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Sample records for brazilian national sheet

  1. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron; Desenvolvimento de uma tela cintiladora nacional conversora de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-15

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10{sup 5} neutrons thermic/cm{sup 2}.s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  2. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  3. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  4. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  5. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Junior, Hipólito Virgílio; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2013-01-01

    To present the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet (NDPCS). The translation to Portuguese was performed by two Brazilian bilingual speech language pathologists, followed by a back translation conducted by a bilingual native speaker of the original language. Afterwards, the three versions were compared by a committee of three speech language pathologists. Initially, the final translated version of the NDPCS was applied with 35 volunteers aged between 62 and 92 years old (74.77±7.08), who had no dementia or complaints of swallowing disorder. After some adjustments, the instrument was applied with other 27 volunteers aged between 60 and 87 years old (76.56±7.07) with the same profile. There was divergence in semantic equivalence in relation to one item, which was modified in the translated version. The tasks requested for observation during deglutition were adapted in relation to the solid food and the volumes used in pudding and liquid consistencies. The instrument maintained the same structure as the original version, with five categories and into 28 items, three brief variables, and four closures. The equivalence between the original and the translated version of the NDPCS was preserved after its translation and adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese. The validation process of the psychometric properties of the instrument is in progress.

  6. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  8. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  9. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan K C; Yamaki, Vitor N; Botelho, Nara M; Teixeira, Renato C

    2014-01-01

    Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years.

  10. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  11. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  12. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  13. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Cabral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter’s method to evaluate somatotype. The men’s team obtained the following mean results: Age = 16.71; height = 195.9cm; body weight = 87.7kg; endomorphy = 1.26; mesomorphy = 3.18 and ectomorphy = 3.8; while the women’s results were: Age = 15.9; height = 181.6cm; body weight = 67.4kg; endomorphy = 3.09; mesomorphy = 2.21 and ectomorphy = 3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  14. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males athletes from the aforementioned teams. We used a high-precision scale and stadiometer to verify anthropometric characteristics and Heath & Carter's method to evaluate somatotype. The men's team obtained the following mean results: Age=16.71; height=195.9cm; body weight=87.7kg; endomorphy=1.26; mesomorphy=3.18 and ectomorphy=3.8; while the women's results were: Age=15.9; height=181.6cm; body weight=67.4kg; endomorphy=3.09; mesomorphy=2.21 and ectomorphy=3.88. We can conclude from the results that the teams in question have similar characteristics to those of the high-performance adult teams, and exhibit a predominance of the ectomorphic component of the somatotype. This finding is of great importance, given the current demands of high-performance volleyball, and shows us the high level of the group studied.

  15. The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Information Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This story map journal is an interactive version of the NAIP information sheet provided on the Aerial Photography Field Office web site. This map journal provides...

  16. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes...

  17. What is the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)? Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-09-03

    Overview of the National Geothermal Data System, a distributed, interoperable network of data repositories and state geological service providers from across the U.S. and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers.

  18. Brazilian physicians hold national strike against medical insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System has two different forms of access, public and private. The purpose of the public health system is to provide universal, complete access, free of charge, for the entire population. The private sector is composed by people who have private insurance. Nowadays, about 43 million Brazilians, or 26.3% of the population, have private health insurance. The main motivations of the physicians for the strike were the low payment for medical services and the constant interference of the private health insurance companies in medical autonomy. For this reason, Brazilian physicians held a 24-hour strike against the Medical Insurance Companies that did not accept to negotiate new fees in almost all Brazilian states. At least 120,000 physicians from all specialties stopped elective activities during that day, only providing urgent or emergency care. It is estimated that the strike affected 25 to 35 million Brazilians, about 76% of the total number of medical insurance users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A National Identity Management Strategy to Enhance the Brazilian Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Sousa Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the several problems with the Brazilian e-government services (e-Gov, many of them are related to the fact that Brazil does not have a National Strategy for Digital Identity Management (IdM. To design a  national strategy, it is crucial to analyze the solutions adopted in other countries and take into account Brazilian characteristics, such as its area, population, digital inclusion index, socio-political and economic profile, the current national identity registration system and the fraud rate. In this context, this paper aims to propose a national strategy for IdM for the Brazilian e-Gov program. This strategy was built upon by a literature review of the experiences of European countries and, mainly, the peculiarities inherent to Brazil.

  20. The National Security Doctrine and Policies of the Brazilian Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-15

    author of The Afro -Asian Dimension of Brazilian Foreign Policy, 1956-1972 (1974). Dr. Seicher contributed chapters to current Themes In African Historical...No. 163, 1976, p. 64. • 10. Sanders, p. 3. • II. “Geisel diz a estagi~rios da ESG que segurança é problema geral da Naclo,” - - Jomildo Brtuil, August

  1. The Brazilian National Graduate Program, Past, Present and Future: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Barreto, Francisco César; Domingues, Ivan; Borges, Mário Neto

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the current structure of the Brazilian National Graduate Program. It describes the development of the courses from their starting point in the Thirties focusing on the last six decades. It demonstrates that after the country set up the two national agencies to foster science and technology, CAPES and CNPq,…

  2. Upper Ouachita National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Upper Ouachita National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  3. National Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan stipulates the criteria for listing and managing the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents used to mitigate oil spills.

  4. [The essentiality and rationality of the Brazilian national listing of essential medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2017-03-01

    One strategy to implement the rational use of medicines is the adoption of an 'essential medicines list'. The objective of this study was to analyze the list of medicines contained in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines (Rename, 2013) in terms of essentiality and rationality. Essentiality was determined by comparing this list to the 18th Essential Medicines List (EML) published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Drugs which were part of the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines but not included in the EML were assessed using the classification described in La revue Prescrire to detect medications without added therapeutic value. It was discovered that the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines contains 190 medications not included in the EML, of which 63 have no added therapeutic value. In addition, discrepancies were identified between the recommendations of the WHO and the drugs included in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines. It is concluded that drugs that are non-essential and provide no added therapeutic value should not be included in a list of essential medicines funded by the three Brazilian federal entities.

  5. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  6. The Dutch GOCE National User Group-Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, R.; Visser, P.; Selig, A.; Ambrodius, B.

    2004-06-01

    Dutch groups and persons have been participating in GOCE activities from the early days of the project till now and are planning to stay involved until the goals of the mission will be realized. The activities, that actually go back all the way to the first ideas of the ARISTOTELES mission, have been evolving over many aspects of the mission, from instrument simulation via data processing to user applications. The groups now involved can rely on a long lasting expertise in the respective fields of interest: space geodesy, orbital mechanics, space research and technology, oceanography and geodynamics. In the context of GOCE, but also in related fields, the participating Dutch groups have established both national and international cooperation and reputation.

  7. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Political dynamics of the creation of the Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, 1956-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lopes dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the political dynamics of the process that founded the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN, concluded in October 1956, during Juscelino Kubitschek's government. It argues that the President Kubitschek yielded to military interests, especially from the Army and Navy, ignoring the bill on the same matter that was in discussion at Brazil's House of Representatives. This strategy helped to reduce the disagreement between the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as to remove scientists of this decision process and to weaken the debate about nuclear policy in the Brazilian society.

  9. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  10. [Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Aranha, Francisco; Bastos, Francisco I

    2008-06-01

    To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population. A population survey was carried out in 2005 on a representative sample of 5,040 interviewees. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out in 1998, when possible. Most interviewees selected the "sex is evidence of love" option when describing the meaning of sex. As in 1998, the majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage (63.9% for women vs. 52.4% for men initiation); results differed among religions. School teenage education on the use of condoms was supported by 97% of the interviewees across all social groups. The proportion of Brazilians who agreed with having access to condoms in health services (95%) and at school (83.6%) was high. Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, in 2005, in the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the 1998 survey. The younger generations tend to be more tolerant and egalitarian. As observed in other countries, this study confirms the difficulty in establishing a single dimension that guides sexual life ("liberal" vs "conservative"). The study suggests that the normativity concerning sexual activity should be understood in the light of the local culture and social organization of sexuality, considered by the STD/Aids programs. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and discriminating against homosexual minorities. The design of laical policies on sexuality allow for the dialog across different perspectives.

  11. Teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian national health system (SUS in Brazilian healthcare professionals' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the role of teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS in dentists' training, at a public university in the south of Brazil. A qualitative methodological approach (case study was used. Interviews were conducted with 12 dentistry students, six dentists who were preceptors working in public primary healthcare services and three teachers connected with this curricular training. Our findings showed that the curricular training in SUS primary healthcare services had an impact on the dentists' education through establishment of bonds, autonomy in problem-solving and multiprofessional teamwork. It was seen that they learned about how healthcare services function, about healthcare and about development of cultural competence. There is a need to maintain constant questioning regarding these practices, and to ensure the presence of infrastructure and qualified professionals for teaching at these services.

  12. Diabetes, hypertension and mobility among Brazilian older adults: findings from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003 and 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; de Oliveira, Cesar Messias; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2015-06-27

    The rapid population ageing has been accompanied by a growing number of older adults experiencing chronic conditions, especially diabetes and hypertension, which are conditions associated to the decline in physical functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the strength of the association between mobility and two chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes) in a large representative sample of Brazilian older adults over a ten year period. The data came from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) of 1998, 2003 and 2008. The sample comprised 28,943 participants aged 60 years and older investigated in 1998, 35,042 in 2003 and 41,269 in 2008, totalling 105,254 older adults. The dependent variable was the physical mobility index (PMI) constructed based on the Item Response Theory (IRT) using five physical mobility indicators. The chronic conditions were self-reported and the confounders included: age, sex, schooling, ethnicity, family income, household composition, other co-morbidities and use of health services. The association between physical mobility (three different groups) and chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes) was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Over the ten year period the prevalence of hypertension increased from 44 % (1998), 49 % (2003) to 53 % (2008) (p hypertension and diabetes over the ten year period, the decrease in strength of the association with physical mobility during the first period could be explained by improvements in health services and treatment of older adults. Special attention should be given to the treatment and management of diabetes in order to avoid declines in physical mobility levels.

  13. The genesis of the Brazilian nation in XIX century’s iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verediana C. da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the genesis of the idea of Brazilian nation through the nineteenth century’s iconography, approaching the study of images and deepening into the analysis of four artworks: Engenho da cachoeira. Corte de cana-de-açúcar by Hércule Florence, Primeira Missa no Brasil by Victor Meirelles, O Grito do Ipiranga by Pedro Américo and Evangelho das Selvas by Benedito Calixto. Besides the pictures we paid attention to the texts belonging to the same period, mainly those produced by the cultural elite related to the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, to the travel reports as text-images, as well as to the emergence of the Instituto and of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes (AIBA in a context of pursuit of homogeneity in the promising Brazilian nation.

  14. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009...

  15. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  16. A New System for Understanding Mid-crustal Sheeted Complexes in a Tilted Crustal Section, Joshua Tree National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianno, A. J.; Paterson, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    The western portion of Joshua Tree National Park exposes a tilted crustal section through continental arc crust from 0-30 km. A significant portion of the middle crust is represented by Mesozoic, tabular, intrusive, igneous bodies ranging from 0.1 to 100 m in thickness. While these igneous bodies range in composition (gabbro to peraluminous granites), texture (equigranular to porphyritic), and grain size (very fine to coarse), patterns emerge between different regions of "sheeted complexes" that may be related to their emplacement and geochemical history. No consistent method of describing and comparing sheeted complexes exists in the literature, so we have developed a method of classifying sheeted complexes at Joshua Tree NP, which may be broadly applicable to all sheeted bodies. We classify these sheeted complexes using the terms homogeneous/heterogeneous and focused/defocused. A homogeneous sheeted complex generally contains magmas within a 10 wt% SiO2 range, although we are still testing the validity of this number. A focused sheeted complex has adjacent sheets or close spacing between sheets and Jurassic to Cretaceous sheeted complexes in western Joshua Tree NP. At Keys View, we observe a heterogeneous, spatially focused sheeted complex with 0.1-2 m thick sheets recording pressures indicating 15-22 km depth from top to bottom. Compositions range from gabbro to peraluminous granite, although tonalites-granodiorites and two-mica garnet granites are volumetrically dominant. A zone of elongate plutons (in map view) lying structurally above this could potentially be considered as a very thickly sheeted, homogeneous, focused sheeted complex and is composed of granodiorites, granites, and two-mica garnet granites. A more thickly sheeted (2-10 m), homogeneous, focused, sheeted granite complex with pressures indicating a depth of approximately 12 km is found along the northern edge of the park. The number of sheets decreases and the average thickness increases as this

  17. What is the relation between Brazilian Foreign Policy and the implementation of bilateral technical cooperation projects in African Countries? Lessons from a South-South cooperation project implemented by the Brazilian National School of Public Administration - ENAP (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares Schleicher

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the "street-level" and the "theory of the bureaucracy" approaches, the article contends that national bureaucracies may play an important role in explaining the relation between Brazilian foreign policy and international technical cooperation. Drawing lessons from a 2009 ENAP-ISAP project in Mozambique, we concluded that the Brazilian National School of Public Administration - ENAP's interests and autonomy in the implementation process may influence Brazilian bilateral relations.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Characterization, Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram; and Vol. 3, Technology Evaluation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B,and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA, and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2. The data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right comer of each sheet.

  19. National hospice for the insane and the Brazilian Neurology in the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern Brazilian Neurology was born in the campus of Praia Vermelha, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ. The former National Hospice for the Insane (NHI as well as some of its facilities were fundamental for the teaching about diseases of the nervous system to the students of the UFRJ's Medical School, caring for patients with neurosyphilis and epilepsy, as well as children with neurological impairment. We highlight the role of Juliano Moreira, director of the NHI (1903-1930, and his team, including Antonio Austregésilo Rodrigues Lima, the "father" of the Brazilian Neurology, in the construction of the modern Brazilian Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. SEARCH FOR NATIONAL SOCIOLINGUISTIC IDENTITY RECOGNITION: A DISCUSSION ON VARIABLE PHENOMENA OF BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Portuguese, the national language,spoken and used in Brazil, has its socio-historical originst i ed  to European Por tugue s e .  The   e s tabl i shment  of  astandard norm (grammar took as its basis the manner ofspeaking and writing of the Portuguese. Although thedi f f e r enc e s  be twe en  the   two  language s  ar e   c l ear  andperceived by both peoples, Brazilians still learn, wrongly,rules related to the language spoken in Portugal, leavinga s i d e   f e a t u r e s   a n d  ma r k   t h a t   r e p r e s e n t   t h e   n a t i o n a lsociolinguistic identity. This research investigates andfeatures, considering the attitude of the speakers in front ofthe variable phenomena of the Portuguese language, aspectsof the Brazilian spoken language that points to possibletraces of a Brazilian sociolinguistic identity. The researchwas exploratory and quantitative, with the theoretical andmethodological model of the variationist Sociolinguistics. Linguistic recognition tests were used in order to promotethe evaluation, the recognition and the appreciation oflanguage varieties in Brazil. It was found in this work thatthe selected educated speakers showed an awareness of thee s s e n t i a l   q u e s t i o n   o f   r e c o g n i z i n g   t h i s   B r a z i l i a nsoc iol ingui s t i c   ident i t y,   e valuat ing and  judging  somevariable phenomena of Brazilian Portuguese as their closestlinguistic repertoire in less monitored speech situations.This contributes even more to an actual awareness of theexistence and recognition of a language that might beBrazilian in the future.

  1. Rendering peacekeeping instrumental? The Brazilian approach to United Nations peacekeeping during the Lula da Silva years (2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cavalcante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses how Brazilian state actions and policies regarding peace operations during the Presidency of Lula da Silva relate to the country's positions and attitudes towards United Nations peacekeeping. It argues that the inconsistencies identified on the Brazilian positions reflect the lack of a clear strategic horizon guiding the country's participation in UN peacekeeping, which consequentially hinders the country emergence as a great power.

  2. Universality, correlations, and rankings in the Brazilian universities national admission examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C.; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the scores obtained by students who have taken the ENEM examination, The Brazilian High School National Examination which is used in the admission process at Brazilian universities. The average high schools scores from different disciplines are compared through the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show a very large correlation between the performance in the different school subjects. Even though the students' scores in the ENEM form a Gaussian due to the standardization, we show that the high schools' scores form a bimodal distribution that cannot be used to evaluate and compare students performance over time. We also show that this high schools distribution reflects the correlation between school performance and the economic level (based on the average family income) of the students. The ENEM scores are compared with a Brazilian non standardized exam, the entrance examination from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis of the performance of the same individuals in both tests shows that the two tests not only select different abilities, but also lead to the admission of different sets of individuals. Our results indicate that standardized tests might be an interesting tool to compare performance of individuals over the years, but not of institutions.

  3. Preliminary Design of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research Broadband Radiometer for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, L. A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Savonov, G. S.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Silva, M. R.; Guarnieri, F.; Sampaio, M.; Barbosa, M. J.; Vilas Boas, J. V.; Branco, R. H. F.; Nishimori, M.; Silva, L. A.; Carlesso, F.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Alves, L. R.; Vaz Castilho, B.; Santos, J.; Silva Paula, A.; Cardoso, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  4. Social inequalities in health behaviors among Brazilian adults: National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Medina, Lhais de Paula Barbosa; Szwarcwald, Celia Landman; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2016-11-17

    Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance. The prevalence ratios adjusted by age and gender were estimated by means of multiple Poisson regression and the analyses took into account the sampling design. Significant social inequalities were identified in the Brazilian adults. Higher prevalence of current smoking, leisure-time physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, whole milk consumption and low ingestion of greens, vegetables, and fruits were observed among the less educated, in the non-white population, and among those without private health insurance. Higher prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was found in the non-white population, but no difference in the consumption of fatty meat was found according to skin color. Score of unhealthy behavior higher than 6 was more frequent in lower educational strata (PR = 3.74) in the non-white population (PR = 1.39) and among those without private health insurance (PR = 1.78). Compared to women, men had higher prevalence rates of smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption, and fatty meat consumption and lower consumption of greens, vegetables and fruits. The results of the study emphasize the importance of monitoring social inequalities in health as part of national health policies and the urgent need to prioritize actions to promote healthy behaviors, especially among the most socially vulnerable segments of society.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of gambling problems among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Daniel Tornaim; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Benzano, Daniela Bumaguin; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos; Pinsky, Ilana; Zaleski, Marcos; Caetano, Raul; Tavares, Hermano

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study are: (a) to provide the first prevalence estimates of pathological gambling among Brazilian adolescents using an age-specific instrument in a nationally representative sample; (b) to investigate the extent to which adolescents participate in gambling activities in a developing country; and (c) to correlate different levels of gambling behavior with demographic variables. Multistage cluster sampling selected 3,007 individuals over 14 years of age from Brazilian household population. A total of 661 participants were between 14 and 17 years old. The Lie/Bet Questionnaire and the DSM-IV-MR-J were used for assessing problem and pathological gambling. 2.8% scored positive on the screening questionnaire, while 1.6% were classified as problem and pathological gamblers. Factors associated with problem and pathological gambling were male sex, not currently studying and considering religion as not important. Less than 4 months elapsed between the age of regular gambling involvement and the first gambling problem. Prevalence rates were quite similar from recent studies which used nationally representative samples. The association of problem and pathological gambling with male sex, school drop-out and low religiosity supports the Problem Behavior Theory. The fast progression to problem gambling adds evidence that adolescents may be more vulnerable to the effects of gambling.

  6. [Citing of national articles: the (de)valuation of Brazilian journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Silveira, Tiago Santos; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is a preference for foreign periodicals over Brazilian one. We evaluated all references of articles published in the years 2011 and 2007 in the journals Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva and the Journal of the Brazilian College of Surgeons, verifying the quantity of papers from Brazilian and foreign publications. We analyzed a total of 7,343 references arranged in 348 articles in those three journals; of these, 856 (11.65%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three magazines, nor between the two periods. One hundred and eleven (31.9%) articles did not cite any Brazilian journal article and 36 (10.34%) cited Brazilian articles more than foreign ones. There is need for the Brazilian researcher to appreciate more the Brazilian journals, increasing citation from Brazil, without a scientific xenophobia.

  7. Empirical estimates for the Brazilian total imports equation using quarterly national accounts data (1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rocha Gouvêa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents econometric estimates for the Brazilian aggregate imports over the period 1996–2010. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that uses the Brazilian quarterly national accounts with this goal in mind. Besides estimating a demand equation (canonical model, as it is usual in the literature, we also explore the co-movements among total imports, gross fixed capital formation and household consumption (alternative model. The results underscore the role played by domestic income, which is the main determinant of total imports. The limited domestic supply of capital goods makes the allocation of domestic income also relevant to the imports dynamics. It should be noted, however, that this specification needs a better theoretical grounding. Evidence of nonlinearities has been found by different estimation techniques. Unfortunately its precise characterization turns out to be difficult due to the diversity of the results obtained. The out-of-sample assessment (one-step-ahead forecast shows a good performance of the long-run vectors of the alternative models in predicting aggregate imports, meanwhile the best performance is obtained by the error correction representations of the canonical model. We believe those differences emerge from the different speeds of adjustment toward the long-run solutions.

  8. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Nabout

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI. The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  9. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Suellen R; Martins, Renata C; Matta-Machado, Antônio T G M; Mattos, Grazielle C M; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Abreu, Mauro H N G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs) adhering to the second cycle of the 'National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care' (PMAQ-AB) in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013-2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental needs deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to expand the supply of prostheses and the early diagnosis of oral cancer in primary health care (PHC) is evident.

  10. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen R. Mendes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.

  11. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. METHODS Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid, exclusively formal (paid, mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3. The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS Informal care predominated (81.8%, followed by paid (5.8% or mixed (6.8% and no care (5.7%. The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively. Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents, compared with paid (OR = 5.48 and mixed (OR = 4.16 care. CONCLUSIONS Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians.

  12. 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Actions Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the fact sheets for the 2008 Lead (Pb) NAAQS. These actions deal with the finding of failure to submit various portions of the State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the 2008 Lead NAAQS.

  13. Including land as a balance sheet item in the Norwegian National Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This document discusses the definition and scope of land as an asset, and how to register land, esp. rented land in the balance sheets. The accounting links and associated entries related to land from opening to closing balance sheets in the SNA are also described in a comprehensive way. Based on limited data and simple assumptions, estimation is made for the value of Norwegian land in 2011 by applying different measuring approaches for different types of land. The results are presented i...

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  16. [Negotiating knowledge and power: the National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare and the Brazilian Society of Urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rita Flores; Birman, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the negotiations and disputes between different kinds of knowledge and power in the history of the Brazilian National Policy for Comprehensive Men's Healthcare based on the creation in 2008 of the Technical Area for Men's Health within the Ministry of Health's Department of Strategic Programs. We observed the Brazilian Society of Urology's position as the policy was being drawn up, including the discourse adopted, based on interviews held with managers from the Ministry of Health and the assistant representative of the United Nations Population Fund in Brazil. We analyzed the visibility of the male body in signs of resistance to the interventions of biopower in the expression of the right to health.

  17. The Brazilian Unified National Health System: Proposal of a Cost-effectiveness Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Unified National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] is in a prominent position compared to the existing social policies. One of the new tools used by SUS is known as Performance Index of the Unified Health System (Índice de Desempenho do Sistema Único de Saúde [IDSUS], which is intended to measure the performance of each municipality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a model of cost-effectiveness to compare IDSUS performance against total revenues achieved in Homogeneous Group 2, consisting of 94 municipalities and analysed using data from IDSUS and the System Information of the Public Budget for Health Care (Sistema de Informação do Orçamento Público em Saúde [SIOPS] for the year 2011. After structuring this data, we carried out descriptive statistical and cluster analysis in order to group similar municipalities in accordance with established variables: IDSUS performance, population and total revenue in health per capita. Even with the division of municipalities into homogeneous groups and after using variables such as population and revenue to regroup them, the results showed there are municipalities with heterogeneous characteristics. Another finding is in the use and intersection of two distinct databases (IDSUS and SIOPS, which allowed for visualizing the impact of health care revenue on the municipalities performance.

  18. Strategies of Internationalization of Multinational Brazilian Enterprises: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Leonardo Rovai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has since objective sketches an evolutive picture of the Brazilian multinationals, from the perspective of the development of the Latin-American multinationals, from the point of view of his insertion in the process of globalization. It is looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Model of Dunning to be confirmed if this typology still if adequate the characterization of the strategies of internationalization. In the complementary form, there is used the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede .While doing this, one checked in which measure the strategic alignment is orientated á marks in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labour not qualified (resource seeking; advantages (ii of location and synergies of market (market seeking; investments (iii orientated to the search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location; investments (iv of the type strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop his competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of the strategic capacities. There is claimed also summarize the picture referential system that makes possible the development of a future diary of inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States and the financial strategies of these enterprises.

  19. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  20. Determinants of outpatient expenditure within primary care in the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camilo Turi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One of the big challenges facing governments worldwide is the financing of healthcare systems. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors and key components associated with healthcare expenditure. The aim here was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with direct healthcare expenditure within primary care, among adults attended through the Brazilian National Health System in the city of Bauru. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in five primary care units in Bauru (SP, Brazil. METHODS: Healthcare expenditure over the last 12 months was assessed through medical records of adults aged 50 years or more. Annual healthcare expenditure was assessed in terms of medication, laboratory tests, medical consultations and the total. Body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, age, sex, physical activity and smoking were assessed through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The total healthcare expenditure for 963 participants of this survey was US$ 112,849.74 (46.9% consultations, 35.2% medication and 17.9% laboratory tests. Expenditure on medication was associated with overweight (odds ratio, OR = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07-3.01, hypertension (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.91-4.82 and moderate physical activity (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38-0.81. Expenditure on consultations was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.12-2.47 and female sex (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.14-2.55. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that overweight, lower levels of physical activity and hypertension were independent risk factors associated with higher healthcare expenditure within primary care.

  1. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

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    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CORES FOR MINI MOTORS FROM LAMINATED SHEETS OF ELECTRIC STEEL ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards 35F 420M WITH THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halston Mozetic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper were to study the thermal treatment of Fe-Si sheet, as well as the sheet cutting concerning the topology of a mini stepper motor and mini motor simulation using finite element software. The research consisted of the execution of an "Inductive Reheating" thermal treatment of Iron Silicon sheets, NM71-2000/35F 420M with GNO (Grain Non Oriented, and 0.35mm width. The new technique has the benefit of minimizing magnetic losses produced by the cut on the edge of electric sheets. To carry out the process, the system includes a furnace, an induction coil, and a power supply that, when activated in a controlled way, causes relevant changes to the crystalline structure of the material. Related to the cut of the sheets, the topology of a three phase mini stepper motor was considered. The sheets were initially cut using the geometry of the rotor and stator cores. Firstly, a die cutting process was used and later a wire electroerosion cutting process was employed, which provided parts with excellent finishing. Finally, the mini motor was simulated using the finite element software FEMM 4.2 in order to analyze the airgap flow and torque development of the axis end, in comparison to a solid block of the same material (Fe-Si

  4. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo

    2017-06-01

    To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid), exclusively formal (paid), mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old), gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3). The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. Informal care predominated (81.8%), followed by paid (5.8%) or mixed (6.8%) and no care (5.7%). The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively). Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents), compared with paid (OR = 5.48) and mixed (OR = 4.16) care. Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians. Descrever a prevalência e fatores sociodemográficos associados à ajuda informal e remunerada a idosos com limitações funcionais. Dos 23.815 participantes com 60 anos ou mais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 5.978 declararam necessitar de ajuda para realizar atividades da vida diária e foram incluídos nesta análise. A variável dependente foi a fonte de ajuda, categorizada como exclusivamente informal (não remunerada), exclusivamente remunerada, mista ou

  5. Contextual and individual inequalities of multimorbidity in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional national-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno P; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre D P; Pati, Sanghamitra; Cruz Teixeira, Doralice S; Flores, Thaynã R; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio A; Munhoz, Tiago N; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz A; Rodrigues Batista, Sandro R

    2017-06-09

    The study aims to evaluate the magnitude of multimorbidity in Brazilian adults, as well to measure their association with individual and contextual factors stratified by Brazilian states and regions. A national-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013 with Brazilian adults. Multimorbidity was evaluated by a list of 22 physical and mental morbidities (based on self-reported medical diagnosis and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression). The outcome was analysed taking ≥2 and ≥3 diseases as cut-off points. Factor analysis (FA) was used to identify disease patterns and multilevel models were used to test association with individual and contextual variables. The sample comprised 60 202 individuals. Multimorbidity frequency was 22.2% (95% CI 21.5 to 22.9) for ≥2 morbidities and 10.2% (95% CI 9.7 to 10.7) for ≥3 morbidities. In the multilevel adjusted models, females, older people, those living with a partner and having less schooling presented more multiple diseases. No linear association was found according to wealth index but greater outcome frequency was found in individuals with midrange wealth index. Living in states with higher levels of education and wealthier states was associated with greater multimorbidity. Two patterns of morbidities (cardiometabolic problems and respiratory/mental/muscle-skeletal disorders) explained 92% of total variance. The relationship of disease patterns with individual and contextual variables was similar to the overall multimorbidity, with differences among Brazilian regions. In Brazil, at least 19 million adults had multimorbidity. Frequency is similar to that found in other Low and and Middle Income Countries. Contextual and individual social inequalities were observed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Letícia; Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  7. The high performance sport is bad for health? an analysis of the athletes of the brazilian national rhythmic gymnastics

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    Danielle Freire Wiltshire Viana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the Brazilian national team athletes in rhythmic gymnastics and sports training context, we identify and analyze the understandings that these athletes have in relation to health. What kind of research was a case study, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. From the data collected, the analyzes summarized in the following categories: "Habitus sports", "The dream of the Olympics" and "Health is not only absence of disease? We see a narrow view of health that, at least for these high performance athletes, based only on pain control, so a restricted view to the physical, and psychological and social issues disregarded.

  8. Re-orientation of human resources for health: a great challenge for the Brazilian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, D L C; Pinho, D L M; Parreira, C M S F

    2015-09-01

    To present the data available and discuss the progress, current advances and challenges of the initiatives, current policies and guidance implemented by the Health and Education Ministries in Brazil to target transformation of health teaching in order to improve the health care offered by the Brazilian National Health System. Literature review. Documentary analysis and review of articles identified in a search of electronic databases, along with reports and documents acquired from the Health and Education Ministries between 1988 and 2013. This study identified some important initiatives, including the Programme for the Encouragement of Curricular Changes in Medical Courses (PROMED), implemented in 2002 for medical courses alone. Inspired by PROMED and covering a wider range of graduate courses, the National Programme for Re-orientation of Health Professionals was implemented in 2005. This initiative launched its third edition in 2012, covering 14 health professional areas. Another relevant innovation was the National Policy of Permanent Health Education, implemented in 2007, with the goal of transforming public health services into a locus of teaching-learning through working. The Unified Health System Open University was also implemented. There is general concern and ongoing actions involving different sectors in Brazil in an attempt to improve the health of the Brazilian population in the future. However, the changes pursued involve deep transformations and may take considerable time. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  10. Time trends in physical activity of adult users of the Brazilian National Health System: 2010-2014. Longitudinal study

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    Bruna Camilo Turi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In this longitudinal study, we aimed to describe time trends of physical activity (PA in different domains from 2010 to 2014 among users of the Brazilian National Health System, taking into account the effects of sex, age and economic status (ES. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study conducted in five primary care units in Bauru (SP, Brazil. METHODS: The sample was composed of 620 men and women who were interviewed in 2010, 2012 and 2014. The same group of researchers conducted the interviews, using the questionnaire developed by Baecke et al. Scores for occupational, exercise/sport, leisure-time/transportation and overall PA were considered in this longitudinal survey. Time trends of PA over the four years of follow-up were assessed according to sex, age and ES. RESULTS: We found that after four years of follow-up, the reduction in overall PA (-13.6%; 95% confidence interval, CI = -11.9 to -15.3 was statistically significant. Additionally, declines in the occupational domain and exercise/sports participation were affected by age, while the reduction in overall PA was affected by sex, age and ES. CONCLUSIONS: Overall PA decreased significantly from 2010 to 2014 among these outpatients of the Brazilian National Health System, and age and male sex were important determinants of PA in its different domains.

  11. Food Insecurity and the Negative Impact on Brazilian Children's Health-Why Does Food Security Matter for Our Future Prosperity? Brazilian National Survey (PNDS 2006/07).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblacion, Ana Paula; Cook, John T; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas A C; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2016-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling. Participants were 3923 children Food Insecurity Scale were dichotomized as food secure (food security/mild FI) or food insecure (moderate FI/severe FI). Poisson regression was used to test for associations between FI and various health indicators. Models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic variables showed that children hospitalized for pneumonia or diarrhea were 30% more prevalent in FI households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3; 1.1-1.6). Underweight children were 40% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.4; 1.1-1.7). Children who didn't eat meat and fruits and vegetables every day were 20% and 70% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.2; 1.1-1.4 and aPR: 1.7; 1.3-2.3), respectively. Children who grow up in food-insecure households have been shown to have worse health conditions than those in food-secure households. Consequently, their human capital accumulation and work-life productivity are likely to be reduced in the future, leading them into adulthood less capable of generating sufficient income, resulting in a cycle of intergenerational poverty and FI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Electrifying Pinnacles: FEMP technical assistance detailed case study fact sheet[Pinnacles National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, M.

    1998-10-27

    A hybrid photovoltaic system provides Pinnacles National Monument with electrical services in an environmentally sensitive area. This quite, unobtrusive system provides the Chapparral area with clean, reliable electricity. Installing renewable energy projects at Federal facilities provides Federal agencies an opportunity to fulfill their mandate for responsible stewardship of national resources with cost-effective environmentally benign technologies.

  13. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda Carolina; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Izbicki, Rafael; Moreira Almeida, Alexander; Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia de

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1%) and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%). Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug). Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83), marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11) and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79) compared to FR students. Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  14. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among brazilian university students: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. METHODS: This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1% and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%. Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug. RESULTS: Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83, marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11 and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79 compared to FR students. CONCLUSION: Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  15. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  16. The Brazilian National Curricular Parameters for High School Science: an analysis taking into account the viewpoints of their developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Competences, interdisciplinarity and contextualization became part of the discourse from the majority of educators, mainly after the issue of the Curricular Directives for High School Teaching (DCNEM and the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+ by the Brazilian Ministry of Education. Nevertheless, this does not imply that their practices are aligned with the proposals embodied in the documents. One of the reasons for it is the difficulty in understanding those notions and in their implementation in classrooms. The present work intends to clarify some of the main ideas contained in the PCN and PCN+, namely, the notion of competences, interdisciplinarity and contextualization, from the point of view of their authors, more specifically in the area of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and their Technologies. For this, semi-structured interviews were used. The thesis that there is a rupture between the DCNEM and the National Curricular Parameters, as far as educational, political and philosophical aspects are concerned, is also argued for.

  17. St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  18. National Key Deer Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 7 of 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at National Key Deer Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  19. Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge (Phillis Island) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  20. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 5 of 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Cache River National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  1. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 16 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  2. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Carter Creek Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet F

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  3. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 17 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  4. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 15 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  5. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 19 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  6. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 14 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  7. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Lake Mcleod Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  8. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Flamingo Villas Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 18 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  9. Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown Island) [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  10. Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 9 of 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  11. Prevalence of consumption and nutritional content of breakfast meal among adolescents from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jaqueline L; Castro, Michelle A de; Hopkins, Sinead; Gugger, Carolyn; Fisberg, Regina M; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-11-06

    To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

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    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  13. [Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.

  14. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  15. National Politics of Territorial Management: The Brazilian Case Política nacional de ordenamiento territorial: el caso de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gregório de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of the Brazilian Territorial Politics, we can observe the option for the elaboration and implementation of Politics for Territorial Arrangement, in a national level, which contemplates the contemporary management methodologies. This means, the decentralization and consequent social participation as also the articulation of actions between the different government instances, together with the idea of sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion regarding the national politics of Territorial Arrangement through the case of Brazil. The discussion is supported by observations, experiences and studies of the author, based on lectures and primary and secondary analysis, mainly on statistical and cartographical material from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, publications of the Brazilian National Integration Ministry (MIN, books and scientific magazine papers.En la historia reciente de las políticas territoriales brasileñas se observa la opción por la elaboración e implantación de Políticas de Ordenamiento Territorial a nivel nacional, las cuales contemplan las metodologías de gestión contemporánea, o sea, la descentralización y consecuente participación social como también la articulación de acciones entre las diferentes instancias del gobierno. Asimismo se presenta la idea de sostenibilidad del desarrollo. El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir para la discusión respecto a las políticas nacionales de Ordenamiento Territorial trayendo el caso de Brasil. La discusión es fruto de observaciones, experiencias y estudios de la autora, con lecturas y análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias, sobre todo material estadístico y cartográfico del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE, publicaciones del Ministerio de Integración Nacional de Brasil (MIN, libros y artículos de revistas científicas.

  16. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  17. Strength-Power Performance of Visually Impaired Paralympic and Olympic Judo Athletes From the Brazilian National Team: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Winckler, Ciro; Bragança, Jaime R; da Fonseca, Roger A; Moraes-Filho, Josué; Zaccani, Wagner A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas A; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-03-01

    Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, Winckler, C, Bragança, JR, da Fonseca, RA, Filho, JM, Zaccani, WA, Kobal, R, Cal Abad, CC, Kitamura, K, Pereira, LA, and Franchini, E. Strength-power performance of visually impaired paralympic and olympic judo athletes from the brazilian national team: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 743-749, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the muscle power and maximal isometric strength capacities of Olympic and visually impaired Paralympic judo athletes. Twenty-eight elite judo athletes (7 men and 7 women per group) from the permanent Brazilian National Paralympic and Olympic teams took part in this study. After a specific warm-up, the athletes performed loaded jump squat (JS), bench press (BP), and standing barbell row (SBR) exercises to determine their values of maximum mean propulsive power (MPP) in these respective exercises. The maximal isometric strength (MIS) was also determined for both upper and lower limbs, through the use of BP and half-squat (HS) exercises. Finally, the jumping ability was assessed using unloaded squat jump (SJ). The magnitude-based inference was used to compare the groups. The Olympic judo athletes presented a likely higher SJ height than the Paralympic athletes. The Olympic group presented almost certainly higher MPP in the loaded JS and in the SBR exercises and likely higher MPP in the BP exercise. Importantly, in the MIS assessments the differences between groups in the HS and BP exercises were rated as unclear. In conclusion, our results showed that both Olympic and Paralympic judo athletes present similar levels of maximal isometric strength, but muscle power performance is superior in Olympic athletes.

  18. Factors associated with avoidable hospitalisation of children younger than 2 years old: the 2006 Brazilian National Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Mais, Laís Amaral; Taddei, José A A C

    2015-08-21

    Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are conditions for which hospitalisation is thought to be avoidable with the use of effective preventive care and early disease management. The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of avoidable hospitalisations in children younger than 24 months of age participating in a Brazilian national representative survey and to identify the risk factors for such hospitalisations. We analysed data from a cross-sectional study of 1901 children from the 2006 Brazilian National Demographic Health Survey of Women and Children (NDHS). The children's socioeconomic, biological and maternal characteristics, nutritional status, and access to healthcare were tested; variables with p < 0.20 were selected to fit a Poisson regression. The prevalence of avoidable hospitalisation was 11.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 9.0, 15.2); the prevalence was higher in the Southeast (40.1%) and Northwest (21.7%) macro-regions. The multivariate model identified five risk factors for avoidable hospitalisation: male gender (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.48, p = 0.004), low socioeconomic level (PR = 1.51, p = 0.005), children from mothers younger than 20 years of age (PR = 1.41, p = 0.031), not breastfed within the first hour of life (PR = 1.29, p = 0.034), and neonatal hospitalisation (PR = 1.66, p = 0.043). To decrease the costs associated with avoidable hospitalisations, health managers and professionals should focus their efforts on providing effective primary healthcare to families of low socioeconomic levels, particularly prenatal and paediatric care, as well as encouraging breastfeeding and supporting young mothers. Strategies to improve children's health by controlling such hospitalisations in Brazil should consider all residence areas and geopolitical macro-regions.

  19. Independent associations of income and education with nutrient intakes in Brazilian adults: 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marina Campos; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Junger, Washington Leite; Sichieri, Rosely

    2014-12-01

    To verify associations of income and education with nutrient intakes in Brazilian adults. Data from the population-based National Dietary Survey conducted in 2008-2009. Family per capita income and education levels were categorized into quartiles. Prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes and excessive intakes of saturated fat and Na were calculated by using the method prescribed by the National Cancer Institute. The Estimated Average Requirement was used as a reference for micronutrient intake. Linear regression models for both the independent and the mutually adjusted associations of education and income with nutrient intakes were tested. Interaction between education and income was tested. Households (n 13 569) selected using a two-stage cluster sampling design. Food records for two non-consecutive days were obtained for 21 003 Brazilian adults (aged 20-59 years). For most of eleven nutrients, the prevalence of inadequate intake declined with increasing income and education levels; however, it remained high across all income and education quartiles. Excessive intake of saturated fat and low fibre intake increased with both variables. Most nutrients were independently associated with income and education in both sexes. Fe, vitamin B12 and Na intakes among women were associated only with education. There was an interaction between income and education for Na intake in men, P intake in women and Ca intake in both sexes. Education is one important step to improve nutrient intakes in Brazil. Emphasis should be laid on enhancing dietary knowledge and formulating economic strategies that would allow lower-income individuals to adopt a healthy diet.

  20. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Midwest Regional Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This is one in a series of eight, geographic region-focused information sheets that summarizes documented changes in plant and animal phenology over the past century across the United States. This summary is based on long-term studies (10 years or more) published in the primary scientific literature since 2001. A forthcoming manuscript synthesizes the findings of the eight regional information sheets.

  1. [Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazil: inclusion in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and integration with primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.

  2. Late-stage diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian children: evidence from two national cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  4. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  5. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  6. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Perry, Katia da Silva Peixoto, E-mail: pereira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rrrg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kspp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teruya, Dirceu Yoshikazu, E-mail: teruya@inpi.gov.br [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  7. Fine Particle Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): Proposed State Implementation Plan (SIP) Requirements Fact Sheet and Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a March 2015 fact sheet and presentation that summarize the information in the proposed rule for the Implementation of the 2012 NAAQS for PM2.5: State Implementation Plan (SIP) Requirements.

  8. Condutas usuais entre os reumatologistas brasileiros: levantamento nacional Routine clinical practices of Brazilian rheumatologists: national overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. C. Medeiros

    2006-04-01

    ão-hormonais (AINHs (89,3%, relaxante muscular (72,9%, fisioterapia (33,3%. O repouso no leito foi orientado por 31,6% dos especialistas. Num caso de lombalgia crônica com raio X recente mostrando espondilolistese grau 1 e discoartrose, 39,6% dos reumatologistas não solicitavam nenhum exame adicional, enquanto 26,2% e 24,4% solicitavam tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM, respectivamente. As condutas mais indicadas nesse caso foram: fisioterapia (75,1%, relaxante muscular (48,5%, RPG (45,6%, exercícios físicos (41%, AINH seletivo da Cox-2 (40,5%, amitriptilina (35,3%, analgésicos opióides (34,7%. Outros cenários de artrose de joelho e ombro doloroso foram apresentados. CONCLUSÕES: a baixa taxa de devolução dos questionários pode refletir uma prática ainda não-incorporada na nossa cultura. O perfil dos reumatologistas respondedores é muito semelhante entre as regiões. A maioria das condutas escolhidas está de acordo com as melhores evidências disponíveis, refletindo uma homogeneidade de abordagem terapêutica entre os reumatologistas. Embora este estudo traga importantes dados sobre a prática reumatológica, pode não ser representativo da população de reumatologistas brasileiros, tendo em vista o baixo percentual de respondedores.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate routine clinical practices of Brazilian rheumatologists. METHOD: Virtual clinical scenarios representing a range of rheumatological practical situations were sent by mail to 831 specialists certified by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (SBR with postage-paid envelopes for reply. RESULTS: Only 21.4% of the questionnaires were returned. The average age of responding rheumatologists was 42.7 years (SD=11.7, with an average time since graduation from medical school of 19.8 years (SD=10.1. In a clinical scenario describing early active rheumatoid arthritis most respondents (84.7% chose to initiate treatment with prednisone or prednisolone. The most chosen disease modifying

  9. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...

  10. Performance Changes of Elite Paralympic Judo Athletes During a Paralympic Games Cycle: A Case Study with the Brazilian National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Winckler, Ciro; Bragança, Jaime R; da Fonseca, Roger A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variations in power performance of elite Paralympic judo athletes across three consecutive training cycles of preparation for the ParaPan American Games, the World Championship and the Paralympic Games. Eleven Paralympic judokas from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. They were repeatedly assessed using squat and countermovement jumps, mean propulsive power (MPP) in the jump-squat (JS), the bench press and prone bench pull at several moments of the preparation. Training supervision based on the optimum power zone (range of loads where power production is maximized) was provided in the final cycle, prior to the Paralympic Games. Magnitude-based inference was used to compare the repeated measurements of power performance. Lower and upper limb muscle power gradually increased throughout the cycles; however, the best results in all exercises were observed prior to the Paralympic Games, during which the team won four silver medals. As an illustration, prior to participation in the Paralympic Games the MPP in the JS was likely to very likely higher than prior to the World Championship (effect size [ES] = 0.77) and ParaPan American Games (ES = 0.53), and in January and March 2016 (ES = 0.98 and 0.92, respectively; months preceding the Paralympic Games). Power performance assessments can provide information about the evolution of Paralympic judokas, and training at the optimum power zone seems to constitute an effective method to improve lower and upper limb power in these athletes.

  11. The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Araujo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. Results: In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day, with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Conclusions: Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries.

  12. Birds of the Tapajos National Forest, Brazilian Amazon: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. P. Henr¡ques; J.M. Wunderle Jr.; M. R. Willig

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the avifauna of the Tapajos National forest, an area on the east bank of the Tapajos River where controlled resource exploitation occurs. Here we provide a near complete species list for terra firme forest with an incomplete list of species from less comprehensively surveyed habitats such as "varzea" forest.

  13. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  14. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  15. The body of the nation: government positions on physical education during the Brazilian monarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Victor Andrade; Peres, Fabio de Faria

    2014-01-01

    In association with its nation building projects, the imperial government in Brazil under monarchic rule took some concrete actions based on proposals for physical education. The aim of this article is to investigate the meanings and significations attributed to this subject in the legislation and the annual reports issued by the Ministry of Business of the Empire (1831-1889), giving special attention to Rio de Janeiro. The approach to the subject in the sources researched demonstrates that the views of physical education took shape through a web of ideas that associated moral, health and civilization conceptions, in a bid to deal with the concrete circumstances of a newly independent peripheral nation with a bureaucratic structure in the process of formation.

  16. Sheet music

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols. Like its analogs – books, pamphlets, etc. – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier times, parchment), although the access to musical notation in recent years also includes presentation on computer screens. Use of the term "sheet" is intended to differentiate written music from an audio presentation, as in a sound recording, broadcast or live performance, which may involve vid...

  17. Nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira Nation and nationalism based on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lessa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pensar nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira exige um mergulho desde as raízes coloniais até a modernidade. Essa trajetória é marcada por descompassos, e desde o Estado Nacional até a sedimentação da nação e o sentimento de auto-estima com uma "identidade brasileira" transcorre-se mais de um século. Tanto o conceito de Brasil-nação quanto as versões nacionalistas jamais têm alta dramaticidade; as passagens históricas fundamentais - abolição, proclamação da República, Estado Novo - se sucedem com poucos traumas preliminares e, em seqüência, a trajetória opera uma rápida "conservatização". Do ponto de vista econômico, as forças produtivas se desenvolvem dinâmica e intensamente. Apesar da expansão demográfica, da ocupação territorial, da transformação e emergência de novos grupos sociais no campo e na cidade, é preservada a exclusão social de amplas frações da nacionalidade dos benefícios do dinamismo econômico. É ciclotímica a leitura dos nacionais de suas próprias características. A cultura, tanto das elites quanto a popular, fornece chaves para entender as mutações do pensar nacional em relação ao Brasil e o desdobramento de múltiplas características.This essay aims to analyze both Nation and Nationalism concepts according to the viewpoint of brazilian experience, from colonial roots to our times, from national state’s birth to the settlement of the Nation and national self-stee. The main historical landmarks happen with few preliminary traumas and are "conservative-zed". Productive forces develop dynamically; demographic expansion and territory occupation continue as society changes and new groups emerge; however, large population segments keep excluded from the welfare economic development should provide. Natives' self-perception is rather cyclothymical. Both popular and elite’s culture provide the keys to understand the mutations of national thinking about Brazil, as

  18. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract: Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships, and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines.

  19. Brazilian National Anthem presenting as musical hallucination: A case report with 9-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Musical hallucination is a type of complex auditory hallucination. Possible etiologies are deafness, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, use of medication and stress, besides neurologic diseases including epilepsy, stroke and cancer. Uncommon etiologies encompass infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, and sensory deprivation. Although musical hallucinations have a major impact on patients' lives, they have been undervalued and understudied in the literature. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman with musical hallucination (hearing a sung National anthem without cognitive impairment or hearing loss. The patient had preserved insight of her complaint and responded well to neuroleptics.

  20. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  1. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  2. The development of public health care policy: administrative competences, procedural joint liability, and challenges to improving Brazilian National Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WERNER, Patricia Ulson Pizarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a reflection on the position of the Brazilian Judicial Branch in recognizing joint liability of government entities in providing services as part of the Brazilian National Publich Health Systems (SUS. This study aims to demonstrate the need to avoid general-izing this interpretation in cases of judicial actions that have the power to change public policy. The question of joint liability should not be considered only from the procedural angle, but conversely, in terms of the fact that the federal government cannot continue to meet demands alone. In light of these unquestionable limitations in terms of the budget, human resources, and structure, strengthening institutional dialog will create a consistent, transparent, and improved system and it will stimulate the legitimate and long-lasting development of public health policies.

  3. Anthropization Effects on the Filamentous Fungal Community of the Brazilian Catimbau National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caatinga biome features an exclusive endemic biodiversity, and is characterized by the presence of xerophytic, deciduous vegetation, high temperatures, and low rainfall. This important park has undergone anthropization, especially through extraction of firewood and timber and growing plants for raising goats. The objectives of this study were to compare the communities of filamentous fungi present in the preserved area and in the anthropized soil of the Catimbau National Park in Buíque, PE, Brazil, and to evaluate the impacts of anthropization on such communities. A total of 12 collections of soil samples were made, six in the preserved area and six in the anthropic area, and the physicochemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. Fungi were isolated through suspension and serial dilution methods. After growth, the samples were purified and identified based on classical taxonomy, according to specific literature. The diversity, evenness, richness, dominance, frequency, and similarity among the species of filamentous fungi in both areas were assessed based on ecological indexes. A total of 4,488 colony-forming units of filamentous fungi were obtained, which were distributed into 65 species belonging to 15 genera. In the preserved area, higher abundance and richness of species were observed, with predominance of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. In both areas, diversity and equitability were high, demonstrating that the species are well distributed in these areas. In the preserved area, the dominant genera were Aspergillus, Gongronella, and Penicillium, whereas Aspergillus was the dominant genus in the anthropic area. Two distinct communities were observed in the areas analyzed. Principal component analysis showed that Penicillium simplicissimum influences the total diversity of both communities. The anthropization that occurred in the Catimbau National Park has changed the composition of the filamentous fungal

  4. Weight and height of people living with HIV/AIDS attended by the Brazilian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann; Garcia, Vania Regina Salles; Trovões, Edina Aparecida Tramarin

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is related to morbidity and mortality and its monitoring is important in the maintenance of the health status. This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Brazilian National Health System in the Municipality of São Paulo. It describes anthropometrical characteristics: weight and height; indices of weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A), body mass index for age (BMI/A) and Z score for height and weight. The study includes 772 participants from all ages: children, adolescents, adults and elderly. The graphical analysis shows that in under-5s and in the 5 to 19 years old group, the W/H, the H/A and the BMI/A curves are similar to the reference population with an exception in the H/A for 5 to 19 years old group which is left-shifted (mean Z = -0.66). In the case of adults, graphics for the study population show median weight apparently lower than in the reference population for most age groups in the case of men, and when age is greater in women. The proportion of people over 20 years old with AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy is lower when coinfection is present (p < 0.001). The findings of the study showed that, for children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS, the average weight and height are lower than the values for non infected population. For adults and elderly, the weight average is lower than the reference population with a worsening among coinfected patients. This underscores the need to direct more effort in nutritional actions thus helping enhance the health status of this group.

  5. Avian Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  6. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina L. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8% belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77% and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62% prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%, Minas Gerais (21%, and Rio Grande do Sul (15%. During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119. Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73 for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  7. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Christina L; Martelli, Daniella Reis B; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; e Silva, Ana Cristina S; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  8. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryane Oliveira-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse. The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. RESULTS: Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school, the chance to have sexual intercourse increased, with the largest magnitude for unprotected sex (OR = 1.41 and OR = 1.87 . CONCLUSION: The information on preventing pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated before the 9th grade. Social inequalities negatively affect risky sexual behavior. Substance use is strongly associated with unprotected sex. Information on the prevention of pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated early.

  9. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Ibañez, Nelson; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana

    2016-11-03

    Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships), and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines. Resumo: As inovações tecnológicas jogam papel decisivo no processo de desenvolvimento das sociedades, visto que contribuem para gerar crescimento econômico e bem-estar da população. O Estado possui grande importância e centralidade nesse processo, pois pode induzir fortemente o comportamento, as estratégias e as decisões relativas à inovação. O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar a atual política de desenvolvimento produtivo em saúde no Brasil e seus reflexos sobre a capacitação dos laboratórios públicos nacionais. Para essa finalidade, contextualiza os diferentes ciclos de interação entre a política de saúde e a sua base produtiva, discute a estratégia do governo brasileiro para o desenvolvimento, a transferência e a absorção de tecnologia na área da saúde (as parcerias para o desenvolvimento produtivo) e apresenta duas parcerias vigentes envolvendo laboratórios públicos para a produção de medicamentos e vacinas.

  10. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  11. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  12. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  13. Respirator Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear the escape hood and get the expected protection? Respirator Fact Sheet [PDF - 706 KB] Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter ... PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ... last updated: June 6, 2014 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education ...

  14. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in activities of daily living limitations and in the provision of informal and formal care for noninstitutionalized older Brazilians: National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Ma Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana V M; Peixoto, Sérgio V; Malta, Deborah C; Macinko, James

    2016-11-17

    This study assesses the association between socioeconomic factors and living arrangements with activity of daily living limitations (ADL) and the receipt of informal and formal care among non-institutionalized Brazilians aged ≥ 60 years. Data come from a nationally representative survey (the Brazilian National Health Survey), conducted in 2013. Outcomes examined include the number of ADL tasks performed with limitations and number of tasks for which the individual received informal care (provided by unpaid relatives or friends), formal care, or no care. Key exposure variables were years of education and household assets. Functioning limitations were reported by 7,233 (30.1 %) of 23,815 survey participants. Of these, 5,978 reported needing help to perform at least one ADL task. There was a strong inverse gradient between physical functioning and both education and household assets that was independent of confounders. The provision of care showed an opposite trend, with the wealthiest being more likely to receive help for performing ADL tasks. The receipt of formal care was strongly correlated with highest education (Fully adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.64; 95 % CI 1.05, 2.58) and with the highest assets level (PR = 2.24; 95 % CI 1.38, 3.64). Living with someone else was associated with provision of care (formal or informal) for those at the lowest and intermediate educational and assets levels, but not for the wealthiest. Despite worse physical functioning, older Brazilians in worse socioeconomic conditions are much less likely to receive needed help in performing ADL tasks.

  16. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Love and the Brazilian Imaginary in National Fiction and Popular Cinema: From O Guaraní to As Melhores Coisas do Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sawyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s national and cultural self-conception arguably begins with, and was definitely impacted by, the Romantic fictional narratives of José de Alencar, most notably Iracema and O Guaraní. In establishing racial hybridity as a positive and uniquely Brazilian characteristic, Alencar appropriated that most universal of themes, love, as the vehicle by which the Brazilian culture was established and continues to define itself. More than one hundred and fifty years later, the pervasiveness of Alencar’s idea, as well as his subversive appropriation of distinctly foreign elements to declare a separate identity, is evident even in artistic narratives that do not explicitly examine questions of national identity. As Melhores Coisas do Mundo, a coming-of-age film set in modern-day São Paulo, illustrates the degree to which Alencar’s ideas continue to inform the most basic assumptions in individual and collective identity precisely because the movie’s narrative presents no conscious meditation on such issues.             Keywords: identity formation, foundational literature, popular cinema

  18. The accountability of the brazilian regulatory agencies: the experience of the National Petroleum Agency; O controle externo das agencias reguladoras: o caso da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Borges, Heloisa Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia. Grupo de Economia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    During the reform process for which passed the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry, the academic debate was centered mostly in the sectorial restructuring process, in the contract designs and regulatory environment for the industries in change, particularly the desired attributes of its institutions. The debate tends, in the present, to converge towards the existence of different possible combinations between market structures and institutional structures (the regulators among them) that would lead to a desirable result. Thus, the various characteristics and configurations, originally appointed as necessary conditions for the success of any reform, are not dealt with such great deference anymore. The hypothesis that the existence of a independent regulator is a determinant choice for the success of structural and institutional reforms was relaxed as general rule, but there are still strong economic reasons to justify the option, adopted in Brazil. The creation of the Oil National Agency (ANP), the Brazilian regulator for the Oil and Gas Industry is a recent phenomenon. And few studies specifically approach the issue of its accountability, institutional role that in Brazil is delegated mostly, but not exclusively, to the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao). Therefore, the objective of this work will be to discuss the different possibilities of accountability over the ANP, evaluating the paper and the functions of the TCU and the forms of external control on the Agency, pointing out the possibilities, the impediments and the challenges, as well as the economic consequences to the Natural Gas Industry of the current configuration. (author)

  19. [The trajectory of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program between 2003 and 2010: report of the national manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Albaneide Maria Lima

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to study the report of the manager of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE), with special emphasis on the period from 2003 to 2010. It is a critical essay based on a review of the literature and the official data. It was revealed that the program spent 954.2 million Brazilian reals in 2003 to assist 37.3 million students, and in 2010 the total resources increased to 3 billion Brazilian reals with 45.6 million students attended. Other important advances were the broadening and strengthening of the role of the School Nutrition Councils and the regulatory strategies of nutritionists as Accountable Technicians. Law No. 11.947/2009 gave a new impetus to the PNAE, extending the program to the entire basic public education grid and youths and adults, and recommending that 30% of the funds transferred from the FNDE should be used to acquire products from small farmers. The progress in technical and operational criteria seeking greater flexibility, efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the Program is clear for all to see. It is hoped that these advances will translate into effective improvement in food and nutrition conditions for schoolchildren.

  20. The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thiago de Araujo; Roncada, Cristian; Silva, Emerson Rodrigues da; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbon; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2017-01-01

    To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day), with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries. Apresentar dados longitudinais oficiais sobre o impacto da asma no Brasil entre 2008 e 2013. Estudo descritivo de dados extraídos de um banco de dados do governo brasileiro entre 2008 e 2013, no qual foram analisados as hospitalizações e óbitos por asma, bem como o custo das hospitalizações. Foi também realizada uma subanálise geográfica. Em 2013, 2.047 pessoas morreram de asma no Brasil (5 óbitos/dia), com mais de 120.000 hospitalizações por asma. Durante o período de estudo, o n

  1. The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents--ERICA: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining cardiovascular risk factor profile in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Vasconcelos, Maurício T L; da Veiga, Glória Valéria; Figueiredo, Valeska C; Dias, Adriano; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Souza, Ana Luiza Lima; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Schaan, Beatriz D'Argord; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Ribas, Dulce Lopes Barboza; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Dias, Glauber Monteiro; Filho, Heleno R Correa; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Santos, Marize M; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; da Matta, Sandro Silva; Martins, Stella Maris Seixas; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira

    2015-02-07

    The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Portuguese acronym, "ERICA") is a multicenter, school-based country-wide cross-sectional study funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which aims at estimating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including those included in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, in a random sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Approximately 85,000 students were assessed in public and private schools. Brazil is a continental country with a heterogeneous population of 190 million living in its five main geographic regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast). ERICA is a pioneering study that will assess the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents using a sample with national and regional representativeness. This paper describes the rationale, design and procedures of ERICA. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire using an electronic device, in order to obtain information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, sleeping hours, common mental disorders and reproductive and oral health. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measures (weight, height and waist circumference) and blood pressure were also be measured. Blood was collected from a subsample of approximately 44,000 adolescents for measurements of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin. The study findings will be instrumental to the development of public policies aiming at the prevention of obesity, atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes in an adolescent population.

  2. First Clinical Consensus and National Recommendations on Tracheostomized Children of the Brazilian Academy of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology (ABOPe and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics (SBP,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.G. Avelino

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tracheostomy is a procedure that can be performed in any age group, including children under 1 year of age. Unfortunately health professionals in Brazil have great difficulty dealing with this condition due to the lack of standard care orientation. Objective: This clinical consensus by Academia Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica (ABOPe and Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP aims to generate national recommendations on the care concerning tracheostomized children. Methods: A group of experts experienced in pediatric tracheostomy (otorhinolaryngologists, intensive care pediatricians, endoscopists, and pediatric pulmonologists were selected, taking into account the different regions of Brazil and following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The results generated from this document were based on the agreement of the majority of participants regarding the indications, type of cannula, surgical techniques, care, and general guidelines and decannulation. Conclusion: These guidelines can be used as directives for a wide range of health professionals across the country that deal with tracheostomized children.

  3. Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge (Horse Creek and Snell Creek Units) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  4. Digital seafloor character data of the Gulf of Alaska from historical National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release provides seafloor-characteristics point data across the Gulf of Alaska, as digitized directly from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  5. [Budget impact of the incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System, Brazil, 2013-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Ferreira Teixeira; Steffen, Ricardo; Entringer, Aline; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca da; Trajman, Anete

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed. Incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF would cost BRL 147 million (roughly USD 45 million) in five years and would have an impact of 23 to 26% in the first two years and some 11% between 2015 and 2017. The results can support Brazilian and other Latin American health administrators in planning and managing the decision on incorporating the technology.

  6. First Clinical Consensus and National Recommendations on Tracheostomized Children of the Brazilian Academy of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology (ABOPe) and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics (SBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Melissa A G; Maunsell, Rebecca; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Lubianca Neto, José Faibes; Schweiger, Cláudia; Miura, Carolina Sponchiado; Chen, Vitor Guo; Manrique, Dayse; Oliveira, Raquel; Gavazzoni, Fabiano; Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça; Bittencourt, Paulo; Camargos, Paulo; Peixoto, Fernanda; Brandão, Marcelo Barciela; Sih, Tania Maria; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    Tracheostomy is a procedure that can be performed in any age group, including children under 1year of age. Unfortunately health professionals in Brazil have great difficulty dealing with this condition due to the lack of standard care orientation. This clinical consensus by Academia Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica (ABOPe) and Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) aims to generate national recommendations on the care concerning tracheostomized children. A group of experts experienced in pediatric tracheostomy (otorhinolaryngologists, intensive care pediatricians, endoscopists, and pediatric pulmonologists) were selected, taking into account the different regions of Brazil and following inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results generated from this document were based on the agreement of the majority of participants regarding the indications, type of cannula, surgical techniques, care, and general guidelines and decannulation. These guidelines can be used as directives for a wide range of health professionals across the country that deal with tracheostomized children. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovation in the strategies of Internationalization of Brazilian Multinationals: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions: A Study Case of the Meat Processing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rovai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries

  8. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  9. Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia regiona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Henry E; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Monterrosa, Eva; Kraemer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries--Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition.

  10. Honda Civic fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been directed to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. This fact sheet describes the test results on 1998 Honda Civics: one dedicated CNG and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible.

  11. The Brazilian unified national health system as an observatory for universal rights: a reflection based on the social sciences¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bibliography on the crisis of modernity is wide-ranging. One particular school of thought takes the view that various pillars of modern social life are under threat: among them the achievements represented by universal rights. The public health literature also points out that the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS is a development going against the worldwide movement towards flexibilization of these rights. The principles of universality and comprehensiveness not only constitute an institutional, financial, political and social challenge, but also express society's decision to implement universal rights. We have used Souza Santos's theoretical instrument to characterize SUS as an observatory regarding effective application of these rights. Institutional remodeling and democratic deliberations for establishing a social contract emerge again as matters of importance.

  12. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace.

  13. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91, SiO2 (88, carbon black (84, Ag (35, Al2O3 (35, ZnO (34, Pb (33, and CeO2 (31. The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846 workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company and 583 (1.71 per company, respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2% included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace.

  14. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace. PMID:27556041

  15. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Alcohol consumption among Brazilian Adolescents according to the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Brazilian students and identify the sociodemographic factors associated alcohol consumption in the last 30 days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a cluster sample of 109,104 9th grade students in Brazilian public and private schools in 2012. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of the indicators of alcohol consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the students analyzed, 50.3% (95%CI 49.0 - 51.6 experimented one dose of alcoholic beverages or more. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was 26.1% (95%CI 24.5 - 27.7, and there was no difference in prevalence between students from public and private schools. Drunkenness episodes were reported by 21.8% (95%CI 21.1 - 22.5 of the students. The perception of students about the negative reaction of their family if they came home drunk occurred in 89,7% (95%CI 89,6 - 89,9 of cases, and 10% (95%CI 8.9 - 11.1 of them reported having problems with their families or friends because they had been drinking. Among adolescents aged less than 14 years old, the first alcoholic drink intake was predominantly at 12 to 13 years old. The most common way to get a drink was at parties, with friends, buying in them in supermarkets, stores or bars and at home. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was less frequent among boys, increasing with age. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the extension of alcohol as a problem, making it important to advance in measures such as the improvement of protective legislation for children and adolescents and stricter enforcement in alcohol sales.

  17. Alcohol consumption among Brazilian Adolescents according to the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Machado, Isis Eloah; Porto, Denise Lopes; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; de Freitas, Paula Carvalho; da Costa, André Wallace Ney; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Brazilian students and identify the sociodemographic factors associated alcohol consumption in the last 30 days. Cross-sectional study with a cluster sample of 109,104 9th grade students in Brazilian public and private schools in 2012. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of the indicators of alcohol consumption were analyzed. Of the students analyzed, 50.3% (95%CI 49.0 - 51.6) experimented one dose of alcoholic beverages or more. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was 26.1% (95%CI 24.5 - 27.7), and there was no difference in prevalence between students from public and private schools. Drunkenness episodes were reported by 21.8% (95%CI 21.1 - 22.5) of the students. The perception of students about the negative reaction of their family if they came home drunk occurred in 89,7% (95%CI 89,6 - 89,9) of cases, and 10% (95%CI 8.9 - 11.1) of them reported having problems with their families or friends because they had been drinking. Among adolescents aged less than 14 years old, the first alcoholic drink intake was predominantly at 12 to 13 years old. The most common way to get a drink was at parties, with friends, buying in them in supermarkets, stores or bars and at home. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was less frequent among boys, increasing with age. The study demonstrates the extension of alcohol as a problem, making it important to advance in measures such as the improvement of protective legislation for children and adolescents and stricter enforcement in alcohol sales.

  18. Fact Sheet: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications; Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration (ESI), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This fact sheet presents highlights from the Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data for Solar Energy Applications, which provides detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for planning each stage of large concentrating solar power systems, from initial site selection to system operations.

  19. Atitudes dos pneumologistas brasileiros em face da dependência de nicotina: inquérito nacional Attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward nicotine dependence: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é uma condição médica por haver dependência de droga, devendo ser abordado por todos os profissionais de saúde como uma doença crônica. Objetivando conhecer a conduta dos pneumologistas brasileiros perante fumantes, realizamos um inquérito nacional, por meio da aplicação de um questionário via internet, enviado para 2.800 desses profissionais, com um retorno de 587 questionários (21%. Observamos que 3,2% dos respondedores não entendem o tabagismo como uma condição médica. Somente 14,7% responderam tratar o tabagismo, e 32,4% disseram encaminhar o fumante para outro colega tratá-lo. Os resultados sugerem que os pneumologistas brasileiros não têm conhecimento suficiente sobre as terapias de cessação do tabagismo.Smoking is a medical condition, since there is drug dependence, and health professionals should treat it as a chronic disease. In order to understand the attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward smokers, we conducted a national survey, using a questionnaire posted on the Internet, of 2,800 pulmonologists, 587 (21% of whom completed and returned the questionnaires. We found that 3.2% of the respondents did not believe that smoking is a medical condition. Only 14.7% treated smokers, and 32.4% stated that they would refer smokers to another professional for treatment. These results suggest that Brazilian pulmonologists have insufficient knowledge of smoking cessation therapies.

  20. I’ve killed and I’ve robbed. I’m a man!: The Brazilian Racialized ImagiNation and the Making of Black Masculinity in “City of God”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Amparo Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the representation of young-black men in the 2002 film City of God. The film deploys “pathological scripts” of Black masculinity in Brazil as criminal and deviant. The controlling image of Black men’s bodies as a source of danger and impurity sustains Brazilian regime of racial domination, and the narratives of violence make explicit the ways in which the Brazilian nation is imagined though a racial underpinning.Blackness is consumed as an exotic commodity, yet is also understood as a threat to national harmony. The nation is, then, written and re-imagined as a racial paradise, but mostly by inscribing death on the black body.

  1. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  2. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  3. [Bullying in Brazilian schools: results from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Mello, Flavia Carvalho Malta de; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Crespo, Claudio; Carvalho, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Porto, Denise Lopes

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and describe the occurrence of bullying among students in the 9th year (8th grade) from public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. It is a cross-sectional study involving 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis indicates that 5.4% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.7%) of students reported having suffered bullying almost always or always in the last 30 days, 25.4% (IC95%: 24.8%-26.0%) were rarely or sometimes the victim of bullying and 69.2% (IC95%: 68.5%-69.8%) of students felt no humiliation or provocation at school. The capital with higher frequency of bullying was Belo Horizonte (6.9%; IC95%: 5,9%-7,9%), Minas Gerais, and the lowest was Palmas (3.5%; IC95%: 2.6%-4.5%), Tocantins. Boys reported more bullying (6,0%; IC95%: 5.5%-6.5%) compared with girls (4,8%; IC95%: 4.4%-5.3%). There was no difference between public schools 5.5% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.8%) and private (5.2%) (IC95%: 4.6%-5.8%), except in Aracaju, Sergipe, that show more bullying in private schools. The findings indicate an urgent need for intersectoral action from educational policies and practices that enforce the reduction and prevention of the occurrence of bullying in schools in Brazil.

  4. Brazil for Sale? Does Sino-Brazilian Trade or Investment Significantly Influence Brazil’s United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Voting Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    procured the immigration of several hundred Chinese colonists. See: James C. Fletcher, and Daniel P. Kidder. Brazil and the Brazilians Portrayed in...Grain Group, a Chinese state company, for example, plans to purchase 100,000 hectares of land in the Brazilian state of Bahia to Produce Soy for the

  5. Comparison of scientists of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the basis of the h-index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mugnaini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A new scientometric indicator, the h-index, has been recently proposed (Hirsch JE. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2005; 102: 16569-16572. The index avoids some shortcomings of the calculation of the total number of citations as a parameter to evaluate scientific performance. Although it has become known only recently, it has had widespread acceptance. A comparison of the average h-index of members of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (BAS and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (NAS-USA was carried out for 10 different areas of science. Although, as expected, the comparison was unfavorable to the members of the BAS, the imbalance was distinct in different areas. Since these two academies represent, to a significant extent, the science of top quality produced in each country, the comparison allows the identification of the areas in Brazil that are closer to the international stakeholders of scientific excellence. The areas of Physics and Mathematics stand out in this context. The heterogeneity of the h-index in the different areas, estimated by the median dispersion of the index, is significantly higher in the BAS than in the NAS-USA. No elements have been collected in the present study to provide an explanation for this fact.

  6. [Relative validity of dietary indicators from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Brito, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of the dietary indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample included 174 students. The following indicators were evaluated: regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy eating, markers for unhealthy eating, and routine eating habits (having meals with parents or guardians (MEAL), having breakfast (breakfast), and eating while studying or watching TV. The results of the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. For all the markers of healthy eating, there was no difference in the proportion of regular consumption when comparing the two methods. The rates detected by the questionnaire were higher for packaged snacks and crackers and lower for cold cuts and MEAL. The indicators for regular consumption of markers for healthy eating and that referring to BREAKFAST were those with the highest accuracy. The dietary indicators used by the PeNSE survey showed satisfactory validity.

  7. Inconsistent reports of risk behavior among Brazilian middle school students: National School Based Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE 2009/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara de Oliveira Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study assessed the consistency of self-reports of risk behavior (overall and within four specific domains: alcohol use, tobacco use, drug use, and sexual activity in two editions of the Brazilian National School Based Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE: 2009 and 2012. The overall proportion of cases with at least one inconsistent response in the two editions was 11.7% (2.7% on the alcohol items, 2.1% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 3% for sexual activity and 22.7% (12.8% on alcohol items, 2.5% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 4.1% for sexual activity, respectively. Such inconsistency was more prevalent among males, delayed students, those who reported having experimented with drugs, and those who did not have a cellphone. Because inconsistent responses were more prevalent among the students who claimed to have engaged in risky activities, removing inconsistent responders affected the estimated prevalence of all risk behaviors in both editions of the survey. This study supports the importance of performing consistency checks of self-report surveys, following the growing body of literature on this topic.

  8. Efficacy of doxorubicin after progression on carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Emeline; Paulino, Eduardo; Ingles Garces, Álvaro Henrique; Fontes Dias, Mariane S; Saramago, Marcos; de Moraes Lino da Silva, Flora; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Melo, Andréia Cristina

    2018-01-31

    The treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) is challenging. There is no standard of care for patients who progressed after carboplatin and paclitaxel (CT) and all available drugs show a small response and poor long-term survival in this scenario. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of palliative doxorubicin after progression to CT therapy in advanced or recurrent EC. A retrospective review of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute database between 2009 and 2013 was performed, and all patients with recurrent and advanced EC treated with palliative doxorubicin after progression on CT were included. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rates as well as toxicity were evaluated. A total of 33 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 65.7 years. Objective responses were documented in 12.1% (3.0% of complete responses and 9.1% of partial responses). The median PFS was 4.4 months, and the median OS was 8.1 months for patients exposed to doxorubicin. The most common adverse event was anemia observed in 60.6% of patients. This retrospective study suggests that doxorubicin has a modest activity in patients with advanced or recurrent EC after treatment with CT.

  9. Association between osteoporosis, health-related productivity loss and use of hospital services in outpatients of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze factors associated with osteoporosis among outpatients of the Brazilian National Health System and to identify their association with hospital and labor economic outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Presidente Prudente / SP. The sample consisted of 542 adults of both sexes and aged ≥ 50 years old. The occurrence of osteoporosis, health-related productivity loss, use of hospital services and level of physical activity were assessed using questionnaires. Statistical analysis was composed of chi-square test, binary logistic regression and Mann-Whitney test. The significance level adopted was p-value <0.05. ResultsThe prevalence of osteoporosis was 14.4% (95% CI: 11.4% - 17.3% and it was associated with female sex (p = 0.001, lower economic status (p-value = 0.036 and obesity (p-value = 0.003. Participants with osteoporosis showed a higher incidence of surgery in the last 12 months (OR = 2.13 [1.04 to 4.35], productivity loss (OR = 1.91 [1.13 to 3.42] and disability retirement (OR = 2.03 [1.20 to 3.43]. Over the past 12 months, the sum of direct and indirect economic loss was R$ 1,382,630.00. Conclusion The female sex, lower economic status and obesity were associated with a higher occurrence of osteoporosis, and consequent higher use of hospital services and significant economic losses.

  10. The effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) on traffic behaviors among Brazilian college students: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckschmidt, Frederico; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; dos Santos, Bernardo; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Drinking alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) may be contributing to hazardous drinking practices and risk-taking behaviors among college students. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the frequency of AmED consumption in a national sample of Brazilian college students and to estimate the risk that energy drinks pose on drinking and traffic behaviors. A sample of 12,711 college students from across the country was asked to complete a research questionnaire on the use of drugs and other behaviors. Students who reported drinking in the previous 12 months (N = 8672) were divided into 2 groups: (a) those who reported drinking only alcohol (N = 4192) and (b) those who reported drinking AmED (N = 1119). The college students who reported the use of at least one illicit drug were excluded from data analysis. Descriptive and inferential analyses were subsequently carried out using the R library survey software 2.15.0. The null hypothesis was rejected at the level of P alcohol only users (AUs). The current findings are consistent with the results of previous studies. Drinking AmED may make college students more vulnerable to the occurrence of risky drinking and traffic behaviors. Educational campaigns targeted to young people should be developed warning them about the potential risks of mixing alcohol with energy drinks.

  11. The Brazilian Indigenous Problem and Policy: The Example of the Xingu National Park. AMAZIND/IWGIA Document 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Carmen

    Xingu National Park was officially set up in 1961 on the initiative of the Villas Boas brothers, whose intention was to afford shelter from economic expansion and its consequences in the form of disease and poverty to a certain number of still isolated tribes, and to give them the opportunity of being integrated gradually into the dominant…

  12. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  13. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  14. Higher Education Act. Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the challenges for students with disabilities in the nation's university system and recommends solutions that would result in better support systems for postsecondary students with disabilities. This document discusses several interrelated issues that impact student preparation and access to postsecondary education. The…

  15. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  16. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  17. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  18. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  19. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  20. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  1. [Factors associated with the demand for health services by Brazilian adolescents: the National School Health Survey (PeNSE), 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Max Moura de; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Campos, Maryane Oliveira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the demand for health services by adolescents and to identify associated factors. The study analyzed data from the National School Health Survey 2012 and calculated prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Data analysis used age-adjusted logistic regression. Half of all students required health services and the proportion was higher in girls. Factors associated with demand for health services were white skin color, enrollment in private school, maternal schooling ≥ 12 years, sexual activity, injuries, toothache, attempts to maintain, lose, or gain weight, wheezing, appropriate hygiene, and parents knowing what their children did in their free time. The highest demand for health services was mainly by girls, and demand was associated with socio-demographic characteristics, symptoms, and health risk/protective behaviors.

  2. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Miranda, Ildikó; Talamoni, Sônia A

    2006-02-01

    Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus) and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus). Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  3. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  4. Regional differences and correlates of leisure time physical activity in Brazil: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore Iven; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Sá, Gisele Balbino Araújo Rodrigues; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the regional differences and factors associated with physical activity during the leisure time in the adult participants of the National Health Survey, 2013. This study was carried out with the data from the National Health Survey, conducted in 2013 with an approximate sample of 63,000 adults (18+ years). For each of the five regions of Brazil, the prevalence of physically active adults during the leisure time was calculated, and the participants were classified as active if they practiced at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity during leisure time. The prevalence of individuals who were active during the leisure time varied from 21.9% in the south to 24.4% in the midwest. The men were 1.48 (95%CI 1.40-1.57) times more active than women, with the northern region showing the highest difference between the sexes. The prevalence of active individuals was 67% lower among those aged 75+ years when compared with the 18-24 age group, and this difference was more marked in the north. Those with higher levels of education were on average three times more active than the participants with lower education levels. In terms of education level, the lowest difference was observed in the northeast. Despite the slight variations in the prevalence of physical activity during the leisure time among the regions, when population subgroups are considered, important differences were observed. These results suggest the need for promotion initiatives on physical activity with different approaches in each of the five regions of Brazil.

  5. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  6. Labor in early life, vulnerability for health in Brazilian schoolchildren: National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Giatti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51, drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02, drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27, have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24, suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68, engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76, feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36 and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60. They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime.

  7. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Dias, Antônio José Ribeiro; Mello, Flavia Carvalho M; Silva, Marta Angelica Iossi; da Costa, Michelle Ralil; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8). A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66), with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23). Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81), insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05), not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89), and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19) and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146). Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.

  8. Trophic structure of a fish community in Bananal stream subbasin in Brasília National Park, Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schneider

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure of the fish community in the Bananal stream subbasin, which belongs to a well-preserved Cerrado area (Brazilian Savanna in Brasília National Park, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of environmental variations in the diet of fish species. Four samples were taken in each 30 m long established transect, two in the rainy season and two in the dry season. A total of 1,050 stomachs of the 13 most abundant species were analyzed. A total of 36 food items were consumed, where 24 were autochthonous, 8 allochthonous, and 4 of undetermined origin. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis, in addition to the results of frequency of occurrence and abundance charts, was used to determine four groups of feeding guilds: detritivores, omnivores (tending toward herbivory and invertivory, invertivores and piscivores. Around 69% of the volume of resources consumed was allochthonous, which proves the importance of the resources provided by riparian vegetation. The contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous items in the diet differed due to seasonality for Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax sp., Characidium xanthopterum, Hyphessobrycon balbus, Kolpotocheirodon theloura, Moenkhausia sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Rivulus pictus. Despite the Cerrado climate characteristics, there was no significant influence of season on the fish diet. The absence of seasonal variation and the predominance of allochthonous items in the fish diet are probably associated with the presence of riparian vegetation, which acts as a transition area in the Cerrado biome and provides resources for the aquatic fauna. This work shows the importance of studies in non-disturbed areas considered here as a source of information concerning the biology of fish species and as a guide for direct conservation policies on the management of aquatic resources, recovery of damaged areas and determination of priority areas for

  9. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4 of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. CONCLUSION: In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  10. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  11. Identity fusion predicts endorsement of pro-group behaviours targeting nationality, religion, or football in Brazilian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Newson, Martha; Natividade, Jean Carlos; Vázquez, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel

    2018-01-11

    A visceral feeling of oneness with a group - identity fusion - has proven to be a stronger predictor of pro-group behaviours than other measures of group bonding, such as group identification. However, the relationship between identity fusion, other group alignment measures and their different roles in predicting pro-group behaviour is still controversial. Here, we test whether identity fusion is related to, but different from, unidimensional and multidimensional measures of group identification. We also show that identity fusion explains further variance of the endorsement of pro-group behaviour than these alternative measures and examine the structural and discriminant properties of identity fusion and group identification measures in three different contexts: nationality, religion, and football fandom. Finally, we extend the fusion literature to a new culture: Brazil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research explicitly addressing a comparison between these two forms of group alignment, identity fusion and identification with a group, and their role in predicting pro-group behaviours. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Profile and scientific output analysis of physical therapy researchers with research productivity fellowship from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmer, Giovani; Viero, Carolina C M; Silveira, Matheus N; Lukrafka, Janice L; Plentz, Rodrigo D M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the profile and the scientific output of physical therapists researchers holding a research productivity fellowship (PQ) from the Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq). This is a cross-sectional study, which has evaluated the Lattes Curriculum of all PQ physiotherapy researchers registered at CNPq holding a research productivity fellowship in the period of 2010. The variables analyzed were: gender, geographic and institutional distribution, duration since doctorate defense, research productivity fellowship level, scientific output until 2010 and the H index in Scopus(®) and ISI databases. A total of 55 PQ from the CNPq were identified in the area of knowledge of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, being 81.8% from the Southeast region of Brazil. They were predominantly female (61.8%), with research productivity fellowship level PQ2 (74.5%), and with average time since doctorate defense of 10.1 (±4.1) years. A total of 2.381 articles were published, with average of 42.5 (±18.9) articles/researcher. The average of articles published after doctorate defense was 39.40 (±18.9) articles/researchers with a mean output of 4.2 (±2.0) articles/year. We found 304 articles indexed in the Scopus(®) database with 2.463 citations, and 222 articles indexed in the Web of Science with 1.805 citations. The articles were published in 481 journals, being 244 (50.7%) of them listed on JCR-web. The researchers presented a median 5 of the H index in the Scopus(®) database, and a median 3 in ISI. The scientific output of the researchers with research productivity fellowship in the field of physical therapy stands out in their indicators, since the figures are very promising for a relatively young area and as it can be observed by the amount of published articles and citations obtained by the national and international research community.

  13. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  14. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Cholera Fact sheet Updated December 2017 Key facts Cholera ... behaviour and to the control of cholera. Oral cholera vaccines Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified ...

  15. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  16. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  17. MODERNIZATION, NATIONALISM AND THE ELITE: the Genesis of Brazilian jiu-jitsu, 1905-1920 MODERNIZAÇÃO, NACIONALISMO E A ELITE: a origem do jiu-jitsu brasileiro, 1905-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cairus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5965/2175180303022011100 This article is based on a chapter of my dissertation entitled The Gracie Clan and the Making of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu: National Identity, Performance and Culture, 1905-1993. It analyzes the introduction, creolization, popularization and globalization of the martial art known as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, by examining the trajectory of the principal agents of these events, the Gracie family who reinvented the Japanese martial art by creating a complex, ritualistic hyper-masculinized life style, forged from the clash between tradition and modernity embed in violence “made in Brazil.” The article is divided in two sections in which I analyzed the introduction of Japanese jiu-jitsu as part of a turn-of- the-century global modernization. In the first part the narrative takes place in Rio de Janeiro in early twentieth century and examines the introduction of Japanese jiu-jitsu as modern school of physical education patronized by the military. This section is represented in the vignette “Round 1”. In the second part the narrative shifted to the Amazon where a modern school of jiu-jitsu was established as a result of a transnational encounter between a troupe of Japanese martial artists and a Scottish-Brazilian family. This section is represented in the vignette “Round 2”.

  18. Clinching for sheet materials

    OpenAIRE

    He, XiaoCong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Latest developments in the clinching of sheet materials are reviewed in this article. Important issues are discussed, such as tool design, process parameters and joinability of some new lightweight sheet materials. Hybrid and modified clinching processes are introduced to a general reader. Several unaddressed issues in the clinching of sheet materials are identified.

  19. [Health on the borders: access to and demands on the Brazilian National Health System by foreigners and non-resident Brazilians in cities along the border with MERCOSUR countries from the perspective of municipal health secretaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia; Guimarães, Luisa; Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    In the context of forming common markets, border areas require special attention, since they anticipate the effects of integration processes. Along borders, different political, monetary, security, and social systems coexist; the intensification of flows resulting from integration raises challenges for the health systems, requiring specific policies focused on guaranteeing the right to health. This article presents the results of a study on the conditions for access to (and demands for) health services in the MERCOSUR border cities. A survey was performed with municipal health secretaries in the 69 Brazilian cities in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul that border on the other MERCOSUR countries. The study attempted to identify the services demanded by the border population, mechanisms used for access, flows between services and systems, response strategies, and local agreements. Initiatives for cooperation between Brazilian and foreign local administrators were identified in nearly half of the municipalities and can orient the formulation of guidelines for border situations, allowing improvement in comprehensive access to health care.

  20. Structural steels for fixed offshore platforms: technical challenges at the Brazilian national supply chain; Acos estruturais para plataformas fixas offshore: desafios tecnicos junto a cadeia de suprimentos nacional brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fabio Modesti Orsini de [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the main technical requirements for structural steel applied to the construction of bottom fixed offshore platforms, based on the most widely adopted and recognized actual standards. The mechanical properties and lab tests necessary to fulfill the Risk Management and E and P companies requirements are presented aiming to build the theoretical bases necessary for the engineering design of projects of this kind. The main types of steel available in the national market are presented at the end, giving an overall look at the Brazilian steel supply chain. (author)

  1. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8. A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66, with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23. Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81, insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05, not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89, and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19 and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146. CONCLUSION: Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.

  2. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of cesarean delivery (CD in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Methods This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with < 4 cm of dilatation, a decision late in pregnancy for CD, and the use of analgesia were associated with a greater risk for CD. Favorable advice for vaginal birth during antenatal care, induction of labor, and the use of any good practices during labor were protective factors for CD. The type of professional who attended birth was not significant in the final analyses, but bivariate analysis showed a higher use of good practices and a smaller proportion of epidural analgesia in women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. Conclusions The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns

  3. Brazilian competition advantages in the petroleum and natural gas area. Suitability of a national policy for the sector; Vantagens competitivas brasileiras no setor de petroleo e gas natural. Conveniencia de uma politica industrial para o setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Regina; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Werneck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1998-07-01

    Albeit it is recognized the economic benefits that nay follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which should experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private capitals, this work tries to discuss about the capacity of Brazil to sustain this growth and obtain the maximum economic development out of the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. Starting from the concept of National Competitive Advantage, according to Michael Porter's model, from the University of Harvard, it is analyzed some necessary aspects for Brazil to develop a healthier and more competitive oil nad natural gas industry. The work discussed on the convenience of developing a new industrial policy, allowing to the country to protect its national interests without creating old forms of obsolete protectionism. (author)

  4. The Brazilian national para-petroleum industry and the role played in the competitiveness of the Brazilian 'petroleum diamond'; A industria para-petroleira nacional e o seu papel na competitividade do 'diamante petroleiro' brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Maria Regina Macchione de Arruda

    1999-07-01

    The author uses the Michael Porter framework, (from the University of Harvard), about the 'Competitive Advantage of Nations', as a theoretical instrument to analyze the Brazilian oil industry. The document studies, specifically, the related and supporting industries, one of the four determinants that, according to the author, promote the creation of national competitive advantages; the others are: the factors conditions; the demand conditions; and the firm strategy, structure and rivalry. The study aims at building a general view of competitiveness for the so called supply industries to the oil sector, which have a fundamental role in this model. Although Brazil has developed, with the leadership of PETROBRAS, a complex industrial system, this structure of related and supporting industries will have to face new challenges, having to improve efficiency, reduce costs and redefine its global strategies. (author)

  5. Sobrevida de pacientes em diálise no SUS no Brasil Survival analysis of dialysis patients in the Brazilian Unified National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Araújo Campos Szuster

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a sobrevida dos que iniciaram tratamento renal substitutivo em hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal no SUS, entre 2002 a 2004. Estudo observacional, prospectivo não concorrente. Utilizou-se a Base Nacional em Terapias Renais Substitutivas resultante de pareamento probabilístico dos sistemas Autorização de Procedimentos de Alta Complexidade/Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais e Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do SUS. Incluíram-se os admitidos em 2002 e 2003, com 3 meses de tratamento e maiores de 18 anos. Dos 31.298 pacientes, a maioria iniciou em hemodiálise, era do sexo masculino, com média de 54 anos e residentes na Região Sudeste, e em municípios com IDH médio foi de 0,78. Associou-se a maior risco óbito: sexo feminino, idade superior a 55 anos, diagnóstico de diabete mellitus, em diálise peritoneal, não residir na Região Sudeste. Residir em cidades com melhor IDH proporcionou menor risco. Risco ajustado de HR = 1,17 em favor da hemodiálise. Os resultados sugerem menor sobrevida para os de diálise peritoneal e mais velhos. Portanto, torna-se necessário subsidiar políticas que avaliem melhor a escolha da modalidade, com estudos que aprofundem os achados encontrados.The aim of this study was to analyze the survival of patients who initiated renal replacement therapy (RRT with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in the Brazilian Unified National Health System from 2002 to 2004. This was an observational, prospective, non-concurrent study. The study used the National Database for Renal Replacement Therapies resulting from probabilistic matching of Authorization of High-Complexity Procedures/Outpatient Information System and the Mortality Information System. The study included patients admitted in 2002 and 2003, with 3 months of treatment, and 18 years or older. Of the 31,298 patients, the majority: began RRT with hemodialysis, were male, with mean age 54 years, and living in the

  6. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  7. Financiando o SUS: algumas questões para o debate Funding the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS: some issues for the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Araujo de Mattos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Este debate discute questões relacionadas ao financiamento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Na primeira parte, Ruben de Mattos defende a criação de dispositivos para a elevação progressiva dos gastos públicos em saúde. Segundo o debatedor, o maior desafio do governo será viabilizar - e sustentar - um sistema que garanta, de fato, o acesso universal e igualitário. Mattos também destaca a importância dos repasses federais entre os níveis de governos, por vê-los como instrumentos capazes de reduzir as desigualdades entre as regiões e incentivar políticas que contribuam para a consolidação do SUS. Na segunda parte, Nilson do Rosário afirma que o ajuste fiscal da década de 1990, conseqüência da política de estabilização monetária, limitou a capacidade de financiamento governamental na atenção à saúde, gerando efeitos perversos devido à ampliação da desigualdade social. A seguir, explica como o setor saúde respondeu às exigências de ajuste macroeconômico nas despesas públicas através de estratégias substitutivas, contexto em que o Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF se expandiu rapidamente, tornando-se estratégico na agenda da ampliação da atenção ambulatorial básica do país.This work discusses some of the issues related to the funding of the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS. In the first part of the paper, Ruben de Mattos advocates the creation of devices to guarantee a progressive increase in the public health budget. In the debater's view, the greatest challenge facing the government is the development - and the maintenance - of a system that can de facto guarantee universal and equalitarian access. Mattos also emphasizes the importance of the federal government's transfers of funds to local governments since the latter are seen as instrumental in the attempts to reduce inequality between regions and to encourage policies that will contribute to the SUS' consolidation. In the second part, Nilson

  8. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  9. Thermoforming of foam sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Pronk, Ruud M.

    1997-01-01

    Thermoforming is a widely used process for the manufacture of foam sheet products. Polystyrene foam food trays for instance can be produced by first heating the thermoplastic foam sheet, causing the gas contained to build up pressure and expand, after which a vacuum pressure can be applied to draw

  10. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  11. Business Case for Installing E85 at Retail Stations-Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    A fact sheet that describes the business benefits of adding alternative fuels to fueling stations. This sheet also describes how these benefits were calculated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  12. GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheet Altimetry Data V033

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLA12 contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet...

  13. GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheet Altimetry Data V034

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLA12 contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet...

  14. National examination of Brazilian residents and specialization trainees in radiology and diagnostic imaging: a tool for evaluating the qualifications of future radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernando Alves; Baptista, Luciana de Pádua Silva; Soares, Aldemir Humberto; Lederman, Henrique Manuel; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2007-12-01

    This is a study of performance based on an In-training Examination for Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging targeting residents (R) and specialization trainees (ST) in Radiology. The radiological training may differ between R and ST in some centers. The authors present their experience and thoughts regarding the first three years of application of the In-training Examination administered by The Brazilian College of Radiology. Three hundred and eight-six tests were analyzed in 1999, 715 in 2000, and 731 in 2001. The yearly tests consisted of multiple-choice answers, some with interpretation of digital images, and were divided into 9 specialties: neurology, thorax, physics, pediatrics, digestive system, urinary system, musculoskeletal system, mammography, and gynecology-obstetrics. Each specialty was analyzed separately. The tests were given simultaneously in 12 Brazilian cities. The subspecialty scores of examinees at different stages of training were compared (1st, 2nd, and 3rd year residents and specialization trainees), by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P0.05). Generally, in 2000 and 2001, R achieved higher scores than ST (P<0.001). The performance in physics was poor for both groups for the 3 years covered by the study. The performance of residents was better than that of the specialization trainees in the majority of the subspecialties, mainly in the last two years. The In-training Examination provides a system for evaluating future specialists and identifying the centers that need to revise their teaching methods and the regional differences in radiological training.

  15. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  16. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  17. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  18. 17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

  19. Solar cell sheet. Taiyo denchi sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutomi; Nakatani, Kenji; Okaniwa, Hiroshi.

    1989-08-09

    This invention consists of a module sheet containing a thin film solar cell formed on a polymer film substrate, a cushioning sticky film layer and a protective film layer; thickness of module sheet is less than 1000 micron and its bending rigidity of 5 mm thick sample is less than 100 kg-mm {sup 2}. By this, the soalr cell can be wound and unwound in small roll of several cm level. This eliminates the internal wiring in the plural number of cells giving high durability of integrated amorphous solar cell against the repeated bending. The polymer film is films of PET, polysulphone, polyamide, with proper thickness of 30 - 300 micron. 2 figs.

  20. Trophic structure of a fish community in Bananal stream subbasin in Brasília National Park, Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure of the fish community in the Bananal stream subbasin, which belongs to a well-preserved Cerrado area (Brazilian Savanna in Brasília National Park, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of environmental variations in the diet of fish species. Four samples were taken in each 30 m long established transect, two in the rainy season and two in the dry season. A total of 1,050 stomachs of the 13 most abundant species were analyzed. A total of 36 food items were consumed, where 24 were autochthonous, 8 allochthonous, and 4 of undetermined origin. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis, in addition to the results of frequency of occurrence and abundance charts, was used to determine four groups of feeding guilds: detritivores, omnivores (tending toward herbivory and invertivory, invertivores and piscivores. Around 69% of the volume of resources consumed was allochthonous, which proves the importance of the resources provided by riparian vegetation. The contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous items in the diet differed due to seasonality for Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax sp., Characidium xanthopterum, Hyphessobrycon balbus, Kolpotocheirodon theloura, Moenkhausia sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Rivulus pictus. Despite the Cerrado climate characteristics, there was no significant influence of season on the fish diet. The absence of seasonal variation and the predominance of allochthonous items in the fish diet are probably associated with the presence of riparian vegetation, which acts as a transition area in the Cerrado biome and provides resources for the aquatic fauna. This work shows the importance of studies in non-disturbed areas considered here as a source of information concerning the biology of fish species and as a guide for direct conservation policies on the management of aquatic resources, recovery of damaged areas and determination of priority areas for

  1. Validação do National College Health Risk Behavior Survey para utilização com universitários brasileiros Validation of National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to be use with Brazilian college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Franca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é traduzir, adaptar e validar o National College Health Risk Behavior Survey para utilização com universitários brasileiros. Participaram do estudo 208 universitários da UFPE e UPE. A validação foi realizada em cinco etapas: (1 tradução; (2 retrotradução; (3 correção e adaptação semântica (transculturalização; (4 validação de face; (5 teste e reteste. A tradução e retrotradução não apresentaram muitas discordâncias, tendo sido feitas as adaptações necessárias. Após a validação de face, o questionário foi reduzido de 96 para 52 questões. A reprodutibilidade foi avaliada através do teste de Kappa. Dos onze tópicos analisados, a maioria apresentou Kappa bom a perfeito: segurança e violência (Kappa=0,89; suicídio (Kappa=1,00; uso do tabaco (Kappa=0,90; bebida alcoólica (Kappa=0,78; consumo de cocaína e outras drogas (Kappa=0,70; comportamento sexual (Kappa=0,88 e peso corporal (Kappa=0,89. Apenas o tópico sobre alimentação apresentou Kappa fraco (Kappa = 0,26 e o tópico sobre informações em saúde apresentou Kappa moderado (Kappa=0,56. O Kappa médio para todos os tópicos foi 0,76, classificado como bom. A versão reduzida do instrumento pode ser considerada validada na língua portuguesa com nível de reprodutibilidade aceitável.The objective of this article is to translate, to adapt and to validate the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to apply at Brazilian college students. 208 college students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE and University of Pernambuco (UPE participated in the study. The validation was carried through in five stages: (1 translation; (2 retrotranslation; (3 correction and semantic adaptation (cultural adaptation; (4 face validation; (5 test-retest. Adaptations were done to deal with any semantic disagreements found between translation and retrotranslation. After face validation, the questionnaire was reduced from 96 to 52

  2. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  3. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Sepsis Sepsis Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version ( ... KB) En español Other Fact Sheets What is sepsis? Sepsis is a serious medical condition. It is ...

  4. Sheet electron beam tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  5. Trauma Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Physical Trauma Physical Trauma Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (572 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is physical trauma? Physical trauma is a serious injury to the ...

  6. Burns Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of most of these problems is the body’s explosive inflammatory response. A normal inflammatory response protects the ... your website or other digital platform? This fact sheet and others are available for syndication through the ...

  7. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  8. ICD-10 impact on ascertainment and accuracy of oral cleft cases as recorded by the Brazilian national live birth information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ricardo Lima; Castilla, Eduardo E; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Orioli, Iêda M

    2018-02-09

    We compared Brazilian oral cleft (OC) frequencies between the population-based Brazilian System of Live Birth (SINASC) and the hospital-based Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), trying to understand the paucity of cleft of lip and palate (CLP) in the first system. SINASC uses the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) for congenital defects coding, ECLAMC uses ICD-8 with modifications. In SINASC, the CLP frequency was 1.7 per 10,000 (95% confidence limits 1.7-1.8), cleft lip (CL) 1.6 (1.5-1.7), and cleft palate (CP) 2.0 (1.9-2.1). In ECLAMC, the CLP frequency was 10.4 per 10,000 (9.0-12.1), CL 5.5 (4.5-6.7), and CP 4.4. (4.5-6.7). In SINASC, only 33% of the oral clefts were CLP, versus 51% in ECLAMC. Part of this discrepancy may have been due to the relative excess of CP and CL cases. Although congenital defect frequencies are usually lower in population than in hospital-based registries, differences in the proportion of the main OC categories are not expected and are probably due to ICD-10 coding issues, such as lumping of unilateral CL and CL without other specifications. ICD-10 codes, whose deficiency for oral clefts is fully explained in the literature, lack modifiers for severity, or clinical subtypes. This paper shows the practical aspect of the ICD-10 system deficiency in capturing cleft lip and palate (CLP) subtypes, as demonstrated in SINASC covering three million births per year. Such errors are expected to occur in any registry that uses the ICD-10 coding system, and must be adjusted, given its relevance worldwide. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  10. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  11. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  12. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  13. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Seal Out Tooth Decay A Fact Sheet for Parents What are dental sealants? Sealants are thin, plastic coatings painted on the chewing surfaces of ...

  14. Writing Material Safely Data Sheets Using the ANSI Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Suzanne D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a history of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard for preparation of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and provides a section-by-section guide to preparing MSDSs that comply with the standard. (SR)

  15. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  16. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  17. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Characteristics Derived from Passive Microwave Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Greenland ice sheet melt extent data, acquired as part of the NASA Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA), is a daily (or every other day, prior...

  18. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  19. Initiatives to challenge patent barriers and their relationship with the price of medicines procured by the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Carolinne Thays; Chaves, Gabriela Costa

    2016-12-01

    Since 1996, when antiretroviral (ARV) treatments started being guaranteed to people living with HIV in Brazil, the government has faced the challenge of ensuring sustainability of this policy within a context of incorporating patented medicines. This article sought to analyze the historical series of the price of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in Brazil and in the international market also considering the initiatives to challenge patent barriers between 2001 and 2012. The methods used were mapping initiatives to challenge LPV/r patent barriers and the analysis of historical series of its price in Brazil and in the international market. Results show that, between 2001 and 2003, there were efforts to use compulsory licensing as a threat. From 2005 to 2007, initiatives by different satkeholders were identified: declaration of public interest, pre-grant opposition ("support to examination") and civil action. From 2006 to 2008, compulsory licensing initiatives in other countries resulted in a price reduction in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, there was a 30% reduction in the Brazilian purchasing price.

  20. Association of Different Physical Activity Domains on All-Cause Mortality in Adults Participating in Primary Care in the Brazilian National Health System: 4-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna C; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence has shown that physical activity (PA) is associated with low mortality risk. However, data about reduced mortality due to PA are scarce in developing countries and the dose-response relationship between PA from different domains and all-cause mortality remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the association of PA from different domains on all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults. 679 males and females composed the study sample. Participants were divided into quartile groups according to PA from different domains (occupational, sports, and leisure-time). Medical records were used to identify the cause of the death. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of PA from different domains and all-cause mortality. During the follow-up period, 59 participants died. The most prevalent cause of death was circulatory system diseases (n = 20; 33.9% [21.8%-45.9%]). Higher scores of occupational (HR= 0.45 [95% CI: 0.20-0.97]), sports (HR= 0.44 [95% CI: 0.20-0.95]) and overall PA (HR= 0.40 [95% CI: 0.17-0.90]) were associated with lower mortality, even after adjustment for confounders. The findings in this study showed the importance of being active in different domains to reduce mortality risk.

  1. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  2. Sheet molding composite recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, K.

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how the SMC Automotive Alliance is helping to develop commercial processes to convert sheet molding composite scrap into new raw materials. A projected 200 million pounds of sheet molding composite (SMC) will be used by the auto industry in 1995. The increasing use of SMC in automobiles has prompted the industry to resolve some of the technical challenges involved with recycling the material. The SMC Automotive Alliance, composed of 30 molders and raw materials suppliers, has implemented cooperative research and development programs that have led to the commercialization of processes to recycle and reuse both postindustrial and eventually post-consumer SMC in new automotive applications.

  3. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  4. Auditoria no Sistema Único de Saúde: o papel do auditor no serviço odontológico Auditing in the Brazilian National Health System: the auditor's role in oral health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ayach

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A auditoria, na saúde, verifica os processos e resultados da prestação de serviços, pressupondo o desenvolvimento de um modelo de atenção adequado, de acordo com as legislações vigentes. Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar as atividades da auditoria no Sistema Único de Saúde no serviço de saúde bucal, buscando demonstrar as ações e a sua inserção nas três esferas de governo. Foram realizadas análise documental e levantamentos bibliográficos sobre os sistemas de auditoria e o papel do auditor no serviço odontológico desde 1969. Os resultados mostraram que foram encontrados seis artigos sobre auditoria odontológica no SUS e que a atuação do auditor odontológico é abrangente no gerenciamento do sistema, consistindo no controle, na avaliação, na supervisão e na orientação, bem como na garantia da participação social e acesso aos serviços. Na saúde bucal o auditor analisa, monitora e fiscaliza o planejamento das estratégias e os procedimentos efetuados; realiza o cadastramento dos profissionais, das unidades de saúde e a programação física orçamentária; viabiliza os dados para o sistema de informação e o pagamento dos serviços prestados; examina o cumprimento das pactuações, dando um enfoque educativo e não mais policialesco à resolubilidade dos problemas. Conclui-se que existem poucos estudos sobre auditoria odontológica no SUS e que o sistema de auditoria é um instrumento administrativo confiável e essencial para os gestores no desenvolvimento das ações de saúde.Auditing in health verifies processes and results in the provision of services, assuming the development of an adequate care model in accordance with the current legislation. In this research, the goal was to analyze the auditing activities within the Brazilian National Health System, in the oral health service, aiming to demonstrate the actions and their inclusion in the three governmental spheres. Documental analyses were undertaken

  5. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  6. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ... t Miss a Beat National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms ...

  9. Land Reclamation in Brazilian Amazônia: A chronosequence study of floristic development in the national forest of Jamiri-RO mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Felipe; Ribeiro, Admilson; Longo, Regina; Merides, Marcela; Soares, Herlon; Melo, Wanderley

    2017-04-01

    Although reclamation techniques for forest ecosystems recovery have been developed over the past decades, there is still a great difficulty in the establishment on environment assessment, especially when compared to the non-disturbed ecosystems. This work evaluated the results and limitations on cassiterite-mined areas in reclamation, at Brazilian Amazônia. Floristic variables from 29 plots located on 15-year-old native species reforestation sites and two plots from preserved open/closed canopy forests were analyzed in a chronosequece way (2010-2015). Regeneration density, species richness, average girth, and average height were evaluated every year, by means of cluster analysis (Euclidian distance, Ward method) and submitted to multiscale bootstrap resampling (a=5%). It was conduced the regression analysis for each identified group in 2015 in order to verify differences between the chronosequece development. The results showed the existence of two main groups in 2010, one witch all mined plots were allocated and other with open/closed canopy plots. After 2011 some mined areas became allocated in the open/closed canopy plots group. From 2013 and on open/closed canopy plots appeared shuffled in the formed groups, indicating the reclamation sites conditions became similar to natural areas. Finally, in 2015 three main groups were formed. The regression analysis showed that group three had a higher trend of development for regeneration density, with higher angular coefficient and higher values. For species richness all the groups had a similar trend, with values lower than open/closed canopy forest. In average girth higher trends were observed in group one and all values were near to open canopy forest in 2015. Average height showed better trends and higher values in group two. It was concluded that all mined sites had a forest recovery process. However, different responses to reclamation process were observed due to the differences in the degraded soils

  10. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  11. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  12. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  13. GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheet Altimetry Data (HDF5) V033

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLAH12 contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet...

  14. O paradoxo dos prazeres: trabalho, homossexualidade e estilos de ser homem no candomblé queto fluminense The paradox of pleasure: work, homosexuality and styles of being a man in an Afro-Brazilian religious nation in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Rios

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a inserção de homens com práticas homossexuais no candomblé queto fluminense. Nesses candomblés, as articulações entre performances de gênero e trabalho religioso constituem estilos de ser homem, que configuram uma hierarquia sexual. Os masculinizados (okós podem assumir posições de mediação terreiro-mundo, o que não é permitido aos efeminados (adés. Com gestualidade e adereços, eles sinalizam os gostos sexuais, e cria-se um paradoxo: se apresentar a um só tempo masculino e feminino, de modo a ser respeitado pelo grupo e sinalizar quem e o que quer sexualmente.The article analyzes the insertion of men with homosexual practices in an Afro-Brazilian religious nation in Rio de Janeiro Candomblé. In this religion, the articulations between gender performances and religious work constitute styles of being a man, configuring a sexual hierarchy. It is argued that mediating positions between temple and world can be assumed by the mannish men (okós, but are not permitted to the effeminates (adés. As sexual tastes are signalized by gestures and props, a paradox is created to homosexual men: to present themselves, at the same time, mannish and feminine in order to be respected by the community, and yet clearly show who and what they want sexually.

  15. Long-Baseline Comparisons of the Brazilian National Time Scale to UTC (NIST) Using Near Real-Time and Postprocessed Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    long baseline of ~8600 km. The comparisons were made with measurement systems developed for the Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) comparison...measurements are compared and summarized. I. INTRODUCTION The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) is a regional metrology organization...Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) comparison network, a network designed to intercompare the national standards of time and frequency in North, Central

  16. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) functions as a non-destructive microtome and microscope that uses a plane of light to optically section and view tissues with subcellular resolution. This method is well suited for imaging deep within transparent tissues or within whole organisms, and because tissues are exposed to only a thin plane of light, specimen photobleaching and phototoxicity are minimized compared to wide-field fluorescence, confocal, or multiphoton microscopy. LSFMs produce well-registered serial sections that are suitable for three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structures. Because of a lack of a commercial LSFM microscope, numerous versions of light sheet microscopes have been constructed by different investigators. This review describes development of the technology, reviews existing devices, provides details of one LSFM device, and shows examples of images and three-dimensional reconstructions of tissues that were produced by LSFM. PMID:21339178

  17. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  18. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,João Gabriel Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  3. Como a diferença passa do centro à margem nos currículos: o exemplo dos PCN How difference moves from the center to the margins: the case of Brazilian national curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Macedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto parte do pressuposto de que os estudos de política curricular centrados no Estado empobrecem a análise por não darem conta da relação entre estrutura e agência. Apoia-se na teoria discursiva de E. Laclau e C. Mouffe para analisar as políticas curriculares como articulações hegemônicas em torno do preenchimento do significante qualidade da educação. Centra-se na análise dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, especialmente os de Ciência e os Temas Transversais, tendo como foco articulações universalistas que buscam minar as demandas da diferença. Considerando que essas articulações podem ser percebidas pela análise dos textos curriculares tais como enunciados, a autora destaca duas estratégias utilizadas nos PCN: a criação de dois componentes curriculares, com a localização das demandas da diferença no menos institucionalizado deles; e as lutas por hegemonia no interior desse componente.This paper assumes that the analysis of the curriculum policy is weakened by a state-centered model that cannot correctly address the relationship between structure and agency. Based on E. Laclau's and C. Mouffe's discursive theory, it analyzes the curriculum policy to show they are hegemonic articulations to fill up the empty signifier "quality of education". It examines the Brazilian National Curriculum, especially the Science and the Transversal Themes components, focusing on how universalistic articulations try to undermine the demands of difference. Considering that such articulations may be spotlighted in the way these curriculum texts were enunciated, it highlights two major strategies used in the National Curriculum: its division into two components, the less institutionalized one containing the demands of difference; and the struggles to control this latter component from within.

  4. Forty Years of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (XXX on Zionism and Racism: the Brazilian Vote as an instance of United States - Brazil Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORMA BREDA DOS SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1975, Brazil voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX, equating Zionism with a form of racism. Focusing on the decision-making process of president Ernesto Geisel's (1974-1979 foreign policy, "responsible pragmatism", this article discusses how the ultimate decision to vote in favor of resolution was taken taking into account mainly US-Brazil relationship.

  5. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Chen, Wei [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Stone, Nigel [CSIRO ICT Center, Australia; Cantin, G.M.D. [CSIRO ICT Center, Australia; Barnes, John [CSIRO ICT Center, Australia; Paliwal, Muktesh [Ametek, Inc.; Smith, Ryan [Ametek, Inc.; Capone, Joseph [Ametek, Inc.; Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Williams, James C [Ohio State University; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  6. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  7. Analysis of the Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Inácio Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the light of the National System of Entrepreneurship – NSE theory, through the implementation of the Global Entrepreneurship Index methodology – GEI. The study indicates that Brazil has low quality average institutional interaction. However, social context is the main bottleneck in the national entrepreneurial ecosystem. Differences between the performance quality of the institutional framework and social factors promote entrepreneurship low socioeconomic impact. The results of the article show that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem presents low internationalization of companies, innovation in pro- ducts and processes, formation of human capital and high-growth enterprises. The results of the article provide insights for decision makers on the factors that determine the opening of new businesses.

  8. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  10. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  11. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  12. Psychoactive substance use, family context and mental health among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. METHODS: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time. Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.

  13. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Baracuhy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  14. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  15. O tripé identidade, língua e nação nas falas de jovens brasileiros imigrantes nos Estados Unidos Discourses of identity, language and nation in Brazilian immigrant youths in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria dos Santos Mota

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto pretende trazer as vozes dos brasileiros, crianças e adolescentes, que acompanham seus pais na jornada migratória para os Estados Unidos. Ressalta-se a vida entre lugares e os impactos da interculturalidade no processo de socialização no país hospedeiro. Em um primeiro momento, as representações que o grupo traz sobre o Brasil em oposição à vida nos Estados Unidos são apresentadas; em seguida, discuto os conflitos e acomodações de pertencimento presentes na definição da identidade nacional; na terceira parte do texto, o enfoque se dá no valor social que a língua assegura nos jogos de poder que se configuram a partir da escolha lingüística, e, na última parte, focalizo os diálogos que circulam entre os desejos e motivações de optar por residência em um dos países em foco.The article highlights the voices of Brazilians, children and teenagers, who accompany their parents in the migratory journey to the United States. It presents the situation of living between two places and the impacts of this interculturalism during the socializing process in the host country. In the first section, the representations that this group brings with regards to Brazil are considered, in opposition to life in the United States; then, I discuss the conflicts and accommodations of belonging that are present in the task of defining national identity; in the third part of the text, the focus shifts to the social value held by language and the games of power that emerge through language choices; and in the last part, dialogues that circulate desires and motivations for choosing residence in either country are highlighted.

  16. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  17. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  18. Disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies according to United Nations indicators of corporate social responsibility Divulgação de informações sociais por empresas brasileiras segundo os indicadores de responsabilidade social corporativa da ONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several frameworks of social information disclosure have been proposed worldwide to satisfy stakeholders' information needs. In 2008, the United Nations launched a guide with recommendations for corporate responsibility indicators in annual reports based on the Global Reporting Initiative framework and standards of the International Labour Organization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Accounting Standards Board. The objective of the present study was to analyze the disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies of the New Market listing segment traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA in accordance with UN indicators of corporate social responsibility. This was an exploratory and qualitative study based on a review of documents and the literature. The findings were interpreted by way of content analysis to determine the predominance of UN indicators disclosed by Brazilian enterprises. The results were compared to those of a 2008 UN study on social information disclosure by 100 large enterprises in the top ten emerging economies in the world. The companies in our study were found to disclose most of the indicators recommended by the UN in harmony with internationally accepted standards. However, more recently introduced non-financial indicators were less frequently reported.Diversas são as iniciativas de instituições nacionais e internacionais no sentido de se chegar a um conteúdo de informações sociais que seja evidenciado pelas empresas e atenda às necessidades dos stakeholders. Em 2008, foi lançado o Guia de Indicadores de Responsabilidade Corporativa em Relatórios Anuais, da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU, elaborado com base no GRI, nas normas da OIT e da OCDE e alinhado às definições adotadas nas normas do IASB. O presente estudo tem por objetivo principal analisar a divulgação de informações sociais pelas empresas brasileiras do Novo Mercado da Bovespa

  19. Lazer sedentário e consumo de alimentos entre adolescentes brasileiros: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, 2009 Sedentary leisure time and food consumption among Brazilian adolescents: the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidyane do Valle Camelo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se o lazer sedentário está associado a um maior consumo regular de alimentos não saudáveis independentemente de indicadores sociodemográficos e de contexto familiar. A análise envolveu 59.809 escolares da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE conduzida em 2009. A variável resposta foi o lazer sedentário, definido como o tempo diário em frente à TV superior a duas horas/dia. As variáveis explicativas de interesse foram o consumo regular de refrigerantes, guloseimas, biscoitos doces e embutidos. Odds ratios (OR e intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram obtidos por regressão logística múltipla. A prevalência de lazer sedentário foi de 65%. O consumo regular de alimentos não saudáveis foi estatisticamente maior entre os que relataram lazer sedentário, antes e após ajuste por sexo, idade, cor da pele autorreferida, dependência administrativa da escola, índice de bens no domicílio e composição familiar. Esses resultados apontam a necessidade de intervenções que promovam, de forma integrada, lazer e dieta saudável entre os jovens.The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence limits (95%CI were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  1. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  2. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  3. KEY FACTORS IN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted in corporate finance regarding long-term investment and financing decisions. However, short-term asset investments play a significant role in the balance sheet of companies. Moreover, financial managers dedicate significantamounts of time and effort to the subject of working capital management, balancing current assets and liabilities. This paper provides insights regarding the key factors of working capital management by exploring the internal variables of a number of companies. This study used data from 2,976 Brazilian public companies from 2001 to 2008, and found that debt level, size and growth rate can affect the working capital management of companies.

  4. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  5. MRIR/Nimbus-2 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN2IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN2IM is the Nimbus-2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  6. MRIR/Nimbus-3 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN3IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN3IM is the Nimbus-3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  7. Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Imagery of the Earth and Atmosphere at Daytime on 4" x 5" Film Sheets V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MRIRN3IM data product consists of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets from the Nimbus-3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer. Each film sheet contains an entire...

  8. Nimbus-2 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Imagery of the Earth and Atmosphere at Daytime on 4" x 5" Film Sheets V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MRIRN2IM data product consists of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets from the Nimbus-2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer. Each film sheet contains an entire...

  9. Bases conceituais para uma estratégia de gestão: o caso da Rede Nacional de Bancos de Leite Humano The management strategy of the Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo da Silva Maia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Rede Nacional de Bancos de Leite Humano (REDEBLH, com sede na Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, experimenta rápido desenvolvimento. O trabalho desenvolvido foi reconhecido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e distinguido, com o prêmio Sasakawa de Saúde - 2001, como o melhor projeto de saúde pública dentre os apresentados. Um dos grandes desafios atuais é dar continuidade ao desenvolvimento de competências que respondam aos desafios decorrentes de seu crescimento. Na realidade, busca-se uma nova estratégia de pensar as questões relacionadas a sua gestão. Este artigo tem como objetivos desenvolver um marco conceitual que possa contribuir para elaboração de um quadro teórico para novas estratégias de gestão da REDEBLH. Através da utilização de conceitos, busca-se, à luz da tipologia de redes descrita na literatura especializada, identificar o perfil institucional da REDEBLH. A partir do entendimento de que é necessário identificar e compreender os processos que ocorrem no âmbito das redes para então pensar as questões relacionadas a sua gestão, foi utilizada como instrumento de análise proposta desenvolvida para formação de redes de inovação.The Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks (REDEBLH, with its headquarters in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, is experiencing rapid growth. The Network's activity has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization and received the Sasakawa Health Award in 2001 for best public health project. One of the main challenges is to ensure continuing development of competencies to respond to the needs arising from such growth. A new strategy is being pursued to deal with the Network's management issues. This article aims to develop a conceptual framework to contribute to the elaboration of a theoretical framework for new management strategies in the REDEBLH. Using such concepts, the aim is to draw on the typology of networks described in the specialized literature to

  10. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  11. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  12. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  13. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  14. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  15. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...... to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System...... Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...

  19. Industrial Stormwater Fact Sheet Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheets for the industrial sectors regulated by the MSGP. Each describes the types of facilities included in the sector, typical pollutants associated with the sector, and types of stormwater control measures used to minimize pollutant discharge.

  20. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled...

  1. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-21 Selective Logging Activity in the Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of analyses of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for selective logging activity in the Brazilian...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-21 Selective Logging Activity in the Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of analyses of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for selective logging activity in the Brazilian states of Para,...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-21 Brazilian Amazon Fractional Land Cover Images: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, derived classified land cover products, and cloud-water masks for selected Brazilian...

  5. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents...

  6. Flow visualization by laser sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Chlebanowski, Joseph S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A flow visualization system using smoke and a laser sheet for illumination has been designed and developed for use in the 32- x 45-inch low speed wind tunnel. Major design features include a portable smoke rake designed for ease of installation and removal, the use of fiber optics to transport the laser light in a safe and convenient manner, and a portable traversing mechanism to traverse and orient the laser light sheet. The capabili...

  7. Adolescence and abstinence. Fact sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on adolescent sexual activity in the US and a brief description of comprehensive sex education and abstinence-only programs. The statistical profile indicates that over 50% of teenagers are virgins until at least 17 years of age. 20% of boys and 24% of girls are virgins by the age of 20 years. Only 6.9% of men 18-59 years old and 21% of women 18-59 years old were still virgins on their wedding night. However, among a sample of high school students, over 33% of male and female virgins had engaged in some form of heterosexual genital sexual activity in the preceding year. 29% of virgins had masturbated a partner of the opposite gender. 31% had been masturbated by a partner of the opposite gender. 9% had engaged in fellatio with ejaculation with a partner of the opposite gender. 10% had engaged in cunnilingus with a partner of the opposite gender. 1% had engaged in anal intercourse with a partner of the opposite gender. Comprehensive sex education aims to help adolescents postpone sexual intercourse until they are ready for mature relationships by helping them develop interpersonal skills to resist premature sexual involvement. Messages include information about sexual abstinence, contraception, and safer sex. A 1993 study found that sexual abstinence messages were one of the most frequently covered topics in state curricula and guidelines. Other key topics were families, decision making, and sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. The least covered topics were sexual identity, shared sexual behavior, sexual response, masturbation, and abortion. There were only six studies of abstinence-only programs, of which at least two showed no impact on sexual or contraceptive behavior. The National Institute of Health says that abstinence-only programs ignore the success of other programs and conflict with science.

  8. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  9. Perfil dos pesquisadores com bolsa de produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq da área de saúde coletiva A profile of researchers in public health with productivity grants from the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, com base nas informações do currículo Lattes, o perfil dos pesquisadores com bolsa de produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq na área de Saúde Coletiva. A análise levou em conta a formação graduada e pós-graduada, área de atuação, produção e divulgação científica. As comparações são feitas entre as classes de pesquisadores e com dados do diretório de grupos de pesquisa. A maioria dos pesquisadores (70% são formados em Ciências da Saúde, principalmente em Medicina, ou em Ciências Humanas (18%, principalmente Sociologia. Sessenta por cento fizeram mestrado e doutorado em Saúde Coletiva, mas há entre 20 e 30% de pesquisadores, dependendo da classe, sem formação específica na área. A maioria atua em Epidemiologia. A produção científica, expressa em produtos bibliográficos, varia de 10,56 produtos/ano de obtenção do doutorado para os pesquisadores 2C a 6,60 produtos/ano para os pesquisadores 1A. Para artigos completos publicados em periódicos os valores são 3,56 e 2,87, respectivamente. A produção é divulgada principalmente em periódicos A internacional e, A e B nacional. Os periódicos que concentram a publicação são Cadernos de Saúde Pública e Revista de Saúde Pública.Based on information provided by the Lattes curriculum, this study analyzes the profile of researchers in public health with productivity grants from the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq. The analysis considered the researcher’s undergraduate and graduate degrees, field of expertise, scientific output, and publications. The article discusses comparisons between different categories of researchers and data provided by the CNPq Research Group Directory. Most of the researchers (70% received their undergraduate degrees either in health sciences, mainly medicine, or the humanities (18%, mainly sociology. 60% have Master’s or PhDs in collective health, but some 20 to 30% of researchers, depending on the category

  10. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The nation's workforce is demanding ever more literate workers and citizens. As technology advances and the American economy grows increasingly knowledge based, individuals must be able to read, write, and communicate at higher levels in order to remain economic and social contributors. A student's level of literacy is a critical determinant of…

  11. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  12. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  13. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Selva

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  14. Environmental benefits. Fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of waters, that is, those that rest atop soil with a limited ability to neutralize acidic compounds (called 'buffering capacity'). Many lakes and streams examined in a National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) suffer from chronic acidity, a condition in which water has a constant low pH level. The NSWS investigated the effects of acidic deposition in over 1,000 lakes larger than 10 acres and in thousands of miles of streams. In some sensitive lakes and streams, acidification has completely eradicated fish species, such as thebrook trout, leaving the bodies of water barren. The Canadian government has estimated that 14,000 lakes in Eastern Canada are acidic. The New Jersey Pine Barrens area endures the highest rate of acidic streams in the nation. The Mid-Atlantic Highlands are acidic primarily due to acidic deposition while streams in the Mid-Appalachians are also undergoing increasing acidification.

  15. Ice Sheet Retention Structures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A L % . - .& .4% I% REPORT83n30US Army Corps* RE RT 3-30of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engingering ...Journal of the Technical Councils of ASCI, search Report 206. AD666205. Proceedings of the American Society of’Civil Engi- Ekizian, H., Jr. (1976...and G.D. Ashton (1978) Entrainment search Council, Ottawa. of ice floes into a submerged outlet. Proceedings of Uzuner, M.S. and J.F. Kennedy (1972

  16. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  17. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  18. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  19. Soldering sheets using soft solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains strength tests results of joints soldered using lead and leadless soft solders. For tests lead solders types Pb60Sn40 and Sn60Pb40 and leadless soft solders types Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 and Sn96Ag4 were used. As basic materials steel sheet, zinc-coated steel sheet, copper sheet and brass sheet 100 x 20 x 1 mm was the test samples size. Always two sheets were cleaned and jointed together. For heating the propane-butane + air flame was used. Then the tested assemblies were loaded using the universal tensile-strength testing machine till to failure. At the tests the force needed for assemblies failure and failure type (in soldered joint, in basic material were recorded. From measured data the solder strength was calculated. From the experiment results it follows that from the point of view of the soldered joints strength as well of the solder strength relatively small differences were found. At the same time it is evident that the joint strength and solder strength depend on soldered material type and on soldered joint lapping length. On the basis of carried out experiments it can be stated that the substitution of lead solders by leadless solders is possible without risk of soldered joints strength decrease.

  20. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  1. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  2. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  3. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  4. O STF e a construção institucional das autoridades reguladoras do financeiro: um estudo de caso das ADIns The Brazilian Supreme Court and the institutional design of the public authorities of the National Financial System: an ADIns' empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duran-Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar a atuação da corte constitucional brasileira, o Supremo Tribunal Federal, como verdadeiro ator no desenho institucional das autoridades reguladoras do sistema financeiro nacional, o Conselho Monetário Nacional (CMN e o Banco Central do Brasil (BCB. Sua interação com os poderes políticos, por meio do julgamento de Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade (ADIns, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, forneceu balizas jurídicas para a construção dessas autoridades. Esta pesquisa, que parte de uma análise qualitativa das decisões do Tribunal como estudo de caso, mapeou os temas e atores interessados na regulação do sistema financeiro e na estrutura dessas entidades, assim como procurou demonstrar como a atuação da corte reforçou a competência normativa desses órgãos. Ao final, este artigo delineia parâmetros para eventual edição de futura legislação, que vise regular o sistema financeiro, revogando a Lei 4594 de 1964, e conceder eventual autonomia ao Banco Central do Brasil.The purpose of this study is to analyse the manner the Brazilian Supreme Court's (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF decisions have influenced the institutional design of the national monetary council and the Brazilian Central Bank. During the last 20 years, STF provided limits to the power of these public authorities, by judging Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality (ADIns. This research is based on empirical study that intends to identify the actors and the issues submitted to the court and how its decision enforced their power of regulating the financial system. As a result, it is possible to perceive directions to enact the law that intends to regulate the financial system and eventually to attribute the independence to the Brazilian Central Bank.

  5. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  6. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  7. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Characteristics Derived from Passive Microwave Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Greenland ice sheet melt extent data, acquired as part of the NASA Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA), is a daily (or every other day, prior...

  8. MEaSUREs Multi-year Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Mosaic, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains a multi-year ice-sheet-wide velocity...

  9. Fact Sheets for the Architectural Coating Rule for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 1998 fact sheet with information regarding the National Volatile Organic Compounds Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings Rule. This page also contains information on applicability and compliance for this rule.

  10. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  11. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  12. Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet CD-ROM combines the most detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image mosaic available with the...

  13. Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet CD-ROM combines the most detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image mosaic available with the...

  14. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  15. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Lime Manufacturing Plants Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  16. Atmospheric Mixing Ratios of Hydroperoxides above the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains atmospheric mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide and methylhydroperoxide at 21 sites on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) were obtained from...

  17. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  18. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains seasonal (winter) ice-sheet-wide...

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  1. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  2. Hydrogeological map of Kabo Sheet 80NW topographical sheet 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hydro geological mapping of the Federal Surveys of Nigeria, Kabo Sheet 80 NW, on scale 1:50,000 were made with areal coverage of 729Km2 on the Crystalline Basement Complex, and the hydrogeoogical maps produced are maps of depth to the water table and maps of configuration peak of dry season and wet ...

  3. hydrogeological map of kabo sheet 80 nw topographical sheet 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A hydro geological mapping of the Federal Surveys of Nigeria, Kabo Sheet 80 NW, on scale 1:50,000 were made with areal coverage of 729Km2 on the Crystalline Basement Complex, and the hydrogeoogical maps produced are maps of depth to the water table and maps of configuration peak of dry season ...

  4. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  5. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  6. Beating the Heat: Fast Scanning Melts Beta Sheet Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniella; Schick, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk. Previous thinking was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Indeed, at conventional heating rates (~1-50 °C/min), silk exhibits its glass transition (~175 °C), followed by cold crystallization, and then by immediate thermal degradation beginning at about 225 °C. Here we demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals can melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s to avoid thermal degradation, and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation and German Academic Exchange Service DAAD; EZ acknowledges a European Union funded Marie Curie EST fellowship (ADVATEC); XH and DK acknowledge NIH P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center.

  7. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  8. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  10. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  11. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  12. Strategic surfaces in sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels

    Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion......Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion...

  13. 40 CFR 1502.11 - Cover sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cover sheet. 1502.11 Section 1502.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.11 Cover sheet. The cover sheet shall not exceed one page. It shall include: (a) A list of the responsible...

  14. Air Guide for Sheet-Metal Grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermann, T.

    1984-01-01

    Tool attachment reduces heat distortion of sheet. Air-guide attachment directs air from grinder motor to grinding wheel and metal sheet being ground. Cooling air reduces thermal distortion of workpiece due to localized frictional heating. Particularly useful when grinding sheet metal.

  15. VISIBILITY AND INTERNATIONALIZATOIN OF SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN NURSING MAGAZINE: PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; UFRGS; Cammarano RIBEIRO, Aline; Oliveira de GOES, Marta Georgina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been noteworthy movement on the part of Brazilian scientific periodicals in pursuit of visibility and internationalization. It is a subject that has been central to discussions by scientific editor forums gathering together different disciplines.(1) Among other aspects, they have been focused on how to promote the international impact of Brazilian scientific production, considering the national and international scope and relevance of the research and subsequent con...

  16. Quantum friction between graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, M. Belén; Fosco, César D.; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the Casimir friction phenomenon in a system consisting of two flat, infinite, and parallel graphene sheets, which are coupled to the vacuum electromagnetic (EM) field. Those couplings are implemented, in the description we use, by means of specific terms in the effective action for the EM field. They incorporate the distinctive properties of graphene, as well as the relative sliding motion of the sheets. Based on this description, we evaluate two observables due to the same physical effect: the probability of vacuum decay and the frictional force. The system exhibits a threshold for frictional effects; namely, they only exist if the speed of the sliding motion is larger than the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers in graphene.

  17. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  18. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  19. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Michael W.; Loftus, Andrew F.; Dunn, Sarah E.; Joens, Matthew S.; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of confocal microscopy techniques introduced the ability to optically section fluorescent samples in the axial dimension, perpendicular to the image plane. These approaches, via the placement of a pinhole in the conjugate image plane, provided superior resolution in the axial (z) dimension resulting in nearly isotropic optical sections. However, increased axial resolution, via pinhole optics, comes at the cost of both speed and excitation efficiency. Light Sheet Fluorescent Mi...

  20. World sheets of spinning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparulin, D. S.; Lyakhovich, S. L.

    2017-11-01

    The classical spinning particles are considered such that quantization of classical model leads to an irreducible massive representation of the Poincaré group. The class of gauge equivalent classical particle world lines is shown to form a [(d +1 )/2 ]-dimensional world sheet in d -dimensional Minkowski space, irrespectively to any specifics of the classical model. For massive spinning particles in d =3 , 4, the world sheets are shown to be circular cylinders. The radius of the cylinder is fixed by representation. In higher dimensions, the particle's world sheet turns out to be a toroidal cylinder R ×TD, D =[(d -1 )/2 ]. Proceeding from the fact that the world lines of irreducible classical spinning particles are cylindrical curves, while all the lines are gauge equivalent on the same world sheet, we suggest a method to deduce the classical equations of motion for particles and also to find their gauge symmetries. In d =3 Minkowski space, the spinning particle path is defined by a single fourth-order differential equation having two zero-order gauge symmetries. The equation defines the particle's path in Minkowski space, and it does not involve auxiliary variables. A special case is also considered of cylindric null curves, which are defined by a different system of equations. It is shown that the cylindric null curves also correspond to irreducible massive spinning particles. For the higher-derivative equation of motion of the irreducible massive spinning particle, we deduce the equivalent second-order formulation involving an auxiliary variable. The second-order formulation agrees with a previously known spinning particle model.

  1. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  2. Water Level Superseded Benchmark Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) tidal benchmarks which have been superseded by new markers or locations....

  3. Mini-review: Brazilian fungi diversity for biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Estela Y; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2013-11-01

    Brazil houses over 10% of the total number of known species on Earth, with a great diversity of plants and fungi. The collection, isolation, identification and conservation of filamentous fungi with relevance to agriculture, pharmaceutical, food and biotechnological industries in Biological Resource Centers (CRBs) is very important to the development of a nation's scientific and technological infrastructure. In Brazil, 36 fungal collections are registered in the database of International Collections. Several federal and state programs have encouraged the formation of a researcher's network in order to study natural resources and the nation's biodiversity. In this context, Brazilian researchers have been on the frontiers of knowledge, investigating the enzymatic systems from native filamentous fungi with potential for biomass degradation and biotechnological application. In this review, we address recent progress in Brazilian fungal research, focusing on the identification and study of fungi and enzymes with potential for biomass degradation and application in bioenergy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

  5. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  6. Brazilian scientific production analysis about psychological assessment in career guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Ambiel,Rodolfo Augusto Matteo; Polli, Mariana Fralleti de

    2011-01-01

    This study performed a survey of Brazilian scientific literature, published in national databases of scientific journals about the psychological assessment in the context of career guidance. To this end, a search was performed on the basis PePSIC and Scielo in August 2011, with selection and exclusion criteria and terms defined a priori, with the scope of analysis a total of 24 articles that were full texts analyzed. The results were organized into three blocks, about authors, journals and me...

  7. Brazilian Microbiome Project: revealing the unexplored microbial diversity--challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Ortega, José Miguel; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Hirsch, Penny Ruth; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; da Costa da Silva, Artur Luiz; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Duarte, Gabriela Frois; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Seldin, Lucy; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Hungria, Mariangela; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-02-01

    The Brazilian Microbiome Project (BMP) aims to assemble a Brazilian Metagenomic Consortium/Database. At present, many metagenomic projects underway in Brazil are widely known. Our goal in this initiative is to co-ordinate and standardize these together with new projects to come. It is estimated that Brazil hosts approximately 20 % of the entire world's macroorganism biological diversity. It is 1 of the 17 countries that share nearly 70 % of the world's catalogued animal and plant species, and is recognized as one of the most megadiverse countries. At the end of 2012, Brazil has joined GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility), as associated member, to improve the access to the Brazilian biodiversity data in a free and open way. This was an important step toward increasing international collaboration and clearly shows the commitment of the Brazilian government in directing national policies toward sustainable development. Despite its importance, the Brazilian microbial diversity is still considered to be largely unknown, and it is clear that to maintain ecosystem dynamics and to sustainably manage land use, it is crucial to understand the biological and functional diversity of the system. This is the first attempt to collect and collate information about Brazilian microbial genetic and functional diversity in a systematic and holistic manner. The success of the BMP depends on a massive collaborative effort of both the Brazilian and international scientific communities, and therefore, we invite all colleagues to participate in this project.

  8. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo. Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v, pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. RESULTS: When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v to 0.16% (m/v. One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. CONCLUSION: 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence.

  9. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  10. An overview of applications and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, M.J.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: manuel@ird.gov.br; dasilva@ird.gov.br

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  11. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Post-release monitoring: the Brazilian system, its aims and requirements for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P P; Melo, M A; Kido, E A

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian National Biosafety Committee approved in 2011 a new post release monitoring system for environmental releases of genetically modified organisms. It has a number of novel features in comparison with other established or proposed systems. The new system also allows the proponent to ask for monitoring exemption. General surveillance forms the basis of the monitoring system, similar to the European model, but differs markedly in the way it operates. While the European proposal is based on monitoring measurable variables extracted from environmental observations, from baselines previously established for multiple protection targets, the Brazilian system uses direct alerts of damage, without the aid of baseline values. The strength of the Brazilian form of monitoring is the possibility of generating an information network with the effective participation of many actors from the monitored area. A network constituted by highly qualified members, as proposed elsewhere, is too complex and unrealistic in Brazil and in many other countries. In conclusion, the Brazilian monitoring system is flexible and can be adjusted to the Brazilian reality over the next years, as a response to the ever growing experience in monitoring. It also meets the demands of the Brazilian society for transparency, rational use of resources, opportunity for national companies, and food and environmental biosafety.

  13. Prevention of cervical cancer in women with ASCUS in the Brazilian Unified National Health System: cost-effectiveness of the molecular biology method for HPV detection Prevenção de câncer de colo uterino em pacientes com ASCUS no Sistema Único de Saúde: custo-efetividade de método de biologia molecular para HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Rosekeila Simões Nomelini; Patrícia Dias Neto Guimarães; Pamela Aparecida Candido; Ana Cláudia Camargo Campos; Márcia Antoniazi Michelin; Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the performance of PCR as a means of detecting HPV 16/18 compared to the single probe-based PCR for detecting high-risk HPV, and evaluate these methods for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in follow-ups for ASCUS testing. It also compares the costs of cytology, PCR methods, colposcopy and biopsy in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Of the 81 patients with ASCUS, 41 (50.6%) tested positive for HPV 16/18 in PCR testing and 47 (58.02%) tes...

  14. Life expectancy among elderly Brazilians in 2003 according to different levels of functional disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; Rodrigues, Roberto Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for the Brazilian elderly in 2003, by gender and age, based on different concepts of functional disability. The Sullivan method is used to combine the period life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2003) and the prevalence of functional disability according to the 2003 National Sample Household Survey (PNAD 2003). The main results of the study indicate that at age 60, Brazilian men can expect to live 19 years, 39% with mild, 21% with moderate, and 14% with severe functional disability, respectively. At the same age, Brazilian women can expect to live 22 years: 56% with mild, 32% with moderate, and 18% with severe functional disability.

  15. Biotypology, regionalism, and the construction of a plural Brazilian bodily identity, 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates regional biotypological studies and the construction of biological deterministic discourses about the Brazilian identity in the 1930s. Biotypological research was undertaken to determine the normal body type of the Brazilian man, using its peculiar classificatory lexicon. Studies into the bodily profile of specific regions, like the northeast and São Paulo state, featured in this research. In the context of the contemporary debates about race, miscegenation, and national identity, these investigations were geared towards biological determinism and the influence of the environment and social and cultural aspects on the bodily development of Brazilians. It is shown how regional biotypological studies echoed racial, normalizing, exclusive viewpoints and contributed to the construction of a miscegenated Brazilian bodily identity.

  16. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  17. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  18. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  19. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  20. The New Social-Issues Voters: How Today's Youth Are Redefining "Moral Values." Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoff, Jared

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents data on the role that "moral values" played in the 2004 youth vote, based on the National Election Pool (NEP) national exit poll. It concludes that the defining moral characteristic that separates today's youth from older generations may be their increased tolerance for other religions, races, and sexual orientations.…

  1. Gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.T.S. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crispim, V.R. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.br; Santos, W.M.S. [Laboratorio de Colisao Atomica e Molecular (LACAM/IF), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    This work describes a methodology developed for the confection of gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography using the gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) as material converter. Though manufactured at a relatively low cost, they are as good as the sheet converter on the market. Here, we present neutron radiography of the penetrameter, the edge spread function, the modulation transfer function and characteristic curves for each set sheet-AA400 Kodak film.

  2. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  3. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael W; Loftus, Andrew F; Dunn, Sarah E; Joens, Matthew S; Fitzpatrick, James A J

    2015-01-05

    The development of confocal microscopy techniques introduced the ability to optically section fluorescent samples in the axial dimension, perpendicular to the image plane. These approaches, via the placement of a pinhole in the conjugate image plane, provided superior resolution in the axial (z) dimension resulting in nearly isotropic optical sections. However, increased axial resolution, via pinhole optics, comes at the cost of both speed and excitation efficiency. Light sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM), a century-old idea made possible with modern developments in both excitation and detection optics, provides sub-cellular resolution and optical sectioning capabilities without compromising speed or excitation efficiency. Over the past decade, several variations of LSFM have been implemented each with its own benefits and deficiencies. Here we discuss LSFM fundamentals and outline the basic principles of several major light-sheet-based imaging modalities (SPIM, inverted SPIM, multi-view SPIM, Bessel beam SPIM, and stimulated emission depletion SPIM) while considering their biological relevance in terms of intrusiveness, temporal resolution, and sample requirements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  5. Essential Medicines List Implementation Dynamics: A Case Study Using Brazilian Federal Medicines Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarinos-Torres, Rachel; Lynd, Larry David; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Marques, Paulo Eduardo Potyguara Coutinho; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to analyse the implementation dynamics of the essential medicines list (EML). We used the government expenditures on medicines and Brazil as a case study. Drug purchases were considered as a proxy for utilization. The essential medicines (EMs) expenditures were followed over time by Brazilian National EMLs life-time and defined by broad therapeutic categories and by specific medicines. Brazil increased the number of the medicines during the last four editions of Brazilian National EMLs and the federal government expenditures on them. The EML implementation dynamics changed the distribution of expenditures on EMs. We identified a common set of 404 EMs present in all four editions of the Brazilian National EMLs. There was a proportional decrease in expenditures on anti-infectives for systemic use, blood and blood-forming organs and alimentary tract and metabolism, and increase in expenditures on antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. The expenditures distribution per specific medicines revealed that a small set of EMs was responsible for 50% or more of expenditures considering Brazilian National EML life-time for all four periods. The increase in expenditures on EMs in Brazil was a consequence of the newer medicines incorporated over time in the Brazilian National EMLs. The use of the medicines expenditures as a source of data and the definition of an EML life-time permitted follow-up of the implementation dynamics of different versions of the Brazilian National EMLs. Our results have implications for policymakers and stakeholders to gain a better understanding of the role EMLs play in health system sustainability and in the provision of the most beneficial heath care. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities & Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities Final Air Toxics Rules Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a May 1999 fact sheet for the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Petroleum Refineries. This document provides a summary of the 1999 final rule.

  7. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  8. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  9. Prática de atividade física e sedentarismo em brasileiros: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 2008 Practice of physical activity and sedentarism among Brazilians: results of the National Household Sample Survey - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Goularte Knuth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inquéritos populacionais estão no centro das atividades relevantes para a saúde pública. Atualmente tem-se interesse em compreender aspectos comportamentais influentes na mudança do quadro de saúde individual e coletiva, entre eles a atividade física. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar os resultados de prática de atividade física (AF da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD em 2008, conforme distribuição regional e características sociodemográficas. O convênio firmado entre o IBGE e o Ministério da Saúde foi responsável pelo levantamento suplementar de saúde. O tamanho de amostra foi de 292.553 pessoas. A prevalência de AF nos níveis recomendados no lazer foi de 10,5%, o mesmo percentual de indivíduos relatando deslocamento ativo para o trabalho. Homens e indivíduos mais jovens foram mais ativos e houve relação direta entre escolaridade e AF no lazer e inversa entre escolaridade e atividade física no deslocamento. Um em cada cinco brasileiros não pratica qualquer AF, e um em cada três assistem, em média, 3h ou mais de televisão por dia. Estes dados visam apoiar as políticas públicas no desenho de estratégias que promovam ações sustentadas de promoção da saúde, especialmente de AF, visando o alcance de resultados que influenciem positivamente na qualidade de vida da população.Population surveys are a key component of the relevant activities for public health. There is growing interest in identifying behavioral aspects which influence individual and collective health, such as physical activity (PA. The aim of this study is to present PA data from the 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD according to regional distribution and the socio-demographic characteristics. A partnership between the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health was responsible for preparing the health supplement of the questionnaire. The sample size was 292,553 individuals

  10. Climate modification by future ice sheet changes and consequences for ice sheet mass balance

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaino, M.; Mikolajewicz, U.; J. Jungclaus; G. Schurgers

    2010-01-01

    The future evolution of global ice sheets under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing and its impact on the climate system, including the regional climate of the ice sheets, are investigated with a comprehensive earth system model consisting of a coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model, a dynamic vegetation model and an ice sheet model. The simulated control climate is realistic enough to permit a direct coupling of the atmosphere and ice sheet components, avoiding the use of anomaly co...

  11. Triggering of explosive reconnection in a thick current sheet via current sheet compression: Less current sheet thinning, more temperature anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional kinetic simulations of compression of thick current sheets are performed to see how it can lead to triggering of explosive magnetic reconnection. The current sheet under study is simply in a Harris-like anti-paralell and symmetric geometry. A one-dimensional pre-study shows that the compression is more effective to make the plasma anisotropy than to thin the current sheet width. When the lobe magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 2, the plasma temperature anisotropy inside the current sheet reaches 2 but the current sheet thickness is reduced only by 1/sqrt(2). If a current sheet thickness needs to be comparable to the ion inertial scale for reconnection triggering take place, as is widely and frequently mentioned in the research community, the initial thickness cannot be more than a few ion scale for reconnection to set-in. On the other hand, the temperature anisotropy of 2 can be significant for the triggering problem. Two-dimensional simulations show explosive magnetic reconnection to take place even when the initial current sheet thickness more than an order of magnitude thicker than the ion scale, indicating the resilient triggering drive supplied by the temperature anisotropy. We also discuss how the reconnection triggering capability of the temperature anisotropy boosted tearing mode for thick current sheets compares with the instabilities in the plane orthogonal to the reconnecting field.

  12. Aircraft Sheet Metal Practices, Blueprint Reading, Sheet Metal Forming and Heat Treating; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course is designed to familiarize vocational students with construction in sheet metal layout. The document outlines goals, specific block objectives, layout practices, blueprint reading, sheet metal forming (by hand and by machine), and heat treatment of metals, and includes posttest samples. Layout techniques and air foil developing are…

  13. Edith Magalhaes Fraenkel: The greatest figure of Brazilian Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka Oguisso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe and analyze the career of Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and her important legacy to Brazilian nursing. The methodology chosen was a documentary analysis of her areas of participation based on documents of the Historical Cultural Center of Iberian-American School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP and in the Rectory of the same University. The following thematic topics were categorized: preparation for leadership, moving to São Paulo, creation of the School of Nursing of USP, event organization, and unique developments at the end of her career. We conclude that Mrs. Edith Fraenkel is the most important figure of Brazilian nursing, thanks to her immeasurable work as a leader of the profession, nationally and internationally.

  14. [The Indian in Brazilian photography: incursions into image and medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacca, Fernando de

    2011-03-01

    The article explores contradictions and convergences between a medium (photography) and the image of the Brazilian Indian from the perspective of the history of Brazilian photography. During the first of three distinct moments, the image of the Indian was of someone exotic, in contradiction with the modern meaning of photography under the Second Empire. During the second moment, in the first fifty years of the twentieth century, the boundaries between ethnography and Brazil as a nation were blurred, as exemplified by the Rondon Commission/Indian Protection Bureau's Research Section (Serviço de Proteção ao Índio) and Brazil's modern photojournalism, as found in the magazine Cruzeiro. During the third moment, the expressions of an ethno-poetry present in the photographs of Cláudia Andujar can be seen to blend medium and image as an ethnographic space in contemporary art.

  15. A política de atenção à saúde do homem no Brasil: os paradoxos da medicalização do corpo masculino The Brazilian national policy for men's health: the paradoxical medicalization of masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carrara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do lançamento da Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à Saúde do Homem pelo governo brasileiro, em 2008. Analisamos as ações da Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia (SBU nos anos que precederam o lançamento dessa política, e sua atuação durante sua implantação, focalizada na caracterização da disfunção erétil como problema de saúde pública. Examinamos em seguida o documento "Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à Saúde do Homem (princípios e diretrizes", disponibilizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em agosto de 2008. A partir desses dados, buscamos discutir o modo como o discurso dos especialistas (no caso, os médicos urologistas se articula ao discurso militante dos movimentos sociais, tendo como objetivo a medicalização do corpo masculino. Argumentamos que tal objetivo, sustentado na afirmação do direito à saúde, implica a ideia de uma masculinidade em si "insalubre", e visa, ao contrário das políticas voltadas para as mulheres e outras minorias, ao "desempoderamento" do sujeito à qual se dirige.This paper discusses the launching of the Brazilian National Policy on Men's Health in 2008. We analyze the actions of the Brazilian Society of Urology while the policy was being planned and during its implementation. These actions can be described as an effort to promote "erectile dysfunction" as a public health problem. We then present the main points of the document "National Policy for the Integral Assistance to Men's Health (principles and guidelines" launched by the Ministry of Health in August 2008. Based on this data, we discuss the way the specialists' discourse was articulated to the political discourse of social movements, with the aim of medicalizing man's body. We argue that the Policy, using the right to health as its justification, implies the idea of masculinity as intrinsically unhealthy, and, unlike the policies aimed at women and other minorities, aims at the "disempowerment" of men.

  16. Numerical modelling of unsteady 2D sheet cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, D.F.; de Bruin, G.J.; van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady 2D sheet cavitation has been calculated by a BEM. Cubics are used to represent various quantities like the potential on the wet part of the profile, the normal velocity on the sheet, the geometry of the profile and the sheet. The growing cavity sheet, the re-entrant jet and the sheet

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  18. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p449 The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  19. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  20. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao-Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao], e-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  2. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  3. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  4. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  5. Sheet flow dynamics under monochromatic nonbreaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, detailed measurements of sediment concentrations and grain velocities inside the sheet flow layer under prototype surface gravity waves have been carried out in combination with measurements of suspension processes above the sheet flow layer. Experiments were performed in a

  6. Light-sheet optimization for microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilding, D.; Pozzi, P.; Soloviev, O.A.; Vdovine, G.V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Kubby, Joel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations, scattering and absorption degrade the performance light-sheet fluorescence microscopes (LSFM). An adaptive optics system to correct for these artefacts and to optimize the light-sheet illumination is presented. This system allows a higher axial resolution to be recovered over the

  7. Reinforcement for Stretch Formed Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J. B.; Baxter, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tearing of aluminum sheet metal durinng stretch forming prevented by flame spraying layer of aluminum on edges held in stretch-forming machine. Technique improves grip of machine on metal and reinforced sheet better able to with stand concentration of force in vicinity of grips.

  8. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  9. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  10. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  11. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  12. Aplicação das classificações do sistema de informação estatística brasileiro à cadeia produtiva óleo-suco-citrícola nacional Application of the Brazilian statistical information system classifications to the national citrus oil-juice productive chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailson da Silva Santos

    2011-04-01

    / exports, it was selected the productive chain of the oil-juice-citrus Brazilian industry. The goal is to identify each classification position in the chain and downstream and upstream demands for each activity and product. Considering the statistical system, it was analyzed the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE and the Mercosul Common Nomenclature (NCM. It was consulted the statistical information of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE and the United Nations (UN, besides the specific scientific literature. In general, these classifications of economic activities and products are not mutually exclusionary but can overlap each other with relative ease and minimal intervention. Despite the many existing segmentation, both the supply chain and the classifications from this work are set correctly. The productive chain of the oil-juice-citrus Brazilian industry involves these activities: cultivation, production, harvesting, processing of juices and related, industrial utilization of by-products and waste / scrap, packing houses, distribution, marketing and consumption. The products are: agricultural inputs, orange (fruit, juices, essential oils, aromatic waters, terpenes, terpenoids, limonene, fragrance and cosmetics.

  13. Assistência a crianças desnutridas: análise de dados do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil Care for malnourished children: an analysis of Brazilian National Health Service Hospital Information System data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Azevedo Bittencourt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar aspectos da assistência aos desnutridos menores de cinco anos, internados durante o ano de 2004 em hospitais conveniados ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas as informações geográficas, demográficas, de diagnóstico e resultado da assistência, das internações hospitalares disponíveis no Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde. RESULTADOS: a taxa mais alta de internação por desnutrição foi encontrada na região Nordeste. Do total de internações por desnutrição no Brasil, 36,2% foram registradas como não especificadas. A taxa de mortalidade hospitalar por desnutrição para o Brasil apresentou-se baixa, porém, mostrou-se moderada para crianças menores de seis meses e alta quando desnutrição grave foi registrada no campo de diagnóstico secundário. Para 102 municípios brasileiros a taxa de mortalidade hospitalar por desnutrição também foi alta. Merece atenção o fato de que 11,4% das crianças faleceram nas primeiras 24 horas de hospitalização, e a complementação do tratamento ambulatorial foi indicada em 3,7% das Autorizações de Internação Hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: mostram-se necessárias a valorização pelos profissionais de saúde da avaliação do estado nutricional e seu correto registro como causa de internação, bem como, a integração e a hierarquização dos diferentes níveis de atenção à criança desnutrida.OBJECTIVES: to characterize features of care provided for malnourished children aged under five years admitted to hospitals affiliated to the Brazilian National Health Service in 2004. METHODS: geographical, demographic data and information relating to diagnosis, results of care and admission to hospital available on the Brazilian National Health Service's Hospital Information System were analyzed. RESULTS: the highest rate for admission to hospital for malnutrition was found in the Northeast region. Of all admissions to

  14. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  15. Sedução e identidade nacional: dançarinas eróticas brasileiras no Queens, Nova York Performing Seduction and National Identity: Brazilian Erotic Dancers in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a trajetória de mulheres brasileiras que trabalham como dançarinas eróticas em bares noturnos da cidade de Nova York. Parte-se do pressuposto de que processos de globalização e transnacionalismo estão relacionados não apenas a transformações políticoeconômicas, como também a mudanças na maneira com que as pessoas se relacionam, como utilizam seus corpos e realizam seus desejos. Tais transformações devem também ser entendidas em relação ao regime colonial e pós-colonial, em que representações sobre seus corpos ganham inteligibilidade. A maioria das mulheres consideradas pela pesquisa é proveniente das classes médias e, quanto à raça, tendem a se autodenominar "morenas". A partir de trabalho de campo realizado durante os anos de 2004 e 2005, eu analiso de que forma essas posições e identidades sociais são traduzidas de um contexto a outro, e como novas hierarquias sociais são construídas num contexto transnacional. Tomando como foco de estudo o Blue Diamond, um bar localizado no bairro do Queens, este artigo examina como tais reconfigurações transnacionais são articuladas através das interações cotidianas entre dançarinas e entre essas e seus clientesThis article examines the trajectory of Brazilian women who work as erotic dancers in New York City's gentlemen's bars. It argues that processes of globalization and transnationalism are related not just with political-economic transformations, but also to significant shifts in the ways people relate to each other, use their bodies, and conceive and realize their desires. Such transformations must also be understood in relation to a colonial and post-colonial regime, in which representations about their bodies gain intelligibility. Most of the women who participated in my research are from the middle-classes, and in terms of race, they self-identify as "morenas". Based on fieldwork conducted between years 2004-2005, I analyze how their social

  16. A política pública de saúde brasileira: representação e memória social de profissionais Brazilian National Health Policy: health professionals' social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Cristina de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A política pública brasileira de saúde, conhecida como Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, foi criada há 15 anos, objetivando prover o acesso universal aos cuidados de saúde. Este trabalho objetiva caracterizar o conteúdo das representações sociais construídas pelos profissionais de saúde sobre a implantação do SUS, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Ele foi embasado na Teoria de Representação e Memória Social. O estudo foi desenvolvido em cinco instituições de saúde com cem profissionais. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas em profundidade e analisados através da análise lexical com o uso do programa Alceste, versão 4.7. Os resultados apontaram dois blocos temáticos, o SUS formal e o real. O primeiro compreende as temáticas relacionadas à política de recursos humanos, às definições e princípios do sistema de saúde e à participação social. O segundo abarca a relação profissional-cliente e a estrutura do atendimento, a hierarquização e a regionalização da assistência e a estrutura do atendimento e o perfil da clientela. Os resultados refletem as principais características do sistema e permitem identificar representações e memórias que o diferencia do anterior.The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS was created 15 years ago with the aim of promoting universal access to health care. This study analyzes the content of social representations by health professionals from Rio de Janeiro concerning the system's implementation. The study was based on social representation and social memory theory and was conducted in five health care institutions with 100 professionals. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed through lexical analysis using the Alceste 4.7 software. The results showed two thematic blocks, namely the formal and real SUS. The formal representation discusses themes related to human resources policy, health system definitions and principles, and social participation. The real

  17. Mulheres brasileiras na mídia portuguesa Brazilian women at the portuguese media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pontes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das representações sobre as mulheres brasileiras na mídia portuguesa, explorando questões relativas a gênero em intersecção com nacionalidade/ etnicidade. Nestas representações são verificados processos de essencialização e exotização da identidade nacional brasileira e a sexualização destas mulheres. Relaciono tais processos com o contexto atual de intensificação da imigração brasileira em Portugal.This article deals with the representations of Brazilian women in Portuguese media, exploring gender issues in interaction with nationality/ethnicity. In these representations there are essencialization and exoticization processes of Brazilian national identity and sexualization of these women. I relate these processes with contemporary increase of Brazilian immigration to Portugal.

  18. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  19. Ice sheet studies with DESDynI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E.

    2007-12-01

    DESDynI L-band InSAR promises timely and major advances in our monitoring capability and scientific understanding of the evolution of ice sheets and glaciers. InSAR has a long history of glaciology applications which started in 1991 with the launch of ERS-1. The European Space Agency ERS-1/2 satellites demonstrated the capability of InSAR to measure ice motion, grounding line migration, downdraw of ice surfaces, ice-shelf rifting and tidal flexure, glacial surges and other essential characteristics of ice dynamics, however with limited temporal and spatial coverage. Radarsat-1 and Envisat ASAR permitted significant advances in ice motion mapping using speckle tracking techniques, and longer-term observations of glacier evolution, but missed the shorter time scale resolution of ERS-1/2 tandem data. DESDynI will offer both, with higher quality and higher frequency of visit. The higher quality stems from the higher coherence of L-band signals on snow and ice demonstrated with SIR-C and confirmed with ALOS PALSAR, which is important in high- acumulation coastal sectors. Higher frequency of re-visit stems from the 8-day repeat and a plan to systematically acquire data with controlled baselines. ALOS PALSAR early results in West Antarctica and Greenland are very encouraging, with more data to come.Yet ALOS PALSAR 46-day repeat limits its capability to observe short-terms events e.g. calving, grounding line migration, tidal modulation in glacier velocity, downdraw consecutives to changes in basal sliding or subglacial drainage, which are important to observe to characterize the impulse response of glaciers to climate perturbations. DESDynI promises important discoveries and new science advances that are not possible with existing and planned InSAR missions. These advances will be a pillar for the development of more realistic numerical ice sheet models capable of realistic predictions of their evolution in a continously warming climate. This work was performed at Caltech

  20. Opiniões e atitudes em relação à sexualidade: pesquisa de âmbito nacional, Brasil 2005 Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, 2005

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    Vera Paiva

    2008-06-01

    à discriminação das minorias homossexuais. A formulação de políticas laicas dedicadas à sexualidade permitirá o diálogo entre diferentes perspectivas.OBJECTIVE: To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population. METHODS: A population survey was carried out in 2005 on a representative sample of 5,040 interviewees. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out in 1998, when possible. RESULTS: Most interviewees selected the "sex is evidence of love" option when describing the meaning of sex. As in 1998, the majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage (63.9% for women vs. 52.4% for men initiation; results differed among religions. School teenage education on the use of condoms was supported by 97% of the interviewees across all social groups. The proportion of Brazilians who agreed with having access to condoms in health services (95% and at school (83.6% was high. Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, in 2005, in the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the 1998 survey. The younger generations tend to be more tolerant and equalitarian. CONCLUSIONS: As observed in other countries, this study confirms the difficulty in establishing a single dimension that guides sexual life ("liberal" vs "conservative". The study suggests that the normativity concerning sexual activity should be understood in the light of the local culture and social organization of sexuality, considered by the STD/Aids programs. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and

  1. Housing Policy. A Critical Analysis on the Brazilian Experience

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    Paulo Nascimento Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has revealed significant advancements on social housing in Brazil. Along with the implementation of the National Housing Policy (2004, the National Housing System (2005, and the National Housing Plan (2008, a consistent model to face the Brazilian housing deficiency was created. The prime period of the actions and resources taken by the various government levels and private agents took place during the implementation of Minha Casa Minha Vida [My Home My Life] program (PMCMV, whose goal was to build a million houses. Based on the outlined context, this paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between National Housing Policy and PMCMV, discussing its implications on housing outlook in the country. A bibliographical and documentary research showed theoretical and conceptual unbalance between these two policies, allowing speculation on the prevalence of the economic component over the social one.

  2. Flexible Structural-Health-Monitoring Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kuo, Fuo

    2008-01-01

    A generic design for a type of flexible structural-health-monitoring sheet with multiple sensor/actuator types and a method of manufacturing such sheets has been developed. A sheet of this type contains an array of sensing and/or actuation elements, associated wires, and any other associated circuit elements incorporated into various flexible layers on a thin, flexible substrate. The sheet can be affixed to a structure so that the array of sensing and/or actuation elements can be used to analyze the structure in accordance with structural-health-monitoring techniques. Alternatively, the sheet can be designed to be incorporated into the body of the structure, especially if the structure is made of a composite material. Customarily, structural-health monitoring is accomplished by use of sensors and actuators arrayed at various locations on a structure. In contrast, a sheet of the present type can contain an entire sensor/actuator array, making it unnecessary to install each sensor and actuator individually on or in a structure. Sensors of different types such as piezoelectric and fiber-optic can be embedded in the sheet to form a hybrid sensor network. Similarly, the traces for electric communication can be deposited on one or two layers as required, and an entirely separate layer can be employed to shield the sensor elements and traces.

  3. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  4. Análise do conteúdo das leishmanioses em livros didáticos de ciências e biologia indicados pelo Programa Nacional de Livros Didáticos (2008/2009 An analysis on the content of the Leishmaniasis in science and biology books indicated by the Brazilian Didatic Book National Program (2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Helena de França

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se análise do conteúdo das leishmanioses em livros didáticos de ciências e biologia, indicados pelo Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD/2008 e PNLEM/2009. Os critérios de análise reportaram aos seguintes temas: compromisso social, relação entre saúde e ambiente, qualidade científica, correção dos conceitos e ilustrações. Foram analisados sete dos 13 livros de ciências indicados pelo PNLD/2008 e todos os nove livros de biologia do PNLEM/2009; esses foram adotados em escolas públicas brasileiras no período letivo de 2008 a 2011. Todos os livros apresentaram incorreções científicas, linguagem descontextualizada e lacunas de informação, desfavorecendo a construção do conhecimento e não estabelecendo relações com aspectos históricos, socioculturais e econômicos associados às doenças. Tais constatações, somadas a achados semelhantes na literatura, levam à proposição de que o tema saúde deveria ter tratamento em separado, constituindo-se como volume específico, considerando a sua transversalidade e potencial para estabelecer diálogos para uma formação cidadã.The content related to Leishmaniasis in science and biology textbooks indicated by the Brazilian Didactic Book National Program - PNLD/2008 and PNLEM/2009 - was analyzed. The analysis criteria reported to the social commitment, to the relation between health and environment, to the scientific quality, to the correction of concepts and illustrations. Seven of the 13 science books indicated by the PNLD/2008 and all of the nine PNLEM/2009 biology books were analyzed; these were adopted in Brazilian public schools from 2008 to 2011. All books presented scientific inaccuracies, decontextualized language and information gaps, making it unfavorable for teachers and students to construct the knowledge and establish relationships with historical, sociocultural and economic issues related to the diseases analyzed. These findings associated with

  5. Dor dentária e fatores associados em adolescentes brasileiros: a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, Brasil, 2009 Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE, Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência da dor de dente em adolescentes brasileiros e analisar fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais associados, utilizando os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE de 2009. A pesquisa foi realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e pelo Ministério da Saúde em escolares com idades entre 11 e 17 anos ou mais, das 27 capitais brasileiras, por meio de questionário autoaplicável. Utilizou-se a análise de regressão de Poisson, segundo um modelo hierárquico de determinação. A prevalência de dor na amostra (n = 54.985 nos últimos seis meses foi de 17,8% (IC95%: 17,5-18,1. Prevalências mais elevadas foram encontradas em mulheres, naqueles com 14 anos ou mais, das raças preta, parda e indígena, de escolas públicas, cujas mães tinham baixa escolaridade, que não moravam com a mãe, que haviam experimentado cigarro e álcool alguma vez na vida, que relataram menor frequência de escovação e maior consumo de guloseimas e refrigerantes. A prevalência de dor foi considerável e associada a aspectos sociodemográficos e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE, Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985 in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1. Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal

  6. Constituição, federação e propostas para o novo Plano Nacional de Educação: análise das propostas de organização nacional da educação brasileira a partir do regime de colaboração Constitution, federation and proposals for the new National Plan for Education: an analysis of the proposed national organization of the Brazilian education system based on collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Cardoso De Araujo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar a relação entre o processo de inclusão do município, como ente federado com competência para constituir sistemas próprios de ensino em regime de colaboração, e as propostas de construção do Sistema Nacional de Educação dos documentos que serviram de referência à CONAE para a elaboração no novo Plano Nacional de Educação. Buscamos conceituar e contextualizar o regime de colaboração, a partir do princípio da subsidiariedade, a fim de demonstrar as várias inconsistências nas propostas apresentadas nos documentos. As conclusões indicam a incoerência, a imprecisão e a inconsistência quanto à prescrição do regime de colaboração para a educação, o que pode resultar em mais um imbróglio no já suficientemente complexo arranjo federativo brasileiro.This paper analyzes the relationship between the process that turns municipalities into federal entities qualified to establish their own education systems based on collaboration and the proposals to build a National Education System contained in the documents used at CONAE to work out the new National Plan for Education. Based on the principle of subsidiarity, it seeks to conceptualize and contextualize collaboration to unveil the various inconsistencies of such proposals. Results point out inconsistency, inaccuracy and incoherence as for the prescription of collaboration in education, which can result in an imbroglio over the already sufficiently complex Brazilian federal arrangement.

  7. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  8. [Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Moura de Araújo, Maria; Rea, Marina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Karina Aragão; de Abreu Soares Schmitz, Bethsáida

    2006-06-01

    To assess the advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods from 1988 to 2002, comparing the different texts with each other and with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. This was a descriptive study based on data collected from documents, reports, ordinances and resolutions from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The versions utilized in the comparison were from 1992 and 2002. Comparative analysis made it possible to identify important advances in the legislation. In 1992, liquid and powdered milk were included in the scope, along with teats and dummies (pacifiers), and also warning phrases in advertising and on product labeling. In 2002, regulations for products were published by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance, thereby strengthening supervisory actions and including regulations for baby foods, nutrient formulae for high-risk newborns, and nipple protectors. The phrases used in commercial advertising and on product labeling, including dummies, teats and bottles, became Ministry of Health warnings. The labeling was defined according to product types, on the basis of more restrictive rules. Significant modifications in the control over the marketing of products aimed at mothers during the lactation period. However, there are still some legislative questions that would make it possible to improve the Brazilian norm, in order to protect breastfeeding. There is also a need for the government to implement systematic monitoring routines to supervise this legislation.

  9. Amateur filmmaking in the history of Brazilian cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Silva Foster

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As in many national cinemas, the history of Brazilian amateur film is still in its early stages of investigation. In addition to this historiographical deficit, there are many ways in which amateur cinema is a small and less visible production: films shot in 16mm, 9.5mm and Super 8 are dispensable and Brazilian film archives and cinemateques only started cataloguing these materials in recent years. In the following paper we wish to establish a set of theoretic and historical guidelines to analyse amateur films that express different forms of amateur production. Through the collection of home movies from Alves de Lima family deposited at Cinemateca Brasileira (São Paulo, the amateur fictional films from Cinemateca Capitólio (Porto Alegre and Raymond Chauvin's  experimental films belonging to Hipólito José da Costa Communications Museum (Porto Alegre we want to give visibility to films that are not yet part of Brazilian cinema history.

  10. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Tavares, Noêmia Urruth Leão; Nascimento, José Miguel do; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Costa, Ediná Alves; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Álvares, Juliana; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Karen Sarmento

    2017-11-13

    To evaluate patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study on a representative sample from the five Brazilian geopolitical regions resulting from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). The outcome was the patient's satisfaction, obtained using the item response theory. Associations were tested using Pearson's Chi-square test with sociodemographic and health variables, and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to verify the adequacy of the final model. Logistic regression results were presented as odds ratio. The overall percentage of patients satisfied with these services was 58.4% (95%CI 54.4-62.3). The "opportunity/convenience" aspect had the lowest satisfaction percentage (49.5%; 95%CI 46.4-52.6) and "interpersonal aspects," the highest percentage (90.5%; 95%CI 88.9-91.8), significantly higher than other aspects. Sex, age group, limitations due to disease, and self-perception of health remained associated in the final multiple logistic model regarding general satisfaction. Most of the interviewed users were satisfied with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, and the satisfaction with the customer's service was determinant in the patient's overall satisfaction.

  11. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

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    João Gabriel Silva Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors, as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI. Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1% had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23, with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56, that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34, whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10 and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status.

  12. Light sheet microscopy in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Raju; Khairy, Khaled; Keller, Philipp J

    2013-01-01

    Light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is emerging as a powerful imaging technique for the life sciences. LSFM provides an exceptionally high imaging speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, low level of photo-bleaching, and good optical penetration depth. This unique combination of capabilities makes light sheet-based microscopes highly suitable for live imaging applications. Here, we provide an overview of light sheet-based microscopy assays for in vitro and in vivo imaging of biological samples, including cell extracts, soft gels, and large multicellular organisms. We furthermore describe computational tools for basic image processing and data inspection.

  13. Testing of Lubricant Performance in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Friis, Kasper Leth

    2008-01-01

    difficult sheet materials such as high strength steels and stainless steels, and when the forming process itself due to high normal pressures causes substantial temperature increase in the tool/work piece interface. Higher temperatures lead to thinner lubricant films and the risk of galling, i.e. breakdown...... of the lubricant film causing pick-up of work piece material on the tool surface and scoring of subsequent work piece surfaces. The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the authors’ research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing...

  14. Guias alimentares para a população brasileira: implicações para a Política Nacional de Saúde Bucal Dietary guidelines for the Brazilian population: implications for the Brazilian National Policy on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guias alimentares são documentos que orientam sobre práticas alimentares e políticas que visam à promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças nas populações. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir os guias alimentares para a população brasileira, buscando identificar aspectos que possam subsidiar as estratégias propostas na Política Nacional de Saúde Bucal. Foram revisados os dois guias oficiais do Ministério da Saúde disponíveis até o momento: o Guia Alimentar para Crianças Menores de 2 Anos e o Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. Os guias apresentam recomendações sobre a redução do consumo de açúcar, fundamental na prevenção da cárie, bem como outras diretrizes que podem contribuir para a prevenção da erosão dentária e do câncer bucal. Constituem, assim, um componente importante da estratégia de promoção da saúde geral e bucal, e as recomendações devem ser integradas à Política Nacional de Saúde Bucal.Dietary guidelines are intended to orient dietary habits and policies for health promotion and disease prevention. This article discusses Brazil's national dietary guidelines, aiming to identify issues that can support the strategies proposed by the National Policy on Oral Health. The two currently available official guidelines produced by the Ministry of Health were reviewed: the Dietary Guidelines for Children under Two and the Population Dietary Guidelines. The guidelines recommend reduction in sugar intake, essential for caries prevention, and other measures to prevent tooth decay and oral cancer. These guidelines are thus a key part of an oral and overall health promotion strategy and should be integrated into the National Policy on Oral Health.

  15. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  16. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

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    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  17. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

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    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Management of pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Areda, Camila Alves; Galato, Dayani; Oliveira, Aline Gomes de; Álvares, Juliana; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To identify limiting factors in the management of pharmaceutical services in the primary health care provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This study was based on the data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), and it was conducted by interviews with professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, in 2015. To identify the management limiting factors, we considered the organizational, operational, and sustainability indicators of the management. For the analyses, we included the weights and structure of analysis plan for complex samples. The results were expressed by frequencies and measures of central tendency with 95% confidence interval, considering the Brazilian geographic regions. We identified the following limiting factors: lack of pharmaceutical services in the Municipal Health Secretariat organization chart (24%) and in the health plan (18%); lack of participation of managers in the Health Board and the absence of reference to this topic in the agenda of meetings (58.4%); lack of financial autonomy (61.5%) and lack of knowledge on the available values (81.7%); lack of adoption of operational procedures (about 50%) for selection, scheduling, and acquisition; and the fact that most professionals evaluate the organization of pharmaceutical services as good and great (58.8%), despite the worrisome indicators. Pharmaceutical services management is currently supported by a legal and political framework that should guide and contribute to improve the pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian Unified Health System primary health care. However, there is a mismatch between the goals established by these guidelines and what is actually happening.

  20. New Legislation in Brazilian Music Education: Studying the Law and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Dwight; Kamil, Marilia

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, Brazilian legislators approved a law that added music on a mandatory basis to the basic national school curriculum. Despite the possibilities afforded by this legislation, music educators affirm that many questions remain due to its ambiguity. Given the 2012 deadline for the implementation of this law, there is a need to understand how it…

  1. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes,PR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods ...

  2. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  3. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  4. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  5. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  6. Geometry of Thin Nematic Elastomer Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2014-12-01

    A thin sheet of nematic elastomer attains 3D configurations depending on the nematic director field upon heating. In this Letter, we describe the intrinsic geometry of such a sheet and derive an expression for the metric induced by general nematic director fields. Furthermore, we investigate the reverse problem of constructing a director field that induces a specified 2D geometry. We provide an explicit recipe for how to construct any surface of revolution using this method. Finally, we show that by inscribing a director field gradient across the sheet's thickness, one can obtain a nontrivial hyperbolic reference curvature tensor, which together with the prescription of a reference metric allows dictation of actual configurations for a thin sheet of nematic elastomer.

  7. The microbiome of glaciers and ice sheets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandre M Anesio; Stefanie Lutz; Nathan A M Chrismas; Liane G Benning

    2017-01-01

    .... Habitats on glaciers and ice sheets with enough liquid water to sustain microbial activity include snow, surface ice, cryoconite holes, englacial systems and the interface between ice and overridden rock/soil...

  8. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  9. Photothermally reprogrammable buckling of nanocomposite gel sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Adam W; Evans, Arthur A; Na, Jun-Hee; Hayward, Ryan C

    2015-04-27

    Patterning deformation within the plane of thin elastic sheets represents a powerful tool for the definition of complex and stimuli-responsive 3D buckled shapes. Previous experimental methods, however, have focused on sheets that access a limited number of shapes pre-programmed into the sheet, restricting the degree of dynamic control. Here, we demonstrate on-demand reconfigurable buckling of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPAM) hydrogel network films containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by patterned photothermal deswelling. Predictable, easily controllable, and reversible transformations from a single flat gel sheet to numerous different three-dimensional forms are shown. Importantly, the response time is limited by poroelastic mass transport, rather than photochemical switching kinetics, enabling reconfiguration of shape on timescales of several seconds, with further increases in speed possible by reducing film thickness. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Coordinated Specialty Care Fact Sheet and Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checklist Share Coordinated Specialty Care Fact Sheet and Checklist Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... webpage: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/raise . CSC Checklist If you are interested in a CSC program, ...

  11. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Coliform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about coliform bacteria. Including sections about what coliform bacteria is, how it enters drinking water, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, and how to treat drinking water that contains coliforms.

  12. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  13. Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal was reviewed on theoretical researches, forming experiments, numerical simulations and material performance studies of formed sheets. Considering the pre-bending platforms that used in the forming experiments can only work on few simple pre-bending types and small sized sheet metals, a large and flexible pre-bending platform was developed by authors. Experiments were done on this platform. The results of experiments showed that different pre-bending types lead to bending sheet metals into different curved shapes and large sized structure components of flight vehicles can be formed using this process. Based on the current research status, further developments and challenges of this process are discussed.

  14. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  15. Brazilian program on science, technology and innovation for hydrogen economy - ProH{sub 2}; Programa brasileiro de ciencia, tecnologia e inovacao para a economia do hidrogenio - ProH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Filho, Adriano

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents in a generic way the Brazilian Program of Science, Technology and Innovation for the economy of hydrogen - ProH{sub 2}, comprehending the following global objectives: consolidation of a brazilian technology of the fuel cell and hydrogen production from renewable energies, in particular the ethanol; technological and scientific innovation resulting in the cost reduction according to the brazilian reality; obtention of stationary power modules with the greatest possible nationalization index; clean and distributed energy generation.

  16. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  17. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  18. Tearing Instability of a Current Sheet Forming by Sheared Incompressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth; Loureiro, Nuno; Uzdensky, Dmitri

    2017-10-01

    Sweet-Parker current sheets are unstable to the tearing mode, suggesting they will not form in physical systems. Understanding magnetic reconnection thus requires study of the stability of a current sheet as it forms. Such formation can occur as a result of sheared, sub-Alfvénic incompressible flows into and along the sheet. This work presents an analysis of how tearing perturbations behave in a current sheet forming under the influence of such flows, beginning with a phase when the growth rate of the tearing mode is small and the behavior of perturbations is primarily governed by ideal MHD. Later, after the tearing growth rate becomes significant relative to the time scale of the driving flows, the flows cause a slight reduction in the tearing growth rate and wave vector of the dominant mode. Once the tearing mode enters the nonlinear regime, the flows accelerate the tearing growth slightly; during X-point collapse, the flows have negligible effect on the system behavior. This analysis allows greater understanding of reconnection in evolving systems and increases confidence in the application of tools developed in time-independent current sheets to changing current sheets. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

  19. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests ...

  20. Shape change in mouthguard sheets during thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Satoh, Yoshihide; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify changes in sheet shape during thermoforming and the effect of the model position in the molding machine on fabricated mouthguard thickness. Ethylene vinyl acetate mouthguard sheets (3.8 mm thick) were used that had cross-stripes (10 × 10 mm), and the anteroposterior and bilateral lengths were used for measurements. Two forming machines were used: a vacuum- and a pressure-forming machine, and two heating conditions were investigated that defined as the time when sagging of the softened sheet was 15 mm (H-15) and 20 mm (H-20) below the clamp, and the length of each cross-stripes was measured. The area of each lattice was calculated using Bretschneider's formula to compare changes in sheet shape for each condition. Next, mouthguards were molded by forming machine where the working model was positioned under two different conditions: with the model anterior centered in the forming unit and with the model centered. The sheet thickness after fabrication was determined for the incisal and the molar portion, and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the thickness were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (anova). In both molding machines, the change in the area under H-20 was greater than H-15. While the increase in area tended to expand from the center of the sheet in concentric circles, the difference between the central and surrounding areas was only approximately 5%. For both molding machines, differences in thickness after molding due to setting position of the model were not observed. The results showed that shape changes of the sheet during thermoforming tend to concentrically and almost uniformly expand from the center and that it is important to center the sheet and the model when positioning the model in the forming unit. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preparation and transplantation of photoreceptor sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Ishida, M; Hersh, P; Sugino, I K; Zarbin, M A

    1998-06-01

    Photoreceptor (PR) transplantation may be a treatment for blindness secondary to PR degeneration. We studied different technical aspects of PR-sheet preparation. Geographic variation in the thickness of the cat PR layer (from the outer segments to the outer plexiform layer) and inner retina (width of the remainder of the retina) was studied. PR sheets (cat and human) were prepared through gelatin embedding and subsequent vibratoming or excimer laser ablation. Cat PR sheets were evaluated after transplantation. The thickness of the cat PR layer and inner retina varied in different regions. The superior central retina, including the area centralis, was thickest (PR layer: 115-123 microm, entire retina: 225-230 microm, in fixed tissue). The peripheral retina was approximately 40% thinner than the center. Fresh retina was approximately 7.9% thicker than the fixed retina. Both vibratomy and excimer laser ablation removed the inner retina, leaving a PR-layer sheet with good morphology. To produce good quality PR sheets with vibratomy, use of different gelatin concentrations (2% to 35%) at various stages of sheet preparation was crucial. To produce PR sheets of uniform thickness with excimer laser ablation, control of fluid on the retinal surface was critical. Twenty-four hours after PR transplantation surgery, donor PR cells were well oriented and in close contact with host retinal pigment epithelial cells. Gelatin supporting the transplant dissolved as early as 100 min after surgery. We confirmed and expanded the work of previous investigators and showed that cat and human PR sheets can be manufactured using vibratomy or excimer laser ablation. This preparation provides a well oriented and organized PR cell layer after transplantation.

  2. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Borges, Ana Luíza; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Santos, Marize M; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the

  3. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  4. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  5. O "descobrimento" no pensamento cinematográfico brasileiro: diálogos possíveis quanto à identidade nacional The "discovery" in the Brazilian film thought: possible dialogues on the national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Dantas Trindade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto pretende analisar uma produção fílmica de Humberto Mauro, O descobrimento do Brasil (1937, tendo como contraponto o filme de Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Como era gostoso meu francês (1970. Ambos tratam, de formas diversas e mesmo opostas, um aspecto emblemático da narrativa sobre a formação nacional: o "descobrimento" do Brasil e 253 os primeiros contatos entre colonizador e colonizado. Busco entender como tais obras dialogam com outras referências documentais, pictóricas e imagéticas para produzir seus respectivos discursos e representações sobre o que consideram a "verdadeira" identidade nacional.This paper seeks to analyze a film by Humberto Mauro, O descobrimento do Brasil (1937, with the counterpoint of the film by Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Como era gostoso meu francês (1970. Both deal, in various forms and even opposing, an emblematic aspect of the narrative on nation building: the "discovery" of Brazil and the first contacts between colonizer and colonized. I try to understand how such works converse with other reference documents, and pictorial imagery to make their representations and discourses about what they consider "true" national identity.

  6. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  7. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  8. Certification of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs): limits of the Brazilian experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Drigo, Isabel Garcia; Piketty , Marie Gabrielle; Abramovay,Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the world’s largest tropical forests. It supplies more than 80 % of Brazil’s timber production and makes this nation the second largest producer of tropical wood. The forestry sector is of major importance in terms of economic production and employment creation. However, the Brazilian Amazon is also known for its high deforestation rate and for its rather unsustainably managed timber resources, a fact which puts in the balance the long-term future of the forestr...

  9. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    presented 28 papers. The last one, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais had 3000 participants with 66 conferences and keynotes and more than 4000 papers presented. The next will happen in August 2013 in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina and is also limited to 3000 participants. Beside the national soil science meetings, in its 65 years, the Society also promoted 26 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Management and Conservation of Soil and Water, 23 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, 6 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Fertility and Soil Biology and six editions the Brazilian Simposium on Soil Education, and co-sponsored the ten editions of the Soil Classification and Correlation Meeting. In the last years it is also increasing the number of regional meetings organized by the regional nuclei. In 2011, during the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science, a new Board of Directors (known as the Council) was elected. Since then the Society is setting up a modernization process in its structures and external relations through a renewed statute and new by-laws. The Council, composed by 20 members, is developing an agenda and strategic planning for the next years that reinforces that the Society should aim to: (a) become more influent in Brazilian environmental public policies, (b) reach leadership in public soil awareness in a continental-sized country like Brazil and (c) interact more actively with other scientific societies due to the transdisciplinary nature of Soil Science, and work hard to go out of the agronomical box. At present, the society is busy with the organization of the 21st World Congress of Soil Science to happen in 2018, for the first time in Brazil. Preceding it the Society is organizing a wide range of activities and events to celebrate and call public attention to Soils, in special on the occasion of the International Year of Soils, in 2017.

  10. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  12. Uncited articles in Brazilian public health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Barbosa, Milena Maria de Araújo Lima; Oliveira, Karoline de; Quinta, Fernanda Paranhos; Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan

    2017-12-04

    Here, we describe the percentage of non-citation in Brazilian public health journals, a field that, until now, had not been investigated nationally or internationally. We analyzed articles, published between 2008 and 2012, of eight public health journals indexed in the scopus database. The percentage of non-citation differs between journals (from 5.7% to 58.1%). We identified four statistically distinct groups: História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos (58% uncited articles); Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva, Interface, and Saúde e Sociedade (32% to 37%); Ciência & Saúde Coletiva and Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia (16% to 17%); and Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública (6%). The non-citation in the first three years post-publication also varies according to journal. Four journals have shown a clear decline of non-citation: Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, and Physis. Another three (Revista de Saúde Pública, Saúde e Sociedade, and Interface) presented an oscillation in non-citation, but the rates of 2008 and 2012 are similar, with different magnitudes. In turn, the journal História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos maintains high rates of non-citation. Multidisciplinary journals attract more citation, but a comprehensive citation model still needs to be formulated and tested.

  13. Brazilian Resorts: an overall performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Bonfato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article is about resort’s operations in Brazil. The main goal was to identify the financial key performance indicators, so that it could contribute to a better comprehension about how the resorts area acts in Brazil. To achieve this goal, this study took researches which generated numbers and indicators that could establish a comparison between 2013 and 2014. The main sources were token from all resorts from the Associação Brasileira de Resorts - Resorts Brasil, as well as an interview with a renowned area professional. Other sources were token by the most important resorts books. There are actually 49 resorts which are part of the Brazilian Resorts Association-ABR/Resorts Brasil. This institution allowed the access to all its database, in which the associated resorts give numerical informations about its own performance. The resorts studied in this article were divided and studied in four big groups. The results showed that the national resorts market keeps increasing its statistics and improving its internal management processes and sales distribution. Revenues increased 6.34% in the main analysed indicator during the years of 2013 and 2014. It was also observed that beach and all inclusive resorts tend to have better results.

  14. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  15. III Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines on tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Marcus Barreto; Melo, Fernando Augusto Fiuza de; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; Cardoso, Ninarosa Calzavara; Pinheiro, Valeria Goes Ferreira; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Machado Junior, Almério; Lemos, Antonio Carlos Moreira; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Durovni, Betina; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Lima, Dinalva; Capone, Domenico; Barreira, Draurio; Matos, Eliana Dias; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; David, Fernando Cezar; Marsico, Giovanni; Afiune, Jorge Barros; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; Jamal, Leda Fátima; Telles, Maria Alice da Silva; Hirata, Mário Hiroyuki; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Cailleaux-Cesar, Michelle; Palaci, Moises; Morrone, Nelson; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Dietze, Reynaldo; Miranda, Silvana Spíndola de; Cavalcante, Solange Cesar; Nogueira, Susie Andries; Nonato, Tatiana Senna Galvão; Martire, Terezinha; Galesi, Vera Maria Nader; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle

    2009-10-01

    New scientific articles about tuberculosis (TB) are published daily worldwide. However, it is difficult for health care workers, overloaded with work, to stay abreast of the latest research findings and to discern which information can and should be used in their daily practice on assisting TB patients. The purpose of the III Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA) Guidelines on TB is to critically review the most recent national and international scientific information on TB, presenting an updated text with the most current and useful tools against TB to health care workers in our country. The III BTA Guidelines on TB have been developed by the BTA Committee on TB and the TB Work Group, based on the text of the II BTA Guidelines on TB (2004). We reviewed the following databases: LILACS (SciELO) and PubMed (Medline). The level of evidence of the cited articles was determined, and 24 recommendations on TB have been evaluated, discussed by all of the members of the BTA Committee on TB and of the TB Work Group, and highlighted. The first version of the present Guidelines was posted on the BTA website and was available for public consultation for three weeks. Comments and critiques were evaluated. The level of scientific evidence of each reference was evaluated before its acceptance for use in the final text.

  16. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 05: NEPA and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the law that requires Federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions, involve the public in the decisionmaking process, and disclose information, starting at the initial stages of planning. This fact sheet discusses when you should consider economics in the NEPA process, when to do an analysis,...

  18. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  19. Analysis of rainfall in the Brazilian semiarid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Nivaldo; Vide, Javier; Nery, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian semiarid sub region is located in the Northeast and a small part of the territory of the Southeast region of Brazil. The study area lies between latitudes 3º to 18º S and between longitudes 35° to 46° W. According to the Köppen classification, semi-arid climate BSh and BSk is dominated, and the mean annual temperatures is between 26 and 28 ºC. In total nine units are incorporated in the federation, eight Northeast and a small portion of the southeast region. The land area is 982,563.3 km² with 22,598,318 inhabitants residents, nearly 12% of the national population, divided into 1,133 municipalities. The sub region has population density of 23.06 inhabitants per km2. Northeast Brazil is characterized by precipitation variability and irregularity in its spatiotemporal distribution, which make it to be under a severe water shortage. This study is aimed to analyze the rainfall variability through anomalies for El Niño and La Niña years (severe, moderate and weak), calculation the values of the Concentration Index, and numbers of irregular rainy days. The first part is concerning in analyzing the consistency and standardization of rainfall, using R-Package CLIMATOL. The work was achieved using daily rainfall data, during the period 1970-2012, based on the 104 series long enough rainfall observatories in the Brazilian semiarid region. Study of daily rainfall events, may contribute in improving land use and regional economic development, based on the water, the source of life of living beings. Results show rainfall anomalies, especially in the strong El Niño years, such as 1983 and 1992, a large variability appears in precipitation semiarid region, especially in the northern part. This study also shows a sever precipitation variability between years. The semiarid area has years of drought and years with rainfall above the climatological average normal. The stronger are the events, the more erratic rainfall, ie intense El Niño events cause intense

  20. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  1. Recommendations on the use of biosimilars by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease--Focus on clinical evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Valderílio Feijó; Meirelles, Eduardo de Souza; Kochen, Jussara de Almeida Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cristina; Miszputen, Sender J; Teixeira, Fábio Vieira; Damião, Adérson Osmar Mourão Cintra; Kotze, Paulo Gustavo; Romiti, Ricardo; Arnone, Marcelo; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Maia, Cláudia Pires Amaral; de Carvalho, André Vicente E

    2015-09-01

    The Brazilian Societies of Rheumatology (SBR) and Dermatology (SBD), the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) and the Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (GEDIIB) gathered a group of their respective specialists on the topic of interest to discuss the most relevant issues regarding the clinical use of biosimilar medicines in Brazil. The main aim of that meeting was to prepare a document with recommendations to guide medical specialists and to help the national regulatory and policy-making agencies as concerns the authorization for marketing biosimilars used in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and ulcerative colitis. In addition to considerations on the typical differences between innovator medicines and biosimilars, the specialists established a set of seven recommendations on regulatory advances related to clinical studies, indication extrapolation, nomenclature, interchangeability, automatic substitution and pharmacovigilance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  3. Humanism and solidarity in brazilian foreign policy under Lula (2003-2010: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aurélio Pimenta de Faria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The "humanistic" or "solidarity-based" trend in the Brazilian strategy of international insertion, adopted after the rise to power of President Lula and considered innovative, consolidated the objective of prioritizing the South-South axis and can be explained by domestic, regional, and systemic reasons. This strategy was put into practice by increasing the international aid granted by Brazil, by transferring resources and technology and by the emphasis placed on conveying to partner countries some of the domestic social policies and programmes developed successfully by the Brazilian government. The aims of this paper are: (a to look at how this "humanism" and "solidarity" appeared in the discourse of the Brazilian authorities; (b to discuss the reasons for them and their logic in the national, regional, and systemic dimensions; and (c to map the initiatives adopted, the preferred partners and areas, the resources used and the intragovernmental connections necessary for their implementation.

  4. Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

  5. Review of Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal Components

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbalkar D.H

    2013-01-01

    Incremental sheet forming has demonstrated its great potential to form complex three dimensional parts without using a component specific tooling. The die-less nature in incremental forming provides competitive alternative for economically and effectively fabricating low volume functional sheet products. The process locally deforms sheet metal using a moving tool head achieving higher forming limit than those conventional sheet metal stamping process. Incremental sheet metal forming has the p...

  6. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“notaffected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMS was RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performanceimpact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.195%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and thekind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  7. EDUCATIONAL POLICY OF ETHNIC-RACIAL RELATIONS: THE SPECIFICS AND DIRECTION OF BRAZILIAN LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Fernandes Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the structure of educational policies in regards to etnic-racial relations throughout the history of Brazilian education and identify how these come to configure legislation, this article proposes to answer following question: which specific details and directions have educational policies been drawing in regards to etnic-racial issues through the Brazilian legislation? We seek, therefore, to outline the path of the characteristics of the Brazilian school educational system regarding this etnic-racial theme from the time of the colonial period to the present days, going through past Constitutions until the specific present national educational legislation on this topic: law nº 10.639/2003. Along the way, we point out the difficulties that the Afro-Brazilian population faced and faces when it comes to the interpretation of the laws and the implementation of educational policies that favor etnic-racial relations. Keywords: Educational policies; Etnic-racial Relations within Education; Brazilian Educational Legislation; Law nº 10.639/2003.

  8. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  9. Underrepresentation of women in the senior levels of Brazilian science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava V. Valentova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress, there is still a gender gap in science all over the world, especially at senior levels. Some progressive countries are recognizing the need to address barriers to gender equality in order to retain their best scientists and innovators, and ensure research excellence and social and economic returns on the investment made by taxpayers each year on training women scientists. We investigated the gender distribution of: (i the productivity scholarship (PS holders of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq, N = 13,625, (ii the members of the Brazilian Academy of Science (Academia Brasileira de Ciências, ABC, N = 899, and (iii the amount of funding awarded for top quality research (“Universal” Call of CNPq, N = 3,836, between the years of 2013 and 2014. Our findings show evidence for gender imbalances in all the studied indicators of Brazilian science. We found that female scientists were more often represented among PS holders at the lower levels of the research ranking system (2. By contrast, male scientists were more often found at higher levels (1A and 1B of PS holders, indicating the top scientific achievement, both in “Engineering, Exact Sciences, Earth Sciences”, and “Life Sciences”. This imbalance was not found in Humanities and Social Sciences. Only 14% of the ABC members were women. Humanities and Applied Social Sciences had a relatively low representation of women in the Academy (3.7% compared to Engineering, Exact and Earth Sciences: 54.9% and Life Sciences: 41.4%. Finally, female scientists obtained significantly more funding at the lower level of the research ranking system (2, whereas male scientists obtained significantly more funding at the higher levels (1A and 1B. Our results show strong evidence of a gender imbalance in Brazilian science. We hope that our findings will be used to

  10. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  11. Plasmoid Instability in Forming Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisso, L.; Lingam, M.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-12-01

    The plasmoid instability has revolutionized our understanding of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical environments. By preventing the formation of highly elongated reconnection layers, it is crucial in enabling the rapid energy conversion rates that are characteristic of many astrophysical phenomena. Most previous studies have focused on Sweet-Parker current sheets, which are unattainable in typical astrophysical systems. Here we derive a general set of scaling laws for the plasmoid instability in resistive and visco-resistive current sheets that evolve over time. Our method relies on a principle of least time that enables us to determine the properties of the reconnecting current sheet (aspect ratio and elapsed time) and the plasmoid instability (growth rate, wavenumber, inner layer width) at the end of the linear phase. After this phase the reconnecting current sheet is disrupted and fast reconnection can occur. The scaling laws of the plasmoid instability are not simple power laws, and they depend on the Lundquist number (S), the magnetic Prandtl number (P m ), the noise of the system ({\\psi }0), the characteristic rate of current sheet evolution (1/τ ), and the thinning process. We also demonstrate that previous scalings are inapplicable to the vast majority of astrophysical systems. We explore the implications of the new scaling relations in astrophysical systems such as the solar corona and the interstellar medium. In both of these systems, we show that our scaling laws yield values for the growth rate, wavenumber, and aspect ratio that are much smaller than the Sweet-Parker-based scalings.

  12. Optimal Energy Growth in Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, David; Stewart, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the possibility of transient growth in the linear perturbation of current sheets. The resistive magnetohydrodynamics operator for a background field consisting of a current sheet is non-normal, meaning that associated eigenvalues and eigenmodes can be very sensitive to perturbation. In a linear stability analysis of a tearing current sheet, we show that modes that are damped as t→ ∞ can produce transient energy growth, contributing faster growth rates and higher energy attainment (within a fixed finite time) than the unstable tearing mode found from normal-mode analysis. We determine the transient growth for tearing-stable and tearing-unstable regimes and discuss the consequences of our results for processes in the solar atmosphere, such as flares and coronal heating. Our results have significant potential impact on how fast current sheets can be disrupted. In particular, transient energy growth due to (asymptotically) damped modes may lead to accelerated current sheet thinning and, hence, a faster onset of the plasmoid instability, compared to the rate determined by the tearing mode alone.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Current Sheet Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusic, Thomas E.; Choveiri, E. Y.; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Configuration space instabilities of propagating current sheets were studied in order to better understand acceleration mechanisms in pulsed plasma thrusters. Experiments were carried out in a parallel plate accelerator with argon as propellant. Propagating current sheets were visualized using fast framing cameras with inter-frame delays ranging between 0.05 - 2 microsecond. Schlieren photography using a pulse-burst Nd:YAG laser was used to image electron density gradients in the discharge. Magnetic field probes were used to map the magnetic field topology during the evolution of the discharge. Pressure probes were used to monitor axial pressure gradients. Emission spectroscopy was used to estimate the electron temperature in the arc. The motivation for applying all of these diagnostics was to gain an understanding of what parameters influence the macroscopic stability of a propagating current sheet. Since a stable current sheet is required for any effective snowplow-type of accelerator, an understanding of the processes which can cause current sheets to break apart into filaments is essential for the design of future pulsed plasma thrusters.

  14. Ultrasonic imaging of sheet metal forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitmann-Curdes, Oliver; Hansen, Christian; Knoll, Patrick; Meier, Horst; Ermert, Helmut

    2004-04-01

    With sheet metal hydroforming, a sheet metal is formed by a liquid medium under high pressure (up to 1000 bar) and a cavity contour (die). As the exact state of forming is of interest, an ultrasonic imaging system is under development. The task is to determine the geometry of a sheet metal contour with respect to the original (before forming) and the final (die) state of the sheet metal. For this purpose, two different contour reconstruction algorithms were designed, tested and compared. With the reconstruction results it will be possible to determine the optimal distribution of transmitters and receivers in the ultrasonic transducer matrix. Experiments were conducted with one pair of transducers (unfocussed, center frequency 2 MHz) and a three axis stepper motor set-up. For each experimental set of data, the contour was reconstructed with both SAFT reconstruction algorithms. Both algorithms incorporate a priori information such as original and final contour and maximal axial dislocation of the sheet metal. The results for both algorithms are compared and the relative mean error in axial direction is 0.30% and 0.48%.

  15. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  16. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  17. Brazilian guidelines for biorepositories and biobanks of human biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marodin, Gabriela; Salgueiro, Jennifer Braathen; Motta, Márcia da Luz; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the participatory and democratic creation of the Brazilian guidelines for biorepositories and biobanks of human biological material with the purpose of research based on the ethical principles of human dignity, autonomy, beneficence, justice, and precaution. An interdisciplinary work group was constituted to prepare the document, considering the following criteria: experience in biobank operation, regional representation, type of stored biological material, and bioethics specialists. Members of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA), also participated due to their regulatory competence. Members from the National Commission on Ethics in Research (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa - Conep) participated as the social control organization. The document, based on ethical, legal, and technical guidelines, presents the concepts, activities, purposes, and differences between biorepositories and biobanks; forms of consent on the part of the subject; in addition to other aspects permeated by concerns regarding the appropriate use of information. The Brazilian guidelines for biorepository and biobank of human biological material with the purpose of research contains 39 articles, which are distributed in five chapters. The importance of legislation arises from the ethical concern, considering morals and taking into account the legal aspects, which translate into a document that does not end in itself. The dynamics of science always leads to changes in paradigms, which can go beyond the existing laws.

  18. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  19. Internal structure of the geomagnetic neutral sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, K.; Ness, N. F.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the internal structure of the neutral sheet in the geomagnetic tail has been made from data obtained by the NASA-GSFC magnetic-field experiment on the Explorer 34 spacecraft during its tail passage in the first half of 1968. The data used in the analysis are individual measurements of the vector magnetic field at 2.56-sec intervals. The experimental results consist of statistical studies of relevant properties of the magnetic field as a function of field magnitude. The results do not support nearly one-dimensional field models with characteristic lengths for field variation parallel to the neutral sheet much larger than the neutral-sheet width. The principal conclusion from the data points toward consistency with a quasi-periodic (possibly turbulent) structure with a tendency to formation of magnetic loops as one might expect from stability studies.

  20. Nonlinear current sheet formation in ideal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, A.; Schindler, K.; Otto, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the formation of current sheets in ideal plasmas. First we confirm the development of singular current sheets in a one-dimensional model. In a second step we extend the analysis to two-dimensional equilibria. Here it is found that the resulting structures are quiet insensitive to the boundary conditions. For the special case of a magnetotail like equilibrium it will be shown that the resulting current distribution provides a possibility to understand the onset of a localized anomalous resistivity from a macroscopic point of view. Furthermore, the resulting structures provide an explanation for the dramatic decrease of the thickness of the current sheet in the magnetotail prior to the onset of geomagnetic substorms.