the Abeta protofibril as a longitudinal stack of U-shaped molecules, creating an in-parallel beta-sheet and loop spine. Here we study the molecular architecture of the fibril formed by spine-spine association. We model in-register intermolecular beta-sheet-beta-sheet associations and study the consequences of Alzheimer's mutations (E22G, E22Q, E22K, and M35A) on the organization. We assess the structural stability and association force of Abeta oligomers with different sheet-sheet interfaces. Double-layered oligomers associating through the C-terminal-C-terminal interface are energetically more favorable than those with the N-terminal-N-terminal interface, although both interfaces exhibit high structural stability. The C-terminal-C-terminal interface is essentially stabilized by hydrophobic and van der Waals (shape complementarity via M35-M35 contacts) intermolecular interactions, whereas the N-terminal-N-terminal interface is stabilized by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Hence, shape complementarity, or the "steric zipper" motif plays an important role in amyloid formation. On the other hand, the intramolecular Abeta beta-strand-loop-beta-strand U-shaped motif creates a hydrophobic cavity with a diameter of 6-7 A, allowing water molecules and ions to conduct through. The hydrated hydrophobic cavities may allow optimization of the sheet association and constitute a typical feature of fibrils, in addition to the tight sheet-sheet association. Thus, we propose that Abeta fiber architecture consists of alternating layers of tight packing and hydrated cavities running along the fibrillar axis, which might be possibly detected by high-resolution imaging.

  16. Laser-sheet imaging of HE-driven interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Rightley, P.M.; Kinkead, S.; Martin, R.A.; Critchfield, R.; Sandoval, D.L.; Holmes, R.; Gorman, T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors made substantial progress in developing the MILSI (Multiple Imaging of Laser-Sheet Illumination) technique for high explosive (HE)-driven fluid interfaces. They observed the instability, but have not yet measured the instability growth rate. They developed suitable sample containers and optical systems for studying the Rightmyer-Meshkov instability of perturbed water/bromoform interfaces and they successfully fielded the new MILSI diagnostic at two firing-site facilities. The problem continues to be of central importance to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and weapons physics communities

  17. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  18. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  19. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  20. The Emergence of Viagra in the Brazilian Public Scenario: Discourses on Body, Gender and Sexuality in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brigeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an anthropological reflection on the images and discourses of the body and the sexuality in the Brazilian society, focusing on a particular social phenomenon: the emergence of the Viagra in the national public scenario. This article explores the connotations constructed and confirmed by the Brazilian media press about this drug. Two Brazilian newspapers belonging to the same publisher but aimed at different publics were analyzed from April 1998 to April 1999, period that corresponds to the beginning – and apex – of the debate on the Viagra in the country. The discussion focuses on the symbolism and discursive strategies utilized by the newspapers when presenting this medication to the general public. This article also draws the attention to an appeal to traditional logics of gender, despite a contemporary scenario of issues concerning the relationships among the sexes and the sexuality.

  1. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I protect my pets when using pesticides around them? More FAQs FAQ Comics Video FAQs From NPIC: Fact Sheets Videos Web Apps Podcasts Outreach Materials NPIC Professional Resources Social Media: National Pesticide Information Center Tweets by NPICatOSU Please read our ...

  2. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  3. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia de Paula

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. METHODS: The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. RESULTS: The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa, especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. CONCLUSION: The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  4. The Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 in Brazilian educational narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text presents the partial conclusions of the research in which a comparative analysis was made of narratives that address the issue of Brazilian Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 within the set of History textbooks of Elementary School approved by the Brazilian National Textbook Program (Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD/2011. Possible trends of sense production based on reading are looked for in the set of narratives, considering that, in the organization of their components, such texts carry a potential of meanings which are updated at each reading. Since the narratives cover recent historical events, it is concluded that social memory and history play a peculiar role as mechanisms external to narrative that reflect their internal mechanisms and possibilities of history meaning. In this analysis, elements of language studies and theory of history, with regard to its teaching, are broadly present. How to reference this article Rocha, H. (2015. A Ditadura Militar (1964-1985 nas narrativas didáticas brasileiras. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 97-120. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.006

  5. Anthropometric, morphological and somatotype characteristics of athletes of the Brazilian Men’s volleyball team: an 11-year descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p184 This study analyzed the anthropometric and morphological characteristics of the adult male players in the Brazilian volleyball team for 11 years. The sample comprised 92 athletes selected for the national team from 1995 to 2005. Anthropometric measures were collected and body composition and somatotype components were estimated. Oneway ANOVA and the Bonferroni test were used for descriptive statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set at p<0.05. Along the 11 years, there was a significant increase in the flexed arm perimeter, humerus diameter and lean mass. Skinfold thickness and percent body fat tended to decrease. Height increased and was greater than 1.97 m. The somatotype of the volleyball players in the Brazilian team changed along the years. Ectomorphic and mesomorphic somatotypes were the most frequent. In 11 years, the athletes selected for the Brazilian team had an increase in body mass and a decrease in skinfold thickness and percent body fat. The most frequent anthropometric classifications were mesomorph-ectomorph for five years, followed by mesomorphic-ectomorph for three years, which suggests that greater height and low body fat were taken into consideration when selecting athletes for the national team

  6. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  7. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  8. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  9. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  10. The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Araujo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. Results: In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day, with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Conclusions: Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries.

  11. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  12. Electron energization in the geomagnetic tail current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron motion in the distant tail current sheet is evaluated and found to violate the guiding center approximation at energies > or approx. =100 eV. Most electrons within the energy range approx.10 -1 -10 2 keV that enter the current sheet become trapped within the magnetic field reversal region. These electrons then convect earthward and gain energy from the cross-tail electric field. If the energy spectrum of electrons entering the current sheet is similar to that of electrons from the boundary layer surrounding the magnetotail, the energy gain from the electric field produces electron energy spectra comparable to those observed in the earth's plasma sheet. Thus current sheet interactions can be a significant source of particles and energy for plasma sheet electrons as well as for plasma sheet ions. A small fraction of electrons within the current sheet has its pitch angles scattered so as to be ejected from the current sheet within the atmospheric loss cone. These electrons can account for the electron precipitation near the high-latitude boundary of energetic electrons, which is approximately isotropic in pitch angle up to at least several hundred keV. Current sheet interaction should cause approximately isotropic auroral precipitation up to several hundred keV energies, which extends to significantly lower latitudes for ions than for electrons in agreement with low-altitude satellite observations. Electron precipitation associated with diffuse aurora generally has a transition at 1-10 keV to anisotropic pitch angle distributions. Such electron precipitation cannot be explained by current sheet interactions, but it can be explained by pitch angle diffusion driven by plasma turbulence

  13. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  14. Brazilian healthcare in the context of austerity: private sector dominant, government sector failing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the arguments in favor of government intervention in financing and regulation of health in Brazil. It describes the organizational arrangement of the Brazilian health system, for the purpose of reflection on the austerity agenda proposed for the country. Based on the literature in health economics, it discusses the hypothesis that the health sector in Brazil functions under the dominance of the private sector. The categories employed for analysis are those of the national health spending figures. An international comparison of indicators of health expenses shows that Brazilian public spending is a low proportion of total spending on Brazilian health. Expenditure on individuals' health by out-of-pocket payments is high, and this works against equitability. The private health services sector plays a crucial role in provision, and financing. Contrary to the belief put forward by the austerity agenda, public expenditure cannot be constrained because the government has failed in adequate provision of services to the poor. This paper argues that, since the Constitution did not veto activity by the private sector segment of the market, those interests that have the greatest capacity to vocalize have been successful in imposing their preferences in the configuration of the sector.

  15. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  16. Relativistic current sheets in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenitani, S.

    2008-01-01

    The current sheet structure with magnetic field reversal is one of the fundamental structure in space and astrophysical plasmas. It draws recent attention in high-energy astrophysical settings, where relativistic electron-positron plasmas are considered. In this talk we will review the recent progress of the physical processes in the relativistic current sheet. The kinetic stability of a single current sheet, the nonlinear behavior of these instabilities, and recent challenges on the multi current sheet systems are introduced. We will also introduce some problems of magnetic reconnection in these relativistic environments. (author)

  17. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  18. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  19. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customers at the date of the balance sheet. Include a general description of the prerequisites for billing... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items and certain additional...

  20. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  1. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil

  2. National Identity from a Social Psychological Perspective: Two Brazilian Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stanley J.

    Four aspects of national identity are investigated that seem relevant to an understanding of the complex sociopsychological ties which bind individuals to the nation-state. The four aspects of national identity are self-identity, consciousness of national identity, perception of nation-state, and citizenship role within nation-state. Two parallel…

  3. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  4. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Han Jin,1 Kai Zhang,2 Chunyan Qiao,1 Anliang Yuan,1 Daowei Li,1 Liang Zhao,1 Ce Shi,1 Xiaowei Xu,1 Shilei Ni,1 Changyu Zheng,3 Xiaohua Liu,4 Bai Yang,2 Hongchen Sun11Department of Pathology, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 3Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(cDNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI

  6. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  7. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  8. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  9. [The Brazilian economy in the 80's and its impact on the living conditions of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, A M; Furtuoso, M C; da Silva, M V

    1995-10-01

    In the 80's the Brazilian economy underwent one of the most severe crises of its history, resulting in the stagnation of the gross national product and inflation rates such as never previously reported. Despite this unfavorable scenario social indicators have presented a positive evolution. This work shows that although the Brazilian family has adopted the over-use of the family work force as a strategy for facing this crisis on the work market, the evolution of both income and poverty in that period were poor. The increase of expenses and the transformation of the forms of implementation of public policy in the health and nutrition areas are shown to be decisive factors in the performance of social indicators.

  10. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  11. Characterization of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gisélia Santana; Costa, Ediná Alves; Barros, Rafael Damasceno de; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Álvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the current stage of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities. This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed by an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. We interviewed municipal secretaries of health, responsible for pharmaceutical services, and pharmacists responsible for the dispensing of medicines. The variables selected from the interviews were grouped into five dimensions that defined three stages of pharmaceutical services institutionalization: incipient (0%-34.0%), partial (35.0%-69.0%), and advanced (70.0%-100%), estimated based on the interviewees' answers. Frequencies were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. For the statistical association analysis, the Chi-square test was applied, with significance level of pautonomy in the management of financial resources. Indispensable items related to the structure expressed disparities between the regions, with statistically significant differences. The study showed a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, showing regional disparities. Variables related to the normative aspects of institutionalization were positively highlighted in all dimensions; however, it is necessary to conduct new studies to evaluate the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services' finalistic activities.

  12. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets and in the notes...

  13. Disposal sheet for preventing scattering of radioactive contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Kurioka, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1990-01-01

    Upon disposal of vinyl sheets at the final stage of dismantling operation for nuclear buildings, etc., radioactive contaminated materials caused by cutting concretes, etc. remain on the sheets. In view of the above, members capable of restoring original shape due to the temperature difference are attached to the sheet main body so that the sheet main body may be folded into a bag-like shape. Since the members as described above are bent upon temperature elevation in the sheets, the sheet main body is pulled by the members and then spontaneously folded into a bag-like shape. As a result, the radioactive contaminated materials remaining on the sheets are wrapped into the sheet main body free from touch to operator's hands or without scattering to the surrounding. This can prevent operator's external and internal exposure. (T.M.)

  14. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  15. Comparison between Brazilian and Portuguese energy sceneries considering the importance of small hydroelectric power plants; Comparacao entre os cenarios energeticos brasileiros e portugueses considerando-se a implantacao de PCH's - Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Mauad, Frederico Fabio [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    2000-07-01

    Both the Brazilian and the Portuguese energy systems have been subject of several transformations along the last years. That happened mainly because the re-definition of the electric sectors what makes possible the flexibility of the energy commercialization. There is another important point to be mentioned what is related to the end of the market monopoly before established by ELETROBRAS - Brazilian Electricity Generation Board and by EDP - Electricity of Portugal, determining a new relationship among the energy produces and consumers. A free market law to the energy sellers and buyers has been introduced. Therefore the businessman have been stimulated to invest in new energy sources and new energy power plants to get bigger profits as well as the consumers have been pushed to fight for lower prices and better qualities. Both the Brazilian and Portuguese Governments must keep the decision power to establish the national energy plans to get the country economic targets and to avoid the economic abuses and cartelization. The discussion presented aims to analyze the importance of the small hydroelectric power plants in both the Brazilian and the Portuguese electric systems considering the economic aspects and the social and environmental impacts. The recent modifications established by both national agencies of energy regulations: ANEEL (Brazil) - National Agency of Electric Power Companies and INAG (Portugal) - National Institute of Water, have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. 17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

  17. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  18. Neutron spatial distribution measurement with 6Li-contained thermoluminescent sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, A.; Odano, N.; Sawamura, H.; Ozasa, N.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing a thermoluminescent (TL) sheet for photon dosimetry (TL sheet) with thermoluminescent material of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and a co-polymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. For the purpose of a development of simple method for neutron spatial distribution measurement, TL sheet for neutron detection (NTL sheet) is made by adding 94.7% enriched 6 LiF to TL sheet. TL material in TL sheet is directly excited by ionizing radiation whereas, in the case of neutron detection, TL material in NTL sheet is indirectly excited by neutron capture reaction. That is neutron distribution can be obtained with TL caused by α particle from 6 Li(n, α) 3 H reaction. Responses of NTL sheets to neutrons were examined at the neutron beam irradiation facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in JRR-4 research reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. TL and NTL sheets were exposed to striped and roundly distributed neutron fields. Attenuations of neutron flux in air and water were also observed using NTL sheets. TL sheets were also exposed on the same conditions and compared with NTL sheets. TL intensity ratios of NTL sheet to TL sheet were consistent with the calculated value from 6 Li content. Thermal neutron attenuation observed by NTL sheet also corresponded with the result measured by Au wire radioactivation and TLD chips, which were currently used in BNCT at JRR-4. These results were analyzed with by Monte Carlo simulation. The present results indicated that NTL sheet is applicable to measurement of neutron spatial distribution. (author)

  19. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  20. Application of GRACE to the Evaluation of an Ice Flow Model of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, N.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Larour, E. Y.; Box, J. E.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Morlighem, M.; Boening, C.; Seroussi, H. L.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying Greenland's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task and requires accurate estimates of ice flow sensitivity to climate change. Transient ice flow models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior. However, confidence in these types of future projections is low, especially because evaluation of model historical runs is so challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for validation. For more than a decade, NASA's GRACE has continuously acquired time-variable measurements of the Earth's gravity field and has provided unprecedented surveillance of mass balance of the ice sheets, offering an opportunity for ice sheet model evaluation. Here, we take advantage of a new high-resolution (~300 km) monthly mascon solution for the purpose of mass balance comparison with an independent, historical ice flow model simulation using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The comparison highlights which regions of the ice sheet differ most from GRACE. Investigation of regional differences in trends and seasonal amplitudes between simulations forced with three different Regional Climate Model (RCM)-based estimates of surface mass balance (SMB) allows us to make conclusions about the relative contributions of various error sources in the model hindcast. This study constitutes the first regional comparison of GRACE data and an ice sheet model. Conclusions will aid in the improvement of RCM SMB estimates as well as ice sheet simulation estimates of present and future rates of sea level rise. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Program and President's and Director's Fund Program.

  1. Brazilian competition advantages in the petroleum and natural gas area. Suitability of a national policy for the sector; Vantagens competitivas brasileiras no setor de petroleo e gas natural. Conveniencia de uma politica industrial para o setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Regina; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Werneck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1998-07-01

    Albeit it is recognized the economic benefits that nay follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which should experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private capitals, this work tries to discuss about the capacity of Brazil to sustain this growth and obtain the maximum economic development out of the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. Starting from the concept of National Competitive Advantage, according to Michael Porter's model, from the University of Harvard, it is analyzed some necessary aspects for Brazil to develop a healthier and more competitive oil nad natural gas industry. The work discussed on the convenience of developing a new industrial policy, allowing to the country to protect its national interests without creating old forms of obsolete protectionism. (author)

  2. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  3. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  4. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  5. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  7. Flexibility valuation in the Brazilian power system: A real options approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marreco, Juliana de Moraes; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a valuation study of operational flexibility in the complex Brazilian Power System. Thermopower plants represent operational flexibility for the national system operator provided they can be dispatched in dry periods to supply part of the load when reservoir waters are too low. Deficit costs can be avoided as a result. We have adopted a real options approach to calculate the fair value of a financial subsidy to be paid to thermal generators for their availability to the system. A financial subsidy is mandatory for their economic feasibility and, therefore, for increased thermopower capacity in the Brazilian Power System. This is why this policy is currently being studied by Brazil's federal government. In order to illustrate our modeling we have run the model for the southeast subsystem. We found a flexibility value of US$4.52 billion, which represents US$497/MW per year. This means that a 100 MW thermopower plant should receive US$49,700 for each year of its economic lifetime as a fair premium incentive to investments

  8. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 05: NEPA and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the law that requires Federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions, involve the public in the decisionmaking process, and disclose information, starting at the initial stages of planning. This fact sheet discusses when you should consider economics in the NEPA process, when to do an analysis,...

  10. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  11. Health risk among asbestos cement sheet manufacturing workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanprasit, Wantanee; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2009-12-01

    To assess asbestos exposure and calculate the relative risks of lung cancer among asbestos cement roof sheet workers and to predict the incidence rate of lung cancer caused by asbestos in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four asbestos cement roof factories. Both area and personal air samples were collected and analyzed employing NIOSH method # 7400 and counting rule A for all procesess and activities. The time weight average exposures were calculated for each studied task using average area concentrations of the mill and personal concentrations. Then, cumulative exposures were estimated based on the past nation-wide air sampling concentrations and those from the present study. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer among asbestos cement sheet workers was calculated and the number of asbestos related lung cancer case was estimated. The roof fitting polishers had the highest exposure to airborne asbestos fiber (0.73 fiber/ml). The highest average area concentration was at the conveyor to the de-bagger areas (0.02 fiber/ml). The estimated cumulative exposure for the workers performed studied-tasks ranged in between 90.13-115.65 fiber-years/ml while the relative risk of lung cancer calculated using US. EPA's model were 5.37-5.96. Based on the obtained RR, lung cancer among AC sheet in Thailand would be 2 case/year. In case that AC sheet will not be prohibited from being manufactured, even though only chrysotile is allowed, the surveillance system should be further developed and more seriously implemented. The better control measures for all processes must be implemented. Furthermore, due to the environmental persistence of asbestos fiber, its life cycle analysis should be conducted in order to control environmental exposure of general population.

  12. Sheet, ligament and droplet formation in swirling primary atomization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxiao Shao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report direct numerical simulations of swirling liquid atomization to understand the physical mechanism underlying the sheet breakup of a non-turbulent liquid swirling jet which lacks in-depth investigation. The volume-of-fluid (VOF method coupled with adapted mesh refinement (AMR technique in GERRIS code is employed in the present simulation. The mechanisms of sheet, ligament and droplet formation are investigated. It is observed that the olive-shape sheet structure is similar to the experimental result qualitatively. The numerical results show that surface tension, pressure difference and swirling effect contribute to the contraction and extension of liquid sheet. The ligament formation is partially at the sheet rim or attributed to the extension of liquid hole. Especially, the movement of hairpin vortex exerts by an anti-radial direction force to the sheet surface and leads to the sheet thinness. In addition, droplet formation is attributed to breakup of ligament and central sheet.

  13. Sheet, ligament and droplet formation in swirling primary atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changxiao; Luo, Kun; Chai, Min; Fan, Jianren

    2018-04-01

    We report direct numerical simulations of swirling liquid atomization to understand the physical mechanism underlying the sheet breakup of a non-turbulent liquid swirling jet which lacks in-depth investigation. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method coupled with adapted mesh refinement (AMR) technique in GERRIS code is employed in the present simulation. The mechanisms of sheet, ligament and droplet formation are investigated. It is observed that the olive-shape sheet structure is similar to the experimental result qualitatively. The numerical results show that surface tension, pressure difference and swirling effect contribute to the contraction and extension of liquid sheet. The ligament formation is partially at the sheet rim or attributed to the extension of liquid hole. Especially, the movement of hairpin vortex exerts by an anti-radial direction force to the sheet surface and leads to the sheet thinness. In addition, droplet formation is attributed to breakup of ligament and central sheet.

  14. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  15. The Brazilian Back Complaints in the Elders (Brazilian BACE) study: characteristics of Brazilian older adults with a new episode of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende De; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Ferreira, Manuela Loureiro; Silva, Juscelio Pereira Da; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    Low back pain (LBP) is little explored in the aging population especially when considering age-relevant and culturally dependent outcomes. We aimed to describe socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Brazilian older people with a new episode of LBP presenting to primary care. We sourced baseline information on socio-demographic, pain-related and clinical characteristics from 602 older adults from the Brazilian Back Complaints in the Elders (Brazilian BACE) study. We analyzed differences in pain, disability, functional capacity and psychosocial factors between sub-groups based on age (i.e. participants aged 55-74 or ≥75 years), education (i.e. those with four years or less of schooling or those with more than four years of schooling) and income (i.e. participants who reported earning two or less minimal wages or three and more). Participants presented severe LBP (7.18/10, SD: 2.59). Younger participants were slightly more disabled (mean difference 1.29 points, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03/5.56), reporting poorer physical health, and less fall-related self-efficacy (mean difference of 2.41, 95% CI 0.35/4.46). Those less educated, and those with income equal or less than two minimum wages had more disability, pain catastrophizing and worse functional capacity. This was the first study showing that Brazilian older adults with LBP present high levels of functional disability and psychological distress, especially those with low socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  17. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  18. Atitudes dos pneumologistas brasileiros em face da dependência de nicotina: inquérito nacional Attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward nicotine dependence: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é uma condição médica por haver dependência de droga, devendo ser abordado por todos os profissionais de saúde como uma doença crônica. Objetivando conhecer a conduta dos pneumologistas brasileiros perante fumantes, realizamos um inquérito nacional, por meio da aplicação de um questionário via internet, enviado para 2.800 desses profissionais, com um retorno de 587 questionários (21%. Observamos que 3,2% dos respondedores não entendem o tabagismo como uma condição médica. Somente 14,7% responderam tratar o tabagismo, e 32,4% disseram encaminhar o fumante para outro colega tratá-lo. Os resultados sugerem que os pneumologistas brasileiros não têm conhecimento suficiente sobre as terapias de cessação do tabagismo.Smoking is a medical condition, since there is drug dependence, and health professionals should treat it as a chronic disease. In order to understand the attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward smokers, we conducted a national survey, using a questionnaire posted on the Internet, of 2,800 pulmonologists, 587 (21% of whom completed and returned the questionnaires. We found that 3.2% of the respondents did not believe that smoking is a medical condition. Only 14.7% treated smokers, and 32.4% stated that they would refer smokers to another professional for treatment. These results suggest that Brazilian pulmonologists have insufficient knowledge of smoking cessation therapies.

  19. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  20. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  1. Environmental constraints on West Antarctic ice-sheet formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, D R; MacAyeal, D R

    1987-01-01

    Small perturbations in Antarctic environmental conditions can culminate in the demise of the Antarctic ice sheet's western sector. This may have happened during the last interglacial period, and could recur within the next millennium due to atmospheric warming from trace gas and CO/sub 2/ increases. In this study, we investigate the importance of sea-level, accumulation rate, and ice influx from the East Antarctic ice sheet in the re-establishment of the West Antarctic ice sheet from a thin cover using a time-dependent numerical ice-shelf model. Our results show that a precursor to the West Antarctic ice sheet can form within 3000 years. Sea-level lowering caused by ice-sheet development in the Northern Hemisphere has the greatest environmental influence. Under favorable conditions, ice grounding occurs over all parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet except up-stream of Thwaites Glacier and in the Ross Sea region.

  2. Reasons for embracing a religion: The case of Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Irffi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Economics of Religion is based on the model proposed by Azzi and Ehrenberg in 1975, which aimed to assess the religious frequency. Therefore, this article proposes to estimate the determinants of religious frequency of Brazilian women. To achieve this goal, information from the National Survey of Demography and Health of Children and Women as of 2006 (PNDS-2006 is employed and from an ordered logistic regression model, socioeconomic determinants, demographic, cultural and behavioral factors that may interfere in such demand are estimeted. According to the results, it can be inferred that religious frequency of Brazilian women receive interposition of their demographic characteristics, in particular rises with age. In relation to income, it was not observed any correlation pattern, while higher level of education reduces the likelihood of the woman never go to church. Thus, we found no evidence that the level of occupation, marital status and death of children affect significantly the frequency to religious services of women surveyed. And finally, the main feature of women impacting the demand for religious activities and services stems from the inspiration that the woman had, that is, if she was raised in a religion, especially Catholic or evangelical.

  3. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê Urban

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. Materials and methods: We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Recommendations: Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer.

  4. Hydrothermal growth of upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping; Dong, Xiaobin; Jia, Changchao; Li, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were hydrothermally fabricated. • The ZnO sheets were prepared with sodium oxalate at 70 °C without any surfactant. • The preferable adsorption of oxalate anions causes the formation of ZnO sheet. • The continuous growth in six directions leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets. - Abstract: Large-scale upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were fabricated on Zn substrate using sodium oxalate as structure-directing agent by a hydrothermal method at low temperature (70 °C) without any surfactant. The sheets are about 3–5 μm in dimension and 100–300 nm in thickness. The strong and narrow diffraction peaks of ZnO indicate that the sample has a good crystallinity and size. The morphology of sheet-like ZnO varied with the concentrations of sodium oxalate and reaction time. The sheet-like ZnO would transform into rod-like ones when sodium oxalate was substituted by equivalent sodium acetate. The formation of sheet-like ZnO is attributed to the preferable adsorption of oxalate anions on (0 0 0 1) face of ZnO, which inhibits the intrinsic growth of ZnO. Additionally, the continuous growth in six (0 1 −1 0) directions that have the lowest surface energy leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets

  5. The expansion of "the feminine" within the Brazilian public sphere: telenovelas of the 1970s and 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Império Hamburger

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the wide range of critical literature that, from a variety of theoretical perspectives and with an emphasis on different historical periods and countries, deals with the relationships between mass media and representations of gender relations. This review of the literature focuses on works that are particularly suggestive for our ensuing discussion on the major conventions of Brazilian telenovela, a television genre that blends elements of documentary and fiction and treats the nation in melodramatic terms. Analysis of relevant programs that were exhibited during the 70s and the 80s suggests that these soaps constructed the Brazilian public space in terms that expanded what the industry had conventionally defined as "woman's domain".

  6. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  7. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  8. [Connections between fiscal federalism and the funding of the Brazilian health care policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2007-01-01

    In the Brazilian society's context of meager financial resources for health care, associated with structural features of fiscal federalism and with the current model of funding transfers for the Unified Health System's (SUS), important inequities directly impact political negotiations and the deployment of federal financing alternatives which are not directly linked to the supply and production of health care activities and services by states and municipalities. We observed that health policies, since the second half of the nineties, have developed their own mechanisms that, in the above mentioned context, tend to accommodate different interests and federative conflicts generated by structural factors and by institutional rules. However, the absence of an integrated planning program between the criteria to establish resource redistribution for financing the Unified Health System and the Brazilian Federation's fiscal sharing system, end up reinforcing certain asymmetric patterns and generating new imbalances, making the compensation of inequities difficult in public health spending at the sub-national domain.

  9. Science and technology in a developing country: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Jose Israel

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper treats the development of science and technology in Brazil in a historical perspective within the Brazilian socio-economic context. The development of natural and human resources and the buildup of the Brazilian economy that have taken place over the last few decades are best described against the background of the well known economic cycles involving sugar production, gold mining and coffee cultivation, all largely based on slave labor until late in the 19th century. Brazilian industrialization has often been described as resulting from the adoption of an import substitution model. This paper claims that, alternatively, it may be described as a technology importation model. The implementation of this scheme demanded the rapid development of human capital which, in Brazil, has followed an original approach. In fact, traditional university education only started in the 1930s, higher education having taken root only in previously isolated high quality technical schools, such as mining, electrical engineering, agricultural engineering and, of course, the traditional institutions for teaching medicine and law. By the 1950s, largely under the influence of some outstanding scientists - mostly trained in the frontiers of nuclear sciences - the National Council of Research and the National Post-Graduate Training Programme were created. This has led, until now, to reasonable scientific, and to a lesser extent, technological development. The recent globalization process - the new economy - has broken down barriers to international commerce and required in recent years greater efforts to disseminate basic general education and the fostering of advanced science and technology. To this end, science and technology, along with research and development activities, have reached 1.35% and 0.9% of Brazil's GNP, respectively. Innovation as measured by patent applications has been modest. However, the technology balance has grown since the 1990s at a rate greater

  10. The plasma sheet boundary and Ksub(p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Freeman and Maguire (1967) first drew attention to the intrusion of energetic plasma from the tail to the geostationary orbit during geomagnetically disturbed times. Vasyliunas (1968) reported a correlation between the inward extension of the inner boundary of the plasma sheet and the Ksub(p) index and pointed out that the plasma sheet could occasionally reach the geostationary orbit distance. More recently McIlwain (1972) using the more refined detectors aboard the ATS-5 geostationary space-craft, has emphasized the correlation between the location of the plasma sheet boundary along the ATS orbit and geomagnetic activity. Using some older but unpublished data from the Suprathermal Ion Detector aboard the ATS-1 geostationary satellite, the relation between the local time occurrence of the plasma sheet at the geostationary orbit (6.6Rsub(E)) and Ksub(p) index is reported and then a relationship for the shift in the plasma sheet radial position is derived. (Auth.)

  11. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...... the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  12. Probability based hydrologic catchments of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet melt water impacts ice sheet flow dynamics, fjord and coastal circulation, and sediment and biogeochemical fluxes. Melt water exiting the ice sheet also is a key term in its mass balance. Because of this, knowledge of the area of the ice sheet that contributes melt water to a given outlet (its hydrologic catchment) is important to many ice sheet studies and is especially critical to methods using river runoff to assess ice sheet mass balance. Yet uncertainty in delineating ice sheet hydrologic catchments is a problem that is rarely acknowledged. Ice sheet catchments are delineated as a function of both basal and surface topography. While surface topography is well known, basal topography is less certain because it is dependent on radar surveys. Here, I a present a Monte Carlo based approach to delineating ice sheet catchments that quantifies the impact of uncertain basal topography. In this scheme, over many iterations I randomly vary the ice sheet bed elevation within published error bounds (using Morlighem et al., 2014 bed and bed error datasets). For each iteration of ice sheet bed elevation, I calculate the hydraulic potentiometric surface and route water over its path of 'steepest' descent to delineate the catchment. I then use all realizations of the catchment to arrive at a probability map of all major melt water outlets in Greenland. I often find that catchment size is uncertain, with small, random perturbations in basal topography leading to large variations in catchments size. While some catchments are well defined, others can double or halve in size within published basal topography error bars. While some uncertainty will likely always remain, this work points to locations where studies of ice sheet hydrology would be the most successful, allows reinterpretation of past results, and points to where future radar surveys would be most advantageous.

  13. On the balance of stresses in the plasma sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, F. J.; Wolf, R. A.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1972-01-01

    The stress resulting from magnetic tension on the neutral sheet must, in a steady state, be balanced by any one or a combination of (1) a pressure gradient in the direction along the axis of the tail, (2) a similar gradient of plasma flow kinetic energy, and (3) the tension resulting from a pressure anisotropy within the plasma sheet. Stress balance in the first two cases requires that the ratios h/LX and BZ/BX be of the same order of magnitude, where h is the half-thickness of the neutral sheet, LX is the length scale for variations along the axis of the tail, and BZ and BX are the magnetic field components in the plasma sheet just outside the neutral sheet. The second case requires, in addition, that the plasma flow speed within the neutral sheet be of the order of or larger than the Alfven speed outside the neutral sheet. Stress balance in the third case requires that just outside the neutral sheet the plasma pressure obey the marginal firehose stability condition.

  14. Thermal Transport Properties of Dry Spun Carbon Nanotube Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath E. Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of carbon nanotube- (CNT- sheet were explored and compared to copper in this study. The CNT-sheet was made from dry spinning CNTs into a nonwoven sheet. This nonwoven CNT-sheet has anisotropic properties in in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The in-plane direction has much higher thermal conductivity than the out-of-plane direction. The in-plane thermal conductivity was found by thermal flash analysis, and the out-of-plane thermal conductivity was found by a hot disk method. The thermal irradiative properties were examined and compared to thermal transport theory. The CNT-sheet was heated in the vacuum and the temperature was measured with an IR Camera. The heat flux of CNT-sheet was compared to that of copper, and it was found that the CNT-sheet has significantly higher specific heat transfer properties compared to those of copper. CNT-sheet is a potential candidate to replace copper in thermal transport applications where weight is a primary concern such as in the automobile, aircraft, and space industries.

  15. 78 FR 48164 - Medicare Program; Revised Process for Making National Coverage Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... available at the national or local level. The substance of the request concerns the coding or payment amount... acceptance of a complete, formal request, publication of a tracking sheet on the CMS Web site enables interested individuals to participate in and monitor the progress of our review. The tracking sheet contains...

  16. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Baracuhy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  17. FACTORS AND METRICS THAT INFLUENCE FRANCHISEE PERFORMANCE: AN APPROACH BASED ON BRAZILIAN FRANCHISES

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Consoni, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The article searches to map the manager’s decisions in order to understand what has been the franchisor system for choose regarding to characteristics, and what the metrics has been adopted to measure the performance Though 15 interviews with Brazilian franchise there was confirmation that revenue is the main metric used by national franchises to measure performance, although other indicators are also used in a complementary way. In addition, two other factors were cited by the interviewees a...

  18. Nonparaxial Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers light-sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • Bessel and Bessel–Gauss autofocusing light sheets (i.e. beams in 2D) are developed. • The light-sheets are synthesized based on the angular spectrum decomposition method. • Computations of the scattering, radiation force and torque benefit from the solutions. - Abstract: Nonparaxial optical Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers optical-sheets are introduced based upon the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. The angular spectrum function and the beam-shape coefficients are expressed by means of improper integrals computed numerically. The radiated component of the electric field is also evaluated, displaying unique features of the nonparaxial Bessel pincers light-sheets. This new type of auto-focusing light-sheets finds potential applications in the development of novel methods in optical light-sheet tweezers for particle manipulation in opto-fluidics, particle sizing and imaging. Numerical predictions for the scattering, radiation force and torque, and particle dynamics also benefit from the developed beam solution.

  19. Nonparaxial Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers light-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bessel and Bessel–Gauss autofocusing light sheets (i.e. beams in 2D) are developed. • The light-sheets are synthesized based on the angular spectrum decomposition method. • Computations of the scattering, radiation force and torque benefit from the solutions. - Abstract: Nonparaxial optical Bessel and Bessel–Gauss pincers optical-sheets are introduced based upon the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. The angular spectrum function and the beam-shape coefficients are expressed by means of improper integrals computed numerically. The radiated component of the electric field is also evaluated, displaying unique features of the nonparaxial Bessel pincers light-sheets. This new type of auto-focusing light-sheets finds potential applications in the development of novel methods in optical light-sheet tweezers for particle manipulation in opto-fluidics, particle sizing and imaging. Numerical predictions for the scattering, radiation force and torque, and particle dynamics also benefit from the developed beam solution.

  20. Hybrid multidimensional design for heterogeneous data supported by ontological analysis: an application case in the Brazilian electric system operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Cordeiro, Kelli; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Borges, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    An issue in operating a national electric system is how the corporate image of an Independent System Operator (ISO) can be impacted by disturbances in the system and their related news publications from specialized press. To deal with it, a solution was developed in the context of the Brazilian

  1. The decisional balance sheet to promote healthy behavior among ethnically diverse older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S; Mendoza, Ilora D; Timbobolan, Jasah; Montjoy, Holly L; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-01-01

    The rising health care costs and increasing older adult population in the United States make preventive medicine for this age group especially crucial. Regular physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption may prevent or delay the onset of many chronic conditions that are common among older adults. The decisional balance sheet is a promotional tool targeting the perceived pros and cons of behavior adoption. The current study tested the efficiency and effectiveness of a single-day decisional balance sheet program, targeting increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake among older adults. Participating adults (N = 21, age = 72.2) who represented a diverse population in Hawaii (Japanese = 5, Filipino = 4, Caucasian = 4, Native American = 1, Native Hawaiian = 1, Hispanic = 1, and Others = 5) were recruited from housing communities and randomized to a decisional balance sheet program adapted for physical activity or fruit and vegetable consumption. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, and daily fruit and vegetable intake with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey single item instrument. Baseline and follow-up data were collected. Both programs were implemented efficiently, and participants in both groups improved their daily physical activity. The decisional balance sheet for fruit and vegetable consumption appeared less effective. Specific suggestions for similar programs are reported. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  3. Survey of legal aspects, regulations, standards and guidelines applicable to radioactive waste management of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvetti, T.C.; Marumo, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) are the agencies responsible for the execution, regulation and control of nuclear and environmental policies, respectively. Such regulatory activities are very comprehensive (IBAMA) or too specific (CNEN), revealing other aspects that would, also, need to be observed so that the management could be carried out efficiently (quality) and effectively (safety), including the three governmental administrative levels: Federal, State and Municipal. In addition to laws, regulations, decrees and resolutions, there are also national and international standards and guides that provide guidelines for structuring the current management and the use of best regulatory practices. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Enterprise (RMB) is a CNEN project, complying with a Multi-Year Plan of the Brazilian Ministry of Planning, Development and Management (MPDG). The Enterprise is being developed under the responsibility of the Directorate of Research and Development - DPD of CNEN and will have a facility for treatment and initial temporary storage of the radioactive waste generated by the operation of the research reactor and the activities carried out in the associated laboratories. The RMB will be built in the city of IPERÓ, located in the state of São Paulo, near ARAMAR Experimental Center of the Brazilian Navy. This work aims to present the research results regarding the various aspects that regulate, legislate and standardize the practices proposed to the Radioactive Waste Management of the RMB project. (author)

  4. Survey of legal aspects, regulations, standards and guidelines applicable to radioactive waste management of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvetti, T.C.; Marumo, J.T., E-mail: salvetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In Brazil, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) are the agencies responsible for the execution, regulation and control of nuclear and environmental policies, respectively. Such regulatory activities are very comprehensive (IBAMA) or too specific (CNEN), revealing other aspects that would, also, need to be observed so that the management could be carried out efficiently (quality) and effectively (safety), including the three governmental administrative levels: Federal, State and Municipal. In addition to laws, regulations, decrees and resolutions, there are also national and international standards and guides that provide guidelines for structuring the current management and the use of best regulatory practices. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Enterprise (RMB) is a CNEN project, complying with a Multi-Year Plan of the Brazilian Ministry of Planning, Development and Management (MPDG). The Enterprise is being developed under the responsibility of the Directorate of Research and Development - DPD of CNEN and will have a facility for treatment and initial temporary storage of the radioactive waste generated by the operation of the research reactor and the activities carried out in the associated laboratories. The RMB will be built in the city of IPERÓ, located in the state of São Paulo, near ARAMAR Experimental Center of the Brazilian Navy. This work aims to present the research results regarding the various aspects that regulate, legislate and standardize the practices proposed to the Radioactive Waste Management of the RMB project. (author)

  5. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  7. National priorities list sites: Delaware, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  8. National priorities list sites: Oklahoma, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  9. National priorities list sites: Wisconsin, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  10. National priorities list sites: Wyoming, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2

  12. Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobin; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Wu, Ran; Jiang, Rongrong; Wei, Jun; Wang, Liang; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2012-08-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant material properties. In this study, a model bacterium, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of well-dispersed GO sheets, whose lateral size differs by more than 100 times. Our results show that the antibacterial activity of GO sheets toward E. coli cells is lateral size dependent. Larger GO sheets show stronger antibacterial activity than do smaller ones, and they have different time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial activities. Large GO sheets lead to most cell loss after 1 h incubation, and their concentration strongly influences antibacterial activity at relative low concentration (oxidation capacity toward glutathione is similar, consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results. This suggests the lateral size-dependent antibacterial activity of GO sheets is caused by neither their aggregation states, nor oxidation capacity. Atomic force microscope analysis of GO sheets and cells shows that GO sheets interact strongly with cells. Large GO sheets more easily cover cells, and cells cannot proliferate once fully covered, resulting in the cell viability loss observed in the followed colony counting test. In contrast, small GO sheets adhere to the bacterial surfaces, which cannot effectively isolate cells from environment. This study highlights the importance of tailoring the lateral dimension of GO sheets to optimize the application potential with minimal risks for environmental health and safety.

  13. Regulation aspects of the restructuring of Argentine oil and gas sector. The Brazilian experiences; Aspectos regulatorios da reestruturacao do setor de oleo e gas argentino. Experiencias a observar no caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczynski, Estanislau; Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: stasczenco@zipmail.com.br; clpaiva@mandic.com.br

    1999-07-01

    During the last years, some countries have reorganized their oil and gas sector. The reforms included the opening of national basins to exploration by foreign companies, and the association of a national oil company with a foreign one. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to reform its sector. The major action was the privatisation of YPF, in 1993. Some years later Brazil also begun the process of reforming the national oil and gas sector. The first step was promulgating a new petroleum law. This law created an agency to regulate the national sector during and after the reforms. The Brazilian restructuring model is based on the foreign ones. This paper aims at discussing whether or not the weakness those foreign models could be avoided. The idea is to learn from those experiences and to propose a national reform lead by the Brazilian society instead. (author)

  14. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Actuator Using Nanofiber Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hayato; Shimizu, Akikazu; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube polymer actuators were developed using composite nanofiber sheets fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) and poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Nanofiber sheets were fabricated by electrospinning method. The effect of flow rate and polymer concentration on nanofiber formation were verified for optimum condition for fabricating nanofiber sheets. We examined the properties of MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets, as follows. Electrical conductivity and mechanical strength increased as the MWCNT weight ratio increased. We fabricated carbon nanotube polymer actuators using MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets and succeeded in operating of our actuators.

  15. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  16. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  17. Health approaches in a widely adopted Brazilian high school biology textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the long tradition of discussing health in the Brazilian school curriculum, it is important to investigate how this topic is addressed by the textbooks, the main resource used by most schools in the country. In particular, it is relevant to verify if this content is presented in a manner that contributes to the development of the students as active and critical members of the society. We analyze how health is treated in the textbook Biology, by Laurence (2005, which has been the high school Biology textbook most chosen by public school teachers among those certified by the National Program for High School Textbooks (PNLEM/2007, sponsored by the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC. We used categorical content analysis techniques, involving the decomposition of the texts into units of analysis, the categories, which were built in this work through analogical regroupings, by using semantic criteria. In order to investigate the treatment given to health, we applied an analytical table to the units of recording, which consist of sentences, paragraphs, and sections of the textbook that discuss contents related to health and disease. This table systematizes eight health indicators, seeking to identify three health approaches: biomedical, behavioral, and socioecological. We found 267 units of recording in the textbook and, based on their analysis, it was possible to categorize the textbook as one in which the biomedical approach prevails. Our findings are consistent with other works that indicate the prevalence of this approach in Brazilian education, and Brazilian and international textbooks. Another important finding of the work is that the behavioral approach does not hold, at least for the analyzed textbook, as a view of health different from the biomedical and socioecological approaches. After all, when the book mentions behaviors and habits of life associated with health, it generally emphasizes biological dimensions, aligning with a

  18. Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.

  19. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  20. The properties of bioengineered chondrocyte sheets for cartilage regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Naoshi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the clinical results of autologous chondrocyte implantation for articular cartilage defects have recently improved as a result of advanced techniques based on tissue engineering procedures, problems with cell handling and scaffold imperfections remain to be solved. A new cell-sheet technique has been developed, and is potentially able to overcome these obstacles. Chondrocyte sheets applicable to cartilage regeneration can be prepared with this cell-sheet technique using temperature-responsive culture dishes. However, for clinical application, it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of the cells in these sheets and to identify their similarities to naive cartilage. Results The expression of SOX 9, collagen type 2, 27, integrin α10, and fibronectin genes in triple-layered chondrocyte sheets was significantly increased in comparison to those in conventional monolayer culture and in a single chondrocyte sheet, implying a nature similar to ordinary cartilage. In addition, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that collagen type II, fibronectin, and integrin α10 were present in the triple-layered chondrocyte sheets. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that these chondrocyte sheets with a consistent cartilaginous phenotype and adhesive properties may lead to a new strategy for cartilage regeneration.