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Sample records for brazilian natal multimistura

  1. Cyanic acid, Phytic acid, total tannin and aflatoxin contents of a Brazilian (Natal multimistura preparation Conteúdos de ácido cianídrico, ácido fítico, tanino total e aflatoxina em uma preparação brasileira (Natal de multimistura

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    Francisca Sônia CÂMARA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of a "multimistura" as food supplement, in nutritional improvement programs for the low-income population in Brazil, represents a low-cost and easy-to-use food preparation alternative, presentig reasonable nutritive value and satisfying local taste preferences. This is based on the fact that the "multimistura" is made up of non-conventional ingredients/foods and of agroindustrial by-products, rich in different nutrients. This paper was designed to determine some toxic and/or antinutritional factors of a "Multimistura" utilized as food supplement in institutional programs to prevent malnutrition by the Department of Welfare and Social Affairs of the City of Natal, RN. The product studied had the following formulation: 30% of wheat bran; 30% of wheat flour; 30% of corn meal; 3% of powder from cassava leaves; 4% of pumpkin seeds powder; and 3% of eggshell powder. The analysis of the main toxic and/or antinutritional factors showed very low concentrations of phytates and tannins and no detectable levels of aflatoxin and cyanic acid.O uso da "multimistura" como suplemento alimentar, em programas de intervenção nutricional para populações brasileiras carentes, vem se apresentando como uma alternativa alimentar de valor nutritivo razoável, baixo custo, preparo rápido e paladar regionalizado. Isto resulta do fato desta ser constituída principalmente de alimentos não convencionais e/ou subprodutos agro-industriais ricos em diferentes nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo dosar alguns fatores tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais de uma "multimistura" utilizada como suplemento alimentar em programas institucionais no combate à desnutrição da Secretaria Municipal de Promoção Social da cidade de Natal. O produto analisado tinha a seguinte formulação: 30% de farelo de trigo; 30% de farinha de trigo; 30% de fubá de milho; 3% de pó de folha de mandioca; 4% de pó de semente de jerimum; 3% de pó de casca de ovo. As an

  2. Efetividade da "multimistura" como suplemento de dietas deficientes em vitaminas e/ou minerais na recuperação ponderal de ratos submetidos à desnutrição pós-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Haroldo da Silva; Assunção,Monica Lopes de; França,Adijane Oliveira Santos de; Cardoso,Eliana Paiva Cunha; Moura,Fabiana Andréa

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da "multimistura", usada como suplemento de dietas deficientes em vitaminas, deficientes em minerais, ou deficientes em vitaminas e minerais, na recuperação ponderal de ratos desnutridos. MÉTODOS: Após o desmame, 56 ratos Wistar, submetidos à desnutrição pós-natal, foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 7 grupos diferenciados segundo o tipo de dieta oferecida: controle, dietas deficientes em vitaminas, deficientes em minerais, deficientes em vitaminas e minerais ...

  3. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

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    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  4. Conteúdo de minerais dos ingredientes e da multimistura Mineral content of ingredients and multimixture

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    Celma de Oliveira Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o conteúdo de minerais dos ingredientes e da multimistura, produzida e comercializada em Teresina-PI e avaliar a composição mineral da multimistura, relacionando-a com a ingestão diária recomendada (IDR. As amostras estudadas foram multimistura, pó da folha de macaxeira, farelo de arroz, farelo de trigo, farinha de trigo e fubá de milho. Os minerais Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, Na e P foram determinados usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada por meio de médias e desvios padrão. As amostras apresentaram baixos teores para a maioria dos minerais analisados, com exceção dos ingredientes farelo de trigo e farinha de trigo. Em especial, observou-se que a multimistura não atingiu o mínimo necessário de 25% do valor diário (VD, para ser considerada complemento nutricional pelo Ministério da Saúde, para os minerais analisados, com exceção do Mn e Mg. Concluiu-se que não existe uma padronização nas quantidades dos ingredientes no preparo da multimistura e que os teores dos minerais não atendem às recomendações diárias necessárias para crianças.The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral content of ingredients and multimixture produced and commercialized in Teresina-PI/Brazil and evaluate the mineral composition in relation to the dietary reference intakes (DRI. The studied samples were multimixture, cassava leaf powder, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat flour and corn flour. The minerals Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, Na and P were determined using the atomic emission spectrometry (ICP OES. The statistics analysis of the data was carried out by mean and standard deviations. The samples had low levels in most of the analyzed minerals, except for wheat bran and wheat flour. In particular, it was observed that the multimixture did not reach the minimum of 25% of the

  5. Determinação da composição mineral de diferentes formulações de multimistura Measurement of the mineral composition of various "multimistura" formulations

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    Vanessa Elias Vizeu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimistura como um produto, vem sendo largamente difundida no Brasil, sendo sistematizada, primeiramente pela Drª. Clara Brandão e implementada pela Pastoral da Criança da CNBB, associada as suas ações na área de atenção básica à saúde. Sua formulação varia de acordo com a disponibilidade local dos ingredientes, mas basicamente é composta de alimentos não convencionais na dieta habitual, entre eles os farelos, pó de casca de ovo, folhas verde-escuras e sementes. É um produto considerado como complemento nutricional, visando suprir deficiências nutricionais, principalmente em crianças desnutridas. No entanto, a biodisponibilidade de seus nutrientes e presença de fatores antinutricionais têm gerado polêmica e oferecido restrições ao seu emprego como tal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn de diferentes formulações de multimistura, visando conhecer o seu perfil como complemento nutricional de minerais, para crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. Diante dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o teor de cinzas (resíduo mineral fixo em 80% das amostras analisadas estavam abaixo do valor mínimo preconizado no Regulamento Técnico para Fixação de Identidade e Qualidade de Mistura à Base de Farelos de Cereais e que a dose recomendada de multimistura, para essa faixa etária, não atinge o valor percentual da IDR que a qualificaria como complemento nutricional para esses minerais.The "multimistura" is a broad distributed product in Brazil, first formulated by Dr. Clara Brandão and introduced by the CNBB (National Conference of Brazil Bishops, Children Pastoral as part of its activities in the health basic attention area. Its formula varies according to local ingredient availability but basically is compounded by non-conventional habitual diet kinds of food, among them are bran, egg shelf powder, dark green leaves and nuts and seeds. It is considered as a

  6. Determinação da composição mineral de diferentes formulações de multimistura Measurement of the mineral composition of various "multimistura" formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Elias Vizeu; Márcia Barreto S. Feijó; Reinaldo Calixto de Campos

    2005-01-01

    A multimistura como um produto, vem sendo largamente difundida no Brasil, sendo sistematizada, primeiramente pela Drª. Clara Brandão e implementada pela Pastoral da Criança da CNBB, associada as suas ações na área de atenção básica à saúde. Sua formulação varia de acordo com a disponibilidade local dos ingredientes, mas basicamente é composta de alimentos não convencionais na dieta habitual, entre eles os farelos, pó de casca de ovo, folhas verde-escuras e sementes. É um produto considerado c...

  7. Realidades em disputa: a proposição da prática alimentar da multimistura | Realities in dispute: a proposition of "multimixture" nutrition practices

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    Ivan da Costa Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A história da proposição da prática alimentar da multimistura está fortemente marcada pelo seu (desencontro com os conhecimentos científicos, especialmente com os conhecimentos científicos sobre a nutrição. O embate entre os nutricionistas e os defensores da multimistura vem sendo travado, principalmente a partir do começo da década de 1990, quando a multimistura chegou a adquirir os contornos de um programa governamental para a alimentação infantil no Brasil. Ofereço três histórias desse (desencontro. Cada uma dessas histórias habita o universo sócio-político-econômico-cognitivo da nutrição infantil com entidades que se apresentam como de naturezas diferentes em disputa pela realidade da alimentação infantil no Brasil. Palavras-chave multimistura, ciência, política, nutrição, história Abstract The history of the proposition of multimixture as a practice of nourishment is marked by its confrontation with scientific knowledge, especially about nutrition. Since the beginning of the 1990s, when multimixture was about to configure a governmental program to fight malnutrition among poor children, fierce disputes have arisen between nutritionists and supporters of the use of multimixture. I tell three stories about these disputes. Each of these three stories inhabits the cognitive economic-political-social universe of infant nutrition with entities that present themselves as of different natures disputing reality in infant nutrition in Brazil. Keywords multimistura, science, policy, nutrition, history

  8. Avaliação protéica de uma nova multimistura com base no milho QPM BR 473 Protein evaluation of a nutritional supplement based on QPM BR 473 maize

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    Enara Cristina Silva Glória

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A multimistura tem sido utilizada no Brasil pela Pastoral da Criança, em parceria com governos municipais, a fim de reduzir a desnutrição infantil. Não obstante, a eficácia deste suplemento tem sido constantemente arguida, devido à possível presença de fatores antinutricionais. No presente trabalho descrevemos a avaliação biológica de um suplemento contendo milho QPM BR473. Trinta e seis ratos Wistar machos, com 21-23 dias de idade, foram divididos em seis grupos de seis animais cada e alimentados com dietas de caseína contendo multimistura pura, com QPM BR473, láctea (contendo leite em pó, láctea contendo QPM BR473 ou a multimistura proposta (contendo QPM BR473, farinhas de aveia, soja e banana e açúcar mascavo. Mediu-se a Retenção Protéica Líquida. A condição microbiológica dos suplementos e seu custo foram também determinados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o QPM BR473 pode ser usado em suplementos nutricionais, com alto valor nutritivo, expresso por sua qualidade protéica, e com baixa relação custo/benefício.Nutritional supplements, known as "multimisturas", prepared with low cost ingredients have been distributed in Brazil by municipal governments, in partnership with non-governmental organizations, in order to reduce infant malnutrition. Nevertheless the efficacy of these supplements has been constantly argued, due to the possible presence of anti-nutritional factors. The present work describes the biological evaluation of a supplement containing Quality Protein Maize BR 473. Thirty six 21-23-day old male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. The groups were fed casein diets, each containing respectively: "multimistura", "multimistura" with QPM BR 473, "multimistura" with powdered milk, "multimistura" with powderedmilk and QPM BR 473 or the proposed new supplement (containing QPM BR 473 flour, oat meal, soybean flour, brown sugar and banana meal. Net protein retention was measured

  9. REBATIMENTOS EM NATAL, BRASIL

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    Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la gestión de los residuos sólidos en Brasil y sus implicaciones en la ciudad de Natal/ RN, analizando sus aspectos ambientales, económicos y sociales. El fracaso del programa oficial de recogi - da selectiva constatado en las bajas tasas de recuperación de materiales; la poca relevancia de la inclusión socioeconómica de los trabajadores que participan en el programa asistencialista oficial; la inexistencia de estrategias oficiales para que se disminuya la cantidad de residuos que se generan cada día y el aumento exagerado del gasto público, especialmente con el tratamiento de los residuos en el relleno sanitario, demues - tran que la gestión de residuos en Natal, que tiene como parámetro los dictámenes de la Política Brasileña para los Residuos Sólidos, tiene como objetivo el control de los residuos en la ciudad y la consolidación del modelo de tratamiento finalista de residuos mediante el envío de éstos al relleno sanitario.

  10. Monitoramento do processo de assistência pré-natal entre as usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde em município do Sudeste brasileiro Monitoring the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in a city of the Brazilian Southeast

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    Tadeu Coutinho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a evolução da adequação do processo de atendimento às gestantes usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e consolidar metodologia para monitoramento da assistência pré-natal. MÉTODOS: estudo de séries temporais múltiplas, com auditoria em cartões de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em município do Sudeste brasileiro (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais nos semestres iniciais de 2002 e 2004 (370 e 1.200 cartões, respectivamente e utilizaram o SUS no atendimento ao parto a termo (p PURPOSE: to evaluate the evolution of adequacy of the care process among pregnant users of the Brazilian Single Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese and to consolidate a methodology for monitoring the prenatal care. METHODS: this is a multiple time series study with auditing of prenatal cards of pregnant women who were attended for prenatal care in a city of the Brazilian Southeast (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais in the initial semesters of 2002 and 2004 (370 and 1,200 cards, respectively and gave birth using SUS services in term pregnancies (p < 0.05. A three complementary level sequence was respected: utilization of prenatal care (beginning and number of visits at level 1; utilization of prenatal care and obligatory clinical-obstetric procedures during prenatal visits (assessment of blood pressure (BP, weight, uterine fundal height (FH, gestational age (GA, fetal heart rate (FHR and fetal presentation at level 2; and utilization of prenatal care, obligatory clinical-obstetric procedures and basic laboratory tests, according to the Humanization Program of Prenatal Care and Birth (PHPN, acronym in Portuguese (ABO/Rh, hemoglobin/hematocrit (Hb/Htc, VDRL, glycemia and urinalisys at level 3. RESULTS: it was confirmed the high prenatal care coverage (99%, the increased mean number of visits per pregnant woman (6.4 versus 7.2% and the decreased gestational age at the time of the first visit (17.4 versus 15.7 weeks. The proper registration of

  11. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  12. Survey of September 1987 Natal floods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, P

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available During the September 1987 floods in Natal various organisations collaborated by observing the effects of the floods. The efforts of the CSIR in Stellenbosch and Durban, and the Geology Departments of the Universities of Natal and Port Elizabeth were...

  13. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  14. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig......A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal...

  15. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

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    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  16. Natal Teeth, Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Monti, Claudia; Bravo Rivera, Lorena; Torres Chianale, Francisca; Álvarez Helle, Camila; Pérez Flores, Ma Antonieta

    2010-01-01

    Los dientes natales y neonatales deben valorarse con mucho cuidado; estimando su movilidad, integridad y la presencia de una úlcera (Riga Fede) en la superficie ventral de la lengua causada por su roce con el diente. Los dientes natales podrían parecerse a la dentición temporal normal en tamaño y forma, sin embargo, también pueden presentarse más pequeños, cónicos, con esmalte y dentina hipoplásicos, con poca formación o ausencia de sus raíces. La mayoría de estos dientes no son supernumerari...

  17. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  18. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  19. Impacto da multimistura no estado nutricional de pré-escolares matriculados em creches Impact of a dietary supplement on the nutritional status of preschool children enrolled in day care centers

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    Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação da dieta com multimistura sobre o estado nutricional de crianças em fase pré-escolar em risco nutricional. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo tipo duplo cego com duração de dois meses e acompanhamento longitudinal de 135 crianças na faixa etária de um a seis anos. As crianças foram divididas em três grupos: intervenção 1 (GI1 n=48, intervenção 2 (GI2 n=45 e controle (GC n=42, recebendo 5g e 10g de multimistura e placebo, respectivamente. O estado nutricional das crianças em estudo foi avaliado antes e após a suplementação. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa nos indicadores peso/idade, altura/idade e peso/altura entre os grupos estudados na linha base (p=0,251 p=0,248 e p=0,399, respectivamente. Após a intervenção a diferença na prevalência de déficit antropométrico entre os grupos também não foi significante (p=0,100 p=0,435 e p=0,210, respectivamente. A comparação das médias antes e depois da intervenção, igualmente, não demonstrou diferenças (p>0,05 utilizando os métodos estatísticos de Kruskall - Wallis e Análise de Variância. CONCLUSÃO: Frente ao impacto das pequenas quantidades consumidas de suplemento, no caso a mistura de farelo de cereais, não se justifica esperar alterações significativas sobre a recuperação de crianças em risco nutricional, já que esses suplementos contêm somente pequenas quantidades de calorias e de macro e micronutrientes.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a diet supplemented with a bran-based cereal mixture on the nutritional status of preschool children presenting nutritional risk. METHODS: This was a two-month double-blinded study with a longitudinal follow up using 135 children with ages ranging from one to six years old and divided into three groups: intervention 1 (GI1=48, intervention 2 (GI2 n=45 and control (CG n=42, receiving 5g and 10g of the multi-mixture and placebo

  20. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  1. New perspectives on Natal Pulses from satellite observations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available that on their journey from the Natal Bight to Port Elizabeth, Natal Pulses systematically interact with the coastal topography to generate upstream perturbations. These upstream offshore meanders occur when the trailing edge of the original Natal Figure 2. SST daily... SST which have a relatively low tem- poral resolution (daily) can also prove difficult due to the extensive and persistent cloud coverage above the Agulhas Current [Rouault et al., 2000]. [5] High�frequency data acquisitions from the geostation...

  2. Utilização da multimistura durante a lactação e seus efeitos na produção e composição do leite materno de ratas Use of multimixture during lactation and its effects on production and composition of rat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milane Souza LEITE

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A multimistura, composta por farelos, pós de folhas verdes, pós de sementes e pó da casca de ovo, vem sendo amplamente recomendada para aumentar a produção de leite materno, porém sem bases científicas que confirmem sua eficácia. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o desempenho lactacional de ratas alimentadas com dieta suplementada com 2% de multimistura (MM. Foram utilizados ratos fêmeas da linhagem Wistar lactantes com idade entre 90 e 100 dias de vida, divididos nos seguintes grupos (n=12: a à base da dieta habitual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (HERJ; b dieta HERJ suplementada com 2% de multimistura (HERJ+MM; c à base de caseína, com 12% de proteínas (CAS1; d à base de caseína, com 20% de proteínas (CAS2. Foram determinados os macronutrientes proteína, lactose e lipídios e a produção de leite. O grupo HERJ+MM apresentou a menor produção de leite (pThe addition of multimixture, composed of bran, green leaves powder, seeds powder and eggshell powder, to the population's diet has been encouraged in Brazil, as a means to increase the production of breast milk, although without scientific bases that confirm its efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lactation performance of rats receiving ad libitum diet supplemented with 2% of multimixture (MM. Female Wistar-lactating rats of 90 to 100 days of age were divided into the following groups (n=12: a fed the typical diet of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (HERJ; b HERJ diet supplemented with 2% of multimixture (HERJ+MM; c casein diet, with 12% of proteins (CAS1; d casein diet, with 20% of proteins (CAS2. Lipid, lactose and protein concentrations and milk production were determined. The HERJ+MM group presented significantly lower milk production (p<0.05 and lower lactose content. In conclusion, there was a decrease in the lactation performance of rats which received diet supplemented with 2% of multimixture.

  3. Ante-natal ionising radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This editorial comments on the latest reports of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer (now based on Birmingham). With 14759 pairs, the latest survey is over 10-fold larger than the 1958 report and the calculation of fatal childhood cancer rate at one case in 990 ante-natal radiographic examinations is rather larger than the early estimates, in spite of the fetal radiation dose having been halved and the cure rate for childhood leukemia being much improved. Comments are made on the comparisons with bomb survivors, and on the much increased fatal cancer incidence after first trimester radiography. (UK)

  4. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high degree of variation in the colour pattern of. Hyperolius argus Peters, including sexual dichromatism and a marked cline, has led to much taxonomic confusion. This. East African species extends down the Natal coastal lowlands as far south as Durban. It has been assigned to. H. punctlculatus (Pfeffer) in Natal.

  5. cooperation and conflict – the british army, the natal government

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    invasion of Natal, stand on the punishment of high treason? Martial law had .... The offensive of the British Army in Natal and the immediate results thereof. On 11 May 1900, .... also to exercise its authority and independence. In addition to the ...

  6. Development of a tool for dispelling myths associated with natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have revealed that Nigerians irrespective of social class have negative attitudes and practices towards children born with natal teeth and those who erupt teeth within the first 30 days of life. This has been associated with the strong cultural myths and beliefs that exist among the populace. Children with natal teeth ...

  7. Explaining LIGO's observations via isolated binary evolution with natal kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Daniel; Gerosa, Davide; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Gladysz, Wojciech; Berti, Emanuele; Kesden, Michael; Holz, Daniel E.

    2018-02-01

    We compare binary evolution models with different assumptions about black-hole natal kicks to the first gravitational-wave observations performed by the LIGO detectors. Our comparisons attempt to reconcile merger rate, masses, spins, and spin-orbit misalignments of all current observations with state-of-the-art formation scenarios of binary black holes formed in isolation. We estimate that black holes (BHs) should receive natal kicks at birth of the order of σ ≃200 (50 ) km /s if tidal processes do (not) realign stellar spins. Our estimate is driven by two simple factors. The natal kick dispersion σ is bounded from above because large kicks disrupt too many binaries (reducing the merger rate below the observed value). Conversely, the natal kick distribution is bounded from below because modest kicks are needed to produce a range of spin-orbit misalignments. A distribution of misalignments increases our models' compatibility with LIGO's observations, if all BHs are likely to have natal spins. Unlike related work which adopts a concrete BH natal spin prescription, we explore a range of possible BH natal spin distributions. Within the context of our models, for all of the choices of σ used here and within the context of one simple fiducial parameterized spin distribution, observations favor low BH natal spin.

  8. Natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth erupting at birth are referred to as natal teeth. It is a common and benign finding in the neonatal period. However, they may be associated with genetic syndromes like Ellis Van Creveld syndrome and Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. We report here a case of natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism.

  9. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  10. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  11. Multiple origins of charnockite in the Mesoproterozoic Natal belt, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Grantham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four different varieties of charnockitic rocks, with different modes of formation, from the Mesoproterozoic Natal belt are described and new C isotope data presented. Excellent coastal exposures in a number of quarries and river sections make this part of the Natal belt a good location for observing charnockitic field relationships. Whereas there has been much debate on genesis of charnockites and the use of the term charnockite, it is generally recognized that the stabilization of orthopyroxene relative to biotite in granitoid rocks is a function of low aH2O (± high CO2, high temperature, and composition (especially Fe/(Fe +Mg. From the Natal belt exposures, it is evident that syn-emplacement, magmatic crystallization of charnockite can arise from mantle-derived differentiated melts that are inherently hot and dry (as in the Oribi Gorge granites and Munster enderbite, as well as from wet granitic melts that have been affected through interaction with dry country rock to produce localized charnockitic marginal facies in plutons (as in the Portobello Granite. Two varieties of post-emplacement sub-solidus charnockites are also evident. These include charnockitic aureoles developed in leucocratic, biotite, garnet granite adjacent to cross-cutting enderbitic veins that are attributed to metamorphic-metasomatic processes (as in the Nicholson's Point granite, a part of the Margate Granite Suite, as well as nebulous, patchy charnockitic veins in the Margate Granite that are attributed to anatectic metamorphic processes under low-aH2O fluid conditions during a metamorphic event. These varieties of charnockite show that the required physical conditions of their genesis can be achieved through a number of geological processes, providing some important implications for the classification of charnockites, and for the interpretation of charnockite genesis in areas where poor exposure obscures field relationships.

  12. Perfil de risco gestacional e metabólico no serviço de pré-natal de maternidade pública do Nordeste do Brasil Profile of gestational and metabolic risk in the prenatal care service of a public maternity in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menezes Flores Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência dos fatores de risco gestacionais e sua associação com desfechos materno-fetais desfavoráveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, descritivo e analítico, levando em conta 204 gestantes atendidas no ambulatório de pré-natal de maternidade pública entre maio de 2007 e dezembro de 2008. Os fatores de risco incluíram aspectos sociodemográficos, antecedentes pessoais, obstétricos e familiares, índice de massa corpórea (IMC pré-gestacional elevado, excesso de ganho de peso gestacional e anemia. Desfechos adversos incluíram pré-eclâmpsia (PE, diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG, parto cesariano, prematuridade e recém-nascido (RN com peso alterado. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 26±6,4 anos, predominando as pardas (59,8%, com segundo grau completo e superior incompleto de escolaridade (51,8%, união estável (67,2% e ocupação remunerada (51,0%. A maioria foi admitida no segundo trimestre (63,7% e 16,7% no primeiro; 42,6% eram primíparas. Hipertensão arterial crônica (2,9%, pré-eclâmpsia (9,8%, excessivo ganho de peso na gestação (15,2% e diabetes mellitus gestacional (1,0% foram relatados em gestações anteriores. Na atual gestação foi encontrado IMC pré-gestacional elevado em 34,6% e ganho excessivo de peso em 45,5%, bem como anemia em 25,3% e dislipidemia em 47,3%. O rastreamento para diabetes mellitus gestacional indicado em 17,5% foi confirmado em 3,4% das mulheres. A proteína urinária elevada em amostra única ocorreu em 16,4%. Resultados materno-fetais adversos incluíram PE (4,5%, DMG (3,4%, prematuridade (4,4% e partos cesarianos (40,1%. RNs grandes para a idade gestacional (GIG somaram 9,8% e pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG, 13,8%. A análise de regressão de Poisson multivariada identificou IMC pré-gestacional elevado (>25 kg/m² como preditor independente para PE (risco relativo (RR de 17,2 e intervalo de confiança (IC 95% 2,1-137,5 e parto cesariano (RR=1,8; IC95% 1

  13. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Brookes

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified

  14. National natality and fetal mortality surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A project is described in which the Epidemiologic Studies Branch, DBE, is cooperating with the National Center for Health Statistics in a National Natality Survey and a National Fetal Mortality Survey of a sample of live births and of late fetal deaths (28 or more weeks gestation) in 1979. Questionnaires will be sent to a sample of mothers who had a live born infant or late fetal death in 1979, to hospitals in which the deliveries took place, to attending physicians, and all other possible sources of health care. The survey will provide quantitative information regarding use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, including ultrasound, during pregnancy and possible associations between radiation and late fetal mortality. Specifically the study will provide information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers and complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The physical condition of the infant at birth is also included. This is one of many health surveys conducted routinely by the NCHS under the National Health Survey program

  15. Scaling of Natal Dispersal Distances in Terrestrial Birds and Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Sutherland

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is a process that is critical in the spatial dynamics of populations, including population spread, recolonization, and gene flow. It is a central focus of conservation issues for many vertebrate species. Using data for 77 bird and 68 mammal species, we tested whether median and maximum natal dispersal distances were correlated with body mass, diet type, social system, taxonomic family, and migratory status. Body mass and diet type were found to predict both median and maximum natal dispersal distances in mammals: large species dispersed farther than small ones, and carnivorous species dispersed farther than herbivores and omnivores. Similar relationships occurred for carnivorous bird species, but not for herbivorous or omnivorous ones. Natal dispersal distances in birds or mammals were not significantly related to broad categories of social systems. Only in birds were factors such as taxonomic relatedness and migratory status correlated with natal dispersal, and then only for maximum distances. Summary properties of dispersal processes appeared to be derived from interactions among behavioral and morphological characteristics of species and from their linkages to the dynamics of resource availability in landscapes. In all the species we examined, most dispersers moved relatively short distances, and long-distance dispersal was uncommon. On the basis of these findings, we fit an empirical model based on the negative exponential distribution for calculating minimum probabilities that animals disperse particular distances from their natal areas. This model, coupled with knowledge of a species' body mass and diet type, can be used to conservatively predict dispersal distances for different species and examine possible consequences of large-scale habitat alterations on connectedness between populations. Taken together, our results can provide managers with the means to identify species vulnerable to landscape-level habitat changes

  16. Assistência pré-natal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo analisar a assistência pré-natal oferecida às gestantes usuárias de serviços de saúde públicos e/ou privados utilizando dados da pesquisa Nascer no Brasil, realizada em 2011 e 2012. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevista com a puérpera durante a internação hospitalar e dados do cartão de pré- natal. Os resultados mostram cobertura elevada da assistência pré-natal (98,7% tendo 75,8% das mulheres iniciado o pré-natal antes da 16a semana gestacional e 73,1% compareceram a seis ou mais consultas. O pré-natal foi realizado, sobretudo, em unidades básicas (89,6%, públicas (74,6%, pelo mesmo profissional (88,4%, em sua maioria médicos (75,6%, e 96% receberam o cartão de pré-natal. Um quarto das gestantes foi considerado de risco. Do total das entrevistadas, apenas 58,7% foram orientadas sobre a maternidade de referência, e 16,2% procuraram mais de um serviço para a admissão para o parto. Desafios persistem para a melhoria da qualidade dessa assistência, com a realização de procedimentos efetivos para a redução de desfechos desfavoráveis.

  17. Kajian Panjang Jalan di Kabupaten Mandailing Natal dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Perkembangan Wilayah

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Indra Husein

    2010-01-01

    Dengan terbitnya Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 12 tahun 1998 dan disahkan pada tanggal 23 Nopember 1998 tentang pembentukan Kabupaten Mandailing Natal maka Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan dimekarkan menjadi 2 Kabupaten, yaitu Kabupaten Mandailing Natal (Ibukota Panyabungan) dengan jumlah daerah Administrasi 8 Kecamatan dan Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan (Ibukotanya Padangsidimpuan) dengan jumlah daerah administrasi 16 Kecamatan. Perkembangan pembangunan kabupaten Mandailing Natal selama ± 11 ...

  18. Activity rhythms and distribution of natal dens for red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyang, Zhou; Wanhong, Wei; Biggins, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, was investigated with snow tracking, radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem, Academia Sinica, from March to September 1994. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens, activity rhythms, and home range sizes for the foxes.

  19. Magnetospheric and atmospheric physics at the University of Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical outline of geophysical work done at the University of Natal from 1938-1982 is given. Mention is also made of experimental work concerning whistlers and VLF, low-light level TV and geomagnetic pulsations. Current work on the magnetosphere, namely plasma convection in plasmasphere, auroral features, geomagnetic pulsations and the measuring of plasma properties is discussed

  20. Marine research in Natal: proceedings of a symposium and workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowmaker, AP

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A two day mini-symposium and workshop held in Durban in February 1986 and attended by 70 marine scientists from Natal and KwaZulu is reported on. Summaries of 84 presentations are given, separated into relevant sections. Each section is summarized...

  1. Safety and Security in Schools in KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. J.; Gina, J. M.; Coetzee, I. E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on research conducted on the topic: "Safety and security in schools: The case of KwaZulu-Natal." For the research project a purposive sample consisting of secondary school learners, teachers, school governing body chairpersons and principals were selected from the rural and township schools used in this study to…

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Severe snakebites in northern KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. Ngwelezana Hospital is a 500-bed hospital situated in a semi- ... delayed by up to 7 - 12 days.5,7 Test dosing with antivenom is no longer ... highest incidence was in the summer months; 46 (18.93%) patients ...

  3. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some evidence that populations of argus intergrade with semidiscus Hewitt in Natal, and the occurrence of semidiscus on the periphery of the argusrange is discussed in relation to the 'central-marginal' model of biogeographical patterning. It has not been possible to determine the relative vulnerability to habitat ...

  4. FUNCTIONALLY UNIVENTRICULAR HEARTS: IMPACT OF PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few decades the pre-natal echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart defects has made substantial progresses, particularly for the identification of complex malformation. Functionally univentricular hearts categorize a huge variety of heart malformations. Since no one of the patients with these congenital heart defects can ever undergo a bi-ventricular type of repair, early recognition and decision-making from the neonatal period are required in order to allow for appropriate multiple-step diagnostic and treatment procedures, either of interventional cardiology and/or surgery, on the pathway of univentricular heart. In the literature strong disagreements exist about the potential impact of the pre-natal diagnosis on the early and late outcomes of complex congenital heart defects. This review of the recent reports has been undertaken to better understand the impact of pre-natal diagnosis in functionally univentricular hearts taking into consideration the following topics:•pre-natal screening•outcomes and survival•general morbidity•neurologic and developmental consequences•pregnancy management and delivery planning•resources utilization and costs/benefits issues•ethical implications, parents counseling, interruption of pregnancy versus treatment

  5. Educational Leadership with an Ethics of Plurality and Natality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to impregnate the concept of educational leadership with new meanings and new possibilities. I draw on Hannah Arendt's ("The human condition." University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1958/1998) political thought, particularly, her concepts of "plurality" and "natality" alongside the distinction she made…

  6. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  7. Natal dispersal and personalities in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Both, C; van Noordwijk, AJ; Rutten, AL; Drent, PJ; Noordwijk, Arie J. van; Drent, Piet J.

    2003-01-01

    Dispersal is a major determinant of the dynamics and genetic structure of populations, and its consequences depend not only on average dispersal rates and distances, but also on the characteristics of dispersing and philopatric individuals. We investigated whether natal dispersal correlated with a

  8. Ecosystem considerations of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual winter sardine run along the South African east coast impacts the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coastal system in a variety of ways. These include ecological impacts, such as enrichment of a largely oligotrophic environment, competition between migrant sardine Sardinops sagax, other migrant and resident small ...

  9. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  10. Consequences of pre-natal radiation exposure for post-natal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    A review of revised observations on Japanese bomb survivors suggests that 10-18 weeks of pregnancy is the period of greatest sensitivity for foetal brain damage leading to severe mental retardation. Severe food deficiencies suggest a cause for the apparently high frequency of severe mental retardation in the unexposed control population and may also have contributed to the dose-dependent increase in those irradiated in utero. The author concludes that there is no confirmed evidence to suggest that the pre-implantation stage of mammalian development is unusually radiosensitive. In the human, the succeeding period of major organogenesis seems to be less sensitive and important than the following 10-18 week period of pregnancy. It is suggested that malformation (teratogenesis) should be distinguished from maldevelopment. Malformations are the result of failure of embryonic organization and ionizing radiation is not an efficient teratogen in this sense. Maldevelopment after exposure to radiation is the consequence of cell depletion of sufficient degree randomly distributed throughout an irradiated tissue. It is concluded that dose thresholds for maldevelopments are to be expected after irradiation both in pre-implantation and post-implantation stages, and that somatic mutation has a possible role as a mechanism without threshold for development damage by pre-natal irradiation, but not likely to be of practical significance. (U.K.)

  11. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the incrusting and sedentary animals associated with the hull of a tugboat active in the ports of Pernambuco and later loaned to the port of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, areas with dense biofouling were scraped and the species then classified in terms of their bioinvasive status for the Brazilian coast. Six were native to Brazil, two were cryptogenic and 16 nonindigenous; nine of the latter were classified as established (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes, Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, and Symplegma rubra and three as invasive (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus, and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The presence of M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus and A. reticulatus on the boat's hull propitiated their introduction onto the Natal coast. The occurrence of a great number of tunicate species in Natal reflected the port area's benthic diversity and facilitated the inclusion of two bivalves - Musculus lateralis and Sphenia fragilis - found in their siphons and in the interstices between colonies or individuals, respectively. The results show the role of biofouling on boat hulls in the introduction of nonindigenous species and that the port of Recife acts as a source of some species.Este trabalho objetivou identificar os animais incrustantes e sedentários associados ao casco de um rebocador que atuava nos Portos de Pernambuco e foi cedido para o Porto de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Áreas com densa bioincrustação foram raspadas e as espécies foram posteriormente classificadas em relação ao status de bioinvasão no litoral brasileiro. Dentre as espécies identificadas, seis eram nativas do Brasil, duas criptogênicas e 16 exóticas. Destas, oito foram classificadas como estabelecidas (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes

  12. Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Cawthra; Ron Uken

    2012-01-01

    We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachro...

  13. Prenatal diagnosis and perinatal outcome of 38 cases with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: 8-year experience of a tertiary Brazilian center Diagnóstico pré-natal e evolução perinatal de 38 casos de hérnia diafragmática congênita: 8 anos de experiência de um serviço terciário brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ruano

    2006-06-01

    casos de hérnia diafragmática congênita com diagnóstico pré-natal. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: De janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2003 foram revisados os dados de 38 fetos com hérnia diafragmática diagnosticada durante o período pré-natal na Unidade de Medicina Fetal do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Os dados pré-natais analisados foram: idade gestacional no diagnóstico, cariótipo fetal, lado da lesão, presença de malformação estrutural associada, herniação hepática e desvio garve de mediastino. Os dados perinatais foram avaliados consultando os prontuários médicos ou por contato telefônico. RESULTADOS: A idade gestacional média no diagnóstico foi de 29 semanas (16-37. Trinta (79% casos apresentavam lesão à esquerda e 8 (21% à direita. Malformações estruturais associadas foram observadas em 21 (55% casos, dos quais 12 fetos apresentaram cariótipo normal, enquanto 9 exibiram anomalias cromossômicas. Hérnia diafragmática isolada foi identificada em 17 (457% casos. A taxa de mortalidade geral foi de 92%. A taxa de óbito fetal, neomorto precoce, neomorto tardio e sobrevivente após 28 dias de vida foram respectivamente: (i para o grupo com malformação estrutural associada e cariótipo normal, de 42%, 50%, 0% e 8%; (ii para os casos com cromossomopatia, de 56%, 44%, 0% e 0%; (iii para os casos com lesões isoladas de 0%, 76%, 12% e 12%. Na hérnia diafragmática congênita isolada, a mortalidade neonatal foi de 88%. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso serviço, a mortalidade perinatal nos casos de hérnia diafragmática diagnosticada durante o pré-natal é muito alta. Óbitos neonatais precoces estão associados com presença de outros defeitos estruturais ou anomalias cromossômicas. Nos casos de HDC isolada, a mortalidade está relacionada à presença de fígado herniado, lado direito da lesão e desvio grave de mediastino.

  14. Composição química e eficácia da multimistura como suplemento dietético: revisão da literatura Chemical composition and efficacy of the multimixture as a dietary supplement: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Silva Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar todos os artigos já publicados sobre a multimistura (MM em revistas de maior rigor científico e avaliar a eficácia desse produto como suplemento alimentar. A metodologia baseou-se na busca on line nas bases do Medline e do Scielo, sem limite de data, utilizando-se o descritor "multimistura". Foram identificados e analisados 31 artigos. Em virtude da pequena porção que é preconizada para consumo diário, a MM não pode ser considerada uma fonte importante de energia, proteínas e minerais, embora os possua em quantidades relevantes. Sua elevada proporção de magnésio e/ou de cálcio pode prejudicar a absorção de ferro. Seu uso eleva o teor de fibras da dieta, o que pode reduzir a absorção de nutrientes, o que não é interessante no caso de criança desnutrida. Sua elevada quantidade de fitatos não parece ser problema, pois o tratamento prévio pelo qual passam os farelos reduz bastante o poder quelante desse composto. A possibilidade de intoxicação pelo cianeto oriundo da folha de mandioca não é descartada. Quanto à capacidade da MM em promover o estado nutricional, 12 dentre 15 estudos concluíram pela sua ineficácia. Considerando riscos e benefícios e as evidências disponíveis na literatura, não se justifica a utilização da MM como estratégia de prevenção e controle da desnutrição.The aim of this work was to identify all papers already published on the nutritional supplement known as multimixture (MM in journals with high level of scientific rigor and to evaluate the effectiveness of this product as a food supplement. The methodology was based on searching at Medline and Scielo databases, without limit of date, using the keyword multimixture. Thirty one articles were analyzed. Because of the small portion that is recommended for daily consumption, the MM cannot be considered an important source of energy, protein and minerals. Its high proportion of magnesium and/or calcium can impair the

  15. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  16. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ensaio randomizado sobre o impacto da multimistura no estado nutricional de crianças atendidas em escolas de educação infantil Randomized clinical trial of the impact of a nutritional supplement "multimixture" on the nutritional status of children enrolled at preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P. Gigante

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da multimistura adicionada à merenda escolar sobre o estado nutricional de crianças atendidas em escolas municipais de educação infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de intervenção, longitudinal e controlado, incluindo 24 escolas de educação infantil que foram comparadas antes e depois da intervenção. Os grupos controle e intervenção foram definidos por sorteio das escolas que haviam sido emparelhadas por situação nutricional. A intervenção consistiu em adicionar 10 g de multimistura à alimentação fornecida às crianças que freqüentavam as 12 escolas do grupo intervenção. As medidas de desfecho incluíram as diferenças de escore z dos três índices nutricionais e dos valores de hemoglobina no período de 6 meses em que a suplementação foi fornecida. Modelo multinível foi utilizado nas análises. RESULTADOS: As médias de escore z de peso por idade ao final do acompanhamento foram de 0,40 (±1,34 e 0,31 (±1,32, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle. A análise em multiníveis mostra diferenças não significativas a favor da intervenção nas médias de escore z de peso para idade (β 0,05; IC95% -0,03 a 0,12 e de estatura para idade (β 0,02; IC95% -0,06 a 0,09. A diferenηa média de hemoglobina foi contrária à intervenção, mas também não foi significativa (β -0,01; IC95% -0,36 a 0,34. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com 10 g de multimistura não mostrou efeito significativo sobre nenhuma das medidas ou índices nutricionais estudados em crianças atendidas em escolas municipais de educação infantil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of adding a nutritional supplement "multimixture" to school meals on the nutritional status of children enrolled at municipal preschools. METHODS: Longitudinal, controlled intervention study of 24 preschools which were compared before and after an intervention. The control and intervention groups were defined by drawing lots to choose schools that

  18. Avaliação da qualidade protéica de uma dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, adicionada ou não de multimistura e de pó de folha de mandioca Protein quality evaluation of a diet established in Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, added or not with multi-mixture and powder of cassava leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles BOAVENTURA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a qualidade protéica da dieta consumida por crianças desnutridas do município de Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, e adicionada da multimistura ou do pó de folha de mandioca, utilizando 48 Rattus norvergicus, Wistar, machos, com 24 dias, pesando 58,95 g, recebendo água e ração ad libitum. Na primeira fase, denominada de Desnutrição, os animais foram distribuídos em grupo controle, alimentados com ração à base de caseína, grupo Quissamã alimentados com ração à base da dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, ambos com n=8 animais, e grupo aprotéico com n=32, recebendo uma dieta isenta de proteínas durante 10 dias. Na segunda fase, denominada de Recuperação, com duração de 18 dias, o grupo central e o grupo Quissamã permaneceram recebendo a mesma ração. O grupo aprotéico foi desmembrado em grupo desnutrido controle, alimentado com a mesma ração do grupo central e grupo desnutrido Quissamã, alimentado com a mesma ração do grupo Quissamã e mais dois grupos desnutridos recebendo a ração do grupo desnutrido Quissamã adicionada com o pó de folha de mandioca (grupo desnutrido Quissamã + folha de mandioca e da multimistura (grupo desnutrido Quissamã + multimistura. Para o grupo controle e o grupo Quissamã foram determinados o Coeficiente de Eficácia Protéica e a Razão Protéica Líquida, nos quais o grupo controle mostrou diferenças significativas em relação ao grupo Quissamã que obteve Razão Protéica Líquida e Coeficiente de Eficácia Protéica relativos de 71,54% e 66,04%, respectivamente. Para os grupos desnutridos foi determinado Coeficiente de Eficácia Proteíca modificado, sendo o grupo desnutrido controle diferente significativamente dos grupo desnutrido Quissamã, grupo desnutrido Quissamã + folha de mandioca e grupo desnutrido Quissamã + multimistura que apresentaram Coeficiente de Eficácia Protéica relativo de 78,10%, 75,72% e 74,67% respectivamente. Conclui-se que a adição da

  19. Olfactory responses to natal stream water in sockeye salmon by BOLD fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Bandoh

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that juvenile salmon imprint olfactory memory of natal stream odors during downstream migration, and adults recall this stream-specific odor information to discriminate their natal stream during upstream migration for spawning. The odor information processing of the natal stream in the salmon brain, however, has not been clarified. We applied blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the odor information processing of the natal stream in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon of lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka. The strong responses to the natal stream water were mainly observed in the lateral area of dorsal telencephalon (Dl, which are homologous to the medial pallium (hippocampus in terrestrial vertebrates. Although the concentration of L-serine (1 mM in the control water was 20,000-times higher than that of total amino acid in the natal stream water (47.5 nM, the BOLD signals resulting from the natal stream water were stronger than those by L-serine in the Dl. We concluded that sockeye salmon could process the odor information of the natal stream by integrating information in the Dl area of the telencephalon.

  20. Observations of the vertical and temporal evolution of a Natal Pulse along the Eastern Agulhas Bank

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pivan, X

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available describe the evolution of a Natal Pulse along three density surfaces referred to as the surface (satellite-observed), shallow (isopycnal 1026.8 kg m-3), and deep (isopycnal 1027.2 kg m-3) layer. Our observations show that this Natal Pulse extended to a...

  1. Water temperature affects life-cycle duration of tadpoles of Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians include range shifts and changes in community structure. The Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis has an altitudinal range of some 2 400 m in KwaZulu-Natal, and presents an opportunity to assess how increased water temperatures may impact on ...

  2. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1978 and 1998, a total of 3 385 scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal. The mean annual catch was 166 sharks (range 60–279). There was a significant decrease in catch rate with time, but the relationship with the population size in KwaZulu-Natal waters ...

  3. Developing telepsychiatry services in KwaZulu-Natal – an action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In 2009, the Departments of Psychiatry and Telehealth of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) initiated a three year project to develop telepsychiatry services in KwaZulu-Natal. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities of this project. Method: This was a collaborative, in situ health service project ...

  4. Equity and Excellence: The Emergence, Consolidation and Internalization of Education Development at the University of Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Marie; Deacon, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Education development in South Africa emerged during the transition from apartheid to democracy, in a context especially marked by political and financial pressures. This case study of the University of Natal (now the University of KwaZulu-Natal) demonstrates how a strategy combining equity with excellence aimed to facilitate increased access to…

  5. Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Cawthra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachrock was cemented by micrite and aragonite, and iron oxide infilled voids. The presence of human artefacts within the deposit showed evidence for cementation within the last century. The elevation (at Mean Low Water and correlation to rates of sea level change for the east coast of South Africa showed that the beachrock is less than 72 years in age. In contrast to older local Pleistocene deposits, beachrocks have cemented along this stretch of coast during successive sea level highstands with similar climatic regimes – the last Interglacial, the Holocene High and the present. Here we report the most southerly documentation of modern beachrock in KwaZulu-Natal, which, to our knowledge, represents the youngest deposit reported in southern Africa.

  6. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  9. As origens das comemorações do Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Hollard

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available A festa de Natal (1 nem sempre foi celebrada a 25 de dezembro. Na falta de qualquer documento que registrasse o dia de nascimento de Jesus, os cristãos procuraram, a princípio, as hipóteses mais fantásticas e contraditórias. Mais tarde, já no século III, as Igrejas do Oriente passaram a comemorar a Natividade no dia da Epifania (5-6 de janeiro . Somente a partir do século IV, é que a Igreja de Roma encontrou outra data, o dia 25 de dezembro, que era a data em que se celebrava a festa do Sol, e que lentamente veio a impor-se para tôda a Cristandade.

  10. Canto pré-natal: alquimias sonoras para gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Trasel Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo irá focar no canto pré-natal; nos benefícios da música e do canto durante a gestação; na audição do feto no ventre e na escuta da gestante do seu corpo. Como metodologia para pesquisar sobre estes temas foram realizados estudos teóricos nas áreas da musicoterapia obstétrica, da terapia sonora e da medicina e também foram realizadas práticas de canto pré-natal. Arte, movimento e saúde são integrados com as alquimias sonoras para ampliar a consciência da corporeidade da mulher durante a gestação. Com cantos femininos em um círculo de mulheres, nos apoiamos e nos fortalecemos durante a gestação e enviamos vibrações sonoras harmoniosas para o bebê no ventre. ABSTRACT This article will focus on prenatal singing; on the benefits of music and singing during pregnancy; on the baby's hearing in the womb and on the listening of the pregnant woman to her body. To determine the methodology for researching these themes, theoretical studies were done in obstetrical music therapy, sound therapy, medicine and also practical research in prenatal singing classes. Art, movement and health are integrated with sound alchemy to widen the woman’s body awareness during pregnancy. With feminine chants in a circle of women, we support and strengthen ourselves during pregnancy and we send harmonious sounds vibrations to the baby in the womb. KEYWORDS Prenatal singing, prenatal music, pregnancy, listening, consciousness.

  11. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  12. The beach-seine fishery off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-23

    Jul 23, 1996 ... the mean weight of a crate of fish, mean lengths of fish caught .... or beyond the Natal Sharks Board protective shark nets. (approximately 300 m offshore). ..... Spotfin flathead. White karanteen ... Great barracuda. Yellow stripe ...

  13. Dente natal em recém-nascido pré-termo: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA, Jenifer Garcia; SARMENTO, Lilian Citty; GOMES, Ana Maria Martins; VALLE, Marly Almeida Saleme do; DADALTO, Elâine Cristina Vargas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low birth weight and prematurity may be associated with delayed dental eruption in the deciduous dentition; notwithstanding this relationship, cases of preterm newborns presenting natal or neonatal teeth have been reported in the literature, although this is a rare occurrence. The objective was to present the report of natal tooth in a preterm newborn, analyzing the uniqueness of this case in contrast to the delayed dental eruption usually observed in association with prematurity. Ca...

  14. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Catherine M F

    2008-12-09

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure.

  15. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

  16. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  17. Elena Natale ja Mikko Fritze: kultuuripealinna tiimi motivatsioon on töö ise / Elena Natale, Mikko Fritze ; intervjueerinud Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Natale, Elena

    2009-01-01

    SA Tallinn 2011 tegevjuht Mikko Fritze ja administratiivjuht Elena Natale vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti töökultuuri, , toimiva koostöö saavutamist meeskonnas, kasutatavaid motivatsiooni- ja juhtimissüsteeme, personalivalikut, majanduskriisi mõju SA Tallinn 2011 tegevusele

  18. Natal and breeding philopatry of female Steller sea lions in southeastern Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly K Hastings

    Full Text Available Information on drivers of dispersal is critical for wildlife conservation but is rare for long-lived marine mammal species with large geographic ranges. We fit multi-state mark-recapture models to resighting data of 369 known-aged Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus females marked as pups on their natal rookeries in southeastern Alaska from 1994-2005 and monitored from 2001-15. We estimated probabilities of females being first observed parous at their natal site (natal philopatry, and of not moving breeding sites among years (breeding philopatry at large (> 400 km, all five rookeries in southeastern Alaska and small (< 4 km, all islands within the largest rookery, Forrester Island Complex, F spatial scales. At the rookery scale, natal philopatry was moderately high (0.776-0.859 for most rookeries and breeding philopatry was nearly 1, with < 3% of females switching breeding rookeries between years. At more populous islands at F, natal philopatry was 0.500-0.684 versus 0.295-0.437 at less populous islands, and breeding philopatry was 0.919-0.926 versus 0.604-0.858. At both spatial scales, the probability of pupping at a non-natal site increased with population size of, and declined with distance from, the destination site. Natal philopatry of < 1 would increase gene flow, improve population resilience, and promote population recovery after decline in a heterogeneous environment. Very high breeding philopatry suggests that familiarity with neighboring females and knowledge of the breeding site (the topography of pupping sites and nearby foraging locations may be a critical component to reproductive strategies of sea lions.

  19. E.G. Jansen se rol in belang van die Afrikaners in Natal / P.J.J. Prinsloo

    OpenAIRE

    Prinsloo PJJ

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the extensive services delivered to the people in Natal by E.G. Jansen. This analysis also presents an image regarding the most important cultural achievements obtained by the Afrikaners in Natal, during the first half of the century. The necessity of this study lies in the fact that it analyses the fundamentals of the cultural awakening of the Afrikaners in Natal, during the first half of the century. The dominant British character of Natal is another ...

  20. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  1. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  2. Maternal anxiety, risk factors and parenting in the first post-natal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, M; Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Dunning, M

    2015-03-01

    The antecedents and consequences of maternal post-natal anxiety have received comparatively less attention than depression despite being one of the most frequently reported mental health difficulties experienced by parents following childbirth. The aim of this study was to extend emerging literature on post-natal anxiety by investigating the prevalence of maternal anxiety symptoms, and its relationship with parenting behaviours (i.e. warmth, hostility) and experiences (i.e. parenting efficacy and satisfaction) within the first post-natal year. The psychosocial risk factors for post-natal anxiety symptoms were also explored. A community sample of 224 Australian mothers of infants (aged 0-12 months) completed a self-report questionnaire. Mothers in the current sample reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety compared with a normative sample. Approximately 18% of mothers reported mild to extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, with a high proportion experiencing co-morbid depressive symptoms. Maternal anxiety was associated with low parenting warmth, involvement, efficacy and satisfaction, and high parenting hostility. Yet, co-morbid depression and anxiety was more strongly associated with these parenting behaviours and experiences than anxiety alone. A range of psychosocial risk factors (e.g. education, sleep, relationship quality) were associated with maternal post-natal anxiety symptoms, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sistema Único de Saúde: uma avaliação realizada em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Sistema Único de Salud: una evaluación realizada en Natal, RN-Brasil Unique Health System: an assessment performed in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia de Freitas Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS traduz-se em um conjunto de ações de saúde que deve ser constantemente avaliado. Assim, esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o SUS em Natal (RN a partir das crenças de seus gestores, usando uma amostra de nove gestores dos cinco distritos sanitários, que responderam a um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado, analisados no ALCESTE. Os resultados mostraram que os gestores percebem a importância do SUS na busca da universalização da saúde, reconhecendo, entretanto, que na prática existem barreiras, na atenção básica e no sistema de referência, dificultando o acesso. Problemas que devem-se à má administração dos recursos e ao despreparo dos gestores, indicados por alianças políticas e ausência da comunidade nos Conselhos Municipais de Saúde. Conclui-se que há necessidade de modificar a cultura vigente de que a classe média deve usar planos de saúde, enquanto o SUS destina-se aos pobres.El Sistema Único de Salud (SUS se traduce en un conjunto de acciones de salud que debe ser constantemente evaluado. Así, esta investigación objetivó evaluar el SUS en Natal (RN-Brasil partiendo de las creencias de sus gestores, usando una muestra de nueve gestores de los cinco distritos sanitarios, que respondieron un rutero de entrevista semiestructurada, analizados en el ALCESTE. Los resultados mostraron que los gestores perciben la importancia del SUS en la búsqueda de la universalización de la salud, reconociendo, sin embargo, que en la práctica existen barreras, en la atención básica y en el sistema de referencia, dificultando el acceso. Problemas que se deben a la mala administración de los recursos y desarreglo de los gestores, indicados por alianzas políticas, ausencia de la comunidad en los Consejos Municipales de Salud. Se concluye que se necesita modificar la cultura vigente de que la clase media debe usar seguros de salud, mientras el SUS se destina a los pobres.The Brazilian Unique Health

  4. Reverse logistic of eletrical and eletronic equipment waste from information technology sector: reality, perspectives and challenges in Natal-RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Albuquerque Adriano da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to diagnose the situation of electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE across the information technology sector (trade and technical assistance from Natal (capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeast of Brazil from reverse logistic perspective as well as to analyze how these companies have been preparing for the adjustments demanded by new Brazilian law concerning the waste management (National Policy on Waste Management. This is a quantitative and descriptive study on which was adopted a structured questionnaire with 23 variables divided into four groups (i the awareness level on WEEE, (ii WEEE management, (iii environmental management and (iv profile of companies  which was applied to 20 companies in the IT sector from Natal / RN. Concerning the results, it was observed that companies have experienced a huge number of deficiencies in infrastructure, information and articulation related to reverse logistic, which helps to explain the fact that 65% of the sample believed that customers are little or no interested in solid waste management issues in the company. Also in reference to the waste management, 35% throw away the WEEE  for recycling, providing the waste stream by the secondary markets. In addition, 60% of the sample were included in the group responsible for collecting and treatment of WEEE and 40% of companies have implemented the management plan and / or maintenance. In conclusion, it was observed that some companies are little attentive to the waste law and its impact on their business. Thus, the logistic reverse and the compliance with WEEE management are hampered by lack of WEEE management plans.

  5. Pre-natal and post-natal exposure to respiratory infection and atopic diseases development: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the hygiene hypothesis, infections in early life protect from allergic diseases. However, in earlier studies surrogate measures of infection rather than clinical infections were associated with decreased frequencies of atopic diseases. Exposure to infection indicating sub-clinical infection rather than clinical infection might protect from atopic diseases. Objective: to investigate whether exposure to acute respiratory infections within pregnancy and the first year of life is associated with atopic conditions at age 5–14 years and to explore when within pregnancy and the first year of life this exposure is most likely to be protective. Methods Historical cohort study: Population level data on acute respiratory infections from the routine reporting system of the former German Democratic Republic were linked with individual data from consecutive surveys on atopic diseases in the same region (n = 4672. Statistical analyses included multivariate logistic regression analysis and polynomial distributed lag models. Results High exposure to acute respiratory infection between pregnancy and age one year was associated with overall reduced odds of asthma, eczema, hay fever, atopic sensitization and total IgE. Exposure in the first 9 months of life showed the most pronounced effect. Adjusted odds ratio's for asthma, hay fever, inhalant sensitization and total IgE were statistical significantly reduced up to around half. Conclusion Exposure to respiratory infection (most likely indicating sub-clinical infection within pregnancy and the first year of life may be protective in atopic diseases development. The post-natal period thereby seems to be particularly important.

  6. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  7. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  8. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  9. A Case Report of Gender Dysphoria with Morbid Jealousy in a Natal Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Prasad; Aparna, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is a new entity introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V to address the distress of the previously labeled gender identity disorder patients. It is less commonly seen in natal females, often starting in their childhood. Adults and adolescent natal females with early-onset gender dysphoria are almost always gynephilic. This case report is presented to discuss the interesting evolution of the symptoms in gender dysphoria case with difficulties in adjusting to the assigned sexual role, relationship problems, morbid jealousy, and severe depressive features with suicidal ideations. PMID:29284816

  10. A experiência do homem como acompanhante no cuidado pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Aparecida de Abreu Cavalcante

    2007-01-01

    A presença de acompanhante no pré-natal é uma prática adotada e estimulada em alguns serviços de saúde. Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a experiência do parceiro, como acompanhante de sua esposa/companheira nas consultas de pré-natal em uma instituição filantrópica da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, organizados pelo método do discurso do sujeito coletivo e analisados pela ótica da Teor...

  11. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  12. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  13. Pre‐natal undernutrition and post‐natal overnutrition are associated with permanent changes in hepatic metabolism markers and fatty acid composition in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, L.; Hellgren, Lars; Kongsted, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    was associated with increased hepatic triglyceride, ceramide and free fatty acid content in adulthood (not observed in lambs), which was accompanied by up‐regulated early‐stage insulin signalling as reflected by increased INSRβ and PI3K‐p110 protein expression. The HCHF diet increased hepatic triglyceride...... content in lambs, associated with down‐regulated expressions of energy‐metabolism‐related genes (GLUT1, PPARα, SREBP1c, PEPCK). These post‐natal effects were not observed in adult HCHF sheep, after they had received a moderate (body‐fat correcting) diet for 1.5 years. Interestingly, pre‐natal LOW...... nutrition induced permanent alterations in hepatic phospholipids’ fatty acid composition. Thus, the amount of linoleic acid (C18 : 2 ∆9,12) was significantly increased and composition of rumen‐derived fatty acids were altered, indicating changed composition of rumenal microbiota. Hepatic insulin signalling...

  14. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  15. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  17. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  18. Natal dispersal patterns are not associated with inbreeding avoidance in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In this study, we test whether patterns of territory inheritance, social mate choice and female-biased natal dispersal act as inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler. Our results show that Seychelles warblers do not reduce the likelihood of inbreeding by

  19. Riga-Fede Disease Associated with Natal Teeth: Two Different Approaches in the Same Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natal teeth are those present in the oral cavity at the child’s birth. These teeth can cause ulcers on the ventral surface of the tongue, lip, and the mother’s breast characterizing the Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment depends on the tooth’s mobility and the risk of aspiration or swallowing; whether it is supernumerary or regular primary teeth; whether it is causing interference in breastfeeding; breast and oral soft tissue injuries; and the general state of child’s health. A 1-month-old female infant was diagnosed with two natal teeth and an ulcerated lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue, leading to the clinical diagnosis of Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment performed consisted of the maintenance of the natal tooth that showed no increased mobility, adding a small increment of glass ionomer cement to its incisal edge, and orientation for hygiene with saline solution. Due to the increased mobility of the other natal tooth, surgical removal was performed. There was regular monitoring of the patient and complete wound healing was observed after 15 days. The proposed treatment was successful and the patient is still in follow-up without recurrence of the lesion after one year.

  20. Before harbour construction, Richards Bay on the Kwa- Zulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Zulu-Natal coast (28°47´S, 32°05´E) was a shallow, subtropical estuary of approximately 30 km2 (3 000 ha) surface area (Begg 1978), consisting of a large basin. (lagoon) connected to the Indian Ocean through a narrow mouth north of the basin. The shallow, con- stricted mouth substantially reduced the tidal range.

  1. On the occurrence of Stenopus tenui- rostris De Man, 1888 in Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biology, Texas A & M University, College. Station, Texas 77843, USA. S. Koslowski c/o Durban Corporation, Durban. Received 8 JQlluary 1990; accepted 5 March 1990. The stenopodidean shrimp Slenopus lenuiroslris De Man,. 1888 is reported from Natal waters for the first time. This record represents a ...

  2. HIV/AIDS Stigma Attitudes among Educators in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Goke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: One hundred and twenty educators from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent HIV/AIDS training. The educators were surveyed about their attitudes toward people with HIV. Methods: The educators completed self-administered survey questionnaires both before and after 2 interventions. Measures included demographic characteristics,…

  3. A study of feeding in some inshore reef fish of the Natal Coast, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed quantitative investigation of the feeding habits of seven important Natal inshore ... limits of influence of the surf zone or shore break. The physical features of .... There is a tendency for juvenile N. JithophiJus to form larger shoals than ...

  4. Fire scar mapping for disaster response in KwaZulu-Natal South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the potential of the new Landsat 8 multispectral imagery in rapidly mapping fire scars to aid disaster management response teams in emergency efforts. Maximum likelihood and iso cluster algorithms where used to classify burnt and unburnt areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Landsat 8 sensor ...

  5. Civilisation and Colonial Education: Natal and Western Australia in the 1860s in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines how two Britons, working in Western Australia and Natal, respectively, engaged with ideas about the civilisation and education of Indigenous people. It is argued that concepts of civilisation were debated by missionaries, researchers and members of the public. Using the correspondence, publications and private journals of two…

  6. Stomach contents of some shore-caught teleosts of Natal, South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-09-25

    Sep 25, 1985 ... Natal nearshore substratum were visually analysed for percentage composition. Commonly caught fish, namely. Rhabdosargus sarba, R. holubi, Pomadasys commersonni,. Trachinotus african us and T. bot/a, were opportunistic omnivorous predators and fed largely on sand mussels and benthic crustacea.

  7. Timing of natal nests is an important factor affecting return rates of juvenile Great Reed Warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnovcová, Kateřina; Koleček, Jaroslav; Požgayová, Milica; Jelínek, Václav; Šulc, Michal; Steidlová, Petra; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2018), s. 183-190 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Juvenile condition * Juvenile survival * Local dispersal distances * Natal philopatry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  8. Mercury concentrations at a historically mercury-contaminated site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mercury (Hg) processing plant previously operating in KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa) discharged Hg waste into a nearby river system causing widespread contamination since the 1980s. Although the processing plant ceased operation in the 1990...

  9. Vegetation change in northern KwaZulu-Natal since the Anglo-Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the landscape is declining in many grassland and savanna areas of Africa as a consequence of woody plant encroachment. We investigated the changes in vegetation at selected sites on the battlefields of the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 in KwaZulu-Natal. We used fixed-point repeat photographs to compare the ...

  10. Hunger for Knowledge: Food Insecurity among Students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nicholas; Quayle, Michael; Simpson, Heather; Barnsley, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The experience of food insecurity in the South African university student population is not well documented or researched. Data to assess vulnerability to food insecurity in a sample of 1.083 students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) was collected between 2007 and 2010 via a questionnaire developed specifically for…

  11. The rabbit as an animal model for post-natal vitreous matrix differentiation and degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether rabbits are a suitable animal model to study post-natal vitreous differentiation and degeneration. Methods Human and rabbit eyes of various ages were studied by complementary anatomical techniques, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results

  12. Structure and precursors of the 1992 / 93 drought in KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical context and potential causes and structure of the 1992/93 drought in KwaZulu-Natal are analysed using NCEP reanalysis data. The analysis indicates that increased westerly winds with surface marine lows and continental highs prevailed over Southern Africa. Anomalous divergence and subsidence occur ...

  13. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1980 and 2001, a total of 661 African angel sharks Squatina africana was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The mean annual catch was 30 sharks (range = 11–69, SD = 12.4), with no trend in catch rate over the study period. Individuals were caught throughout the year and through ...

  14. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1978 and 1999, a total of 5 626 dusky sharks Carcharhinus obscurus, constituting 20% of the total shark catch, was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The mean annual catch was 256 sharks (SD = 107.5, range 129–571). There was no significant linear trend in catch rate with time.

  15. Sharks caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study provides long-term catch rate and biological data for tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme. Between 1978 and 2014, 1 760 G. cuvier were caught in nets and between 2007 and 2014, 108 G. cuvier were caught on drumlines. Standardised catch rates ...

  16. The Post-Natal Development of the Reproductive Tract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Post-Natal Development of the Reproductive Tract of the Springbok Ram Lamb Antidorcas Marsupialis Marsupialis Zimmermann. JD Skinner, J. H. M. Van Zyl. Abstract. A search of the literature has not revealed any reference to the development of the reproductive tract of the male springbok or any quantitative studies ...

  17. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square methods for estimating ...

  18. Assessment of the state of the estuaries of the Cape and Natal in 1985/86

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heydorn, AEF

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available During a meeting of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) Estuaries Programme Committee held on 12 and 13 October 1983 at San Lameer, Natal, consideration was given to a working paper on the freshwater requirements...

  19. Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-08-30

    Full Text Available , and the landscape structure and processes that maintain patterns of biodiversity. The authors have developed a method of classifying landscapes for the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The process entailed the use of 1 km grid data from climate and terrain...

  20. Invasive alien plants in the terrestrial ecosystems of Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report consists of two types of chapters. Most of the chapters are short syntheses of particular aspects of the alien plant problem in Natal, written by groups of participants during the workshop meeting. They are brief accounts of the state...

  1. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square...

  2. HIV Incidence Remains High in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Evidence from Three Districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Annaléne; Mabude, Zonke; Smit, Jenni; Kotze, Philip; Arbuckle, Derek; Wu, Jian; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV prevalence and incidence among sexually active women in peri-urban areas of Ladysmith, Edendale, and Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed between October 2007 and February 2010 in preparation for vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sexually

  3. Circulation of shelf waters in the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ship-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (S-ADCP) technology, used in survey mode, has enabled nearsynoptic views of the in situ 3-D current field in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Bight to be elucidated for the first time. Data acquired by the research vessels RS Africana and RS Algoa in June 2005, September 2007, March ...

  4. Non-School Influences and Educational Disadvantage: Pre and Post-natal Nutritional Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Russell C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with pre and post-natal malnutrition and its possible influence on the child, focusing on these points: How wide-spread and severe is the malnutrition? What might be the effects of the malnutrition at certain critical points in development? (Author/JM)

  5. Training teacher-librarians in KwaZulu Natal | Hoskins | Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Advanced Certificate in Education School Library Development and Management at the University of KwaZulu-Natal was started in 2004 to train teacher-librarians. A preliminary study was done to investigate the status of school libraries in the schools from which the educators came and the use of information and ...

  6. Exploring Teachers' Practices in Teaching Mathematics and Statistics in Kwazulu-Natal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umugiraneza, Odette; Bansilal, Sarah; North, Delia

    2017-01-01

    Teaching approaches and assessment practices are key factors that contribute to the improvement of learner outcomes. The study on which this article is based, explored the methods used by KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) teachers in teaching and assessing mathematics and statistics. An instrument containing closed and open-ended questions was distributed to…

  7. Overview of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run | van der Lingen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an introduction to, and overview of, the natural phenomenon known as the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run. Previous literature on this topic and hypotheses about the reasons why, and the mechanisms how, the run occurs are briefly synthesised and described. Papers contributing to this suite that detail more ...

  8. Socio-economic implications of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic and social effects of the annual sardine run on the indigenous community on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed using data gathered from questionnaires and personal interviews with 329 members of the community. Their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about the sardine run ...

  9. Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the mineralisation of bones in ... folic acid deficiency, in particular at pregnancy; thus inflicting severe skeletal ... or 'catch-up' growth was displayed in the ethanol plus folate treated rats.

  10. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  11. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  12. Abortion: a review of women's perception in relation to their partner's reactions in two Brazilians cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nonnenmacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. Methods: semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: in both capitals, the women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (p<0.01 in Natal; p = 0.02 in São Paulo-SP and, simultaneously, as the one who could have avoided it (p < 0.01 in Natal; p = 0.03 in São Paulo. In Natal-RN, induced abortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02 and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04 and lack of participation in the abortion process (p < 0.01. Conclusion: despite having achieved independence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.

  13. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  14. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  15. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  16. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  17. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  18. O cuidado pré-natal em hospital universitário: uma avaliação de processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Eriko Ishida Nagahama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o processo de atenção pré-natal referente à utilização do cuidado pré-natal do Programa Assistência Pré-natal às Gestantes de Baixo Risco do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Compreendeu a seleção de critérios de qualidade que avaliaram a precocidade no ingresso e a adequação do número de consultas de pré-natal, mensuradas conforme o Programa de Humanização do Pré-natal e Nascimento do Ministério da Saúde e Índice de Adequação da Utilização do Cuidado Pré-natal. O estudo demonstrou que 44,5% gestantes iniciaram tardiamente o pré-natal, o que pode sugerir uma oferta limitada de vagas e a busca por melhor qualidade na atenção, demonstrada pela transferência espontânea de gestantes de outros serviços para o programa. As consultas de pré-natal foram garantidas, sendo o número médio ­ 9,8 consultas por gestante ­ superior aos parâmetros nacionais recomendados. Os indicadores utilizados e desenvolvidos para a avaliação de processo identificaram que o serviço ainda apresenta obstáculos ao acesso organizacional, necessitando, assim, da definição de estratégias que garantam essa diretriz fundamental do SUS.

  19. O cuidado pré-natal em hospital universitário: uma avaliação de processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahama Elizabeth Eriko Ishida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o processo de atenção pré-natal referente à utilização do cuidado pré-natal do Programa Assistência Pré-natal às Gestantes de Baixo Risco do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Compreendeu a seleção de critérios de qualidade que avaliaram a precocidade no ingresso e a adequação do número de consultas de pré-natal, mensuradas conforme o Programa de Humanização do Pré-natal e Nascimento do Ministério da Saúde e Índice de Adequação da Utilização do Cuidado Pré-natal. O estudo demonstrou que 44,5% gestantes iniciaram tardiamente o pré-natal, o que pode sugerir uma oferta limitada de vagas e a busca por melhor qualidade na atenção, demonstrada pela transferência espontânea de gestantes de outros serviços para o programa. As consultas de pré-natal foram garantidas, sendo o número médio - 9,8 consultas por gestante - superior aos parâmetros nacionais recomendados. Os indicadores utilizados e desenvolvidos para a avaliação de processo identificaram que o serviço ainda apresenta obstáculos ao acesso organizacional, necessitando, assim, da definição de estratégias que garantam essa diretriz fundamental do SUS.

  20. Autonomy, natality and freedom: a liberal re-examination of Habermas in the enhancement debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jurgen Habermas has argued that carrying out pre-natal germline enhancements would be inimical to the future child's autonomy. In this article, I suggest that many of the objections that have been made against Habermas' arguments by liberals in the enhancement debate misconstrue his claims. To explain why, I begin by explaining how Habermas' view of personal autonomy confers particular importance to the agent's embodiment and social environment. In view of this, I explain that it is possible to draw two arguments against germline enhancements from Habermas' thought. I call these arguments 'the argument from negative freedom' and 'the argument from natality'. Although I argue that many of the common liberal objections to Habermas are not applicable when his arguments are properly understood, I go on to suggest ways in which supporters of enhancement might appropriately respond to Habermas' arguments. © 2014 The Author. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepetkova, Hana; Thinova, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  2. visões sobre o espaço urbano de Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Furtado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing a Natal-city spatial "reading", capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and its reconfiguration from the intensification of tourist activity, going through by geography, social sciences and economy, in a matrix approach that ignores the traditional limitations of science and recognizes the complexity around the world today. In light of this understanding, they have been analyzed the socio-economic connections that reform the landscape of Natal under the aegis of the new service-sector economy, led by tourism, in an intense process of city reconfiguration, focusing on three major areas and their irrigating arteries. These changes occur due to the public-private relationship __ via public policies __in the formation of new areas and the reform of old ones of the city, which contributed so that the tourist activity seize it, making it a socio-economic pattern that has obvious effects in its urban mapping.

  3. Enfermagem obstétrica no acompanhamento pré - natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garcia Penna

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Consiste em um relato de experiência acerca de um projeto de pesquisa iniciado em agosto de 1997, envolvendo docentes do Departamento Materno-infantil da Faculdade de Enfermagem da UERJ e profissionais do Centro Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro da S.M.S./RJ. Tem por objetivo, descrever o processo de inserção da Consulta de Enfermagem de Pré-natal no conteúdo da graduação, bem como sua estruturação e implantação no referido Centro Municipal de Saúde. Esse trabalho propõe rever também, o modelo biomédico das consultas, a fim de proporcionar reflexões e rupturas de paradigmas, e com isso auxiliar no aprendizado e na ampliação do acompanhamento de pré-natal no Rio de Janeiro.

  4. A Profile of KwaZulu-Natal: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of KwaZulu-Natal. Most of the data presented are drawn...

  5. Muslim women’s identities in South Africa: A Zanzibari perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.

    OpenAIRE

    Vahed, Goolam

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how Zanzibari women in KwaZulu-Natal are negotiating their identities within the context of local and global realities. In South Africa, while the post-apartheid period gave birth to non-racial democracy, South Africa is haunted by high unemployment, widespread poverty and poor service delivery. Globally, this period has witnessed increased conflict since the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the subsequent War on Terror which has led some...

  6. Efficacy of collateral types used by financial intermediaries in KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, M.E.; Darroch, Mark A.G.; Ortmann, Gerald F.

    1997-01-01

    Collateral is an important incentive device used by lenders to encourage loan repayment. However, collateral must have secure and transferable title, it must be marketable, have low lender liquidation costs and lenders must be able to attach the collateral. Study results for rural and micro-enterprise finance institutions in KwaZulu-Natal showed that assets such as vehicles and equipment were not effective as collateral due to high costs in attaching the asset. Cessions on crops were often co...

  7. Natal Dispersal in the North Island Robin (Petroica longipes: the Importance of Connectivity in Fragmented Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askia K. Wittern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is an important component in bird population dynamics and can influence the persistence of local and metapopulations. We examined natal dispersal in the North Island robin (Petroica longipes, a sedentary bird species distributed in a fragmented forest habitat on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. Earlier studies have shown that the only dispersal phase in this species takes place when juveniles leave their natal patch, and that juveniles who fail to find suitable habitat do not survive their first winter. These findings suggest that natal dispersal behavior in this species is important for population viability. We found that juveniles were highly affected by the fragmentation of the forest habitat, with patch occupancy being positively correlated with degree of connectivity of the landscape. Most juvenile movements (52.1% were observed between patches that were separated by less than 20 m. Juvenile North Island robins were found in all forest habitat types, including young and open stands. This suggests that the juveniles are not dependent on old forest stands during their dispersal phase. Based on these findings, we suggest that management of this regionally-threatened species should focus not only on maintaining populations in occupied patches and increasing the habitat quality of these patches, but also on protecting existing forest patches acting as corridors and creating new forest habitat among patches. This would greatly increase the viability of the species' metapopulations by increasing dispersal success between both unoccupied patches and subpopulations. Additionally, increased connectivity between forest patches could also be expected to increase the probability of successful dispersal of other threatened native species, many of which are also sensitive to the high degree of fragmentation of their habitats.

  8. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Netherlands; Courtney A. Cook; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Louis H. du Preez; Nico J. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  9. Recovery distances of nestling Bald Eagles banded in Florida and implications for natal dispersal and philopatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall

    2009-01-01

    I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida, which suggested a strong degree of philopatry to the natal state. Among 21 mature eagles of known sex with known banding and recovery locations in Florida, females, particularly younger birds, had longer recovery distances (N  =  9, mean  =  93 km, SE  =  22.4) than did males (N  =  12, mean  =  31 km, SE  =  5.3; t  =  2.67, df  =  19, P  =  0.026). The records examined here suggest a high degree of philopatry and relatively short natal dispersal distances, particularly in male Bald Eagles.

  10. Challenges in the prenatal and post-natal diagnosis of mediastinal cystic hygroma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Sarfraz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital neoplasm that mostly presents as a soft-tissue mass in the posterior triangle of the neck. Pure mediastinal lesions are uncommon; the vast majority are asymptomatic and are an incidental finding in adulthood. The diagnosis is often made intra- or postoperatively. Prenatal identification is exceptional and post-natal diagnosis also proves challenging. Case presentation We report one such case that was mistaken for other entities in both the prenatal and immediate post-natal period. Initial and follow-up antenatal ultrasound scans demonstrated a multicystic lesion in the left chest, and the mother was counselled about the possibility of her baby having a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Initial post-natal chest radiographs were reported as normal. An echocardiogram and thoracic computed tomography scan confirmed a complex multiloculated cystic mediastinal mass. The working diagnoses were of a mediastinal teratoma or congenital cystic adenomatous malformation. At operation, the lesion was compressed by the left lung and was found to be close to the left phrenic nerve, which was carefully identified and preserved. After excision, histopathological examination of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of cystic hygroma. Postoperative dyspnoea was observed secondary to paradoxical movement of the left hemidiaphragm and probable left phrenic neuropraxia. This settled conservatively with excellent recovery. Conclusion Despite the fact that isolated intrathoracic cystic hygroma is a rare entity, it needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foetal and neonatal mediastinal masses, particularly for juxtadiaphragmatic lesions. The phrenic nerve is not identifiable on prenatal ultrasound imaging, and it is therefore understandable that a mass close to the diaphragm may be mistaken for a congenital diaphragmatic hernia because of the location, morphology and potential phrenic nerve compression

  11. EMERGÊNCIA DOS "CONDOMÍNIOS-CLUBE" NA ZONA SUL DE NATAL/RN, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento tiene como objetivo discutir el surgimiento de una nueva tipología residencial que se ha extendido en el sur de Natal / RN, los condominios llamado Club. Su principal característica es la apelación a los artículos de ocio más diversos, que son utilizados por los empresarios urbanos como una forma de crear un nuevo estilo de vida y un nuevo producto que se vende. La base teórica de este trabajo se basa en el enfoque heterodoxo de la coordinación espacial realizada por Pedro Abramo. Esta perspectiva considera el espacio urbano como un conjunto de inventario de viviendas que son ofrecidas por los empresarios urbanos. En general, el orden urbano y el ambiente residencial es incierto, porque sufren cambios derivados de la aparición de las innovaciones de espacio causadas por empresarios urbanos en busca de beneficios extraordinarios. En el caso de la zona sur de Natal, la construcción de carreteras principales que conectan esta zona de la ciudad al vecino municipio de Parnamirim, que ha sido el blanco de la abundancia del mercado inmobiliario de Natal. El ciclo de vida de los inventarios residenciales de la Zona Sur de Natal ha cambiado con el tiempo, desde el principio de la vivienda en grandes alojamientos para la producción de proyectos verticais. En la actualidad, un fenómeno nuevo que se plantea es la propagación de una nueva clasificación, los condominios club. Al ser un caso reciente en que los proyectos se encuentran todavía en fase de lanzamiento o de la construcción, el estudio se llevará a cabo mediante el análisis de marketing utilizadas por los empresarios urbanos para atraer a los consumidores a través de panfletos y folletos.

  12. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  13. The search for the youngest granites in the southern part of the Natal Metamorphic Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Eglington, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    It is clear that the Belmont Pluton and the dykes are geochemically, isotopically and therefore, genetically distinct. The Belmont pluton is probably related to the garnet leucogranite phase of the Margate Complex. It is suggested that the dykes (∼ 965 Ma) are younger than the Belmont pluton (∼1055 Ma). The relatively low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are typical of the granites intruded at ∼1000 Ma. The age of the dykes is comparable with the 951 ± 16 Ma (R o =.70320 ± 13) given for the Sezela pluton. The high R o (∼0.715) of the dykes is similar to other, minor granite sheets from southern Natal, and is compatible with an origin by late-stage melting of pre-existing radiogenic material. Both the dykes and the Sezela pluton are unequivocally younger than the D 3 deformation, whereas the young dates from the Oribi Gorge Suite are controversial. Thus, although it is possible that some of the minor, intrusive granitic sheets could yet be shown to be of Pan-African age, it is evident that no significant Pan-African magmatism or thermal overprinting has affected the Natal sector of the Namaqua-Natal-Maudheim belt. 1 fig., 7 refs

  14. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal. PMID:28350334

  15. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. II. THE CASE OF XTE J1118 + 480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragos, T.; Willems, B.; Kalogera, V.; Ivanova, N.; Rockefeller, G.; Fryer, C. L.; Young, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of proper motions have been measured for Galactic X-ray binaries. When supplemented with accurate determinations of the component masses, orbital period, and donor effective temperature, these kinematical constraints harbor a wealth of information on the system's past evolution. Here, we consider all this available information to reconstruct the full evolutionary history of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118 + 480, assuming that the system originated in the Galactic disk and the donor has solar metallicity. This analysis accounts for four evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics due to explosive mass loss and possibly a black hole natal kick at the time of core collapse. We find that right after black hole formation, the system consists of a ≅6.0-10.0 M sun black hole and a ≅1.0-1.6 M sun main-sequence star. We also find that that an asymmetric natal kick is not only plausible but required for the formation of this system, and derive a lower and upper limit on the black hole natal kick velocity magnitude of 80 km s -1 and 310 km s -1 , respectively.

  16. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-03-28

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

  17. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen P. Davis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with severe mental illness receiving services at a regional psychiatric hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa. We describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime substance use and examine the association between substance use and DUP. Methods: A cross-sectional survey recruited adults diagnosed with severe mental illness and assessed lifetime and past 3-month substance use using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between lifetime substance use (other than alcohol and tobacco and DUP as measured by the World Health Organization Encounter Form. Results: Amongst 87 participants, alcohol (81.6%, tobacco (75.6% and cannabis (49.4% were the most common substances reported for lifetime use. Risk of health-related problems (health, social, financial, legal and relationship of cannabis use was associated with younger age, single marital status and lower education. Adjusted regression analyses indicated that use of amphetamines and methaqualone is associated with longer DUP. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent amongst psychiatric patients in KwaZulu-Natal and may contribute to longer DUP. Mental health services in this region should address co-morbid substance use and psychiatric disorders. Keywords: Substance Use; Psychosis; KwaZulu-Natal

  18. Sífilis Congênita como Indicador de Assistência Pré-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lorenzi Dino Roberto Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar a prevalência de sífilis congênita (SC em um hospital universitário da região sul do Brasil, destacando seu papel como indicador de qualidade da assistência pré-natal. Método: estudo descritivo dos casos de SC ocorridos no HG-UCS, no período de 1 de junho de 2000 a 31 de maio de 2001, com base nos critérios diagnósticos propostos pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 1998. Resultados: a prevalência de sífilis congênita observada foi de 1,5% (27 casos em 1739 nascimentos. O coeficiente de SC encontrado foi de 15,5 casos por 1000 nascidos vivos. Das 23 gestantes (85,2% que relataram acompanhamento pré-natal prévio, em apenas 16 (69,6% casos o diagnóstico de sífilis materna foi realizado antes do parto. Somente 4 gestantes (17,4% foram adequadamente tratadas durante o pré-natal, de modo a prevenir a transmissão vertical da doença. Em 8 casos (29,6% constatou-se a associação da sífilis materna com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal por SC foi de 1,15 por 1000 nascidos vivos (2 mortes perinatais. Conclusões: os autores reafirmam a importância da SC como indicador de saúde perinatal, visto ser uma doença totalmente passível de prevenção durante o pré-natal. A elevada prevalência de SC observada permite questionar a qualidade da atenção pré-natal disponível à população estudada.

  19. Espaço, iniquidade e transporte público: avaliação da acessibilidade urbana na cidade de Natal/RN por meio de indicadores de sustentabilidade / Space, iniquity and public transportation: assessment of urban accessibility in the Natal/RN city through sustainability indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzimar Pereira Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the urban mobility appears as one of the main challenges of large and medium cities in Brazil, because it has signs of unsustainability relative to many aspects that involves it. In Brazilian cities, where the wealth concentration, land and power contrast with an irregular income distribution, the reproduction of inequalities and daily problems resulting from rapid urbanization affecting urban mobility and accessibility. Particularly in relation to urban accessibility, the income and the valuation of certain spaces, combined with efficient infrastructure, make the central areas have better conditions when compared to peripheral areas. In this manner, this paper intends to analyze the conditions of urban accessibility in Natal / RN and verify to what extent access to urban services and equipments is facilitated or difficulted because of the location and the purchasing power of its population. Therefore, the methodological procedures utilized were bibliographic and documentary surveys, as well as analysis of some of the sustainability indicators related to urban accessibility that comprise the Index of Sustainable Urban Mobility (I_SUM.

  20. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  1. Prescription of anorectic and benzodiazepine drugs through notification B prescriptions in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Aparecida Nappo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 22,158 special B prescriptions (notificações B containing amphetamine-type anorectic drugs or benzodiazepines, obtained from compounding pharmacies or drugstores located in the city of Natal, RN, Brazil. The data obtained were compared with those from other Brazilian cities. Results showed that compounding pharmacies dispensed 85.4% of the prescriptions, indicating that these pharmacies filled out nearly 10 times more of these prescriptions than did the drugstores. The majority (83.5% of B prescriptions issued for the compounding pharmacies were for women, where the female/male patient ratio ranged from 7.1/1.0 for mazindol to 10.3/1.0 for amfepramone. Similar results were obtained for the benzodiazepines with ratios of 1.9/1.0 for clonazepam to 15.6/1.0 for oxazepam. Omissions and mistakes were present in the B prescriptions, including missing information about the patient (in 49.6% of the documents or about the pharmacies or drugstores (50.4%. There were cases where the name and/or CRM of the physician was lacking. It was noted that one medical doctor made out 1855 B prescriptions within one year. The same patient's name appeared on 138 prescriptions, and the same RG (identification card number was present in 125 others. Comparison of Natal's data with those of several other Brazilian cities disclosed a striking similarity throughout Brazil, from Pelotas - Rio Grande do Sul State to Belem-Para State, revealing a practically identical medical/pharmaceutical behavior. This pattern of prescription/dispensation of amphetamine-type substances mostly to women for weight loss is therefore for cosmetic reasons. Consequently, there is an urgent need for an ethical review of this behavior.Foram examinadas 22.158 notificações B contendo substâncias anoréticas tipo-anfetamina ou de benzodiazepínicos, obtidas de drogarias e de farmácias de manipulação. Os dados foram comparados com os de outras cidades do Brasil, obtendo

  2. Benefícios e riscos dos suplementos medicamentosos fluoretados do mercado brasileiro / Benefits and risks of fluoride supplements of brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Bessa Rebelo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o uso de qualquer medicamento deveria estar fundamentado nas evidên-cias sobre seus benefícios e riscos, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as informações con-tidas nas bulas dos suplementos medicamentosos fluoretados pré- e pós-natal do mercado brasileiro e discutir o benefício anticárie e risco de fluorose dentária decorrente do uso des-ses produtos. A amostra foi constituída por bulas dos medicamentos disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, sendo 2 pré- e 6 pós-natal. As variáveis “indicação, contraindicação e posologia” descritas nas bulas foram analisadas e confrontadas tanto com as recomendações feitas por instituições brasileiras e internacionais do uso desses medicamentos quanto com o conhe-cimento atual de como o fluoreto controla cárie. Foi constatado haver incoerência entre as indicações e contraindicações contidas nas bulas e as recomendações institucionais desses medicamentos. As informações também não condizem com o conhecimento científico atual sobre os benefícios e riscos desses medicamentos. Em acréscimo, todos os medicamentos são formulados com uma mistura de sais de cálcio e de fluoreto, sugerindo que, mesmo que o uso desses medicamentos fosse importante para o controle de cárie, o fluoreto presente não estaria biodisponível para exercer seu efeito. Conclui-se que é necessário fazer uma revisão total da normatização brasileira sobre o uso de suplementos medicamentosos fluore-tados pré- e pós-natal, tendo em vista as inconsistências encontradas nas bulas dos produtos à venda, quer em termos de possível efeito anticárie ou de risco de fluorose dentária. ------------------------------------------------------------- Since the use of any medicine should be based on evidence of its benefits and risks, the aim of this study was to evaluate the information contained in the leaflets provided with pre- and post-natal fluoride supplements found in the Brazilian market

  3. A longitudinal study of Steller sea lion natality rates in the Gulf of Alaska with comparisons to census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery.

  4. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  5. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  6. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  7. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  8. Toward Electoral Security: Experiences from KwaZulu-Natal Höhere Sicherheit bei Wahlen: Erfahrungen aus KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Höglund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The five strategies identified are monitoring, mediation, legal measures, law enforcement and self-regulating practices. In the article, the functions and mechanisms of the strategies are discussed. In addition, we analyse the limitations and usefulness of each of the strategies in turn and also provide suggestions on how to improve electoral security.Gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen bei Wahlen werden zunehmend als Gefahr erkannt. Dennoch sind die theoretischen Grundlagen systematischer Forschungen zu diesem Phänomen, die zu angemessenen politischen Handlungsweisen beitragen könnten, immer noch ungenügend entwickelt. Dieser Beitrag zielt darauf ab, einen theoretischen Hintergrund für Strategien zum Umgang mit Gewalt bei Wahlen und zur Prävention zu entwickeln. Zu diesem Zweck kombinieren die Autorinnen Ergebnisse zweier Forschungsbereiche – der Demokratisierungsforschung und der Forschung zum Konfliktmanagement – und ziehen außerdem Erfahrungen aus der konfliktbeladenen südafrikanischen Provinz KwaZulu-Natal heran. Sie identifizieren fünf Strategien: Monitoring, Mediation, gesetzliche Maßnahmen, Sanktionierung und Selbsthilfepraktiken. Die Autorinnen diskutieren die Wirkungsweisen und Erfolgsaussichten, aber auch die Grenzen dieser Strategien und machen einige konkrete Vorschläge zur Erhöhung der Sicherheit bei Wahlen.

  9. Nem bandidos nem trabalhadores baratos: Trajetórias de jovens da periferia de Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Tommasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória de jovens de um grupo de hip-hop na periferia de Natal, utilizando como ferramenta o conceito de ‘governamentalidade’ tal como tratado por Foucault. A narrativa dos jovens revela como eles se movimentam entre múltiplas experiências urbanas, procurando fugir do destino de grupo ‘de risco’ (tornar-se ‘mão de obra barata’ ou criminosos fazendo arte como forma de resistência. A análise propõe uma abordagem da juventude não como uma categoria analítica, um sujeito ou ator social, mas como um campo de intervenção que tem despertado interesse e recebido investimentos públicos e privados.  Neither Cheap Workforce nor Outlaws: Trajectories of Youngsters in the Outskirts of Natal examines the story of the young members of a hip-hop group in the Northeastern Brazil according to Foucault’s concept of ‘governmentality’. Their narrative reveals the way they move between multiple urban experiences trying to escape from their fate as “risk group” (that is, to become “cheap workforce” or criminals, using art as a form of resistance. We approach youth less as an analytical category, a subject or a social actor and rather as a field of intervention that has attracted attention and received public and private investments. Key words: governmentality, youth, hip-hop, periphery, Natal

  10. The Association of Molecular Gas and Natal Super Star Clusters in Henize 2–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brogan, Crystal L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Testi, Leonardo; Wilner, David J.; Reines, Amy E.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    We present ALMA observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 in combination with previous SMA CO observations to probe the molecular environments of natal super star clusters (SSCs). These observations include the HCO+(1-0), HCN(1-0), HNC(1-0), and CCH(1-0) molecular lines, as well as 88 GHz continuum with a spatial resolution of 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7× 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6. After correcting for the contribution from free–free emission to the 88 GHz continuum flux density (∼60% of the 88 GHz emission), we derive a total gas mass for He 2–10 of {M}{gas}=4{--}6× {10}8 M ⊙, roughly 5%–20% of the dynamical mass. Based on a principle component analysis, HCO+ is found to be the best “general” tracer of molecular emission. The line widths and luminosities of the CO emission suggests that the molecular clouds could either be as small as ∼8 pc, or alternately have enhanced line widths. The CO emission and 88 GHz continuum are anti-correlated, suggesting that either the dust and molecular gas are not cospatial, which could reflect that the 88 GHz continuum is dominated by free–free emission. The CO and CCH emission are also relatively anti-correlated, which is consistent with the CCH being photo-enhanced, and/or the CO being dissociated in the regions near the natal SSCs. The molecular line ratios of regions containing the natal star clusters are different from the line ratios observed for regions elsewhere in the galaxy. In particular, the regions with thermal radio emission all have {CO}(2{--}1)/{{HCO}}+(1-0)correlated with the evolutionary stage of the clusters.

  11. Failure of post-natal ductus arteriosus closure in prostaglandin transporter-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hee-Yoon; Locker, Joseph; Lu, Run; Schuster, Victor L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a major role both in maintaining patency of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) and in closure of the DA after birth. The rate- limiting step in PGE2 signal termination is PGE2 uptake by the transporter PGT. Methods and results To determine the role of PGT in DA closure, we used a gene-targeting strategy to produce mice in which PGT exon 1 was flanked by loxP sites. Successful targeting was obtained since neither mice hypomorphic at the PGT allele (PGT Neo/Neo) nor global PGT knockout mice (PGT −/−) exhibited PGT protein expression; moreover, embryonic fibroblasts isolated from targeted mice failed to exhibit carrier-mediated PGE2 uptake. Although born in a normal Mendelian ratio, no PGT −/− mice survived past post-natal day 1, and no PGT Neo/Neo mice survived past post-natal day 2. Necropsy revealed patent DA with normal intimal thickening but with dilated cardiac chambers. Both PGT Neo/Neo and PGT −/− mice could be rescued through the post-natal period by giving the mother indomethacin before birth. Rescued mice grew normally and had no abnormalities by gross and microscopic post-mortem analysis. In accord with PGT’s known role in metabolizing PGE2, rescued adult PGT −/− mice had lower plasma PGE2 metabolite levels, and higher urinary PGE2 excretion rates, than wild type mice. Conclusions PGT plays a critical role in closure of the DA after birth by ensuring a reduction in local and/or circulating PGE2 concentrations. PMID:20083684

  12. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  13. Implementation of a micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooge, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom has implemented a 5 kW micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg. The scheme supplies electrical power to five schools using a Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) transmission line. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme and covers the social aspects, the mechanical, civil and electrical works, and also scheme economics. The main aim of this project was to obtain experience in the design and implementation of a micro hydro system, both technically and socially, so that the technology could be used with confidence in Eskom's non-grid electrification programme. 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. Rare association of hyper IgE syndrome with cervical rib and natal teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone.

  15. An investigation into techniques for reducing doses from neo-natal radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraith, C.M.; Martin, C.J. [Aberdeen Royal Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bio-Medical Physics and Bio-Engineering; Stockdale, E.J.N.; McDonald, S.; Farquhar, B. [Royal Aberdeen Children`s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    A survey of radiation doses received by infants having radiography in a neo-natal unit was undertaken at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital. Options for dose reduction recommended by the CEC Lake Starnberg Group were investigated. Techniques were implemented for clinical evaluation after assessments of image quality with test objects and phantoms. Clinical image quality of radiographs was evaluated by paediatric radiologists using CEC criteria. Results revealed a clear relationship between entrance dose and patient weight, indicating that reference doses for infants could be linked to weight. (author).

  16. A Rb-Sr isotope study of a young granite sheet at Marble Delta, southern Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, D.D.; Eglington, B.M.; Harmer, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two apophyses of a granite sheet intrusive into marble at Marble Delta, southern Natal. Granite samples collected near the margins of these apophyses contain calcite and are thought to have been contaminated by the marble during intrusion of the granite magma. In contrast, those further away from contacts lack calcite. The 'uncontaminated' granite samples define an isochron date of 899 ± 11 Ma. This data is thought to represent the intrusive age of the granite sheet. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Villes et structures spatiales élémentaires du KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Folio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available However significant the legacy of former segregational policies in the spatial organisation of South African cities, it is important to include other basic spatial structures that have often been minimised. That is the aim of this paper. The towns in KwaZulu-Natal province provide a strong illustration of this point. The urban entities in the province can be differentiated by several criteria – either historical or contemporary – that are not always related to apartheid policy. The towns are underpinned by basic structures that organise the province. These structures are determined not only by racial discrimination, but also by economics. Recent developments seem to reinforce this trend.

  18. Le Dépistage Prénatal Non Invasif de la Trisomie 21 : le DPNI

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre Belloin, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Background: NIPT, Non-Invasive Pre-natal Testing, is a technological advance in the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, the most common of which is Down Syndrome. NIPT analyses cell-free fetal DNA in the blood of a pregnant woman. Its high sensitivity (99.1%) and specificity (99.9%) make that test a performance to the actual screening (Sensitivity = 85%, Specificity = 1/30). Fetal karyotyping is obtained by invasive procedure but nevertheless carries a risk of miscarriage of about 0....

  19. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  20. KwaZulu-Natal coastal erosion events of 2006/2007 and 2011: A predictive tool?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Smith; Lisa A. Guastella; Andrew A. Mather; Simon C. Bundy; Ivan D. Haigh

    2013-01-01

    Severe coastal erosion occurred along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline between mid-May and November 2011. Analysis of this erosion event and comparison with previous coastal erosion events in 2006/2007 offered the opportunity to extend the understanding of the time and place of coastal erosion strikes. The swells that drove the erosion hotspots of the 2011 erosion season were relatively low (significant wave heights were between 2 m and 4.5 m) but of long duration. Although swell height was import...

  1. Development through rural advancement, with special reference to Kwazulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss the importance of rural advancement in the development of developing regions or countries, and KwaZulu-Natal was used as a case study. The literature focused on the backwardness of the rural areas and the importance of rural advancement for the development of less developed regions or countries. Development cannot be said to have taken place unless people's lives in general have improved. Large parts of developing regions or countrie...

  2. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis capture, transportation and boma management by the Natal Parks Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Henwood

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The procedure used by the Natal Parks Board in the capture of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis minor (Drummond, 1876 is outlined. It is emphasised that a successful capture operation requires careful planning and should not be attempted by the uninitiated or by parties who have little or no experience. Dosages of drugs are given, the darting and actual capture procedures highlighted, and aspects of transport and practical boma management are described.

  3. Genetic effects of radiation in man: a critical analysis of methodology with examples from three surveys among Brazilian physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, N.

    1978-01-01

    Information obtained through three different surveys (two via mail and one through personal interviews) made among Brazilian physicians in presented. Data have been classified according to survey, medical speciality, protection used and pregnancy order. Events under consideration are abortions, stillbirths, neo-natal mortality, infant-juvenile mortality (under two criteria) and sex ratio. A number of statistically significant diferences have been found in the direction expected according to the radio-genetics theory and a few ones against it. Two of the surveys reveal an effect of the pregnancy order an abortions which was larger in the exposed samples than in the control ones. This fact could be due to radiation-induced genetic damage, especially chromosome aberrations [pt

  4. Analysis of forecasting malaria case with climatic factors as predictor in Mandailing Natal Regency: a time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D.; Ayu, S. F.; Matondang, A.

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is the most contagious global concern. As a public health problem with outbreaks, affect the quality of life and economy, also could lead to death. Therefore, this research is to forecast malaria cases with climatic factors as predictors in Mandailing Natal Regency. The total number of positive malaria cases on January 2008 to December 2016 were taken from health department of Mandailing Natal Regency. Climates data such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature were taken from Center of Statistic Department of Mandailing Natal Regency. E-views ver. 9 is used to analyze this study. Autoregressive integrated average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,0,0)12 is the best model to explain the 67,2% variability data in time series study. Rainfall (P value = 0.0005), temperature (P value = 0,0029) and humidity (P value = 0.0001) are significant predictors for malaria transmission. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) in November and March shows peak for malaria cases.

  5. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  6. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Gruber, Samuel H.; DiBattista, Joseph; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Kessel, Steven T.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ashley, Mary V.; Chapman, Demian D F

    2013-01-01

    in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging

  7. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  8. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  9. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  11. Sífilis congênita: evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal Sífilis congénita: evento centinela de la calidad de la asistencia pre-natal Congenital syphilis: a sentinel event in antenatal care quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2013-02-01

    identificación de gestantes con diagnóstica de sífilis en la gestación fue realizada por medio de entrevistas, verificación de la tarjeta de pre-natal y búsqueda de casos notificados en sistemas públicos de información en salud. Los casos de sífilis congénita se identificaron por medio de búsqueda en los sistemas de información en salud: Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación (SINAN, Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM y Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarios (SIH del SUS. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 46 casos de sífilis en la gestación y 16 casos de sífilis congénita con una prevalencia estimada de 1,9% (IC95% 1,3;2,6 de sífilis en la gestación y de 6/1.000 (IC95% 3;12/1.000 de sífilis congénita. La tasa de transmisión vertical fue de 34,8% y tres casos fueron fatales, un aborto, un óbito fetal y un óbito neonatal, con proporciones elevadas de bajo peso y prematuridad. La trayectoria asistencial de las gestantes mostró fallas en la asistencia, como inicio tardío del pre-natal, ausencia de diagnóstico en el embarazo y ausencia de tratamiento de las parejas. CONCLUSIONES: Estrategias innovadoras son necesarias para enfrentar la sífilis en la gestación, que incorporen mejorías en la red de apoyo diagnóstico, en el manejo clínico de la enfermedad en la gestante y sus parejas y en la investigación de los casos como evento centinela de la calidad de la asistencia pre-natal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antenatal care in reducing the vertical transmission of syphilis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to be representative of low-risk pregnancies in women cared for at the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS network in the city of Rio de Janeiro, from November 2007 to July 2008. Pregnant women diagnosed with syphilis were identified through interviews, checking their antenatal care card and searching for reported cases in the public health information systems. Cases of congenital syphilis were sought at the disease

  12. Perspectiva das mulheres na avaliação do Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento Perspectiva de las mujeres en la evaluación del Programa de Humanización del Pre-natal y Nacimiento Women's perspective in the evaluation of the Program for the Humanization of Antenatal Care and Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andréa Locatelli de Almeida

    2009-02-01

    METODOLOGICOS: Estudio cualitativo realizado en base a datos primarios colectados para la evaluación del Programa de Humanización del Pre-natal y Nacimiento, del Ministerio de Salud, en 2003, en siete municipios de las cinco regiones de Brasil, seleccionados a partir de datos extraídos de sistemas de bancos de datos oficiales ya existentes. Uno de los actores considerado fundamental para la colecta de informaciones fue la mujer atendida por el Programa, abordada por medio de dieciséis grupos focales realizados en unidades de salud. Para el tratamiento de los datos empíricos fue utilizado el método del discurso del sujeto colectivo. El análisis y discusión fueron realizados con el apoyo de los conceptos en salud pública de Accesibilidad y Salud Paidéia. ANÁLISIS DE LOS RESULTADOS: El Programa estudiado norma para todos los servicios de salud del país los procedimientos para la atención al pre-natal y el parto y los flujos a ser observados. El análisis del discurso de las gestantes, en los grupos focales realizados, trajo claridad con relación a la disonancia existente entre muchas de esas recomendaciones y los deseos y necesidades de la mujer, lo que hace que ella busque trazar para sí otro flujo de atención. Esta ocurrencia trae perjuicios al vínculo que establece con el servicio de salud, además de dificultades de control por el servicio de seguimiento real que está siendo ofrecido. CONCLUSIONES: La reflexión realizada del Programa, tomando por base la perspectiva de las mujeres atendidas, identificó aspectos cuya consideración en el momento de la evaluación podría resultar en mayor efectividad y humanización del control pre-natal ofrecido.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the importance of inclusion, from women's perspective, in the evaluation of the Program for the Humanization of Antenatal Care and Childbirth, carried out by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: This qualitative study was based on primary data collected in 2003 in an

  13. The promotion of oral health within Health Promoting Schools in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. Theimportance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA. Although oral health strategiesinclude integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated intopractice and whether these programmes have been evaluated.Objective. To assess the efficiency and sustainability of the toothbrushing programme implemented at health-promoting schools inKwaZulu-Natal Province, SA.Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study, conducted at 23 health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal using focusgroup discussions. Triangulation was used for evaluation.Results. The intervention implemented had created awareness of oral health for learners, educators and parents. Findings in this studyindicate that although there were benefits obtained from this school-based intervention, many challenges, such as time constraints, largeclasses and a lack of adequate resources and funding, affected the sustainability of the programme.Conclusion.The school setting has the potential to deliver integrated preventive and promotive programmes provided they are supportedby adequate funding and resources.

  14. Predictive modelling of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hiestermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global trend of transformation and loss of wetlands through conversion to other land uses has deleterious effects on surrounding ecosystems, and there is a resultant increasing need for the conservation and preservation of wetlands. Improved mapping of wetland locations is critical to achieving objective regional conservation goals, which depends on accurate spatial knowledge. Current approaches to mapping wetlands through the classification of satellite imagery typically under-represents actual wetland area; the importance of ancillary data in improving accuracy in mapping wetlands is therefore recognised. In this study, we compared two approaches Bayesian networks and logistic regression to predict the likelihood of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both approaches were developed using the same data set of environmental surrogate predictors. We compared and verified model outputs using an independent test data set, with analyses including receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Both models performed similarly (AUC>0.84, indicating the suitability of a likelihood approach for ancillary data for wetland mapping. Results indicated that high wetland probability areas in the final model outputs correlated well with known wetland systems and wetland-rich areas in KwaZulu-Natal. We conclude that predictive models have the potential to improve the accuracy of wetland mapping in South Africa by serving as valuable ancillary data.

  15. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  16. Number One Reef: An overstepped segmented lagoon complex on the KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Vella

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study of the bathymetry of the mid-shelf of the Durban Bight, KwaZulu-Natal revealed a series of previously undocumented seafloor features. These features were mapped using a high-resolution multibeam bathymetric echosounder and a detailed map of the seafloor topography was produced. We recognised several features that closely resemble features of contemporary segmented lagoon and lake systems: semicircular seafloor depressions, arcuate ridges, cuspate spits and prograding submerged barriers. Based on the striking similarity in morphology to Kosi Bay – a segmented lagoon system from the sandy northern KwaZulu-Natal coastal plain – a similar evolutionary model is proposed. This model is of an incised valley formed following a sea level lowering to the Last Glacial Maximum at about 18 000 BP. Thereafter, continued transgressive infilling occurred to a point where an extensive lagoon and back-barrier system was established. At this point, sea levels remained static, causing the net segmentation of the system and the slow closure of the tidal basins or circular depressions. This type of seafloor topography is rarely preserved and is the result of fortuitous cementation after deposition and the later removal of sediment that would ordinarily bury such features.

  17. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  18. Sex determination using humeral dimensions in a sample from KwaZulu-Natal: an osteometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin Olalekan; Ajayi, Sunday Adelaja; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Zaw, Aung Khaing; Naidu, Edwin Coleridge Stephen; Okpara Azu, Onyemaechi

    2017-09-01

    The morphological characteristics of the humeral bone has been investigated in recent times with studies showing varying degrees of sexual dimorphism. Osteologists and forensic scientists have shown that sex determination methods based on skeletal measurements are population specific, and these population-specific variations are present in many body dimensions. The present study aims to establish sex identification using osteometric standards for the humerus in a contemporary KwaZulu-Natal population. A total of 11 parameters were measured in a sample of n=211 humeri (males, 113; females, 98) from the osteological collection in the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. The difference in means for nearly all variables were found to be significantly higher in males compared to females ( P <0.01) with the most effective single parameter for predicting sex being the vertical head diameter having an accuracy of 82.5%. Stepwise discriminant analysis increased the overall accuracy rate to 87.7% when all measurements were jointly applied. We conclude that the humerus is an important bone which can be reliably used for sex determination based on standard metric methods despite minor tribal or ancestral differences amongst an otherwise homogenous population.

  19. The contribution of public capital towards economic growth: A KwaZulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The way provincial or regional growth depends on infrastructure is investigated in this article and it is applied to data from KwaZulu-Natal province, as an illustration. Setting: This study investigates the extent to which infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa leads towards economic growth of the province. Methods: From a theoretical framework, this article develops an endogenous growth model, which investigates the association between provincial public capital stock expenditure and economic growth. Data series for public capital formation are first developed to apply in this study and others to follow. Econometric techniques are then employed, using quarterly data between 2001 and 2015, to assess the set hypothesis that growth in expenditure on public capital leads to national economic growth. Results: The empirical results support the argument of a positive relationship between provincial capital stock and economic growth in the long-term. The findings also suggests that the long-term causality or effect fades over time, albeit slowly. Conclusion: The nature and statistical significance of the long-term equilibrium relationship seems to be ambiguous at best. Some evidence of an equilibrium relationship in the short-term was, however, also observed. In conclusion, there also seems to be some causality between provincial capital stock and provincial gross domestic product in the short-run.

  20. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS IKAN DI SUNGAI BATANG GADIS MANDAILING NATAL SUMATERA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusni Atifah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batang Gadis River, located in Mandailing Natal, faces a severe threat by the increase of human activities along the river. The fish community, as well as other biotas, is exposed to reducing environmental condition. Therefore, the study of fish community in this river is essential to get the most recent condition as a baseline data. The purpose of this research was to determine the species diversity of fish in Batang Gadis River of Mandailing Natal. This research used a descriptive exploratory method by surveying with purposive sampling method to collect samples at four specified stations. This study used a fishing net with a zig-zag pattern of sampling covered the river bank for about 200–300m at each observation station. The collected fish samples were identified at the Biology Laboratory of the University of Muhammadiyah Tapanuli Selatan. This study found ten species of fish from five families. The family with the most significant members was Cyprinidae (6 species, and the other families, Bagridae, Clariidae, Nemachelidae, and Loricariidae, were found with only one species. The species diversity comprised of Rasbora lateristriata, Nemacheilus fasciatus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Tor tambra, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias bathracus, Rasbora argyrotaenia , Barbonymus gonionotus, Puntius binotatus, Bagrus nemurus, and Pterygoplichthys pardalis. The fish population of Batang Gadis River has diversity index (H’ of 1.77 and similarity index (E of 0.77.

  1. Natal teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  3. A literature review of tele-dermatology programs in the South African public health sector: Kwazulu-Natal perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Laticha EM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 17,9%, the highest being in KwaZulu-Natal. Dermatological diseases are linked to HIV/AIDS. Tele-dermatology was not part of the 1998 National Telemedicine Project. Only phase I (of three) was implemented...

  4. Climate controls on late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Okhombe valley, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Botha, G.A.; Veldkamp, A.; Jongmans, A.G.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    Hillslopes in central and western parts of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa are often mantled by colluvial sediments of the Masotcheni Formation. These sediments have accreted in response to several cycles of deposition, pedogenesis and incomplete erosion. Climatic controls on these cycles are

  5. Dynamics of some forests in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa, based on ordinations and size-class distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everard, DA

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest in Kwa Zulu-Natal has been fairly well described, however, very little has been published on its dynamics. There is, to our knowledge, nothing published on disturbances regimes, dendrology and life histories of constituent species...

  6. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  7. Innovative look at dairy heifer rearing: Effect of prenatal and post-natal environment on later performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Opsomer, G

    2017-08-01

    As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf. According to the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis," these metabolic alterations prepare the newborn for similar ("matching") conditions after birth, enhancing its survival during periods of limited feeding. Yet, when an abundance of nutrients is available in post-natal life (e.g., during periods of enhanced feeding), the "mismatch" between pre- and post-natal environment results in an early catch-up growth, with potential negative consequences. The aim of the article was to discuss this mismatch between pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. Previous studies, especially in human medicine, have shown catch-up growth to be associated with obesity, fertility problems, metabolic diseases and a reduced lifespan. Hence, we hypothesize that, by applying programs of accelerated growth, our current management system accentuates the mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. We can conclude that, although more research is necessary, the current findings point towards a more individual approach when rearing dairy heifers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Smits, Luc J. M.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Nelissen, Ewka C. M.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E. L.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared

  9. Creating a commodified wilderness: Tourism, private game farming, and 'third nature' landscapes in KwaZulu-Natal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, S.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Brakel, L.; Kolk, A.; Lukhozi, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores contemporary cultural geographies and underlying histories of change on private land in post-apartheid South Africa. Its focus is the expansion of wildlife-based tourism and related forms of commodified wilderness consumption in KwaZulu-Natal province. The article explores the

  10. Estimating the cost of the mass treatment campaign for schistosomiasis in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maphumulo, Andile A; Gagai, Silindile; Lothe, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    , from a provider perspective. Costs were classified by cost inputs and activity. Financial records were reviewed for all 60 randomly selected schools participating in the MTC in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal. An Excel database was used for data analysis. Preliminary Findings: Forty five percent (16 239...

  11. Regional flood frequency analysis in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, using the index-flood method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A regional frequency analysis of annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flows from relatively unregulated rivers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been conducted, including identification of homogeneous regions and suitable regional frequency distributions for the regions. The study...

  12. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  13. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  15. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  16. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  17. Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergert M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Hergert,1 Kevin le Roux,2 Louis H Nel3,4 1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Government Veterinary Services, Pietermaritzburg, 3Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Canine rabies has been enzootic in the dog population of the KwaZulu-Natal ­province of South Africa since the mid-1970s and has been associated with high rates of human exposures and frequent transmissions to other domestic animal species. Several decades of control efforts, consisting primarily of mass vaccination programs, failed to sufficiently curb rabies in this province. For meaningful progression toward better control and elimination, the factors contributing to the persistence of this disease need to be elucidated and addressed. This paper reports evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding owned canine populations in this South African province. We used logistic regression modeling to predict variables associated with risk of nonvaccination of rabies in owned dogs. The study indicated that husbandry practices, rabies knowledge, geographical area/location, and the ages of dogs were important factors associated with the risk of nonvaccination. High population turnover, together with large free roaming dog populations, compromised the levels of vaccination achieved and contributed to the persistence of dog rabies in the province. Dog owners in this study also reported that they were more likely to present their dogs for vaccination when the vaccines were free of charge (52% and less than a kilometer from their homes (91%. It has been suggested that effective dog rabies control

  18. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  20. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champak; Dlamini, Siyabonga; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Eggers, Matthijs S; De Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Researchers aimed to determine the effects of a teenage pregnancy (TP) prevention program for 816 high school students attending 16 KwaZulu-Natal, South African schools through a randomized control trial. Data were collected at baseline and at the 8-month follow-up in 2009. Results were calculated using multivariate analyses of program effects employing Mplus 6, and indicated significantly healthier attitudes, including intentions to abstain from sex whilst at school, plans to communicate with partners about teenage pregnancy, and increased reports of condom use. Researchers thus provide some support for the effectiveness of a TP prevention program that should be further strengthened in a comprehensive approach that includes schools and families.

  1. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  2. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  3. TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO DO MUNICÍPIO DE NATAL: aspectos de parafiscalidade do caso SETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Damião Machado da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho é compreender como os aspectos da gestão parafiscal do Sindicato das Empresas de Transporte Urbano de Passageiros do Município do Natal – SETURN contribuem para a eficiência do transporte público e para a melhoria a mobilidade urbana, visando contribuir na qualidade de vida da população local. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Sindicato, baseada no estudo de caso, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, onde foram feitas análises, com o objetivo de descrever a situação do transporte coletivo relativo à eficiência que, na visão da pesquisa, fica comprometida, uma vez que os automóveis particulares disputam o mesmo espaço nas vias, juntamente com os transportes coletivos, impedindo assim, agilidade nas viagens.

  4. Towards a successful centralization of municipal procurement: A case of KwaZulu-Natal province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Centralization of municipal procurement in the KwaZulu-Natal Province is faced with several challenges. There were two aims for this study: to identify factors influencing municipal procurement and to design a model of the factors influencing municipal procurement, in an attempt to improve the understanding of municipal procurement. The proposed model is based on sound theoretical frameworks like knowledge management theory and the application of theory and practice ethics as well as the secondary data. The study found that the biographic factors as well as internal and external factors have strong influences on the success or failure of municipal procurement. The significance of these factors formed the basis for a proposed model and is subject to further experiments by other scholars.

  5. Natality Decline and Miscarriages Associated With the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: The Scandinavian and United States Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for severe influenza infection, the effect of influenza on miscarriages and births remains unclear. We examined the relationship between influenza and birth rates during the 1918 pandemic in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway...... of peak pandemic exposure and depressions in birth rates, and identified pregnancy stages at risk of influenza-related miscarriage. Results. Birth rates declined in all study populations in spring 1919 by a mean of 2.2 births per 1000 persons, representing a 5%–15% drop below baseline levels (P ...). The 1919 natality depression reached its trough 6.1–6.8 months after the autumn pandemic peak, suggesting that missing births were attributable to excess first trimester miscarriages in ∼1 in 10 women who were pregnant during the peak of the pandemic. Pandemic-related mortality was insufficient to explain...

  6. Radiation effects on pre-natal development and their radiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The evidence relating to pre-natal radiation exposure and the subsequent occurrence of malformations and cancer suggests that the overall risk lies in the range 0 to 1 cases per 1000 irradiated by one rad in utero in the first four months of pregnancy. The natural level of occurrence of serious handicaps in average pregnancies is at least 30 times higher. Is the much lower probability of radiation-induced harm sufficiently high to justify (a) concern when a woman who has been irradiated is found to have been pregnant at that time, or (b) the maintenance of restrictions on medical uses of ionizing radiation in women in the reproductive age, such as the ten day rule. (author)

  7. Unusual loss of chymosin in mammalian lineages parallels neo-natal immune transfer strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Fonseca, Elza; Teixeira, Ana; Castro, L Filipe C

    2017-11-01

    Gene duplication and loss are powerful drivers of evolutionary change. The role of loss in phenotypic diversification is notably illustrated by the variable enzymatic repertoire involved in vertebrate protein digestion. Among these we find the pepsin family of aspartic proteinases, including chymosin (Cmy). Previous studies demonstrated that Cmy, a neo-natal digestive pepsin, is inactivated in some primates, including humans. This pseudogenization event was hypothesized to result from the acquisition of maternal immune immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer. By investigating 94 mammalian subgenomes we reveal an unprecedented level of Cmy erosion in placental mammals, with numerous independent events of gene loss taking place in Primates, Dermoptera, Rodentia, Cetacea and Perissodactyla. Our findings strongly suggest that the recurrent inactivation of Cmy correlates with the evolution of the passive transfer of IgG and uncovers a noteworthy case of evolutionary cross-talk between the digestive and the immune system, modulated by gene loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic prénatal: quelles sont les techniques actuelles et futures ? (flyer)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    La majorité des bébés qui viennent au monde ne présentent pas d'anomalies particulières. Cependant, il faut savoir qu'environ 1 foetus 170 présente une anomalie chromosomique (défaut de la structure ou du nombre de chromosomes) qui va peser plus ou moins lourdement sur sa vie future et 1 foetus sur 100 présente une maladie génique due à un changement dans un gène. Le diagnostic prénatal a connu et connaît une formidable expansion grâce aux progrès technologiques en génétique et imagerie foetale.

  9. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Spearing, Kerry; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Results are presented for men (n = 52) and women (n = 84) 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day) and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  10. Sector switching among histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggunan, Shaun D; Singh, Suveera

    2013-05-30

    The mobility of health care professionals from the public to private sector is prevalent in South Africa. However, literature on sector switching of clinical doctors remains limited. It is against this background that this study aims to make the labour market visible for histopathologists and identify the reasons for sector switching. This study is exploratory and descriptive. It uses qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, with 70% (n = 16/23) of the population of histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Lee's (1966) push-pull theory is adapted to explain the pull sector switching behaviours of histopathologists. Interviews were recorded and independently transcribed. The narratives of the participants were coded to reflect the main themes that contributed to their sector switching behaviours. Five key themes emerged as reasons for the mobility of histopathologists from the public to private sector in KwaZulu-Natal. The findings indicate that remuneration, working conditions, work flexibility, career pathing and autonomy of labour processes are the key drivers of this mobility. Histopathologists provide a core function in the health care chain. However, their invisibility in academic discourse in both public health and human resources for health indicates the paucity of research undertaken on the importance of these specialists in the health care chain. This is especially significant in developing countries like South Africa, where there is a dearth of these specialists. This study, while exploratory, aims to open a dialogue to better understand their reasons for sector switching and, hopefully, inform policies on training, recruitment and retention of these specialists.

  11. Perceptions of newly-qualified nurses performing compulsory community service in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Selverani; Brysiewicz, Petra; Bhengu, Busisiwe

    2015-07-08

    Compulsory community service (CCS) for nurses commenced in South African January 2008 after it was legislated in the new Nursing Act (Act No. 33 of 2005). Nurses completing their registered nurse programme are registered as community nurse practitioners (CNPs) during the CCS period and make up the largest number of health professionals serving CCS. Whilst health institutions have welcomed CNPs as additional resources for the shortage of nursing staff, no structured guidelines have been provided at a regional level as to how these nurses should be utilised or managed during the CCS year. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on nurses carrying out CCS in order to generalise the findings. To establish the perceptions of newly-qualified nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A quantitative survey design was used to obtain data from a randomly selected sample of the 2012 cohort of nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal. CNPs have a positive attitude toward CCS and perceive themselves as being well prepared for the year of community service in terms of knowledge, skills and ability to administer nursing care. They identified positive benefits of the year of community service.The concerns raised were limited orientation and support; and a few CNPs experienced problems of acceptance by the nurses with whom they work. It is recommended that all health institutions who receive CNPs develop structured orientation and support for these nurses in order to promote their development, thereby enhancing their benefit to the communities they serve.

  12. O discurso do risco e o aconselhamento genético pré-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena C. D. V. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A medicalização é um fenômeno social difuso nas sociedades ocidentais que se expressa segundo um diferencial de gênero. A gravidez é um momento fortemente medicalizado, no qual as mulheres se vêem cercadas de uma rede de vigilância de seu corpo, sendo responsabilizadas não só pela própria saúde, mas também pela produção de um feto saudável. O controle dos riscos no pré-natal é proposto, entretanto, em um contexto no qual as possibilidades diagnósticas são amplamente majoritárias comparativamente às possibilidades terapêuticas. Essa defasagem é agravada pelo fato de, no Brasil, o abortamento ser ilegal. Este artigo é fruto de pesquisa empírica realizada em um ambulatório público de genética pré-natal, que constou de: observação das práticas de atendimento, revisão de prontuários e realização de entrevistas com profissionais de saúde. Discutem-se o contexto fortemente medicalizado do aconselhamento genético no Brasil e a percepção dos médicos sobre suas práticas neste contexto. É discutido também o possível impacto sobre a tomada de decisão das mulheres atendidas em relação a riscos, técnicas, exames e seus desdobramentos.

  13. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobilidade e rendimento escolar dos estudantes de ensino médio em Natal (RN, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William de Mendonça Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Pouco explorado pela literatura, os deslocamentos diários casa-escola refletem uma incoerência espacial entre a distribuição da população em idade escolar e os estabelecimentos de ensino de educação básica (nível médio em Natal, RN. Neste trabalho exploraremos o perfil dos comutadores (estudantes a partir de um recorte político-administrativo intramunicipal. Dessa forma foi possível captar os fluxos diários de estudantes entre os bairros do município de Natal. Para isso, utilizamos o conceito de espaço de vida como embasamento teórico e o banco de dados do Censo Escolar 2012. Assim, relacionando as informações referentes à localidade de residência e de estudos dos alunos, verificou-se a relação entre o deslocamento para estudo e o desempenho escolar medido através do indicador de distorção idade-série em um modelo de regressão logística. Entre os resultados encontrados identificou-se que a chance de um aluno ter um bom rendimento escolar não está relacionada com a proximidade de sua residência da escola. Nesse sentido, a dinâmica da população em termos de distribuição escolar e de alunos pode representar aspectos importantes para a gestão urbana e a oferta de serviços educacionais, sobretudo em um contexto no qual as tendências demográficas apontam para uma redução expressiva da população em idade escolar nos próximos anos.

  15. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  16. Natality and infant mortality in Roma children in the Prešov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Koval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of exact data on natality and infant mortality rates of the Roma living in Slovakia we aim to look closer into these parameters, analyze them and in this respect compare two ethnic groups: Roma and non-Roma Slovak children. Material and methods: In the time period from 1997 to 2011, we collected data in selected parameters (birth rate, infant mortality rate, the number of newborns with low birth weight, the number of children abandoned by their mothers after birth in the Prešov region, and we evaluated them. Findings: A declining natality rate was observed in non-Roma children, as opposed to an upward trend in Roma children. In 1997, every fourth child was born to a Roma woman; in 2011, it was every third child. A declining infant mortality rate was observed in all groups studied. In the Roma children, the decline in the infant mortality rate was the biggest, yet the mere infant mortality rate, in this group of children, was the highest – in 1997 and in 2011 approximately 3-times higher than in the children born to non-Roma mothers. Conclusion: In our study, the infant mortality rate of Roma children is on decline, yet still it is high when compared to the non-Roma population. This may be caused by low interest of the Roma in providing health care to their children and their low responsibility or their inability to take responsibility for health and health care education of their children.

  17. DATING AND SEXUAL CHALLENGES FACED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA

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    Mulqueeny, Delarise

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2010 UNAIDS Report, an estimated 320 000 (or 20% fewer people died of AIDS-related causes in 2009 when compared to figures in 2004 in sub-Saharan Africa, when antiretroviral therapy was markedly expanded (UNAIDS, 2010. This decreased mortality rate offers hope for HIV-infected people to plan a future, part of which will include dating and sexual relationships. The Report cites KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as being at the heart of the HIV/AIDS epidemic; this article is based on research on dating and sexuality among HIV-positive people in KwaZulu-Natal. Dating and sexuality are an integral part of living. Yet HIV-positive persons are denied intimacy at a time when this is most needed (Kasiram in Kasiram, Partab & Dano, 2006. Little is known about the full range of sexual adaptations that HIV-infected individuals choose (Schiltz & Sandfort, 2000. Kasiram, Partab, Dano and Van Greunen (2003:9 cite interaction and intimacy among HIV-positive persons as a neglected research focus, while Painter (2001 adds that insufficient attention is afforded to couple relationships for infected people. An important reason that motivated this study on dating and sexual challenges faced by HIV-positive people was the first author’s (the main researcher’s personal experience of being HIV positive and counselling and life coaching HIV-positive people. She is confronted regularly with variations of the question “Will I be normal?”, which often translates to: “Will I be able to date and have sex.

  18. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  19. Modos de aplicação de calcário e de micronutrientes em pomar de laranjeira 'Natal' e análise comparativa de custos Effect of ways of lime application and micronutrients and make a comparative analysis of treatments costs in a orange orchard var. 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson Fernandes Calgaro

    2007-01-01

    dos micronutrientes para produção e massa média dos frutos da laranjeira 'Natal', e a receita líquida foi positiva em todos os tratamentos, sendo que o tratamento 5 [¹/3 da necessidade total de calcário (NC no 1º ano + ¹/3 da NC no 2º ano, + ¹/3 da NC no 3º ano] apresentou o melhor valor acumulado (U$ 3.721,85 ha-1.In agreement with the Institute Fnp (2005, the production Brazilian of citrus is of 17,7 million tons year-1 occupying 1 million of ha approximately in the Brazilian territory and of this total one, 810 thousand ha are located in the State of São Paulo. Most of the Brazilian soils, besides those where the citric orchards were installed, it presents acid reaction. This is, without a doubt, the main unfavorable condition of the soils and one of the factors that harm the production in tropical soils. The present work had the objective to study the effect of different ways of lime application, micronutrients and make a comparative analysis of treatments costs in a orange. The experiment was develop at Morumbi Farm, town country of Estrela D'Oeste, in a Ultisol. The variety of orange used was the 'Natal' incorporated at lemon, with six years old and spaced at 5 x 8 m. The outline was in a subdivided plot, with 3 repetitions, with 5 main treatments [without lime application, lime total need (LT incorporated; LT without incorporation; ¹/2 LT in the first year + ¹/2 LT in the second year; ¹/3 LT in the first year + ¹/3 LT in the second year + ¹/3 LT in the third year] and 2 secondary treatments [micronutrients in the soil (FTE-BR 12: 11,5% de ZnO e B2O3; 1% CuO; 5,4% de Fe2O3; 5,5% de MnO2; 0,2% de MoO3; micronutrients in the leaves (sulfate of zinc to 0,5% and boric acid a 0,08%], distributed in randomblocks. There is no significant effect in the ways of application of lime and micronutrients in the evaluated parameters (production, total solid soluble (TSS, total acidy, chemical analysis of the soil; to medium mass of the fruit had a

  20. Fatores associados à assistência pré-natal entre mulheres de baixa renda no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with pre-natal care among low income women, State of S.Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados de pesquisa que avaliou o Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher (PAISM, realizada em 1988, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 3.703 mulheres de baixa renda que tinham entre 15 e 49 anos de idade, utilizando um questionário estruturado e pré-testado. Os resultados referem-se às 669 mulheres grávidas durante 1987 ou 1988 que responderam às questões sobre assistência pré-natal, parto e puerpério. Foi analisada a associação entre algumas de suas características sociodemográficas e comparecimento às consultas pré-natais, a idade gestacional em que foi feita a primeira consulta e o número total de consultas. Os resultados mostraram associação entre características sociodemográficas e comparecimento ao pré-natal. A maior percentagem de grávidas que fizeram pré-natal tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade. Foi maior a proporção de mulheres que começaram o pré-natal até o terceiro mês de gravidez entre aquelas que não tinham filho vivo (74%, que viviam com um companheiro (70%, que tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade (88% e as que moravam no interior do Estado (71%.This paper presents the results of a study carried out in 1988 in the State of S. Paulo, with the purpose of evaluating the Program for Women's Integral Health Care. A total of 3.703 low income women of 15-49 years of age were interviewed using a structured, pre-tested form. The data in this paper relate to 669 women who had been pregnant during 1987 or 1988 and who were asked about pre-natal, delivery and post-partum care. The association between some of their socio-demographic characteristics and the pre-natal care received, months pregnant at the time of first visit and total number of visits, were analysed. Results showed an association between socio-economic characteristics and pre-natal care received. The greatest percentage of pregnant women who had had pre-natal care was

  1. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  2. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  3. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  4. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  5. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  6. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  7. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

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    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  8. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

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    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  9. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

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    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  10. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

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    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  11. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    In some primate species, pelage colorations at birth contrast with adult colorations. The intensity of natal coats and their phylogenetic distribution is highly variable within primates. Natal coat coloration seems to change to adult coloration in most species when infants become independent from...... their mothers, but an accepted functional explanation for natal coats is not available. Here we describe pelage coloration change in sexually dichromatic redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) in Kirindy Forest, and propose a new functional hypothesis for this phenomenon. In this species, infants are born...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  12. Outgrower timber schemes in KwaZulu-Natal – Do they build sustainable rural livelihoods and what interventions should be made?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cairns, RI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale timber growers access commercial timber markets in KwaZulu-Natal through three mechanisms. These are; highly structured contractual arrangements (SAPPI, Lima and Mondi); membership in commercial forest-owners associations or timber...

  13. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew

    2013-12-09

    Sharks are a globally threatened group of marine fishes that often breed in their natal region of origin. There has even been speculation that female sharks return to their exact birthplace to breed (\\'natal philopatry\\'), which would have important conservation implications. Genetic profiling of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from 20 consecutive cohorts (1993-2012) at Bimini, Bahamas, showed that certain females faithfully gave birth at this site for nearly two decades. At least six females born in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging spatial and local conservation efforts for these threatened predators. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1988-01-01

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  15. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  16. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  17. Genetic and Morphological Differentiation of the Semiterrestrial Crab Armases angustipes (Brachyura: Sesarmidae) along the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochi, Murilo Zanetti; Masunari, Setuko; Schubart, Christoph D

    2017-02-01

    The genetic and morphometric population structures of the semiterrestrial crab Armases angustipes from along the Brazilian coast were examined. The influence of the Central South Equatorial Current on larval dispersal of A. angustipes also was evaluated. Six populations were sampled from estuarine areas in São Luis do Maranhão, Maranhão; Natal, Rio Grande do Norte; Maceió, Alagoas; Ilhéus, Bahia; Aracruz, Espírito Santo; and Guaratuba, Paraná. Patterns of genetic differentiation were assessed using DNA sequence data corresponding to parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to evaluate morphological variation in shape and size of the carapace and right cheliped propodus. Our results revealed low genetic variability and lack of phylogeographic structure; geometric morphometrics showed statistically significant morphological differentiation and geographic structuring. Our data indicate the absence of possible barriers to gene flow for this mobile species, and no clear correlation of morphological or genetic variation with ocean currents and/or geographic distance. Our results also suggest that historical geological and climatological events and/or possible bottleneck effects influenced the current low genetic variability among the populations of A. angustipes.

  18. Diagnóstico pré-natal das genodermatoses Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses

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    Maria Carolina de Abreu Sampaio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método.Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and

  19. Genetic characterisation of populations of the critically endangered Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara, Serranidae from the Northern Brazilian coast through analyses of mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia C. Silva-Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara is one of the most endangered species of fish of the subfamily Epinephelinae. Slow to develop and mature, and dependent on mangrove habitats for breeding, the species also suffers intense harvesting, which has reduced drastically in numbers in many areas. To contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of E. itajara populations, we conducted a molecular genetics study of the species, focusing on populations from the Northern Brazilian coast. The mtDNA control region (D-loop of 116 individuals from five localities (Bragança, Ajuruteua, Parnaíba, Fortaleza and Natal was analysed, and a sequence of 499 base pairs identified. Analyses of the sequences indicated that genetic variability was generally lower in E. itajara than in other endangered species of the genus. AMOVA found no significant grouping structure among the populations. Nested Clade Analysis revealed a significant association between genetic variability and geographic distribution among only three populations (Ajuruteua, Parnaíba and Natal. Genetic diversity was higher in populations from the Amazon region, which may be related to the better conservation of mangrove habitats in this area. Therefore, the present study could be used for the implementation of conservation and management measures in order to protect and consolidate these populations.

  20. Sífilis congênita: evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Saracen, Valeria; Hartz, Zulmira Maria De Araújo; Leal, Maria Do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a assistência pré-natal na prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal representativo para as gestantes de baixo risco atendidas em unidades de saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, período de 2007 a 2008. A identificação de gestantes com diagnóstico de sífilis na gestação foi feita por meio de entrevistas, verificação do cartão de pré-natal e busca de casos notificados em sistemas públicos de informação em saúde. Os casos de sífilis congên...

  1. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  2. Percepção da gestante sobre a integralidade da atenção pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Melina de Paiva

    2008-01-01

    Os principais problemas discutidos sobre a atenção pré-natal na literatura referem-se ao não cumprimento das atividades preconizadas pelo MS por parte dos profissionais durante as consultas pré-natais, ocasionando uma baixa qualidade da atenção pré-natal e a óbitos materno-infantis. A avaliação na percepção da gestante e do pesquisador constitui um método para identificar os conflitos existentes na organização do serviço de saúde e nas práticas profissionais, sendo relevante a decodificação d...

  3. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  4. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

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    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  5. Stress management and its impact on work performance of educators in public schools in KwaZulu–Natal / Kiveshni Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Kiveshni

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on stress management of educators, and specifically in the KwaZulu–Natal geographical region. The study consists of four focus areas (which are presented in article format), namely: * The first article identifies the role–players and their functions in delivering quality education to all South Africans. The article identifies the role–players from literature research and discusses their influences on the South African educational environment. A biographical profile of th...

  6. An investigation into the use of 3G mobile communications to provide telehealth services in rural KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M; Mars, M

    2014-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. Abstract Background: We investigated the use of third-generation (3G) mobile communications to provide telehealth services in remote health clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Materials and Methods: We specified a minimal set of services as our use case that would be representative of typical activity and to provide a baseline for analysis of network performance. Services included database access...

  7. Evaluasi Sifat Biologi Tanah Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) di Beberapa Kecamatan di Kabupaten Mandailing Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the agricultural commodities that has a sufficiently high economic value. Mandailaing Natal is the one of the coffee-producing areas in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate the biological properties of the soil, among others organic carbon, total nitrogen, total soil respiration and total soil microorganisms to the production of coffee. This study conducted using survey method. Samples were taken at random method deliberately based on deployment coffee plants from various ...

  8. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequentl...

  9. RESOLUSI KONFLIK ANTARA MASYARAKAT LOKAL DENGAN PERUSAHAAN PERTAMBANGAN (STUDI KASUS: KECAMATAN NAGA JUANG, KABUPATEN MANDAILING NATAL, PROVINSI SUMATERA UTARA

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    Dian Taufik Ramadhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Konflik antara PT. SMM, masyarakat Kecamatan Naga Juang, dan Pemerintah Kabupaten Mandailing Natal, berakar pada hubungan ekonomi yang menyangkut pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan komoditi emas. Penelitian ini berupaya melihat relasi di antara ketiga stakeholder tersebut. Melihat hal-hal yang menjadi sebab konflik, mengurai struktur dan dinamika konfik serta merumuskan strategi resolusi konflik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dimensi sebab konflik disebabkan oleh dimensi ekonomi atas pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan komoditi emas, dimensi struktur dan dinamika sangat dipengaruhi oleh peran aktor yang mendorong peningkatan ketegangan dan eskalasi konfik. Resolusi konflik yang dirumuskan yaitu strategi akomodatif. Strategi akomodatif adalah strategi yang mengakomodir kepentingan dan espektasi dari dua stakeholder kunci yaitu, Pemkab Madina dan masyarakat Kecamatan Naga Juang. Conflict between PT. SMM, Naga Juang district community, and the government of Mandailing Natal Regency, rooted in economic relations that concern to the management and utilization of gold’s commodity.  This research attempt to see the relationship between the three stakeholders, see the causes of conflict, analyze the structure and dynamics of conflict, and also formulate strategies of conflict resolution. The results showed, the economic dimension of the conflict caused by the management and utilization of gold commodity, structural and dynamics dimensions are strongly influenced by the role of actors which encouraged tension escalation and conflicts. The formulation of conflict resolution is an accommodative strategic which is a strategy that accommodates the interests and expectations of two key stakeholders, namely Mandailing Natal regencial government, and Naga Juang district community.

  10. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Pierre; Daniel, Grégory; Viblanc, Vincent A; Martin, Julien G A; Doligez, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Interleukin-6 Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Numbers during Normal and Abnormal Post-natal Development

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    Mekayla A. Storer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools. : In this report, Storer and colleagues demonstrate that the circulating cytokine IL-6, which is elevated in humans in different pathological situations, can perturb neural stem cell biology after birth. They show that IL-6 signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of post-natal and adult NSCs in the murine forebrain under normal homeostatic conditions. Keywords: interleukin-6, neural stem cell, adult neurogenesis, CNS cytokines, postnatal brain development, stem cell depletion, neural stem cell niche, circulating stem cell factors, olfactory bulb

  12. Passages of ink: Decoding the Natal indentured records into the Digital Age

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    Thembisa Waetjen

    Full Text Available In every British colony that received indentured workers from India, officials recorded personal and social details for identifying the arriving migrants. In Natal, 152,184 migrants were inscribed into such lists between 1860 and 1911. This article traces the history of this set of documents from their mid-nineteenth-century origins as registers of imperial labour control to their twenty-first century digitisation by an amateur historian in a relational database, available online. Against the backdrop of transforming informational technologies, the story of the shipping lists is the story of their changing social and political meanings in relation to the circumstances of the Indian diaspora in South Africa over one hundred and fifty years. Now held at the Durban Archives Repository, these records are regularly drawn upon by South Africans of indentured ancestry to establish family origins for the purposes of applying for the status of 'Person of Indian Origin' or 'Overseas Citizen of India', offered by the Indian government to individuals who can prove Indian ancestry within a number of generations. Thus, the ships' lists are bracketed by very different periods in which the creation of an 'exceptional' political status was legislated to serve economic interests by harnessing linkages of the Global South.

  13. Factors affecting graduation and student dropout rates at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Mike Murray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce into the literature a competing risks methodology that can be used to help identify some student-specific and/or institutional factors which may be influencing the type of outcome experienced by a student when they leave the university system. Focusing on the length of time that it takes students to graduate or drop out from their studies, this new methodology was applied to a database comprising all students enrolled for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal between the years 2004 and 2012. Financial aid and residence-based accommodation were found to help students who will eventually graduate to do so quicker in terms of the number of credit points that they have to repeat. These same factors, however, also cause someone who will eventually be excluded on academic grounds to linger longer in the system. By focusing on the number of extra credit points that it takes to reach a particular exit point, this paper introduces into the literature a new measure whose use will help to overcome some of the more obvious problems that can occur when one uses calendar time to measure the length of time that it takes to reach a particular exit point.

  14. A survey of cultural competence of critical care nurses in KwaZuluNatal

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    Jennifer de Beer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nurses are primary caregivers and have a key role in providing care in a culturally diverse healthcare system, such as in South Africa (SA. Nurses need cultural competence in the management of patients within this cultural context. A healthcare system staffed by a culturally competent workforce can provide high-quality care to diverse population groups, contributing to the elimination of health disparities.Objective. To describe the self-rated levels of cultural competence of nurses working in critical care settings in a selected public hospital in SA.Methods. A quantitative descriptive survey was conducted with nurses from eight critical care units in a selected public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, using the Inventory to Access the Process of Cultural Competency - Revised (IAPCC-R cultural competence questionnaire. Results. The overall cultural competence score for the respondents was 70.2 (standard deviation 7.2 out of a possible 100, with 77 (74% of the respondents scoring in the awareness range, 26 (25% in the competent range, and only 1 in the proficient range. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds scored significantly higher in cultural competence than English-speaking nurses.Conclusion. In addressing the many faces of cultural diversity, healthcare professionals must realise that these faces share a common vision: to obtain quality healthcare services that are culturally responsive and culturally relevant to the specific cultural group.

  15. Experiences of homosexual patients' access to primary health care services in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Nokulunga H; Sibiya, Maureen N; Sokhela, Dudu G

    2015-09-28

    Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC) services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN). A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.

  16. Men's moralising discourses on gender and HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah L; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Various interventions have resulted in increased rates of HIV testing. However, encouraging men to acknowledge their risk for HIV, to test and link to treatment remains a challenge. In this study, we examine men's perspectives on navigating HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted at four intervals over a three-year time period with a baseline cohort of 126 men and women. We found that men navigated HIV risk in their sexual relationships mainly by monitoring their partner's behaviour. Men expressed concerns about female respectability, invoking discourses on hlonipha rooted in Zulu cultural ideals and Christian ideals about women staying close to home. In the post-apartheid era, these concerns were inflected by anxieties over changing gender norms and the high rates and risks of infection in the region. HIV prevention discourses on behaviour intersected with men's efforts to assert their masculinity through the monitoring and controlling of women's behaviour. The potential negative impacts of this should be addressed. Prevention efforts need to focus on men's vulnerability to infection in terms of their own behaviour as well as the contexts in which they live.

  17. Elemental distribution in seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum along the KwaZulu-Natal Coastline, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2006-01-01

    The total concentrations of 7 selected metals, namely manganese, iron, zinc, titanium, boron, arsenic and mercury, were monitored for one annual cycle covering four seasons in the seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum, at four sampling sites at Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure beach and Park Rynie along the South-East coastline of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to assess the current status of the marine environment. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometry, Mercury Cold Vapour AAS, and Hydride Generation AAS were used for the determination of metal concentrations. Mn concentrations were particularly high in the G. abbottiorum species, followed by Fe, As and B concentrations which were in the 3-8 ppm range. Ti and Zn were in the 100-400 ppb range, while Hg was low and below 100 ppb. A typical sample of G. abbottiorum at Treasure beach, a site close to Durban metropolis in winter had Mn (8.6 ppm), Fe (4.6 ppm), As (5.6 ppm), B (3.0 ppm), Ti (420 ppb), Zn (167 ppb) and Hg (7.5 ppb). All metals recorded a decrease in concentrations from winter to spring with the exception of Hg. The Hg levels increased considerably from winter to spring.

  18. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  19. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

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    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  20. Síndrome de burnout no setor de transporte de Natal

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    Luciana Bezerra de Souza Gianasi

    Full Text Available Reconhecendo-se a importância que o ambiente de trabalho tem para a saúde mental, o objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a relação entre a síndrome de burnout e as fontes de desgaste físico e emocional no setor de transporte coletivo urbano da cidade de Natal. A pesquisa foi realizada com 412 motoristas e cobradores de duas empresas. Para coleta dos dados, aplicaram-se dois questionários e uma ficha sociodemográfica. O primeiro, construído e validado durante a pesquisa, investigou as fontes e o segundo, a síndrome. Entre os resultados, confirmou-se a prevalência da síndrome e que a principal fonte de desgaste físico e emocional que a prediz é o fator referente a conflitos de valores e ausência de equidade no ambiente de trabalho.

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  2. RADIOATIVIDADE DAS AREIAS UTILIZADAS NA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL DA CIDADE DO NATAL/RN

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    Luiz Henrique Lira de Oliveria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por desígnio identificar os minerais pesados encontrados nos aluviões que abastecem o mercado da construção civil da grande Natal, bem como medir a radioatividade provinda dessas areias, nas quais as pessoas estão em constante contato, a fim de alertá-las aos possíveis perigos. Para tal, escolheu-se a localidade de Jacobina, no município de Macaíba/RN pelo fato da existência de exploração de areia nas margens do rio Potengi, onde foram realizadas medições gamaespectométricas no solo e em afloramentos com o Cintilômetro RS-125 Super-SPEC, adquirido pelo CNPq (Processo nº 550307/2010-9. A partir dos resultados obtidos, foram criadas superfícies modeladas (em meio digital através de mapas temáticos que proporcionaram uma simples interpretação das doses radioativas absorvidas.

  3. Women Tourism Entrepreneurs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Any Way Forward?

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    Sibongile Princess Tshabalala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study, done in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, sheds light into the challenges facing women entrepreneurs involved in tourism businesses and the opportunities they can harness in the tourism industry, with particular reference to some gender nuances. The study collected qualitative and quantitative data from respondents, and the data were analysed using content and descriptive analyses respectively. The challenges facing these women entrepreneurs, identified by this study, include lack of financial capital, low business capability, problem of size and scope, racial issues and traditional perceptions, and imperfect business location. Some opportunities for growth identified are local municipality support, internet marketing, and formation of business network for self-support and training. This study recommends business skills training for the women entrepreneurs in the areas of sourcing business funding, creating unique value proposition, product excellence, marketing capability, operational excellence and customer service. Although this study was conducted in a South African province, it has implications for women entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa, and beyond.

  4. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  5. Effects of pre-natal X-ray exposure on learning behaviour of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Faber, U.; Budny, T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors investigated whether prenatal X-raying affects the learning behaviour of mice. For this purpose they irradiated mice of strain C57BL/6Ffm with 130 r at different points of the fetal phase. Unirradiated mice served as controls. The animals underwent two learning test series of 14 days each teaching them optical signs. The results of the test series show a distinctly inferior learning ability in the animals exposed to pre-natal irradiation as compared to unirradiated controls. The extent of the reduction of the learning ability depends on the stage of the pregnancy at the time of X-ray exposure. The greatest difference as compared to non-irradiated mice occurred in the animals irradiated at the earliest stage (13th/14th day of pregnancy). The results of the other test groups (15th/16th and 17th/18th day of pregnancy) exhibited less distinct, but still significant differences to the controls. Exposure at the latest period (17th/18th day) coincided with the smallest difference. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Determinants of farmers' participation in collective maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaunga, S.; Mudhara, M.

    2018-06-01

    The decentralization framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasize the need for a participatory approach to irrigation water management. This study identifies the factors influencing farmers' decision to, and extent of participation in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa based on cross-section data collected from 320 randomly selected smallholder irrigating farmers. A two-step Heckman regression model was applied in the analysis. It was established that households whose heads were older, block committee members, with larger irrigation plots, good soil quality and experiencing severe irrigation water shortages are more likely to participate in maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. On the other hand, farmers with insecure land tenure and with no access to irrigation water were less likely to make the decision to participate. Farmers who were members of the farming cooperative as well as block committee members and those paying irrigation water costs were likely to intensively participate in maintaining irrigation infrastructure. Therefore, decentralization alone cannot lead to improved irrigation outcomes. Several factors are necessary for households to participate intensively in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. Governments should address these challenges before handing irrigation schemes to their beneficiaries.

  7. Predicting scientific research output at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Murray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic members of staff at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN are expected to publish in research journals that have been accredited by the South African based Department of Higher Education and Training. However, some members of staff have chosen to focus solely on the teaching aspect of their careers and as a result they have no publication record. In this study, a set of per annum productivity unit counts was calculated for every academic at UKZN. Because it is possible for a publishing academic to also record a zero count for a given year, it is necessary to develop an appropriate methodology that can distinguish this zero count from one that will always be recorded by a non-publishing academic. By fitting a zero-inflated Poisson model to the data, specific factors can be identified that separately drive the non-publishing and publishing processes at UKZN. In particular, having a PhD and working in a large school has a significant impact on improving the research output of a publishing academic. If UKZN wants to become a research-focused university, non-publishing academics should be encouraged to undertake a PhD degree.

  8. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

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    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  9. Spatial distribution of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal.We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal. We calculated distance and time from participants' home to the closest hospital or clinic, as well as to the actual facility that diagnosed XDR TB, using tools within ArcGIS Network analyst. Speed of travel was assigned to road classes based on Department of Transport regulations. Results were compared to guidelines for the provision of social facilities in South Africa: 5km to a clinic and 30km to a hospital.During 2011-2014, 1027 new XDR TB cases were diagnosed throughout all 11 districts of KwaZulu-Natal, of whom 404 (39% were enrolled and had geospatial data collected. Participants would have had to travel a mean distance of 2.9 km (CI 95%: 1.8-4.1 to the nearest clinic and 17.6 km (CI 95%: 11.4-23.8 to the nearest hospital. Actual distances that participants travelled to the health facility that diagnosed XDR TB ranged from 50 km (n = 109, 27%, with a mean of 69 km. The majority (77% of participants travelled farther than the recommended distance to a clinic (5 km and 39% travelled farther than the recommended distance to a hospital (30 km. Nearly half (46% of participants were diagnosed at a health facility in eThekwini district, of whom, 36% resided outside the Durban metropolitan area.XDR TB cases are widely distributed throughout KwaZulu-Natal province with a denser focus in eThekwini district. Patients travelled long distances to the health facility where they were diagnosed with XDR TB, suggesting a potential role for migration or transportation in the XDR TB

  10. Fatores associados à inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal

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    Coimbra Liberata C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal em comunidade urbana. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal em amostra sistemática, estratificada por maternidades, de todos os nascimentos hospitalares do município de São Luís, MA, no período de março de 1997 a fevereiro de 1998. Foram avaliados indicadores socioeconômicos e demográficos, de saúde reprodutiva, morbidade na gravidez e utilização de serviços pré-natais. Utilizou-se questionário padronizado respondido pelas puérperas antes da alta hospitalar. A adequação do uso da assistência pré-natal foi analisada pelo índice "Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization" (APNCU e por um novo índice proposto, baseado nas recomendações do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistadas 2.831 puérperas, atendidas em dez unidades de saúde pública e privada. A inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal foi de 49,2% pelo índice APNCU, e de 24,5% pelo novo índice proposto. Mulheres atendidas em serviços públicos de saúde, de baixa escolaridade e baixa renda familiar, sem companheiro ou com doença durante a gravidez, tiveram maiores percentuais de inadequação do uso do atendimento pré-natal, pelos dois índices analisados. Pelo novo índice proposto, maiores percentuais de inadequação foram associados à alta paridade e idade materna, enquanto baixa idade materna (<20 anos, ocorrência de doença durante a gravidez e primiparidade sugerem proteção contra a inadequação. CONCLUSÕES: O atendimento pré-natal em São Luís do Maranhão apresentou baixa cobertura. A inadequação do uso da assistência esteve associada a vários fatores indicativos da persistência de desigualdade social.

  11. Estudo comparativo de indicadores bioquímicos de concentração de ferro, em duas populações de gestantes, com e sem atendimento pré-natal A comparative study of biochemical indicators of iron concentration in two groups of pregnant women, with and without pre-natal care

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    Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência da quantidade do atendimento pré-natal na deficiência de ferro entre gestantes com 36 e mais semanas de gravidez, em comparação com um grupo padrão. A amostra foi distribuída em 3 grupos: GP - com pré-natal de "acreditação" satisfatória (grupo padrão; CPN com pré-natal, de diferentes qualidades; SPN - sem pré-natal. Os resultados obtidos para hemoglobina mostraram que no grupo padrão (GP a prevalência e severidade de anemia são significativamente menores do que no grupo com pré-natal (CPN e este do que no sem pré-natal (SPN. Os resultados obtidos na relação hemoglobina/hematócrito, ferro sérico e capacidade total de ligação de ferro apresentaram o GP em situação significativamente melhor do que os grupos CPN e SPN que não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre si. Chamou-se a atenção para a necessidade de aumento de cobertura e uniformização na qualidade dos serviços de pré-natal, com o objetivo de diminuir a prevalência de deficiência de ferro entre gestantes.The influence of the amount of pre-natal care on the prevalence of iron-deficiency among women, 36 weeks or more pregnant, was assessed. The sample population was divided into three groups: the Standard Group (GP - with adequate assistance of the pre-natal care services from the first trimester of pregnancy onwards; those who received pre-natal assistance, but of varying adequacy and begun at different gestational ages (CPN; and those who received no pre-natal assistance at all (SPN. The results obtained from hemoglobin analysis showed that prevalence and severity of anemia increases significantly from the GP to the SPN. The analysis of the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron and transferrin saturation showed no statistically significant differences between groups CPN and SPN; the GP showed better results when compared to the other two. Attention is called to the necessity of pre-natal care and the

  12. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  13. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  14. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

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    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  15. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  16. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

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    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  17. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

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    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  18. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  19. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  20. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

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    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  1. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  2. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  3. A importância da interação entre odontopediatrias e pediatrias no manejo de dentes natais e neonatais The importance of interaction of pediatric dentists and pediatricians in the management of natal and neonatal teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão de literatura sobre dentes natais e neonatais, abordando características clínicas, fatores etiológicos, medidas terapêuticas e a importância do conhecimento desta anomalia, por odontopediatras e pediatras. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram selecionados os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema, desde 1950 até 2006, pesquisados no Medline e na Bibliografia Brasileira em Odontologia (BBO, além de livros de pertinentes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os dentes natais e neonatais consistem em uma anomalia de erupção, sendo caracterizados por seu irrompimento na cavidade oral durante o período intra-uterino ou no primeiro mês de vida respectivamente, podendo fazer parte da dentição decídua normal ou supranumerária. Esses dentes, em geral, apresentam bordos cortantes e podem estar relacionados ao aparecimento de ulcerações na base da língua do bebê e/ou no seio materno, comprometendo a amamentação. A fraca implantação óssea desses dentes favorece sua grande mobilidade, tornando-se, assim, um fator de risco à sua aspiração ou deglutição pela criança. A abordagem terapêutica depende da dentição à qual pertence o dente e dos possíveis problemas que este pode causar à saúde da criança ou da mãe. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento sobre as características clínicas e os possíveis distúrbios aos quais os dentes natais e neonatais estão relacionados por odontopediatras e pediatras possibilita a interação necessária para o diagnóstico precoce e a abordagem integral da criança.OBJECTIVE: To review available data about natal and neonatal teeth, emphasizing clinical characteristics, etiological factors, treatment, and the importance of the knowledge about this anomaly by pediatric dentists and pediatricians. DATA SOURCES: The most relevant articles published on the subject were selected, from 1950 to 2006, browsed on Medline, Brazilian Bibliografy of Odontology (BBO and Dentistry books. DATA SYNTHESIS: Natal and

  4. The labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu- Natal: Emerging issues

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    Shaun Ruggunan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the factors that shape the labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa. The literature on the labour market and labour processes of histopathologists is dominated by North American and European literature. This gap is most acutely felt on the African continent. This article attempts to fill this gap by shifting the focus towards understanding the factors that shape the professional milieu and labour market for histopathologists in South Africa. This study through a qualitative, descriptive and contextual design engaged in in-depth interviews with 70% of the population of histopathologists in KZN. The interviews were analysed thematically. These interviews were triangulated against labour market statistics for histopathologists in South Africa as well as a range of documentary evidence. The outcome of the study has demonstrated four key challenges facing the labour market for histopathologists: racial inequities persist in the labour market, gender inequities also persist, there is unfettered public-private sector mobility, and poor curriculum design at medical school level accounts for a limited input of registrars into the profession. The article concludes that there needs to be a shift from only studying the labour market and work organisation of clinical doctors to empirical research on the role of medical laboratory specialists in the healthcare chain, which will render South African histopathologists and their work visible. A set of labour market interventions is also suggested. Die artikel bestudeer die faktore wat die arbeidsmark vir histopatoloë in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, Suid-Afrika beïnvloed. Die literatuur oor die arbeidsmark en arbeidsprosesse van histopatoloë word gedomineer deur Noord-Amerikaanse en Europese literatuur. Hierdie gaping is veral akuut op die Afrika kontinent. Die artikel poog om hierdie gaping te vul deur die fokus te verksuif na die faktore wat die

  5. The labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu- Natal: Emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggunan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the factors that shape the labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa. The literature on the labour market and labour processes of histopathologists is dominated by North American and European literature. This gap is most acutely felt on the African continent. This article attempts to fill this gap by shifting the focus towards understanding the factors that shape the professional milieu and labour market for histopathologists in South Africa. This study through a qualitative, descriptive and contextual design engaged in in-depth interviews with 70% of the population of histopathologists in KZN. The interviews were analysed thematically. These interviews were triangulated against labour market statistics for histopathologists in South Africa as well as a range of documentary evidence. The outcome of the study has demonstrated four key challenges facing the labour market for histopathologists: racial inequities persist in the labour market, gender inequities also persist, there is unfettered public-private sector mobility, and poor curriculum design at medical school level accounts for a limited input of registrars into the profession. The article concludes that there needs to be a shift from only studying the labour market and work organisation of clinical doctors to empirical research on the role of medical laboratory specialists in the healthcare chain, which will render South African histopathologists and their work visible. A set of labour market interventions is also suggested.Die artikel bestudeer die faktore wat die arbeidsmark vir histopatoloë in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, Suid-Afrika beïnvloed. Die literatuur oor die arbeidsmark en arbeidsprosesse van histopatoloë word gedomineer deur Noord-Amerikaanse en Europese literatuur. Hierdie gaping is veral akuut op die Afrika kontinent. Die artikel poog om hierdie gaping te vul deur die fokus te verksuif na die faktore wat die

  6. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  7. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Spirituality, depression and quality of life in medical students in KwaZulu-Natal

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    Narushni Pillay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of studies on spirituality demonstrate its positive association with mental health. Despite the increasing number of studies, there remains a dearth of studies emanating from African countries looking at the relationship between mental illness, quality of life and measures of spirituality. The present study evaluates the role of spirituality in relation to current depression and quality of life in medical students, who are known to be at high risk for depression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate and severe depressive symptoms in this population and explore potential correlations between spirituality, depression and quality of life. Methods: 230 medical students were surveyed at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical School, using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS, Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS, WHO Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL and a demographic data sheet. Results: There was a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the medical students, with a significant proportion (15.6% showing evidence of severe depressive symptoms (indicating likely depressive illness. Those with a history of mental illness or of having attended traditional, complementary or alternate medical practitioners showed higher levels of depression. Lower spirituality was associated with non-adherence to a major religion and a history of mental illness. Quality of life was better in second and fifth year students and poorer in those with a history of mental illness. Conclusion: Medical students’ experiences of depression (most probably due to stress and its relationship with spirituality and quality of life merit further investigation with a view to establishing policy guidelines for dealing with this issue.

  9. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Netherlands

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01 in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively. Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  10. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity. PMID:25830113

  11. Experiences of homosexual patients’ access to primary health care services in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal

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    Nokulunga H. Cele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.

  12. Matching watershed and otolith chemistry to establish natal origin of an endangered desert lake sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Deanna D.; Budy, Phaedra; Crowl, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream habitat restoration and supplemental stocking of hatchery-reared fish have increasingly become key components of recovery plans for imperiled freshwater fish; however, determining when to discontinue stocking efforts, prioritizing restoration areas, and evaluating restoration success present a conservation challenge. In this study, we demonstrate that otolith microchemistry is an effective tool for establishing natal origin of the June Sucker Chasmistes liorus, an imperiled potamodromous fish. This approach allows us to determine whether a fish is of wild or hatchery origin in order to assess whether habitat restoration enhances recruitment and to further identify areas of critical habitat. Our specific objectives were to (1) quantify and characterize chemical variation among three main spawning tributaries; (2) understand the relationship between otolith microchemistry and tributary chemistry; and (3) develop and validate a classification model to identify stream origin using otolith microchemistry data. We quantified molar ratios of Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca for water and otolith chemistry from three main tributaries to Utah Lake, Utah, during the summer of 2013. Water chemistry (loge transformed Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca ratios) differed significantly across all three spawning tributaries. We determined that Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios were the most important variables driving our classification models, and we observed a strong linear relationship between water and otolith values for Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca but not for Mg:Ca. Classification models derived from otolith element : Ca signatures accurately sorted individuals to their experimental tributary of origin (classification tree: 89% accuracy; random forest model: 91% accuracy) and determined wild versus hatchery origin with 100% accuracy. Overall, this study aids in evaluating the effectiveness of restoration, tracking progress toward recovery, and prioritizing future restoration plans for fishes of conservation

  13. Supervised oral HIV self-testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, alternatives to conventional HIV testing models are necessary in South Africa to increase population awareness of their HIV status. One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area. Cross-sectional study conducted in two government-run primary healthcare clinics and three Médecins Sans Frontières-run fixed-testing sites in uMlalazi municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. Lay counsellors sampled and recruited eligible participants, sought informed consent and demonstrated the use of the OraQuick(™) OralST. The participants used the OraQuick(™) in front of the counsellor and underwent a blood-based Determine(™) and a Unigold(™) rapid diagnostic test as gold standard for comparison. Primary outcomes were user error rates, inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A total of 2198 participants used the OraQuick(™) , of which 1005 were recruited at the primary healthcare clinics. Of the total, 1457 (66.3%) were women. Only two participants had to repeat their OraQuick(™) . Inter-rater agreement was 99.8% (Kappa 0.9925). Sensitivity for the OralST was 98.7% (95% CI 96.8-99.6), and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). This study demonstrates high inter-rater agreement, and high accuracy of supervised OralST. OralST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing and could be offered at clinics and community testing sites in rural South Africa. Further research is necessary on the potential of unsupervised OralST to increase HIV status awareness and linkage to care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

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    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  15. Optometric practices and practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa*

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    K. P. Mashige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of a survey of optometric practices and practitioners in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. Questions on demographics of practitioners, equipment, clinical practice andbusiness profile were included in the questionnaire. Also, issues that have the potential to impact on optometric practices were contained in the questionnaire and these include medical aid, advertising, continuous professional development (CPD and emigration. Of the 117 completed questionnaires, 55% were from females and 45% were from male practitioners. The respondents included 55% Indians, 27% Whites, 17% Blacks and 1% Coloureds. The majority of practices were located in urban areas (90% and rural areas (10%, and were mostly independent (67% and franchises (33%. Only a minority of the practices had major diagnostic equipment such as visual field analysers (33% and corneal topographers (7%. A significant proportion of the practitioners reported not routinely performing non-contact tonometry (45% and slit lamp examination (41% respectively. The majority (95% rated patient’s needs as a very important factor in their decision to prescribe an optical device. A significant proportion (38% of the practices had annual patient bases of above 33 000, with 35% having an average of 51-100 new patients per month. A few (5% practices reported gross monthly turnovers of above R400 000, and 27% reported turnovers of less than R60 000. Many (89% derived 41% and above of their total revenue from spectacle lens sales and 11% derived 41% and above from contact lens sales. The majority (92% of practices were contracted to over 60% of the medical aid schemes. Many (68% reported that they were not negatively affected by medical aid fraud committed by their colleagues, however, a significant proportion (32% reported the converse. More than half (54% of the practitioners reported that they used the print media

  16. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  17. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

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    Tennant Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6, was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8 would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high levels of agreement with the original case identification for the EPDS-10.

  18. COMPORTAMENTO AMBIENTAL EM CENTROS URBANOS: UM ESTUDO COM ESTUDANTES DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE NATAL /RN

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    Gilsenberg Gurgel Pinheiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a percepção ambiental como elemento necessário para desenvolver na população a consciência da necessidade de preservar o meio natural. Para isso, foi analisada a conduta da comunidade, representada por alunos de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior (IES de Natal/RN, para que sejam traçadas estratégias e ações que minimizem a degradação do meio. Para tanto, a metodologia consistiu de uma pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, cuja coleta de dados se deu por meio da aplicação de um questionário com escalas likert, contendo variáveis que compõem os aspectos comportamentais, além de uma escala sociodemográfica. Nesse contexto, os resultados apontam que a instituição acadêmica é oportuna para tratar desse assunto, tendo em vista que a conscientização ambiental perpassa por todos os conteúdos do currículo e que os alunos de hoje poderão, no futuro, em suas áreas de atuação, planejar ações para salvaguardar o desenvolvimento sustentável. Concluiu-se que as estratégias para gerir esse termo passam pela conscientização do estudante/cidadão, levando-o a uma mudança, pois, quando ele é educado para o devido tratamento dessas questões, sua maneira de proceder é de responsabilidade, uma vez que o cuidado com as questões naturais também está presente no ensino superior. Palavras-chave: Comportamento ambiental. Universitários. Centros urbanos.

  19. Assessing entrepreneurship perceptions of high school learners in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal

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    Darma Mahadea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although South Africa achieved positive economic growth rates since the advent of democracy in 1994, the formal sector has not been able to absorb the annual increasing number of job-seekers on the market and solve the unemployment problem. The exercise of entrepreneurship, through business formations and expansions, is regarded as a vehicle for job creation and output expansion. According the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM reports, South Africa’s level of early stage total entrepreneurial activity (TEA is rather low relative to other countries at a similar level of development. This is partly owing to skills and resource limitations. If more individuals could realistically be exposed to practical entrepreneurship education at the secondary school level, South Africa’s base for entrepreneurial capacity can be enhanced. This study uses quasi logistic regression to examine the probability of secondary school learners, in Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Kwazulu-Natal province in South Africa, to start their own business in the future. It also probes the association between the socio-economic attributes of these learners and entrepreneurship. On the basis of a survey of 275 senior school learners from 5 schools, the regression results indicate that gender, ethnic background and having a role model as well as acquiring personal skills to run one’s own business are significant factors influencing an individual’s propensity to venture into small firm self-employment in the future. Black learners are perceived to have a significantly greater disposition to enter into business than other groups, and male scholars are found to have a greater probability of starting their own business than female. As potential entrepreneurs do not necessarily come exclusively from a business family background, the supply of effective entrepreneurship can be augmented, if more young individuals with the relevant skills endowment can start opportunity firms

  20. A PEGADA DE CARBONO DA UNIDADE SEDE DA PETROBRAS EM NATAL-RN

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    Ricardo Teixeira Gregório Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Face ao contexto contemporâneo das alterações climáticas, os setores industriais e empresariais têm buscado medidas para minimizar os impactos das suas emissões de Gases Efeito Estufa. Contudo, a maioria das ações de Responsabilidade SocioAmbiental Empresarial quanto à temática referem-se apenas às emissões diretas dos principais processos produtivos empresariais, sem considerar as emissões upstream e downstream, que originam a maior parte das emissões derivadas da existência de uma empresa. A consideração das emissões de todo o ciclo de vida produtivo de produtos e processos, desde a extração da matéria-prima até a distribuição do produto final e descarte, constitui a Pegada de Carbono. O objetivo desse estudo foi a mensuração, e estudo de formas de minoração, de parte da Pegada de Carbono da Unidade Sede da Petrobras em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um levantamento, em que os dados foram submetidos à metodologia apropriada e laborados com uso do software GEMIS 4.6. Os itens avaliados foram os veículos automotivos (emissões diretas, energia elétrica, papel e copos plásticos descartáveis (emissões indiretas, totalizando emissões de 3.811,94 tCO2eq em 2009. Dado o porte da Petrobras, sua atenção quanto à redução de sua Pegada de Carbono serve de exemplo a outras empresas, instruindo lições de gestão e melhores práticas ambientais.

  1. Business ethics of private general practitioners in KwaDuKuza, Kwazulu-Natal

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    Indiran Govendor

    2010-03-01

    Objective: To detect whether private GPs in KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically. Method: The study entailed a cross-sectional descriptive study design, in which all 30 private GPs based in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire during 2003. The survey was done on a voluntary basis and anonymity and confidentiality was maintained. Results: Twenty-five doctors returned completed questionnaires (an 83.3% response rate. Seventy per cent perceived their peers to be practicing ethically, while 48% (12/25 reported that they did not observe any medical misconduct by their colleagues. The majority of the respondents (76% reported that they did not know of any colleague who supplemented his or her income through the over-servicing of patients. The majority of the respondents (84% also reported that their colleagues never accepted cash payments that were not declared for income tax purposes. Medically unnecessary tests are a form of unethical behaviour pertaining to over-servicing, and 64% of the respondents reported that medically unnecessary tests to satisfy patient requests were not an important reason for performing these tests. The doctors expressed high stress levels from multiple stressors in their occupation. Conclusion: GPs in KwaDukuza indicated that they were under stress, but still practised ethically. The GPs emphasised the need for more training in medical ethics at all levels of the medical career. The majority of GPs of KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically.

  2. Don't bet against the natal homing abilities of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia. One way to resolve the conundrum would be to track fish from hatching to reproduction, but for marine fishes with tiny eggs and drifting larvae, this is notoriously difficult to do (Bradbury & Laurel ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bonanomi et al. () use a creative approach to solve this challenge for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations that mingle in the vicinity of Greenland. They show that cod that disperse more than a 1000 km away from Iceland as eggs and larvae, then spend years growing on the far side of Greenland, while mixing with two local populations, return as adults to spawning areas near Iceland - and further, that this behaviour has remained stable over more than six decades. They manage this feat with a clever use of historical cod tracking data, modern genomic data and genetic analysis of decades-old DNA obtained from archived materials. Their results have important implications for our view of the biocomplexity of marine fish populations, and how we should manage them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. FERRAMENTAS DE BENCHMARKING COMO DIFERENCIAL COMPETITIVO EM EMPRESAS DE FASTFOOD NA CIDADE DE NATAL-RN

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    Ricardo Pires de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notório, na contemporaneidade, o aumento da procura pelos produtos disponibilizados pelas redes de fastfood, gerando consequentemente o crescimento econômico das organizações do setor. Logo esse trabalho objetiva demonstrar o sistema de monitoramento de arranjos produtivos – SIMAP as empresas estudadas para que estas possam vislumbrar novas atividades de gestão com o intuito de ter um diferencial competitivo. Para alcançar esse objetivo utilizou-se a metodologia exploratoria explicativa, com estudo de caso nas empresas Pittsburg e McDonald´s na cidade de Natal-RN, obtendo-se as informações através de questionário semi-estruturado. Analisando-se os dados, percebeu-se que as empresas estudadas, encontram-se acima da média das empresas dos setor cadastradas no SIMAP. Em comparação cruzada entre as empresas estudadas, observou-se que a empresa Pittsburg possui pontos a aperfeiçoar, nos diversos indicadores de gestão, em especial no indicador sistema de gestão integrada, no qual essa empresa ficou abaixo de 25%. Observou-se também que em relação a gestão financeira, a empresa Pittsburg esta melhor qualificada perante sua concorrente McDonald´s. Ficou evidenciado que as empresas estudadas estão em conformidade com os requisitos mínimos exigidos pelos seus clientes.

  4. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at rural primary health care clinics in KwaZulu Natal

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    Hilda Ganesen-Moothusamy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the greatest burden of HIV infection globally with the most infected people living in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Decentralised medical care for HIV positive patients and antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery to primary health care facilities were proposed nationally to achieve adequate ART coverage for patients in need of treatment. This study described the HIV positive patients who accessed medical care and were initiated on ART at two existing government Primary Health Care (PHC clinics with no added donor support, in Ilembe, KZN. This was an observational descriptive study of ART initiation from 01 April 2008 to 30 April 2009. Data were collected from clinical records kept on site. HIV Testing and the pre-ART programmes which consisted of medical care prior to ART initiation are briefly described. Socio-economic, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were initiated on ART were sampled and described. A minority (2.95% of the study population tested for HIV of which 36.0%tested positive. Majority (60.0% of patients who joined the pre-ART programme care did not return. The ART sample consisted of 375 patients of whom 65.0%were women, 85.9%were unmarried, 61.6%were unemployed and 50.4%had a secondary level of education. Tuberculosis (TB prevalence and incidence at ART initiation were 22.1%and 14.7%respectively. The prevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis B co-infections were 13.1%and 8.6 %respectively. Two thirds of female patients (66.4% received a Pap smear result of which the majority (62.3% were abnormal. Uptake for HIV testing followed by relevant CD4 testing was poor. High TB, Hepatitis B and Syphilis co-infection was noted amongst patients initiated on ART. Cervical cancer screening must be intensified. Although ART initiation with no added external resources was successful, record keeping was suboptimal.

  5. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  6. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  7. Who owns the Brazilian carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Flavio L M; Englund, Oskar; Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Guidotti, Vinicius; Pinto, Luís F G; Mörtberg, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed, and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon, and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30%, and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. TECHNOLOGY REPRESENTATION IN SOME BRAZILIAN POEMS

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    Rubel Maria Fanini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article analyses how the universe of technology and labour are depicted in literary terms in some Brazilian poems from the writers Castro Alves, Mario de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade. The poets portray this universe in the following approaches: modern technology dissociated from the Brazilian context painted as traditional and archaic; associated to industrial production and to workers’ exploitation; linked to high class entertainment and as an imported good subjected to central capitalistic economies, facing difficulties to be aggregated to local production.

  9. Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents is organized to respond promptly to any emergency at nuclear power plants or other installations utilizing nuclear fuel. It consists of several committees: a general coordination committee with representatives from several federal departments, with final decision with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (SEMA). Some committees conduct support activities. For example, the Operational Coordination Committee supervises the tasks undertaken by the Army, Navy, and Air Force in response to the needs and decisions of the general coordination committee

  10. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  12. Vector competence of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for Trypanosoma congolense in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhosazana Motloang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis (nagana has been the cause of stock losses in the recent past and still presents a major problem to livestock owners in certain areas of KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Over 10 000 cattle mortalities were reported in the 1990 nagana outbreak. Although information on the distribution and abundance of the tsetse flies Glossina brevipalpis and Glossina austeni in KwaZulu-Natal exists, data on their vector competence are lacking. This study aimed to determine the rate of natural Trypanosoma congolense infection by field-collected as well as colony-reared flies of these species. A total of 442 field-collected G. brevipalpis and 40 G. austeni flies were dissected immediately after collection to determine their infection rates, whilst 699 G. brevipalpis and 49 G. austeni flies were fed on susceptible animals in 10 and four batches, respectively, for use in xenodiagnosis experiments. Teneral colony flies were fed on infected animals and dissected 21 days post infection to confirm their infectivity testing. Glossina austeni harboured 8% immature and mature infections. In G. brevipalpis, the infection with the immature stages was lower (1% and no mature infections were observed. Although all four batches of G. austeni transmitted T. congolense to four susceptible animals, no transmission resulted from 10 batches of G. brevipalpis fed on susceptible cattle. Colony-derived G. austeni (534 and G. brevipalpis (882 were fed on four bovines infected with different T. congolense isolates. Both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis acquired trypanosome infection from the bovines, with immature infection ranges of 20% – 33% and 1% – 4%, respectively. Parasites, however, only matured in G. austeni (average = 4%. Glossina austeni plays a larger role in the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in KwaZulu-Natal than G. brevipalpis and therefore more focus should be aimed at the former when control measures are implemented.

  13. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Competencies on Household Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyolo, Sikhulumile; Mudhara, Maxwell

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of entrepreneurial competencies on food security among rural farming households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA). A total of 513 rural households were randomly selected, and the descriptive results indicated that 51% of these households were food insecure, and they were somewhat negative about their entrepreneurial competencies. The estimated results indicated that entrepreneurship had a positive impact on food security. The study findings suggest that stimulating entrepreneurship through developing entrepreneurial competencies among the farming households is important for improved food security among rural households in SA.

  14. Sífilis congênita: evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a assistência pré-natal na prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal representativo para as gestantes de baixo risco atendidas em unidades de saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, período de 2007 a 2008. A identificação de gestantes com diagnóstico de sífilis na gestação foi feita por meio de entrevistas, verificação do cartão de pré-natal e busca de casos notificados em sistemas públicos de informação em saúde. Os casos de sífilis congênita foram identificados por meio de busca nos sistemas de informação em saúde: Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan, Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH do SUS. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 46 casos de sífilis na gestação e 16 casos de sífilis congênita com uma prevalência estimada de 1,9% (IC95% 1,3;2,6 de sífilis na gestação e de 6/1.000 (IC95% 3;12/1.000 de sífilis congênita. A taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 34,8% e três casos foram fatais, um abortamento, um óbito fetal e um óbito neonatal, com proporções elevadas de baixo peso e prematuridade. A trajetória assistencial das gestantes mostrou falhas na assistência, como início tardio do pré-natal, ausência de diagnóstico na gravidez e ausência de tratamento dos parceiros. CONCLUSÕES: Estratégias inovadoras, que incorporem melhorias na rede de apoio diagnóstico, são necessárias para enfrentamento da sífilis na gestação, no manejo clínico da doença na gestante e seus parceiros e na investigação dos casos como evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal.

  15. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  16. Computedtomographic findings in natal encephalopathies and their significance for the prognosis for the near future and long-term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlarek, F.

    1981-01-01

    190 premature babies and newborn with a hypoxic or traumatic natal encephalopathy were examined in the newborn period with cranial computed tomography. 10 other neonatals with cyanotic vitia even without neurologic syndromes were included into this study. 73 of these infants were intubated for a while and supplied with air. The CT findings were compared with those of a ''control group'' of neonatals who provided externally visible malformations but no burdening perinatal anamnesis. 82 premature and neonatal babies showed abnormal morphologic basic findings. Due to kind, localisation and size of the lesion, different morphologic patterns - depending on the birth weight - can be delineated. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  18. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.) [pt

  19. Inferences about Supernova Physics from Gravitational-Wave Measurements: GW151226 Spin Misalignment as an Indicator of Strong Black-Hole Natal Kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Gerosa, Davide; Wysocki, Daniel

    2017-07-07

    The inferred parameters of the binary black hole GW151226 are consistent with nonzero spin for the most massive black hole, misaligned from the binary's orbital angular momentum. If the black holes formed through isolated binary evolution from an initially aligned binary star, this misalignment would then arise from a natal kick imparted to the first-born black hole at its birth during stellar collapse. We use simple kinematic arguments to constrain the characteristic magnitude of this kick, and find that a natal kick v_{k}≳50  km/s must be imparted to the black hole at birth to produce misalignments consistent with GW151226. Such large natal kicks exceed those adopted by default in most of the current supernova and binary evolution models.

  20. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  1. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  2. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  3. National Bioethics Council: a Brazilian proposal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrafa, V.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2010-01-01

    The number of national bioethics commissions has burgeoned since the establishment of the first one in 1983. They provide an arena in which stakeholders with widely differing moral views can discuss, interact and negotiate about controversial matters. The establishment of the Brazilian committee is

  4. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Denise

    1981-10-01

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA) [fr

  5. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  6. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  7. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  8. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Brazilian Development vs. the Amazonian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    We may be involved in a replay of the Indian genocide and dislocation characteristic of early U.S. history through the workings of international economics. This historical account briefly outlines the recent economic developments in the Brazilian Amazon, the effects that those policies have on the natives, and the United States' involvement in…

  10. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  11. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  12. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  13. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  14. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  15. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  17. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  18. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  19. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  20. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  1. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  2. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  3. Helminth control as an entry point for health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Coovadia, H M; Kvalsvig, J D; Jinabhai, C C; Reddy, P

    1999-03-01

    To use a health promotion model to investigate the risk factors (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing) for geohelminth and schistosomiasis infections, in order to develop and implement effective intervention strategies. Phase 1: Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with parents, pupils and teachers; and interviews with health workers. Phase 2: Quantitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to investigate whether the determinants identified in phase 1 were generalisable. Rural primary schools in Vulamehlo magisterial district, southern KwaZulu-Natal. Qualitative study: 9 schools with 179 pupils, 93 parents and 82 teachers; and local clinics (4 fixed, 1 mobile), with 7 professional nurses. Quantitative study: 2 other schools, with 730 pupils. Predisposing factors: Respondents were familiar with symptoms, but did not know the cause or mode of transmission of helminth infections. Many respondents perceived food to be the cause of geohelminth infection and swimming in the river to be the cause of schistosomiasis. Although 649 (88.9%) pupils had toilets at home and at school, only 218 (29.9%) were motivated to 'always' use the toilet for faecal disposal (rural communities previously did not have toilets). Six hundred and seventy-eight pupils (92.9%) understood that it was necessary to wash their hands after using the toilet, but many schools lacked water. Personal cleanliness was a problem despite the emphasis on hygiene by health workers and teachers. Few pupils admitted to eating soil, but it was agreed that geophagia affected young children between the ages of 8 months and 6 years. Enabling factors (positive/negative): Barriers to health promotion frequently included inadequate toilet facilities at school and home, and river-water contact resulting from a lack of clean water. A dearth of recreational facilities resulted in children swimming and playing in the river. Positive factors were the health-seeking behaviour of the majority of the

  4. Scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding support programmes: the example of KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Desmond

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for six months is the mainstay of global child health and the preferred feeding option for HIV-infected mothers for whom replacement feeding is inappropriate. Promotion of community-level EBF requires effective personnel and management to ensure quality counselling and support for women. We present a costing and cost effectiveness analysis of a successful intervention to promote EBF in high HIV prevalence area in South Africa, and implications for scale-up in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.The costing of the intervention as implemented was calculated, in addition to the modelling of the costs and outcomes associated with running the intervention at provincial level under three different scenarios: full intervention (per protocol, simplified version (half the number of visits compared to the full intervention; more clinic compared to home visits and basic version (one third the number of visits compared to the full intervention; all clinic and no home visits. Implementation of the full scenario costs R95 million ($14 million per annum; the simplified version R47 million ($7 million and the basic version R4 million ($2 million. Although the cost of the basic scenario is less than one tenth of the cost of the simplified scenario, modelled effectiveness of the full and simplified versions suggest they would be 10 times more effective compared to the basic intervention. A further analysis modelled the costs per increased month of EBF due to each intervention: R337 ($48, R206 ($29, and R616 ($88 for the full, simplified and basic scenarios respectively. In addition to the average cost effectiveness the incremental cost effectiveness ratios associated with moving from the less effective scenarios to the more effective scenarios were calculated and reported: Nothing-Basic R616 ($88, Basic-Simplified R162 ($23 and Simplified-Full R879 ($126.The simplified scenario, with a combination of clinic and home visits, is the most

  5. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulay, Dini Novalanty Ohara; Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq

    2018-02-01

    Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB) is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m), height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars) and EU € 5 (US 6). The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C) and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village) and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village). By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS) and the EU ETS (AUD 11.82/t CO2e and € 5 (US

  6. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalanty Ohara Daulay Dini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m, height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD $ 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars and EU € 5 (US $ 6. The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village. By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS and the EU ETS (AUD $ 11.82/t

  7. Proclamation No. R. 151, Natal Code of Zulu Law, 3 September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1987 South African Proclamation amending the Natal Code of Zulu Law. Chapter 4 of these provisions covers personal status, property rights, the age of majority, and houses or families of which children become members. Chapter 5 deals with family heads in general, the earnings of minor children, the ownership and control of family property, the control of family members, and the responsibilities and privileges of family heads. The seventh chapter regulates customary marriages in general, the investigation of complaints about unreasonable withholding of consent on the part of a father or guardian, reporting of the arranged marriage date and payment of fees, the appointment and duties of official witnesses, the payment of "lobolo," the registration of customary marriages, issuance of the certificate of customary marriage, grounds for divorce, grounds for a declaration of nullity, duties of the party seeking the divorce, return of lobolo, child custody, and "ukungena" unions. The provisions of the eight chapter include the date of payment and delivery of lobolo and death of the lobolo cattle, the women who may receive lobolo, the constitution of lobolo, the amount of lobolo paid for women of varying social ranks, claims relative to lobolo payments, and the claiming of a ngquthu beast. Chapter 9 details the family system in terms of the establishment of senior or affiliated houses, the status of the first wife, the status of wives taken by a commoner subsequent to the first wife, a formal declaration of intention to divide a family home into sections, the declaration of the status of a second and subsequent wives, the declaration of the status of a third wife as a qade wife, junior houses affiliated with senior houses, the status of wives of the hereditary chief, the circumstances when members may leave a family home, and the property of a girl entering a customary marriage. The tenth chapter contains the laws of

  8. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Julie F; Miller, Renée L; Tennant, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6), was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p < .001). Removal of two items (items 7 and 8) resulted in a non-significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square with a residual mean value for items of -0.467 with a standard deviation of 0.850, showing fit to the model. No DIF existed in the final 8-item scale (EPDS-8) and all items showed fit to model expectations. Principal Components Analysis of the residuals supported the local independence assumption, and unidimensionality of the revised EPDS-8 scale. Revised cut points were identified for EPDS-8 to maintain the case identification of the original scale. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8) would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high

  9. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes. Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  10. Business ethics of private general practitioners in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gary

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Private general practitioners (GPs) have been criticised by the lay press citing unethical practice and the acceptance of kickbacks. In 2003, the Ethics Institute of South Africa conducted a national study of all doctors and also accused private GPs of unethical practice. In countries such as South Africa, with a practice of fee-for-service payments, there may be a temptation to put material interests above the best interests of patients. Private GPs, on the other hand, are of the opinion that the press and the Ethics Institute publication have unfairly singled them out. Objective To detect whether private GPs in KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically. Method The study entailed a cross-sectional descriptive study design, in which all 30 private GPs based in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire during 2003. The survey was done on a voluntary basis and anonymity and confidentiality was maintained. Results Twenty-five doctors returned completed questionnaires (an 83.3% response rate). Seventy per cent perceived their peers to be practicing ethically, while 48% (12/25) reported that they did not observe any medical misconduct by their colleagues. The majority of the respondents (76%) reported that they did not know of any colleague who supplemented his or her income through the over-servicing of patients. The majority of the respondents (84%) also reported that their colleagues never accepted cash payments that were not declared for income tax purposes. Medically unnecessary tests are a form of unethical behaviour pertaining to over-servicing, and 64% of the respondents reported that medically unnecessary tests to satisfy patient requests were not an important reason for performing these tests. The doctors expressed high stress levels from multiple stressors in their occupation. Conclusion GPs in KwaDukuza indicated that they were under stress, but still practised ethically. The

  11. Burns in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal: epidemiology and the need for community health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, D; Barker, P; Govindasamy, J

    2012-12-01

    Burns are one of the leading causes of accidental deaths in South Africa. The northern Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN) area, in which this study was conducted, has a population at high risk of burn. A large proportion of the population of KZN live in rural settlements and use traditional methods of cooking and heating. Children are often unsupervised or looked after by only slightly older children. This study investigates the need and potential focus of a health education programme within the setting of rural KZN. Examination of epidemiological data collected on 423 cases admitted to the Ngwelezana Hospital Burns Unit from 2008 to 2010. Children under the age of 12 were most at risk, making up 69.5% of all admissions. Most burns were caused in the home by incidents involving hot water and food (69.5%). Direct flame burns accounted for 19.6% of injuries and were more common with increasing age. Of the direct flame burns, 20.5% occurred during an epileptic seizure. Non-accidental injury accounted for 8.7% of burns. Public health awareness was assessed by investigating the use of first aid treatments, and the time delay between burn and presentation to hospital. First aid provision was attempted in 53.1% of cases. Only 1.1% of burn victims were treated with running water for 10 min or more. Other products commonly applied to the burn wound (31.7% of cases) included oil, ice or eggs, some of which are known to be harmful. The time from burn to presentation at hospital varied greatly. The median time of presentation for local residents was only 6h; however, the median referral delay from a district hospital was 6 days. These factors have important consequences on the outcome of burns. The implementation of a community health education programme which focuses on adults as well as children, has the potential to decrease both the incidence and morbidity associated with burns in rural KZN. The pattern of burns is similar to that seen in urban areas (mostly children, and mostly around

  12. Ocorrência da depressão pós-natal em pais de primogénitos com idade compreendida ente 3 a 6 meses

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Câmia de Jesus Lema Faztudo

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretendemos compreender a importancia da ocorrência de depressão no pós-natal no homem, bem como este percepciona as alterações que ocorrem na sua vida resultantes do facto de ter sido pai pela primeira vez. O estudo é transversal tendo sido administrada num único momento a Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) e o Questionário de avaliação de percepção parental, para detectar respectivamente a depressão pós-natal no homem, bem como as suas percepções rel...

  13. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12 in an older Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Carver

    Full Text Available Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population.The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil.The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women. Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22. A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12 previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66 loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51 loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent.Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  14. Fast food ou comida regional? as preferências gastronômicas dos turistas que visitam Natal (RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Alves de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada por meio de um trabalho de conclusão do curso de Turismo, na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, que teve como principal objetivo analisar as preferências gastronômicas, fast food ou pratos típicos locais, dos turistas que visitam Natal/RN. A pesquisa consistiu, além da pesquisa bibliográfica, da aplicação de 100 (cem questionários com turistas que visitaram a cidade nos meses de abril e maio de 2015. A partir dos dados coletados, verificou-se que a maior parte dos turistas que visitam Natal, opta pela comida típica regional, sendo importante destacar que a aproximação com a realidade local, é o principal elemento que justifica a escolha dos turistas por pratos típicos. Mesmo em menor quantidade, uma parte dos turistas opta pelo consumo de fast food, justificando-se tal escolha, por se tratar de pratos conhecidos e terem preços acessíveis. Identificaram-se ainda, outros aspectos na pesquisa, como a necessidade de existir um marketing turístico voltado para a gastronomia local e a imagem gastronômica da cidade ser vinculada aos frutos do mar, sendo este, um elemento diferenciador da cidade, em comparação a outros destinos.

  15. FATORES QUE INFLUENCIAL NA DECISÃO DE COMPRA DE LEITE DE CONSUMIDORES NA CIDADE DE NATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYARA LEILANE DE JESUS BARRETO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the factors of influencing milk consumers of Natal city, state of Rio Grande do Norte, in their buying decision. The methodology was a descriptive and exploratory type Survey, with 385 questionnaires applied on the four geographical areas of Natal city. Sample size was found according to the county inhabitant number, and survey was applied through questionnaire applied at randomized suburbs, streets and houses from four geographical city zones. The statistical analyses were: descriptive analysis, comparison test of means and Cluster analysis. Results were that milk quality had high average, in contrast with the price and brand which had the lowest ones. Milk quality and image of the store were the factors most stable for the consumer make its purchase decision, while price and brand were those of least importance. Comparisons among variables showed significance (P<0,05 except for price importance, visual appearance, no product on the market shelves, easy of buying and product status. As conclusion, milk quality is the main factor for consumers to make a decision to purchase milk, whereas price and brand were of least importance.

  16. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)], E-mail: stuartb@umich.edu; Chernyak, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Gouden, Y. [Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 719 Umbilo Road, Private Bag 7, Congella, 4013 Durban (South Africa); Hayes, J.; Robins, T. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Chetty, S. [Pollution Control Support Unit, Health Department, eThekwini Municipality (South Africa)

    2009-02-15

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 {+-} 47 pg m{sup -3}, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use.

  17. Accounting firms’ managers’ and trainees’ perceptions of managerial competencies required to manage diversity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msizi V. Mkhize

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a shortage of black chartered accountants, with some progress being made in transforming the industry. Accounting firms’ managers must be prepared to effectively manage the increasing diversity of the profession. Aim: The purpose of the study was to identify the managerial competencies required by accounting firms managers to effectively manage diversity in KwaZulu-Natal. Setting: The setting for this study is accounting firms in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and analytical, cross-sectional design using systematic sampling was employed. The responses of 45 accounting firms’ managers and 114 trainees were analysed. Results: Both managers and trainees perceived the six managerial competencies important in managing diversity, but the ranking order of perceived importance indicated that there are variations in ratings. Teamwork and self-management competencies were highly rated by managers, while communication and teamwork competencies were highly rated by trainees. Conclusion: The managerial competencies are vital for the accounting firms’ managers. The study suggests that the accounting firms’ managers should consider the importance given by trainees and by themselves in prioritising the most important competencies they require in managing diversity. Accounting firms are encouraged to incorporate the six managerial competencies into the job descriptions or job advertisements and in the firms’ management development programme or training and development programme as the managerial competencies will assist managers in managing the diverse workforce effectively.

  18. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

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    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  19. Gendered health care labour markets? A case study of anatomical pathologists and haematologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suveera Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively explored the role of gender and related factors that influence medical doctors’ decisions in selecting a specialisation within medical laboratory medicine. This study is novel in that it disaggregates doctors by specialisation. It further focuses on non-clinical medical specialists who have been ignored in the global human resources for health literature. Hakim’s preference theory as well as socialisation theory is adapted to explain some of the reasons female doctors make certain career choices regarding specialisation within the medical field. The study focused on laboratory doctors in the public and private sector in KwaZulu- Natal. A qualitative approach was adopted given the small population size and the need for an interpretive approach to the data. The research design was an exploratory case study and thematic analysis was used to discover the relevant themes. The non-probability purposeful sample comprised a total of 20 participants, of which 11 were anatomical pathologists and 9 were haematologists, all based in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection was performed via in-depth interviews. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured through methods of credibility and triangulation. The key finding is that although gender is a significant factor in career choice (for specific disciplines, it is one of many factors that determine self-selection into a specific medical laboratory specialisation. The conclusions, although not generalisable, have implications for human resources for health policies targeted at achieving higher levels of recruitment in laboratory medicine as a profession.

  20. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m -3 , and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use

  1. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  2. The geochemistry and geochronology of some proterozoic granitoid rocks from the Natal structural and metamorphic province, Southeastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.; Milne, G.C.; Eglington, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province is thought to be an eastern extension of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province. Until recently few geochemical and isotopic data have been available on many of the rocks of this mobile belt. This paper presentes initial geochemical and geochronological information on the granitoids and associated rocks from three areas NSMP. Together, these areas provide a traverse through central and southern parts of the Mapumulo Group. Supracrustal gneisses, of uncertain age, are the oldest rocks in all areas, while the granitic intrusives range from 1,200-850 Ma, with a tendency for younger dates towards dates towards the south. Low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for these plutonic units suggest that the rocks were the products of partial melting of a relatively juvenile (circa 1,400 Ma) protolith. A type granites are common within the NSMP and give a range of ages, indicating that conditions suitable for their formation persited in this part of the African continent for an extended period of time. Economic deposits are lacking in eastern (Natal) sector of the mobile belt. Reconnaissance studies, however indicate that syn-tolate-Kinematic granitoids, intruded circa 1,000 Ma, are enriched in uranium and thorium irrespective of bulk chemistry, textural nature,mineralogy,structural setting, and isotopic characteristics. (author) [pt

  3. The levels of Community Involvement in Health (CIH: a case of rural and urban communities in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Mchunu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the practice of community involvement in health programmes.The study therefore explored the nature and practice of community involvementin health programmes in the two communities in KwaZulu Natal. Thestudy was guided by the conceptual framework adapted from Amstein’s,( 1969 Ladderof Citizen Participation. This framework shows different levels and steps in communityparticipation. A case study method was used to conduct the study. The twocases were one urban based and one rural based community health centers in theIlembe health district, in Kwa Zulu Natal. A sample of 31 persons participated in thestudy. The sample comprised 8 registered nurses, 2 enrolled nurses 13 communitymembers and 8 community health workers. Data was collected using structured individualinterviews and focus group interviews, and was guided by the case protocol.Community involvement in health largely depended on the type of community, withrural community members being in charge of their health projects and urban communitymembers helping each other as neighbours in times of need.

  4. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  5. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at rural primary health care clinics in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ganesen-Moothusamy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the greatest burden of HIV infection globally with the most infected people living in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Decentralised medical care for HIV positive patients and antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery to primary health care facilities were proposed nationally to achieve adequate ART coverage for patients in need of treatment. This study described the HIV positive patients who accessed medical care and were initiated on ART at two existing government Primary Health Care (PHC clinics with no added donor support, in Ilembe, KZN. This was an observational descriptive study of ART initiation from 01 April 2008 to 30 April 2009. Data were collected from clinical records kept on site. HIV Testing and the pre-ART programmes which consisted of medical care prior to ART initiation are briefly described. Socio-economic, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were initiated on ART were sampled and described. A minority (2.95% of the study population tested for HIV of which 36.0% tested positive. Majority (60.0% of patients who joined the pre-ART programme care did not return. The ART sample consisted of 375 patients of whom 65.0% were women, 85.9% were unmarried, 61.6% were unemployed and 50.4% had a secondary level of education. Tuberculosis (TB prevalence and incidence at ART initiation were 22.1% and 14.7% respectively. The prevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis B co-infections were 13.1% and 8.6 % respectively. Two thirds of female patients (66.4% received a Pap smear result of which the majority (62.3% were abnormal. Uptake for HIV testing followed by relevant CD4 testing was poor. High TB, Hepatitis B and Syphilis co-infection was noted amongst patients initiated on ART. Cervical cancer screening must be intensified. Although ART initiation with no added external resources was successful, record keeping was suboptimal. Suid-Afrika dra die grootste las van MIV-infeksie ter wêreld met die meeste besmette mense in KwaZulu-Natal

  6. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  7. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  8. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  9. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics

  10. Integrating remote sensing and ancillary data for regional ecosystem assessment: eucalyptus grandis agro-system in kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrates that the integration of remote sensing and in situ data could be important in providing more accurate estimates of E. grandis state in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa compared to remote sensing models. Such modelling effort would...

  11. Atenção pré-natal na rede básica: uma avaliação da estrutura e do processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Denise Silva da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo transversal descritivo e auditoria de registros médicos para avaliar a estrutura e o processo de atendimento pré-natal nas unidades de atenção primária à saúde em Pelotas, Sul do Brasil. Para a investigação da estrutura, foram incluídas todas as 31 unidades da zona urbana. No estudo do processo revisou-se os registros de pré-natal das mães com data provável de parto nos 6 meses anteriores ao início do trabalho de campo, num total de 839 formulários. A estrutura foi considerada precária (70% da ideal, principalmente devido a deficiências da planta física. Quanto ao processo, observaram-se uma baixa cobertura (53% e média de consultas de 5,3. O pré-natal foi adequado em somente 37% dos registros (Índice de Kessner. Adicionando-se exames laboratoriais e procedimentos da consulta como critérios complementares, 31% e 5% dos registros foram considerados adequados, respectivamente. De um modo geral, a qualidade do cuidado pré-natal oferecido foi precária. Mecanismos que aumentem a aderência das equipes de saúde aos procedimentos e à lógica do programa, necessitam ser desenvolvidos.

  12. On Medium of Instruction and African Scholarship: The Case of isiZulu at the University of Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwendo, Gregory; Hlongwa, Nobuhle; Mkhize, Nhlanhla

    2014-01-01

    After the demise of apartheid in South Africa in 1994, 11 languages (English, Afrikaans and 9 indigenous African languages) were given official status. In the higher education landscape, English remains the dominant language of scholarship. At the University of KwaZulu-Natal, English is the main medium of instruction but the institution's language…

  13. The perceptions of nurses in a district health system in KwaZulu-Natal of their supervision, self-esteem and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Uys

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Supervision has been identified as a major issue in quality of care. Although increasing attention is being given to supervision in the District Health System, there have been no studies describing the current situation. This article describes a survey done in two health districts in KwaZulu-Natal involving 319 nurses from all types of government health care settings.

  14. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preez, du C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the

  15. The assessment of optimal MERIS ocean colour products in the shelf waters of the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, ME

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The KwaZulu-Natal Bight is a highly variable bio-optical environment, where waters over the shelf can change from the oligotrophic case 1 conditions of the Agulhas Current to the case 2 inshore environment influenced by upwelling and riverine influx...

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA INFLUÊNCIA DO ABANDONO DA ASSISTÊNCIA PRÉ-NATAL NA MORTALIDADE FETAL E NEONATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Silva Gomes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do abandono da assistência pré-natal na mortalidade fetal e neonatal. Métodos: Estudo avaliativo, descritivo–exploratório, de cunho documental, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado de outubro a novembro de 2014. Utilizou-se como fonte de dados, 400 declarações de óbitos e 400 fichas de investigação de óbitos fetais e neonatais, ocorridos e notificados nos anos de 2010 a 2013. Foram analisados por meio do Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, para obtenção das frequências absolutas e relativas, variáveis nominais e numéricas e Qui-quadrado de Person. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (CAAE 26463814.2.0000.5554. Resultados: Quando avaliado a correlação entre o abandono do pré-natal e a mortalidade fetal e neonatal, observou-se que a mortalidade de fetos/neonatos de genitoras que abandonaram o pré-natal foi um evento crescente. Conclusão: Pôde-se confirmar a influência direta do abandono do pré-natal na mortalidade fetal e neonatal.

  17. The (Dis)ownership of English: Language and Identity Construction among Zulu Students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmegiani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role English and isiZulu play in the identity construction of a group of black South African university students from disadvantaged backgrounds enrolled in a bridge programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. I will discuss how, in post-apartheid South Africa, language practices continue to foster inequality, despite a…

  18. Efficacy of physical activity interventions in post-natal populations: systematic review, meta-analysis and content coding of behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Alyssa Sara; Dale, Hannah; Robinson, Clare; Hughes, Adrienne R; McInnes, Rhona; Lavallee, David

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the efficacy of post-natal physical activity change interventions with content coding of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO) were searched for interventions published from January 1980 to July 2013. Inclusion criteria were: (i) interventions including ≥1 BCT designed to change physical activity behaviour, (ii) studies reporting ≥1 physical activity outcome, (iii) interventions commencing later than four weeks after childbirth and (iv) studies including participants who had given birth within the last year. Controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Interventions were coded using the 40-item Coventry, Aberdeen & London - Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy of BCTs and study quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane criteria. Twenty studies were included in the review (meta-analysis: n = 14). Seven were interventions conducted with healthy inactive post-natal women. Nine were post-natal weight management studies. Two studies included women with post-natal depression. Two studies focused on improving general well-being. Studies in healthy populations but not for weight management successfully changed physical activity. Interventions increased frequency but not volume of physical activity or walking behaviour. Efficacious interventions always included the BCTs 'goal setting (behaviour)' and 'prompt self-monitoring of behaviour'.

  19. The determinants of credit rating: brazilian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    MurciaI,Flávia Cruz de Souza; Dal-Ri Murcia,Fernando; Rover,Suliani; Borba,José Alonso

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equa...

  20. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de; Flores, Tarcisio Santos; Cruz, Nathalia Gracielle da Silva; Diamantino, Hugo Duarte; Barroso, Livia Alves; Rocha, Bruna Almeida; Souza, Romulo Luiz Mendes; Ramos, Pedro Camilo; Macedo, Marcio Henrique Marques

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  1. RMB: the new Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto, E-mail: perrotta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Brazilian research reactors have a limited capacity for radioisotopes production, leading to a high dependence on external supply for radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In order to overcome this condition and due to the old age of these research reactors, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission decided, in 2008, to construct a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be part of a new nuclear research center, to be built on a site about 100 kilometers from São Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research center will have a 30 MW open pool type research reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and several associated laboratories in order to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, to use neutron beams in scientific and technological research; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform materials and fuels irradiation tests. Regarding the neutron beams use, the RMB design provides thermal and cold neutron beams. From one side of the reactor, the neutron guides will extend to an experimental hall of instruments named Neutron Guide Hall where it will be installed the scattering instruments. In the initial stage of the reactor operation, the intent is to implement two neutron guides for thermal neutrons and another two for cold neutrons. The 2015 SBPMAT symposium has presented the technical overview of the RMB project and its main buildings, structures and components. At this year symposium, the RMB presentation updates some technical information and the development status of the project, discussing the negative results of the Brazilian political and economic crisis to the project development and its future perspectives. (author)

  2. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  3. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Soares, Abner Duarte; Nogueira, Tindyua de Moraes; Monteiro, Iara Arraes; Pitta, Maria Adelia Rocha; Bruno, Natanael Carvalho; Pereira, Enneite Souza; Pinto, Marvio dos S.; Lidington, Regina Marcia Rocha; Rocha, Marco Aurelio Toledo

    2011-01-01

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  5. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  6. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  7. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gomes, Rogerio dos; Magalhaes Ennes Ennes, Edson Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  9. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Result...

  10. Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Andrea Cronemberger; Madeiro, Alberto; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2014-05-01

    Sexuality education has been valued since the 1960s in medical schools worldwide. Although recent studies reaffirm the importance of incorporating sexuality into medical education, there are data gaps concerning how this happens in Brazil. To understand how Brazilian medical school professors teach sexuality in undergraduate courses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 207 professors from 110 Brazilian medical schools responded to an online semistructured questionnaire about the characteristics of the sexuality-related topics offered. The main variables assessed were contact hours devoted to sexuality, disciplines in which sexuality topics were taught, sexuality-related course titles, and sexuality-related topics addressed. Questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics for frequency distribution. The response rate to the questionnaire was 77.2%. Almost all professors (96.3%) addressed sexuality-related topics mainly in the third and fourth years as clinical disciplines, with a 6-hour load per discipline. Gynecology was the discipline in which sexuality-related topics were most often taught (51.5%), followed by urology (18%) and psychiatry (15%). Sexuality-related topics were addressed mainly in classes on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (62.4%) and on the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system (55.4%). About 25% of the professors reported teaching courses with a sexuality-related title. There was emphasis on the impact of diseases and sexual habits (87.9%) and sexual dysfunction (75.9%). Less than 50% of professors addressed nonnormative sexuality or social aspects of sexuality. The teaching of sexuality in Brazilian medical schools occurred in a nonstandardized and fragmented fashion across several disciplines. The topic was incorporated with an organic and pathological bias, with a weak emphasis on the social aspects of sexuality and the variety of human sexual behaviors. The

  11. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  12. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. The impact of turn around time in Brazilian Navy inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Mauricio

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis analyzes how the operation of helicopters produced and supported by manufacturers in various countries affect Brazilian Navy repairable inventories levels and costs. The research is based on a scenario where the Brazilian Navy operates 68 helicopters, manufactured by contractors in USA, France, England and Italy, and the Brazilian Navy relies on these manufacturers for depot-level maintenance. We develop a simulation model...

  14. Information literacy: uma análise nas bibliotecas escolares da rede privada em Natal/RN Information literacy: an analysis of the school library of the private schools network in Natal/RN p. 110-133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta a information literacy, como competência em informação, relata, de forma geral, seu surgimento, desenvolvimento e importância de sua prática na biblioteca escolar. Aborda-se os principais focos da competência em informação: tecnologia da informação, processos cognitivos, e aprendizado ao longo da vida. Relata-se a análise dos dados dos questionários aplicados nas bibliotecas escolares da rede de escolas privadas da cidade de Natal RN com fins de identificar e analisar a competência em informação neste ambiente. Apresenta-se a necessidade de integração entre escola-biblioteca, e a inserção do bibliotecário na comunidade educacional para criação de programas educacionais voltados para a competência em informação. Palavras-chave Competência em informação; Habilidades informativas; Biblioteca escolar; Educação e aprendizagem Abstract It presents information literacy as information competence, as well as reporting, in a general way its appearance, development and the importance of its practice in the school library. Focuses on the main information competences: information technology, cognitive processes and life long learning. It reports on the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire applied in school libraries of the private schools network in the city of Natal RN, as a means to identify and analyze information competence in this environment. The need for school-library integration is presented, as is the need for the insertion of the librarian in the educational community for the creation of educational programs directed towards information competence. Key words Information competence; Informative skills; School library; Education and learning

  15. The Brazilian Public Health in Contemporary Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Virgínia; Mendes, Áquilas N

    2018-01-01

    This article examines some political and economic facts that led to an intensification of austerity measures by the Brazilian government, including ones against the Unified Health System (SUS) and its progressive dismantling. In a country where fundamental human rights were never fully respected, nowadays social and labor rights are under severe attacks. The deepening of the capital crisis and the rise of interest-bearing capital dominance have been causing unemployment, social insecurity growth, and resulting public fund appropriation by the private capital. The Brazilian governments in the 1990s and 2000s have implemented deeper cuts in social policy expenditure, freezing security benefits, privatizing services, and prioritizing the payment of public debt interests. The right wing's project involves the demoralization of not only the Workers' Party but also the left as a whole, so that the adoption of austerity measures could be achieved without popular resistance. It is the duty of the Brazilian left wing to denounce such a project and to provoke firm initiatives to rebuild its bonds with the working class.

  16. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  18. Resistance Stories of African-Brazilian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of the orixás [African-Brazilian deities] of the black culture and tell their personal histories using those experiences. This intervention was an attempt at invoking different subjective experiences, and made it possible to empower the women who took part in the research, contributing for the rescue of the individual and collective memory of this group.

  19. Reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: conhecimentos dos profissionais de saúde do serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência Reforma psiquiátrica brasileña: conocimientos de los profesionales de salud del servicio móvil de urgencia Brazilian psychiatric reform: knowledges of health professional of mobile service of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2013-06-01

    tratamiento psicosocial, sus líneas de referencia a la necesidad de hospitalización para los pacientes psiquiátricos. El modelo centrado en los hospitales y diseñado por la psiquiatría clásica exclusiva sigue vivo en las ideas de estos profesionales como una referencia a la atención de urgencias psiquiátricas.Objective is to identify the knowledge of health professionals of Service of Mobile Emergency of Natal on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 health professionals stationed at the institution. The interviews were transcribed and submitted to the technique of thematic analysis revealed three categories of analysis: admission of the subject in crisis as social and family demands; Psychiatric Reform: legislation and reality in the SAMU-Natal, and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform as a promoter of deinstitutionalization. The professionals showed misleading and reductionist understandings of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and, mostly, did not give credence to the current model of mental health care in guided psychosocial treatment, his lines referring to the need for hospitalization of psychiatric patients. In this sense, we realize that the hospital-centered model designed by classical psychiatry is still alive in the ideas of these professionals as a reference to the psychiatric emergency care.

  20. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  1. Brazilian energy statistics - 1990. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of major importance in Brazil's energy scenario. The Brazilian Power Sector's Environmental Master Plan is also described including the expansion planning and the handling of socio-environmental issues; the power sector's evolution in the treatment of socio-environmental issues; the guidelines for socio-environmental planning and management and the institutional and technical development in the socio-environmental area. 15 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: automobile ownership and financial insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Anna Q; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Del Rio, Carlos; Kearns, Rachel A; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Wu, Peng; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.

  3. Soroepidemiologia da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Annielle Regina da Fonseca Fernandes; Ademilde Gomes Fernandes; Vinicius José Apropriano Araújo; Severino Silvano dos Santos Higino; Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva; Clebert José Alves; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a frequência de cães soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. no município de Natal e região metropolitana, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção. Foram examinadas 365 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães atendidos na rotina de diversas clínicas veterinárias durante o período de março a novembro de 2011. O diagnóstico sorológico da leptospirose foi realizado pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópi...

  4. Factors associated with the take-up of voluntary medical male circumcision amongst learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Govender, Kaymarlin; Beckett, Sean; Montague, Carl; Frohlich, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an integral part of South Africa's HIV prevention programme. School-going males, in particular, are considered a cost-effective target population. However, ambitious policy targets have not been achieved due to the plateau in demand for VMMC. This study documents the factors influencing demand for VMMC amongst school-going males. Data were collected from 750 learners (251 circumcised and 499 uncircumcised) from 42 secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. There was a positive association between the perceived benefit of VMMC and the likelihood of undergoing circumcision (AOR: 1.41, p = 0.01). There was a negative association between self-efficacy to use condoms and likelihood of undergoing VMMC (AOR: 0.75, p concern, learners who were confident in their ability to access condoms and t use a condom with their partner were less likely to undergo VMMC.

  5. The quality of integrated reproductive health services: perspectives of clients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maharaj

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of family planning programmes has shifted away from an emphasis on controlling fertility towards helping individuals achieve their reproductive goals. This article seeks to expand knowledge about the quality of integrated services from the perspective of clients at health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. The results from 300 structured interviews with clients visiting health facilities found that overall quality of services was relatively high. However, the quality of services varied somewhat between rural and urban areas. Clients visiting urban health facilities reported greater satisfaction with services than clients visiting rural health facilities. The interviews with clients suggests that existing efforts to integrate services has had limited success. Clients were rarely offered an expanded range of services during their visit. In most cases, clients only received services for which they presented at the health facility.

  6. Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.

  7. Utilization of Spirituality and Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice in Public Hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chandramohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the views of professional nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa regarding the role of spirituality and spiritual care in nursing practice and investigated whether professional nurses utilize spiritually based care in nursing practice. A cross-sectional descriptive design using multistage random sampling was utilized. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to professional nurses between December 2012 and February 2013. A total of 385 participants completed the survey questionnaire, resulting in a 77% response rate. Data was analyzed using SSPS 0.20. The data revealed that nurses see spirituality and spiritual care as an important dimension of nursing practice but need greater preparedness. Nurses need to be effectively prepared to deal with the complexity of providing ethically based personalized spiritual care in an increasingly diverse society.

  8. Effects of natal departure and water level on survival of juvenile snail kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Survival rate from fledging to breeding, or juvenile survival, is an important source of variation in lifetime reproductive success in birds. Therefore, determining the relationship between juvenile survival and environmental factors is essential to understanding fitness consequences of reproduction in many populations. With increases in density of individuals and depletion of food resources, quality of most habitats deteriorates during the breeding season. Individuals respond by dispersing in search of food resources. Therefore, to understand the influence of environmental factors on juvenile survival, it is also necessary to know how natal dispersal influences survival of juveniles. We examined effects of various environmental factors and natal dispersal behavior on juvenile survival of endangered Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in central and southern Florida, using a generalized estimating equations (GEEs) approach and model selection criteria. Our results suggested yearly effects and an influence of age and monthly minimum hydrologic levels on juvenile Snail Kite survival. Yearly variation in juvenile survival has been reported by other studies, and other reproductive components of Snail Kites also exhibit such variation. Age differences in juvenile survival have also been seen in other species during the juvenile period. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between water levels and juvenile survival. We suggest that this is not a direct linear relationship, such that higher water means higher juvenile survival. The juvenile period is concurrent with onset of the wet season in the ecosystem we studied, and rainfall increases as juveniles age. For management purposes, we believe that inferences suggesting increasing water levels during the fledging period will increase juvenile survival may have short-term benefits but lead to long-term declines in prey abundance and possibly wetland vegetation structure.

  9. Soroepidemiologia da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annielle Regina da Fonseca Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a frequência de cães soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. no município de Natal e região metropolitana, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção. Foram examinadas 365 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães atendidos na rotina de diversas clínicas veterinárias durante o período de março a novembro de 2011. O diagnóstico sorológico da leptospirose foi realizado pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM, utilizando-se 24 sorovares de Leptospira spp. como antígenos. Dos 365 cães, 25 foram soropositivos para pelo menos um dos sorovares de Leptospira spp., com frequência de 6,8%. Os sorovares com reações sorológicas mais frequentes foram Shermani (40%, Sentot (36% e Copenhageni (20%. O perfil epidemiológico da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, indica que a infecção ocorre com frequência baixa em comparação com outras regiões, provavelmente devido ao grande percentual de animais vacinados, bem como, sugere-se distribuição homogênea de animais soropositivos na região. Por outro lado, a presença de roedores pode ser um importante fator de risco, uma vez que sorovares mantidos por estes animais foram identificados entre os mais frequentes.

  10. Is BMR repeatable in deer mice? Organ mass correlates and the effects of cold acclimation and natal altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G A; Chappell, M A

    2007-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is probably the most studied aspect of energy metabolism in vertebrate endotherms. Numerous papers have explored its mass allometry, phylogenetic and ecological relationships, and ontogeny. Implicit in many of these studies (and explicit in some) is the view that BMR responds to selection, which requires repeatability and heritability. However, BMR is highly plastic in response to numerous behavioral and environmental factors and there are surprisingly few data on its repeatability. Moreover, the mechanistic underpinnings of variation in BMR are unclear, despite considerable research. We studied BMR repeatability in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) across intervals of 30-60 days, and also examined the influence of birth altitude (3,800 m versus 340 m) and temperature acclimation (to approximately 5 or approximately 20 degrees C) on BMR, and the relationship between BMR and organ size. Neither acclimation temperature nor natal altitude alone influenced BMR, but the combination of birth at high altitude and cold acclimation significantly increased BMR. Few visceral organ masses were correlated to BMR and most were inconsistent across natal altitudes and acclimation temperatures, indicating that no single organ 'controls' variation in BMR. In several treatment groups, the mass of the 'running motor' (combined musculoskeletal mass) was negatively correlated to BMR and the summed mass of visceral organs was positively correlated to BMR. We found no repeatability of BMR in any treatment group. That finding-in sharp contrast to high repeatability of BMR in several other small endotherms-suggests little potential for direct selection to drive BMR evolution in deer mice.

  11. Chart review of acute myocardial infarction at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD and associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI, are increasing in South Africa. Local studies are needed as contextual factors, such as healthcare systems, gender and ethnicity, may affect presentation and management. In AMI, reviews on time between onset of chest pain and initiation of urgent treatment are useful, as delays in initiation of thrombolytic treatment significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the profile and management of patients admitted with ischaemic chest pain.Setting: The study was carried out in a busy urban-based district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The population served is poor, and patients are mainly Indian with associated high risk of IHD. Methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the hospital with acute ischaemic chest pain between 01 March and 31 August 2014 was undertaken. Results: More male than female patients were admitted, with a wide variation in age. Most eligible patients received required thrombolytic intervention within an acceptable time period after arrival at hospital. Conclusion: Chest pain and AMI were a relatively common presentation at the study site, and urgent diagnosis and initiation of fibrinolytic therapy are essential. The encouraging door-toneedle time may have been influenced by the availability of specialist family physicians, trained as ‘expert generalists’ to provide appropriate care in a variety of settings and consultant support to junior staff. The role of the family physician and primary healthcare doctor in primary prevention are re-emphasised through the study findings. Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; KwaZulu-Natal; district hospital; Asian population; hospital chart review; door-to-needle-time

  12. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    ährend Korrelationen zwischen DC und Funktionen von DC auch nahe 1 waren. Die Korrelationen von DC mit BW und CE schwankten wenig nach den verschiedenen Transformationen und bewegten sich zwischen 0,26 und 0,28 sowie 0,10 und 0,12. Die Korrelation zwischen BW und CE war 0,06. Die Untersuchung weist auf eine Reihe von Problemen, die sich durch die Verwendung von DC als Reproduktionsvariable von Fleischrindern ergeben. Es wird der Schluß gezogen, daß DC derzeit zwar nützliche Information für die Praxis ist, daß aber das Suchen nach wissenschaftlich angemessenen weiblichen Reproduktionsmerkmalen fortgesetzt werden sollte. RESUMEN: Variables reproductivas y peri-natales en un rodeo de vacunos de carne de varias razas Las variables éxito al parto (CS), dias al parto (DC), peso al nacer (BW) y facilidad de parto (CE) se estudiaron en un rodeo de vacunos de carne compuesto de varias razas (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford y Simmental × Hereford). DC no estaba normalmente distribuida y una serie de transformaciones ensayadas fracasaron en normalizar esta variable. Las repetibilidades se estimaron por análisis de variancia. La inclusión (o exclusión) de las vacas falladas (no paridas) del análisis y las transformaciones estudiadas tuvieron poco efecto en la repetibilidad de DC, que varió de 0.10 a 0.12. Las repetibilidades de CS, BW y CE fueron 0.08, 0.26 y 0.03, respectivamente. Las correlaciones residuales de CS con DC y con funciones de DC fueron altas (valor absoluto 0.68 o mayor), mientras que las correlaciones entre DC y funciones de DC fueron cerca de uno. Las correlaciones de DC con BW y CE variaron poco con la transformación aplicada a DC, yendo (en valor absoluto) de 0.26 a 0.28 y 0.10 a 0.12, respectivamente. La correlación entre BW y CE fue de 0.06. El estudio apunta a una serie de problemas asociados con el uso de DC como variable reproductiva en vacunos de carne. Se concluye que aunque DC es actualmente una útil variable reproductiva de campo, la búsqueda de rasgos

  13. Avaliação dos dados do cartão de pré-natal e registro da rotina prevista na assistência pré-natal de baixo risco em uma coorte de gestantes em Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Moraes Carrilho

    2014-01-01

    A adequação da atenção pré-natal é relevante para redução das taxas de mortalidade materna e perinatal, sendo fundamental a integração das informações nos diferentes níveis de atenção à gestante. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a completude dos dados dos cartões de pré-natal apresentados por uma coorte de gestantes admitidas em dois hospitais universitários de Belo Horizonte, conforme rotina prevista pelo MS e o protocolo da Prefeitura Municipal de Belo Horizonte (PBH), para ...

  14. Brazilian energy statistics - 1998. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  15. Brazilian energy statistics - 2000. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  16. Brazilian energy statistics - 1999. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1991. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 13 figs., 22 tabs

  18. Brazilian energy statistics - 1994. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 10 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Brazilian energy statistics - 1996. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Domestic production, petroleum and petroleum product imports, as well as natural gas production statistics are furnished in this bulletin

  20. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  1. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  2. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Paulo César de Sousa; Lisboa, João Veríssimo de Oliveira; Augusto, Mário Gomes; Almeida, Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  3. DEA investment strategy in the Brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Newton da Costa, Jr.; Marcus Lima; Edgar Lanzer; Ana Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period investment strategy using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in the Brazilian stock market. Results show that the returns based on the DEA strategy were superior to the returns of a Brazilian stock index in most of the 22 quarters analyzed, presenting a significant Jensen's alpha.

  4. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  5. VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, N. S.; Figueiredo, W.; Plascak, J. A.; Santos, M.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 3rd to 8th August, 2015. This is the eighth such meeting, and the second one to have contributed papers published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (the other was the VII BMSP). The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais, in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal, and in the shores of Paraíba. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in Florianópolis, with its pleasing shores, the capital of Santa Catarina state. The VIII BMSP brought together about 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive conference. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementation of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, and out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to be an important occasion for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of the art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to put together this special issue, and are most appreciative of the efforts of the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the Florianopolis team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CAPES and CNPq, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFSC. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors for their written submissions. (paper)

  6. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  7. Smoking: what has been addressed in Brazilian journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Morais, Anna Miethke; Martins, Stella Regina; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula

    2012-12-01

    The topic of tobacco smoking, in its several aspects, has been receiving increasing attention among researchers over the past few years, which has been reflected in more data and more solid scientific literature on the subject in national journals. This article aims to review the studies that focused on smoking published between January 2010 and June 2012, in Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia (Brazilian Archives of Cardiology), Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Clinics (Sao Paulo), Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia (Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology), Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (Journal of the Brazilian Medical Association) and Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery). During the aforementioned period 58 articles were published, 52 of which were original ones, addressing several aspects of smoking, such as effects on health, epidemiology, cessation and experimental studies.

  8. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  9. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  10. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  11. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

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    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  12. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

    OpenAIRE

    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...

  13. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  14. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  15. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  17. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  18. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  19. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  20. The status of the Brazilian spherical detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O D; Andrade, L A; Filho, L Camargo; Costa, C A; Araujo, J C N de; Neto, E C de Rey; Souza, S T de; Fauth, A C; Frajuca, C; Frossati, G; Furtado, S R; Furtado, V G S; Magalhaes, N S; Jr, R M Marinho; Matos, E S; Meliani, M T; Melo, J L; Miranda, O D; Jr, N F Oliveira; Ribeiro, K L; Salles, K B M; Stellati, C; Jr, W F Velloso

    2002-01-01

    The first phase of the Brazilian Graviton Project is the construction and operation of the gravitational wave detector Mario Schenberg at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. This gravitational wave spherical antenna is planned to feature a sensitivity better than h = 10 -21 Hz -1/2 at the 3.0-3.4 kHz bandwidth, and to work not only as a detector, but also as a testbed for the development of new technologies. Here we present the status of this detector

  1. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  2. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  3. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovisolo,Hugo Jacob; Leal,Ricardo Pereira Câmara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined...

  4. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  5. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gho, C.J.; Mauricio, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  6. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  7. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  8. Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.S.; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

  9. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  10. Baixo peso ao nascer e condições maternas no pré-natal Bajo peso al nacer y condiciones maternas en el período prenatal Low birth weight and maternal conditions in pre-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Tamami Minagawa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar como o peso ao nascer se relaciona às condições maternas de trabalho, pré-natal, nutricionais (altura, peso inicial, final e ganho na gestação e sócio-econômico-demográficas (idade, situação conjugal, escolaridade, renda familiar, o presente estudo foi realizado na área de abrangência do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo e a amostra foi constituída por 101 crianças. A ocorrência de baixo peso ao nascer (BPN foi de 5,1% e não se associou com o trabalho materno, nem com o pré-natal, porém mostrou associação significativa com as seguintes variáveis maternas: ganho de peso na gestação inferior a 7 kg, idade menor que 20 anos e não ter companheiro. Apesar da baixa ocorrência de BPN, os resultados evidenciaram a importância do pré-natal para reduzir a ocorrência de BPN, especialmente por meio do controle do ganho de peso na gestação, controle da gestação na adolescência e também priorizando a atenção das mulheres sem companheiro.El presente estudio realizado en la jurisdicción del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo tuvo como objetivo verificar cómo el peso al nacer se relaciona a las condiciones maternas de trabajo, el período prenatal, nutricionales (altura, peso inicial, final y ganancia en la gestación y socio-económico-demográficas (edad, situación conyugal, escolaridad, ingreso familiar. La muestra estuvo constituida por 101 niños. La ocurrencia de bajo peso al nacer (BPN fue del 5,1% y no se asoció con el trabajo materno, ni con el prenatal, sin embargo mostró asociación significativa con las siguientes variables maternas: ganancia de peso en la gestación inferior a 7 kg, edad menor a 20 años y no tener compañero. A pesar de la baja ocurrencia de BPN, los resultados evidenciaron la importancia del control prenatal para reducir la ocurrencia de BPN, especialmente por medio del control de ganancia de peso en la gestación, control de la gestaci

  11. Validação da nomenclatura diagnóstica de enfermagem direcionada ao pré-natal: base CIPESC® em Curitiba - PR Validación de la nomenclatura diagnóstica de enfermería direccionada al periodo de embarazo: base CIPESC® en Curitiba - PR Validating the nomenclature diagnosis of pre-natal nursing: base CIPESC® in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Cubas

    2007-09-01

    embargo, necesitan de adecuaciones para el lenguaje cotidiano. Las enfermeras presentan dificultades para interpretar la intervención de enfermería en la promoción del bienestar, siendo apremiante la discusión del concepto de promoción a la salud y el proceso salud-enfermedad en la salud colectiva.The existence of a specific language for the profession is essential, and the International Nursing Practice Classification in Collective Health (CIPESC, in the Portuguese-language acronym has as one of its goals the classification of the work of nurses in collective health. In Brazil, the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn, in the Portuguese-language acronym, responsible for the classification, found in the Municipal Secretary of Health of Curitiba, in the State of Paraná, an ally for its effective implantation. The purpose of this article was to validate the nomenclature of the 52 diagnoses of pre-natal Nursing - CIPESC base - in Curitiba. It is an exploratory-descriptive study developed with assisting nurses and experts in the area of gynecology obstetrics and terminology. The results were presented through the Consonance Index through absolute frequency. All the definitions were validated, but they need to be adjusted to the daily language. The nurses show difficulty in interpret nursing intervention in the promotion of well-being, and it is urgent to discuss the concept of health promotion and the health-illness process in collective health.

  12. Saúde da família: mudando práticas? Estudo de caso no município de Natal (RN Family health: changing practices? A case study in the city of Natal (RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Barros de Souza Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, representa um estudo de caso qualitativo, cuja unidade de análise é a equipe de Saúde do Programa Saúde da Família do município de Natal (RN. Tem como objetivos analisar as concepções dos profissionais sobre a prática do trabalho em equipe e reconhecer nessas práticas elementos que contribuam para a efetiva mudança do modelo de saúde hegemônico. Partiu-se da definição e tipologia de equipe de saúde elaborada por Peduzzi (1998, como principal fundamentação teórica. O estudo foi realizado em seis unidades de saúde da família, nos distritos sanitários Norte e Oeste. Esses serviços foram selecionados de acordo com critérios preestabelecidos. Foi utilizada como método para coleta dos dados empíricos a entrevista semi-estruturada com as equipes de saúde da família. Para análise do material empírico, utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo proposto por Lefèvre e Lefèvre (2003. Os resultados apontam para um predomínio da equipe do tipo integração. O trabalho em equipe surge como elemento essencial para o desenvolvimento da Estratégia de Saúde da Família.This article presents a qualitative case study where the unit of analysis was the Family Health Program team of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. The objectives were to analyze the conceptualizations of the professionals regarding teamwork as well as to identify in these practices the elements that contribute to an effective change in the hegemonic health model. The study was based on the Peduzzi (1998 typology and definition of health team and was conducted in six family health units in the North and East health districts selected by a pre-established criteria. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview applied in family health teams, which were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse proposed by Lefèvre and Lefèvre (2003. The results indicate a predominance of an integrated team type, and also that teamwork is an

  13. Prevalência de hemoglobinas anormais em recém-nascidos da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Prevalence of abnormal hemoglobins in newborns in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pignataro Emerenciano de Araújo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias estão incluídas dentre as doenças hereditárias mais freqüentes nas populações humanas. Estudos realizados em diferentes regiões do Brasil têm demonstrado que as hemoglobinas anormais S e C são as mais prevalentes. Com o objetivo de investigar a prevalência de hemoglobinas anormais no período neonatal, foram analisadas 1.940 amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical provenientes de recém-nascidos de três maternidades da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Todas as amostras foram submetidas à eletroforese de hemoglobina em acetato de celulose utilizando tampão Tris-EDTA-Borato pH 8,5. As amostras que apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais foram submetidas à eletroforese em gel de ágar pH 6,2 para confirmação. Foram identificadas 37 (1,91% amostras com hemoglobinas anormais, das quais 29 (1,50% com traço falciforme (Hb FAS, 06 (0,31 % com Hb C, uma (0,05 % com anemia falciforme (Hb FS e uma (0,05 % apresentou Hb Bart's, sugerindo alfa talassemia. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a necessidade de implantação da triagem de hemoglobinopatias em recém-nascidos na nossa população.Hemoglobinopathies are among the most prevalent hereditary diseases in humans. Studies in different areas of Brazil have identified the prevalence of S and C abnormal hemoglobins. The study analyzed 1,940 cord blood samples of newborns from maternity hospitals in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, to investigate the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobins. All samples were submitted to cellulose acetate electrophoresis using a Tris-EDTA-borate buffer at pH 8.5. Electrophoresis in agar gel pH 6.2 was performed on samples presenting abnormal hemoglobin. Some 37 (1.91% of the newborns presented hemoglobinopathies, as follows: 29 (1.50% sickle cell trait (Hb FAS, 6 (0.31% heterozygous Hb C (Hb FAC, one (0.05% homozygous Hb S (Hb FS, and one (0.05% Hb Barts suggestive of alpha thalassemia. The results show the need to implement screening for

  14. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan-Williams Charles H; Raman Jaishree; Raswiswi Eric; Immelman Etienne; Reichel Holger; Gate Kelly; Knight Steve

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine w...

  15. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J; Nelissen, Ewka C M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E L; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2014-04-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons born after embryo culture in medium from Vitrolife. In a previous study, we reported that type of medium used for culturing human IVF embryos during the first few days after fertilization until fresh embryo transfer significantly affects fetal growth and consequently birthweight of the resulting singletons. From July 2003 to December 2006, a total of 1432 IVF treatment cycles with fresh embryo transfer were randomly allocated to have all embryos cultured in medium from Vitrolife AB (n = 715) or from Cook (n = 717). Two years after delivery, questionnaires were sent to the parents of all children requesting data about weight, height and head circumference around 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7.5, 9, 11, 14, 18 and 24 months of age. These measurements were collected as part of the children's health programme at municipal infant welfare centres in the Netherlands by health professionals unaware of this study. Patients requiring donor oocytes or applying for PGD were excluded from the study. From the 294 live born singletons that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, 29 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 265 singletons (Cook group: 117, Vitrolife group: 148) were included in the analysis. Data analysis included linear regression, to compare cross-sectionally weight standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and head circumference, and the first order Berkey-Reed model for a longitudinal analysis of the growth data. Singletons in the Vitrolife group were heavier during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons in the Cook group. Cross-sectional analyses showed that adjusted weight SDS differed between groups at 1 (0.35 ± 0.14, P = 0.010), 2 (0.39 ± 0.14, P = 0

  16. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  17. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

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    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed by Brazilian small enterprises are characterized by having a lower or equal to R$ 3,600,000 (approximately 1,800,000 dollars gross annual income. To collect information regarding the diagnosis of the degree of knowledge of small entrepreneurs, it was used a structured questionnaire using gradual tracks in identification of the respondent and the firm. It was found that the majority of managers interviewed small enterprises does not use the operations management tools. Is because they do not know such tools or have no need for their use in their companies.

  18. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

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    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  19. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  20. Environemtnal benefits of the Brazilian Ethanol Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.; Audinet, P.

    1993-01-01

    After nearly twenty years since it was first launched, the Brazilian Ethanol Programme to data remains the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world. It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large scale ethanol production from sugar cane and its use to fuel car engines. On social and economic grounds, however, its evaluation is less positive. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated overview of the perspectives for the Ethanol Programme under the light of increasingly important local and global environmental concerns. Major results show that after oil prices supported upon the basis of its contribution to curb the increase of air pollution in Brazilian cities and of the greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the very survival of the Ethanol Programme, depends upon adequate economic compensation considering its global environmental benefits. These are appraised with two scenarios based on the use of a Markal-like model to define the range and costs of curbing greenhouse gases with a policy aiming at extending the Ethanol Programme

  1. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  2. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  3. International HR Strategy of Brazilian Technology Multinationals

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    Patricia Morilha Muritiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.

  4. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  5. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. The Brazilian nuclear power manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalho, A.R.; Spitalnik, J.; Machado, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Since the early stages of decision making, manpower availability has been recognized to be a key factor for the implementation of Brazil's nuclear power programme. Though care has been given to securing an industrial base and financial resources, the consequences of a lack of sufficient qualified manpower could be critical for the success of the whole programme. The broad scope of the Brazilian nuclear power programme which, as a main concept, aimed at establishing in the country a complete fuel cycle industry together with the construction of nuclear power plants, added another burden to the already complex task of providing appropriate human resources when advanced technologies are introduced in a developing country. Thus, not only the work-force required for nuclear power plant operation but also that needed for plant design, component manufacture, fuel cycle plant design and operation, had to be made available in number and qualification in accordance with the standards of the nuclear industry. The feasibility of the Brazilian programme depended on a complete transfer of technology, essentially achieved through personnel training. Again, the process of manpower preparation for an efficient know-how transfer required careful planning, and the great difficulty in its implementation was the lack of reliable experience at the time. (author)

  7. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  8. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law no. 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law no. 11.794. The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to 1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law no. 11.794 regarding the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty) days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.

  9. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  10. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  11. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  12. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  13. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

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    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  14. Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games

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    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    Full Text Available Abstract For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark, the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.

  15. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

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    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  16. LAS OSCILACIONES CLIMÁTICAS EN LA ATMOSFERA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD DE NATAL, BRASIL ATRAVÉS DE LAS SERIES LARGAS DE TEMPERATURAS DEL AIRE

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    Malco Jeiel de Oliveira Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo el análisis de la isla de calor urbana (ICU y de la isla de frescor urbana (IFU en la ciudad de Natal (Brasil, mediante la comparación de las series largas de temperatura del aire máximas y mínimas diarias en dos estaciones meteorológicas convencionales representativas una en la área urbana y la otra en el entorno, durante el quinquenio 1995-2010. Los resultados muestran la presencia de de oscilaciones térmicas a partir del contraste entre las temperaturas del área urbana y su entorno y la caracterización de las islas de calor y frescor urbano en la ciudad de Natal.

  17. Análise do acolhimento com as gestantes na atenção pré-natal em Crato-Ceará

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Maria Do Socorro de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar o acolhimento no cuidado à gestante, no contexto da estratégia de saúde da família, no município do Crato (CE). Estudo descritivo, seccional de abordagem quantitativa. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário padronizado aplicado a 191 gestantes após a consulta pré-natal, entre os meses de março a julho de 2011. A adequação do acesso à assistência pré-natal foi analisada pelo indicador de processo do Ministério da Saúde e para a análise da ad...

  18. Nutritional composition of commonly consumed composite dishes from rural villages in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, K; Kolahdooz, F; Lukasewich, M; Mathe, N; Khamis, T; Sharma, S

    2013-06-01

    Accurate nutrient composition data for composite dishes unique to a population is essential for the development of a nutrient database and the calculation of dietary intake. The present study aimed to provide the nutritional composition of composite dishes frequently consumed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Commonly consumed composite dishes were identified using 24-h recalls collected from 79 randomly selected community members. Multiple recipes were collected for each reported dish. The mean nutritional composition of each dish was calculated per 100 g using the nutribase clinical nutrition manager (Cybersoft Inc., Phoenix, AZ, USA). A total of 79 recipes were collected for 16 commonly consumed dishes (seven meat-based, five starch-based and four legume/vegetable-based). 'Fried chicken' contained the most energy [1469 kJ (351 kcal)], protein (29.7 g), fat (23.7 g), cholesterol (123 mg) and niacin (8.4 mg). 'Fried beef' contained the most potassium (495 mg) and zinc (6.4 mg), whereas 'fish stew' had the most vitamin D (4.2 μg) and calcium (215 mg). 'Fried cabbage' and 'fried spinach' contained the largest percent energies from fat, at 79% and 76%, respectively. A traditional sweet bread, 'jeqe', made with fortified flour contributed significantly to iron (4.6 mg), niacin (4.5 μg) and folate (129 μg). The sodium content of dishes ranged from 88 to 679 mg per 100 g. The nutritional composition data for commonly consumed dishes in rural KwaZulu-Natal is presented. Although the dishes are good sources of protein, vitamins and minerals, they also contain substantial amounts of fat. This culturally appropriate information will enable the calculation of dietary intake and can be used to encourage the consumption of recipes rich in key nutrients. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. The role of routine post-natal abdominal ultrasound for newborns in a resource-poor setting: a longitudinal study

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    Omokhodion Samuel I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of routine obstetric ultrasonography in the monitoring of pregnancy and identification of fetal malformations has partly contributed to lowering of fetal mortality rates. In Nigeria which has a high maternal and fetal mortality rate, many pregnant women do not have ante-natal care and not infrequently, women also deliver their babies at home and only bring the newborns to the clinics for immunization. Even when performed, most routine obstetric scans are not targeted towards the detection of fetal abnormalities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the benefit of routinely performing abdominal scans on newborns with a view to detecting possible abnormalities which may have been missed ante-natally. Methods- This was a longitudinal study of 202 consecutive, apparently normal newborns. Routine clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound scans were performed on the babies by their mother's bedside, before discharge. Neonates with abnormal initial scans had follow-up scans. Results- There were 108 males and 94 females. There were 12 (5.9% abnormal scans seen in five male and seven female neonates. Eleven of the twelve abnormalities were in the kidneys, six on the left and five on the right. Three of the four major renal anomalies- absent kidney, ectopic/pelvic kidney and two cases of severe hydronephrosis were however on the left side. There was one suprarenal abnormality on the right suspected to be a possible infected adrenal haemorrage. Nine of the abnormal cases reported for follow- up and of these, two cases had persistent severe abnormalities. Conclusions- This study demonstrated a 5.9% incidence of genito urinary anomalies on routine neonatal abdominal ultrasound in this small population. Routine obstetric USS

  20. SATISFAÇÃO E MOTIVAÇÃO DOS FUNCIONÁRIOS NO IFRN – CAMPUS NATAL CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Fátima Ferraz da Silva Tacconi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os aspectos da satisfação e motivação dos funcionários técnicos administrativos do IFRN Campus Natal Central. Pois se considerando a importância social do setor publico no país, deve-se promover estudos que visem avaliar os aspectos motivacionais que reforçem a satisfação do funcionário, visto que a qualidade no atendimento ao público externo tende a estar ligado à satisfação desse publico para com a organização. Dessa forma, foi realizado um estudo de caráter exploratório e descritivo, do tipo estudo de caso e abordagem quantitativa. A população desta pesquisa foi formada pelos servidores técnico-administrativos do IFRN Campus Natal-Central, no qual se coletaram 136 questionários, atendendo ao critério de amostra probabilística. Os resultados apresentaram que as pessoas se sentem fortemente motivadas, evidenciando que a maioria deve gostar do trabalho que desenvolve. Esse mesmo resultado se confirma no nível de satisfação com o trabalho Isso demostra que a maioria dos servidores trabalham com o que gostam, promovendo uma forte relação e sentindo-se satisfeitos como o seu trabalho. A analise de Cluster demonstrou que pode ser possível diferenciar dois agrupamentos, que apresentam nível de satisfação e motivação diferenciados. Conclui-se que os funcionários menos motivados são os que possuem mais tempo de serviço e que percebem o seu trabalho com menor nível de importância. Essa informação sugere uma urgência em destacar a importância do sentido do trabalho para esses profissionais.