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Sample records for brazilian medicinal plants

  1. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2013-07-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  2. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

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    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  3. Screening of Brazilian medicinal plants for antiviral activity against rotavirus.

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    Cecílio, Alzira Batista; de Faria, Déborah Behr; Oliveira, Pollyana de Carvalho; Caldas, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Dario Alves; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Duarte, Maria Gorette Resende; Moreira, Carolina Paula de Souza; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo; de Almeida, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-14

    Brazilian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea were investigated for their in vitro antiviral activity against the simian rotavirus SA11. The ethanolic crude extracts of plants collected in the cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted to phytochemical screening. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was inferred by cellular morphologic alterations. Antiviral activity was assessed by the ability of the extracts to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE) of rotavirus on the treated cells. RT-PCR was performed to confirm and/or confront antiviral assay data. The maximum non-toxic concentration ranged from 50 to 500 μg/mL. All extracts were toxic at a concentration of 5000 μg/mL but no extract showed cytotoxicity at 50 μg/mL. The species Byrsonima verbascifolia, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Eugenia dysenterica and Hymenaea courbaril exhibited the strongest in vitro activity against rotavirus. Their extracts prevented the formation of CPE, and RT-PCR analysis detected no amplification of genetic material from rotavirus. Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and terpenes were the major classes of natural products found in the leaf extracts that showed antiviral activity. Among the species studied, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea courbaril and Myracrodruon urundeuva showed potential activity against rotavirus and are worthy of further study. The present study corroborates ethnopharmacological data as a valuable source in the selection of plants with antiviral activity and to some extent validates their traditional uses. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.

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    Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

    2011-08-01

    A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

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    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  6. The antibiotic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Maria R. Ferreira de Lima

    Full Text Available The antibiotic activities of the ethanol extracts from 16 species of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine have been determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Salmonella enteretidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Mycobacterium phlei, M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum, and the yeasts Candida albicans and C. krusei. Among 32 extracts assayed, only those from Lafoensia pacari and Pterodon polygalaeflorus showed activity against the bacterial strains, and none were active against the yeasts. The ethanolic extract from the leaves of L. pacari showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 312.5 to 2500, 250, 625 and 1250 mg/mL, respectively, against eight different Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative Proteus mirabilis and the acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium phlei, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract from the stem of L. pacari showed an MIC value of 625 mg/mL against S. aureus. Chemical analysis revealed that the crude extracts contained tannins, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and saponins: the activities were sufficiently high to present the possibility of future identification of the active components by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification.

  7. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

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    Ribeiro, Sandra S; de Jesus, Aline M; dos Anjos, Charlene S; da Silva, Thanany B; Santos, Alan D C; de Jesus, Jemmyson R; Andrade, Moacir S; Sampaio, Tais S; Gomes, Wesley F; Alves, Péricles B; Carvalho, Adriana A; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pinheiro, Maria L B; Prata, Ana Paula N; Blank, Arie F; Silva-Mann, Renata; Moraes, Valeria R S; Costa, Emmanoel V; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar L; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2012-09-01

    Plants are promising sources of new bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of nine plants found in Brazil. The species studied were: Annona pickelii Diels (Annonaceae), Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae), Guatteria blepharophylla Mart. (Annonaceae), Guatteria hispida (R. E. Fr.) Erkens & Maas (Annonaceae), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae), Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae), and Hyptis calida Mart. Ex Benth (Lamiaceae). Different types of extractions from several parts of plants resulted in 43 extracts. Their cytotoxicity was tested against HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promielocitic leukemia) human tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The active extracts were those obtained from G. blepharophylla, G. hispida, J. curcas, K. rugosa, and L. gracilis. In addition, seven compounds isolated from the active extracts were tested; among them, β-pinene found in G. hispida and one coumarin isolated from K. rugora showed weak cytotoxic activity. In summary, this manuscript contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of Brazilian plants as sources of new anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Does the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations suffer taxonomic influence?

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    deMedeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Santos, André Maurício Melo; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-04-19

    The analysis of the influence of taxonomic affiliation on the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations can help elucidate theoretical aspects of medicinal plant selection. Ethnobotanical medicinal plant studies were compiled and the resulting medicinal flora was compared to the total angiosperm flora with a Bayesian approach and the IDM model. A total of 35 families were considered to be overused and six were classified as underused for the Bayesian approach. On the other hand, the IDM model considered 13 families as overused and five as underused (all of them were also highlighted by the Bayesian approach). A high overuse level of Bixaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae and Smilacaceae was recorded for both Bayesian and IDM model, while Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, Eriocaulaceae, Poaceae and Bromeliaceae were considered as underused for both analyses. The most dissimilar body system in terms of family composition was 'mental and behavioral disorders'. It was also found that the body systems are different from one another in the proportion of taxonomic groups, which could indicate chemical specificity in the treatment of diseases. Results indicate that the chemical specificity of taxonomic groups directly influences medicinal plant selection. Moreover, when data presented here are compared to other studies, there is clearly an overuse pattern for families like Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae and an underuse pattern for Poaceae and Orchidaceae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dammarane-type triterpenes from the Brazilian medicinal plant Cordia multispicata.

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    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sekita, Setsuko; Satake, Motoyoshi; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Takase, Yoichi; Masuda, Kazuo

    2003-10-01

    From the Brazilian medicinal plant Carucaá (Cordia multispicata), oleanane- and ursane-type triterpenoids were previously reported as anti-androgenic constituents of the plant. In this study, purification of the polar elements of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the plant revealed nine novel dammarane-type triterpenes, named cordianols A-I (1-9) along with the known compound cordialin A (10). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by means of spectral methods including HRFABMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY). Absolute configuration at C-23 of compound 7 was determined by an excitone chirality method. Some of these new compounds revealed a hemiketal structure on the A ring and a hydroxylated or epoxidated 20(22)-(E)-ene side chain and showed weak anti-androgenic activity.

  10. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

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    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  11. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

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    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  12. Amazonian Brazilian medicinal plants described by C.F.P. von Martius in the 19th century.

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    Breitbach, Ulrike B; Niehues, Michael; Lopes, Norberto P; Faria, Jair E Q; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-05-02

    Information regarding the use of beneficial, native Brazilian plants was compiled by European naturalists during the 19th century. The German botanist C.F.P. von Martius was one of the most prominent naturalists and described the use of several Brazilian plants. To present data on Amazonian medicinal plants documented by von Martius in his books. Data on Amazonian medicinal plants were obtained from three books published by von Martius. Traditional information about these plants was translated from Latin and the cited plant species reorganised according to current taxonomic criteria. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 92 native medicinal species from the Amazon were recorded in von Martius' books. These accounts described 117 different medical uses for these plants. Several parts of the plants were used, including many exudates. The principal use of the species recorded was the treatment of dermatological problems, followed by gastro-intestinal, urinary and respiratory disorders. Few species were recorded as purgatives and febrifuges, a result that differs from the observations of other naturalists. The efficacy of the recorded traditional uses has been confirmed for the few species that have been subjected to laboratory studies. The data recorded by the German naturalist von Martius represent a rich, unexplored source of information about the traditional uses of Brazilian plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

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    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  14. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

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    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

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    Pereira, Elizete Maria; Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Freire, Natália Ribeiro; Aguiar, Evandro Guimarães; Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of oral pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Brazilian medicinal plant extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira), Croton campestris (velame), Lafoensia pacari (pacari), Centaurium erythraea (centáurea), Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão), and Anacardium humile (cajuzinho-docerrado), as compared to standardized antimicrobial agents (nystatin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride). Ethanol, hexane and butane fractions from stem barks, rinds, leaves, and/or roots were extracted and tested. Antimicrobial diffusion agar test and MIC were performed according to CLSI. After 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, the diameter of inhibition zones and spectrophotometer readings were measured and compared. The results were reported as means ± standard deviation (M ± SD). With the exception of five extracts that showed no antimicrobial activity, all the extracts tested showed antimicrobial activity, in different levels. This study suggests that extracts from the plants tested could be an alternative therapeutic option for infectious conditions of the oral cavity, such as denture stomatitis, dental caries, and periodontitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plant Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) from the Brazilian savannah.

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    Vieira, Mariana L A; Johann, Susana; Hughes, Frederic M; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-12-01

    The fungal endophyte community associated with Baccharis trimera, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was characterized and screened for its ability to present antimicrobial activity. By using molecular methods, we identified and classified the endophytic fungi obtained into 25 different taxa from the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The most abundant species were closely related to Diaporthe phaseolorum, Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, and Preussia pseudominima. The differences observed in endophytic assemblages from different B. trimera specimens might be associated with their crude extract activities. Plants that had higher α-biodiversity were also those that contributed more to the regional (γ) diversity. All fungal isolates were cultured and their crude extracts screened to examine the antimicrobial activities. Twenty-three extracts (12.8%) displayed antimicrobial activities against at least one target microorganism. Among these extracts, those obtained from Epicoccum sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, Cochliobolus lunatus, and Nigrospora sp. presented the best minimum inhibitory concentration values. Our results show that the endophytic fungal community associated with the medicinal plant B. trimera included few dominant bioactive taxa, which may represent sources of compounds with antifungal activity. Additionally, the discovery of these bioactive fungi in association with B. trimera suggests that Brazilian plants used as folk medicine may shelter a rich fungal diversity as well as taxa able to produce bioactive metabolites with antimicrobial activities.

  17. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil.

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    Santos, Allana K L; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Cansanção, Isaac F; Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.

  18. Polygodial, the fungitoxic component from the Brazilian medicinal plant Polygonum punctatum

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    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum punctatum (Polygonaceae is an herb known in some regions of Brazil as "erva-de-bicho" and is used to treat intestinal disorders. The dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of this plant showed strong activity in a bioautographic assay with the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The bioassay-guided chemical fractionation of this extract afforded the sesquiterpene dialdehyde polygodial as the active constituent. The presence of this compound with antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties in "erva-de-bicho" may account for the effects attributed by folk medicine to this plant species.

  19. Medicinal Plants.

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    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  20. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis.

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    Saiki, M; Vasconcellos, M B; Sertié, J A

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants. Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10(11)-10(13) n/cm2s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush (1) reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed.

  1. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species.

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    Costa, Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Ana Paula Sant'Anna da; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; Rocha, Suyana Karolyne Lino da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Correia, Maria Tereza Dos Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2017-05-03

    Background : The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti- Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril , Myroxylon peruiferum , and Vismia guianensis . Methods : The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans , C. tropicalis , C. parapsilosis , C. glabrata , and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Results : The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans -caryophyllene for H. courbaril ; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum ; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion : The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  2. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

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    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  3. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae), a medicinal plant from the Brazilian savanna.

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    Baldauf, Cristina; Ciampi, Maísa B; Vigna, Bianca B Z; Mori, Gustavo M; Guedes, Julian P P; De Souza, Anete P; Dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2011-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for studying the genome of the janaguba tree, Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel, which is used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil. These novel markers are being used to evaluate the effect of harvesting on the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of this species. • Microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched H. drasticus genomic library. Nine primer pairs successfully amplified polymorphic microsatellite regions, with an average of 8.5 alleles per locus. The average values of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.456 and 0.601, respectively. • The microsatellite markers described here are valuable tools for population genetics studies of H. drasticus. The majority of the primers also amplified sequences in the genome of another species of the same genus. This new set of markers may be useful in designing a genetic conservation strategy and a sustainable management plan for the species.

  4. MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA: ANTIBIOFILM AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    DANIELLE SILVA TRENTIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga biome covers a vast area in northeastern Brazil and presents a high level of biodiversity. It is known that about 400 plant species are used by semi-arid local communities for medical purposes. Based on ethnopharmacological reports, this study aims to screen 24 species from Caatinga regarding the ability to prevent biofilm formation and to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a major opportunistic human pathogen and an important causative agent of morbidity and mortality. The effects of aqueous extracts, at 0.4 and 4.0 mg mL-1, on biofilm formation and on growth of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were studied using the crystal violet assay and the OD600 absorbance, respectively. The most active extracts were analyzed by thinlayer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Our investigation pointed extracts of four species with potential application for the control of P. aeruginosa: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan, Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart. J.B. Gillett, Myracrodruoun urundeuva Allemão, whose antibiofilm effects (89%, 56% and 79% inhibition of biofilm, respectively were associated with complete inhibition of bacterial growth, and Pityrocarpa moniliformis (Benth. Luckow & R.W. Jobson, which were able avoid 68% of biofilm formation and inhibited 30% bacterial growth. The qualitative phytochemical analyses reveal the complexity of the samples as well as the presence of compounds with high molecular weight.

  5. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  6. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  7. Treatment of drug dependence with Brazilian herbal medicines

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    Elisaldo A. Carlini

    Full Text Available The topic "Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Addictions" in a country must be preceded by answers to four questions: 1. Does the country in question possess a biodiversity rich enough to allow the discovery of useful medicines? 2. Do local people have tradition and culture to look for and use resources from Nature to alleviate and cure diseases, including drug dependence? 3. Is drug dependence (or addiction present in the country in question? 4. Do people of that country recognize and diagnose such problem as a serious one? Alcohol is, by far, the most serious health problem when drug abuse is considered, reaching all of Brazilian society, including the Indians. On the contrary, other drugs may be considered as minor problems and they are not the main focus of this manuscript. The people living in Brazilian hinterland don’t have access to public health systems. Consequently, these people seek assistance from "curandeiros" and "raizeiros"; the Indians are assisted by the shaman. These "folk doctors" do not know the academic medicine and therapeutics, and resort to the local plants to treat different ailments of their patients. Furthermore, alcohol abuse and dependence are not recognized by them, according to the rules and criteria of academic medicine. We have conducted a survey in many Brazilian books, Thesis concerning phytotherapy, and several databank. The results of such searches were very disappointing. No published papers from Brazilian authors concerning the use of plants for the treatment of addictions were found in the databases and there were only three very short notes in the masterly book written by Shultes and Raffauf (1990. From the Brazilian books on folk medicine employing medicinal plants, ten mentions were disclosed: most of them dealing with treatment of alcohol problems and two to counteract "Ayahuasca" dependence.

  8. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  9. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  10. Does total tannin content explain the use value of spontaneous medicinal plants from the Brazilian semi-arid region?

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    Julio M. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Due to the current predatory exploitation and consequent extinction of native medicinal plants around the world, strategies have been proposed aiming at the sustainable use of these resources. Accordingly, this study aims at verifying the differences in tannin compounds content in the bark of eleven species with high use value (UV and also relating the amounts of tannins with their therapeutic indications. To quantify the total phenolic content in the samples the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used, and for total tannins chemical casein precipitation was applied. The amount of tannins ranged intra-specifically and the greater variation was found for Anadenanthera colubrina(angico that displayed between 157.57 and 107.39 mg/g. The lowest variation occurred in Lafoensia replicata(mangabeira with values ranging between 76.55 and 68.96 mg/g. There were significant differences between several of the eleven species and according to the simple regression analysis, the quantities of tannins found failed to justify their UV. Thus, it was not possible to establish whether the amount of total tannins influenced to a greater or lesser degree in the accumulation of knowledge. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between the amount of total tannins and local botanical knowledge expressed by the UV.

  11. In vitro effects of four native Brazilian medicinal plants in CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression, glutathione levels and P-glycoprotein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Dias Araujo Mazzari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae, Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae, Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae are medicinal plants species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI. In this work we assess non-toxic concentrations (100μg/mL of their infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR. Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (two-fold decrease, p<0.05, this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38mg/mL. Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p<0.001, Lippia sidoides (-12%, p<0.05 and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p<0.001. The later plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p<0.01. In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  12. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  13. Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José L R; Rodrigues, Oscar R L; de Sousa, Fábio B; Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Costa, Elson A

    2015-06-01

    Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Molecular marker-based genetic diversity analysis of scantly studied Brazilian accessions of a medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia L. (noni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, P N; Monteiro, A M R; Sousa, J A; Aragão, F A S

    2017-02-23

    Morinda citrifolia L., commonly known as noni, has been used for the treatment of various diseases for over two centuries. It was introduced and widely disseminated in Brazil because of its high market value and ease of adaptation to the soil and climatic conditions of the country. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic variability of noni accessions from the collection of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical in Brazil. We evaluated 36 plants of the 13 accessions of noni from the germplasm collection of M. citrifolia. Several methods of DNA extraction were tested. After definition of the method, the DNA of each sample was subjected to polymerase chain reactions using 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. The band patterns on agarose gel were converted into a binary data matrix, which was used to estimate the genetic distances between the plants and to perform the cluster analyses. Of the total number of markers used in this study, 125 (81.1%) were polymorphic. The genetic distances between the genotypes ranged from 0.04 to 0.49. Regardless of the high number of polymorphic bands, the genetic variability of the noni plants evaluated was low since most of the genotypes belonged to the same cluster as shown by the dendrogram and Tocher's cluster analysis. The low genetic diversity among the studied noni individuals indicates that additional variability should be introduced in the germplasm collection of noni by gathering new individuals and/or by hybridizing contrasting individuals.

  15. Brazilian medicinal plants used by the Dr. João Ferreyra da Rosa according to his “Treatise on Pestilence in Pernambuco” at the end of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Alves Tavares Marques

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available João Ferreyra da Rosa’s “Treatise on Pestilence in Pernambuco”, published in 1694 was the first document on yellow fever, its symptoms and treatment, and it described the phytomedicines used at the time. Rosa described a hundred medicinal plants used to treat the epidemic; most of them came already prepared from Europe, since the majority of Portuguese physicians rejected the indigenous therapeutic knowledge. However, later, due to the lenght and adverse conditions of maritime trevel, leading to losses in the effectiveness of the active ingredients of such phytotherapeutic products, doctors were obliged to employ native medicinal plants in their treatments. The Brazilian medicinal plants used in the treatment of the first epidemic of yellow fever in Brazil (17th century had been brought up to date from the taxonomic point of view, and were comparable with those used in popular medicine today. As part of the phytotherapeutic treatment of yellow fever at the end of the 17th century, Rose made use of the following medicinal plants: copaíba, macela, maracujá-mirim, red aroeira, angélico and almécega.

  16. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  17. Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra Singh; Jyoti Saxena; Mamta Saxena; Rajeev Nema

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients. Studies carried out during the past 2–3 decades have shown that these phytochemicals have an important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The major classes of phytochemicals with disease-preventing functions are dietary fibre, antioxidants, anticancer, detoxifying agents, immunity-potentiating agents and neuropharmacological agents. Each class of these functional ...

  18. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  19. MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs) are now used for the prevention and...

  20. Plantas utilizadas na medicina popular brasileira com potencial atividade antifúngica Plants with potencial antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fenner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico etnobotânico sobre plantas utilizadas pela população brasileira no tratamento de sinais e sintomas relacionados às infecções fúngicas. Foram citadas 409 espécies, distribuídas em 98 famílias, com maior concentração em Fabaceae e Asteraceae. Para as dez espécies mais citadas, foi realizada uma busca relativa a estudos de atividade antifúngica na base de dados MEDLINE-PubMed. Somente foram encontrados estudos para Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L., Schinus molle L. Entre as dez espécies mais utilizadas, seis correspondem a espécies nativas: Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthinfolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.The aim of this work was to draw up a list of plants used by Brazilian population for the treatment of signs and symptoms related to fungal infections and to verify the existence of scientific data related to the antifungal activity in the databasis MEDLINE-PubMed. Four hundread and nine species were listed, which are distributed in ninety eight families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae. Among the more frequently mentioned species (10, only four were evaluated regarding to the antifungal activity: Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L. and Schinus molle L. From those ten species, six are native (Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.

  1. Antioxidant Potential of Different Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi P; Parameswari CS

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the resource of new drug. Most of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. Medicinal plants are the important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. In developing countries, herbal medicines are considered to be readily available, accessible, affordab...

  2. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  3. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daniyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as “antifertility”, “anti-implantation”, “antiovulation”, and “antispermatogenic” activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  4. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VHADA

    knowledge of traditional healers on commonly used medicinal plants in Jimma. METHODS: An ethnobotanical survey was ... plants used for treatment of common diseases. The study was conducted during 20. January to 30 ... Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia.

  6. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts from the brazilian savanna on periodontal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson [UNESP; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Arafat, Omar Khalil Kidudsi; Ranieri, Robson Varlei [UNESP; Ramos, Marcelle Marie Buso [UNESP; Ciesielski, Francisco Isaak Nícolas [UNESP; Schweitzer, Chrisitane Marie [UNESP; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of plants from Brazilian savanna are currently used in popular medicine. This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts from savanna plants on periodontal bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were evaluated by the agar dilution method, using Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Antimicrobial activity of plants extracts on microbial biofilms was determined in microplates. Psidium cattleianum and Myracrodruon urundeuva extracts demonstrated signific...

  8. Essential Medicines List Implementation Dynamics: A Case Study Using Brazilian Federal Medicines Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarinos-Torres, Rachel; Lynd, Larry David; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Marques, Paulo Eduardo Potyguara Coutinho; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to analyse the implementation dynamics of the essential medicines list (EML). We used the government expenditures on medicines and Brazil as a case study. Drug purchases were considered as a proxy for utilization. The essential medicines (EMs) expenditures were followed over time by Brazilian National EMLs life-time and defined by broad therapeutic categories and by specific medicines. Brazil increased the number of the medicines during the last four editions of Brazilian National EMLs and the federal government expenditures on them. The EML implementation dynamics changed the distribution of expenditures on EMs. We identified a common set of 404 EMs present in all four editions of the Brazilian National EMLs. There was a proportional decrease in expenditures on anti-infectives for systemic use, blood and blood-forming organs and alimentary tract and metabolism, and increase in expenditures on antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. The expenditures distribution per specific medicines revealed that a small set of EMs was responsible for 50% or more of expenditures considering Brazilian National EML life-time for all four periods. The increase in expenditures on EMs in Brazil was a consequence of the newer medicines incorporated over time in the Brazilian National EMLs. The use of the medicines expenditures as a source of data and the definition of an EML life-time permitted follow-up of the implementation dynamics of different versions of the Brazilian National EMLs. Our results have implications for policymakers and stakeholders to gain a better understanding of the role EMLs play in health system sustainability and in the provision of the most beneficial heath care. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  9. Ten Medicinal Plants from Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Sesoltani, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this Master thesis, there is an emphasis on scientific studies carried out to find information about the pharmacological effects and phytochemical constituents in 10 selected medicinal plants from Burma. These plants are taken from Burma collection compiled by Arnold Nordal during the period 1957-1961. Information was obtained about ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and biological activities of the 10 chosen plants. After a thorough search in different databases, there were...

  10. Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rafael C; Campos, Maria M; Santos, Adair R S; Calixto, João B

    2016-10-01

    This review article focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies with some selected Brazilian medicinal plants in different areas of interest, conducted by research groups in Brazil and abroad. It also highlights the Brazilian market of herbal products and the efforts of Brazilian scientists to develop new phytomedicines. This review is divided into three sections. The section I describes the Brazilian large biodiversity and some attempts of Brazilian scientists to assess the pharmacological profile of most plant extracts or isolated active principles. Of note, Brazilian scientists have made a great effort to study the Brazilian biodiversity, especially among the higher plants. In fact, more than 10,000 papers were published on plants in international scientific journals between 2011 and 2013. This first part also discussed the main efforts to develop new medicines from plants, highlighting the Brazilian phytomedicines market. Despite the large Brazilian biodiversity, notably with the higher plants, which comprise over 45,000 species (20-22% of the total worldwide), and the substantial number of scientific publications on medicinal plants, only one phytomedicine is found in the top 20 market products. Indeed, this market is still only worth about 261 million American dollars. This represents less than 5% of the global Brazilian medicine market. The section II of this review focus on the use of Brazilian plant extract and/or active principles for some selected diseases, namely: central nervous systems disorders, pain, immune response and inflammation, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Finally, section III discusses in more details some selected Brazilian medicinal plants including: Cordia verbenacea, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mandevilla velutina, Phyllanthus spp., Euterpe oleracea, Vitis labrusca, Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum polyanthemum, Maytenus ilicifolia, Protium kleinii and Protium heptaphylium and Trichilia catigua. Most

  11. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Human Diseases Mesfin T. at el 89. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. SURVEY OF ... knowledge traditional medicinal plants are key resources. This involves the use of plants to treat ... WORDS: Traditional medicine, ethnomedicine, medicinal plant, ethnobotany treat what type of als investigated ...

  12. Medicinal plant recipes from Kırklareli

    OpenAIRE

    KÜLTÜR, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, have been reported different medicinal plant recipesin the Kırklareli region. 15 medicinal plant recipes belonging to 20 families (20wild plant species, 7 cultivated plant species) which were used for different medicinalpurposes by local people have been recorded totally 27 plant species in thearea. Traditional medicinal plant recipes have been mostly used for the traetmentof cough, cold and influenza.Key words: Ethnobotany, Kırklareli, Turkey, medicinal plant.

  13. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  14. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  16. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle S. Gusman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  18. Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotwani, Kavita; Baliga, Sudhindra; Sharma, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    Finding healing powers in plants is an ancient idea. Herbs have been used as a traditional form of medicine since time immemorial. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Phytodentistry implies the use of plants and their products in the process of treating disease directly or indirectly. A crucial role is played by phytotherapy in the treatment of stomatological problems. It started with the use of miswak (chewing stick), and it is still relevant today as herbal toothpaste in many parts of the country. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is appropriately called the botanical garden of the world. The use of this readily available, natural and safe resource as a part of dental practice has great potential for a more "Natural and Green Dental Practice". Plant products have long been used in dentistry as part of various dental materials right from impression materials to eugenol, which forms an integral part of the dental clinic. The use of herbs in dental practice is not limited to only material sciences. A single herb shows a variety of effects like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal activity and many more. Hence the incorporation of these herbs in dental practice will prove to be a valuable adjunct in dental treatment. This review is aimed at exploring the perspectives of this holistic treatment approach in dentistry and its benefits as an adjunctive therapy.

  19. Recent trends in medicinal plants research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyur, Lie-fen; Lau, Allan S.Y

    2012-01-01

    .... One type of research explores the value of medicinal plants as traditionally used and studies of these plants have the potential to determine which plants are most potent, optimize dosages and dose...

  20. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  1. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland. ... The uses include treatments for diarrhoea, dizziness, heartburn, infertility, sores in the genetals, diabetes, hypertension, sexually transmitted diseases, for version of fetus, to increase libido, and as emetic. Some of the plants are not used for curing or ...

  2. Antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities of five Brazilian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truiti M.C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and schistosomiasis (bilharzia are parasitic diseases with wide distribution on the American continent, affecting millions of people. In the present study, biological assays for antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities were carried out with ethanolic extracts of plant species from the Brazilian part of the Upper Paraná River. Crude extracts were obtained by percolation with absolute ethanol from the leaves of Cayaponia podantha Cogn., Nectandra falcifolia (Nees Castiglioni and Paullinia elegans Cambess., as well as from the aerial parts of Helicteres gardneriana St. Hil. & Naud. and Melochia arenosa Benth., all belonging to genera used in folk medicine. Trypanocidal activity of plants was assayed on epimastigote cultures in liver infusion tryptose. Anti-leishmanial activity was determined over cultures of promastigote forms of the parasite in Schneider's Drosophila medium. Microscopic countings of parasites, after their incubation in the presence of different concentrations of the crude extracts, were made in order to determine the percentage of growth inhibition. C. podantha and M. arenosa, at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, showed 90.4 ± 11.52 and 88.9 ± 2.20% growth inhibition, respectively, of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, whereas N. falcifolia demonstrated an LD50 of 138.5 µg/mL against promastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Regarding molluscicidal activity, the acute toxicity of the extracts on Biomphalaria glabrata was evaluated by a rapid screening procedure. M. arenosa was 100% lethal to snails at 200 µg/mL and showed an LD50 of 143 µg/mL. Screening of plant extracts represents a continuous effort to find new antiparasitic drugs.

  3. Citation distribution profile in Brazilian journals of general medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiggi Araujo Lustosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impact factors are currently the bibliometric index most used for evaluating scientific journals. However, the way in which they are used, for instance concerning the study or journal types analyzed, can markedly interfere with estimate reliability. This study aimed to analyze the citation distribution pattern in three Brazilian journals of general medicine. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a descriptive study based on numbers of citations of scientific studies published by three Brazilian journals of general medicine. METHODS: The journals analyzed were São Paulo Medical Journal, Clinics and Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. This survey used data available from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI platform, from which the total number of papers published in each journal in 2007-2008 and the number of citations of these papers in 2009 were obtained. From these data, the citation distribution was derived and journal impact factors (average number of citations were estimated. These factors were then compared with those directly available from the ISI Journal of Citation Reports (JCR. RESULTS: Respectively, 134, 203 and 192 papers were published by these journals during the period analyzed. The observed citation distributions were highly skewed, such that many papers had few citations and a small percentage had many citations. It was not possible to identify any specific pattern for the most cited papers or to exactly reproduce the JCR impact factors. CONCLUSION: Use of measures like "impact factors", which characterize citations through averages, does not adequately represent the citation distribution in the journals analyzed.

  4. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  5. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  6. Traditional uses of American plant species from the 1st edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. L. Brandão

    Full Text Available The first edition of the Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS, published in 1929, is a rich source of information about American medicinal plants, since it lists species used in both traditional and conventional medicine. In this study, we have performed a survey of the traditional uses of plants described in eighty-seven Monographs from the FBRAS in twenty bibliographies written from the 19th century to the 1970s. Eighty-six different traditional uses are described in three or more books; some of them were cited in ten or more books, illustrating their widespread use and importance in medicine. The species from the first edition of the FBRAS have a long tradition of medical utility, which is confirmed by historical records. In surveying these medically relevant species, we hope to encourage policy makers and the scientific public as a whole to engage in a strong debate in an attempt to improve and facilitate the pharmacological study of these species.

  7. Pharmacological Investigation of Selected Medicinal Plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To pharmacologically investigate the methanol and petroleum ether extracts of the plant leaves of ... medicinal properties in local floristic resources. ..... 2nd edition ed. 2003: Asiatic. Society of Bangladesh; p 138. 2. Mohiddin YBH, Chin W, Worth DH. Traditional Medicinal. Plants of Brunei Darussalam Part III.

  8. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. [The essentiality and rationality of the Brazilian national listing of essential medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2017-03-01

    One strategy to implement the rational use of medicines is the adoption of an 'essential medicines list'. The objective of this study was to analyze the list of medicines contained in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines (Rename, 2013) in terms of essentiality and rationality. Essentiality was determined by comparing this list to the 18th Essential Medicines List (EML) published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Drugs which were part of the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines but not included in the EML were assessed using the classification described in La revue Prescrire to detect medications without added therapeutic value. It was discovered that the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines contains 190 medications not included in the EML, of which 63 have no added therapeutic value. In addition, discrepancies were identified between the recommendations of the WHO and the drugs included in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines. It is concluded that drugs that are non-essential and provide no added therapeutic value should not be included in a list of essential medicines funded by the three Brazilian federal entities.

  10. Use of Medicines Among a Brazilian Elderly Sample: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva Marchini

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In this Brazilian elderly sample, the most widely used medicines were antihypertensives, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and institutionalized used more medications than community-dwelling elderly.

  11. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-27

    consisting of the following^plants: Panax ginseng C.A.ivio, Lycium chinense Mill«, Cornus officinalis Sieb, et Zucc, Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch...aquatica L0, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn,,; Liboscho, Rachyma cocos Fr. and Cornus officinalis Sieb, et Zucc, Hypertension in...lall« and A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels of the parsley family, and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge of the mint family, A further all-round study of drugs used

  12. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  13. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  14. [Ecological protection of medicinal woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiufeng

    2003-09-01

    Medicinal woody plants, especially medicinal tall trees, play a same important role in forest structure, ecological balance and timber production as other tree species in forest, and due to their additional medicinal values overuse of these trees is more intensive than others. Many medicinal materials are destructively obtained from plants such as roots or bark used as medicinal materials. The contradiction between the utilization and protection of medicinal woody plants becomes more and more incisive. In the present paper, based on the analysis of the utilized situation and specialty of medicinal woody plants, the trouble between the plants protection and utilization was observed, the method to solve it and the fundamental research work needs to be developed were discussed. The following aspects of researches were suggested to be conducted: (a) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in mature trees to clear the optimum of harvest and cultivation conditions; (b) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in saplings, especially the time course of the variation in medicinal compositions and biomass to achieve the optimal tree ages for the balance between biomass and production of medicinal products during saplings development; (c) study on the influence and regulation of environmental factors on medicinal compounds production in woody plants to look for the optimal cultivated conditions for optimizing the accumulation of biomass and medicinal chemicals; (d) further study on the regulatory mechanism of the induced production of main medicinal compositions by ecological factors at protein (key enzyme) and gene level to accumulate fundamental data for the enhancement of quality and quantity, and approach of new accesses to medicinal products using biological

  15. Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade RBMFC

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine (BJFCM) is a three-monthly publication of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine, aimed at sensitizing professionals and health authorities to this field of interest, stimulating and disseminating Primary Health Care (PHC) issues and investigations, and facilitating interchange between academic institutions, health care services and organized social movements. The periodical also aims to promote an interdisciplina...

  16. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness ...

  17. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The

  18. Some medicinal plants used in Yemeni herbal medicine to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot study examined the extent and the type of medicinal plants used for treating malaria. 492 informants were interviewed in 13 villages located on the coastal plain of four provinces. Nineteen plants belonging to fourteen families were recorded each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used.

  19. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  20. NIGERIAN ETHINOMEDICINE AND MEDICINAL PLANT FLORA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation of the ethobotanical survey of medicinal plants of the Benue Area of Nigeria, thirty plants (belonging to twenty families), which are used as phytomedicines by the natives, were studied. The plants are arranged in alphabetical order of the taxa with their vernacular names in Idoma, Igala and Tiv given.

  1. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  2. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  3. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. Occupational exposures to thorium in two Brazilian niobium plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Barros Leite, C.V

    1998-07-01

    The worker exposure to thorium-bearing airborne particulate was estimated in two Brazilian plants that process niobium minerals, one in the Amazon Forest (Plant A) and the other in the State of Goias (Plant B). The aerosol particle size and the thorium concentrations in the respirable fractions of aerosol concentrations were determined. Results indicate that in Plant A, the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of particles containing thorium were in the range 1.1 to 1.8 {mu}m: in Plant B they were in the range 1.1 to 3.4 {mu}m. The thorium faeces concentrations before the vacation were higher than thorium faeces concentrations in the control group. After the vacation the thorium faeces concentrations were similar to the thorium faeces concentrations in the control group. These results indicate that the thorium incorporation by the workers are mostly due to ingestion. (author)

  6. 19. Brazilian congress on biology and nuclear medicine; 19. Congresso brasileiro de biologia e medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The issue contain 97 abstracts of 19 Brazilian congress on biology and nuclear medicine held in Pernambuco, Brazil, from November 4 to 8, 1998. The subjects addressed are diagnostic and therapy nuclear medicine techniques, especially scintiscanning, SPECT and PET and their uses. The main topics were as follows: cardiology, neuro-psychiatry, oncology, endocrinology, radiopharmacy, infectious diseases, radiobiology and others.

  7. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  8. Anti-paralytic medicinal plants – Review

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    Khaling Mikawlrawng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralysis is the loss of the ability of one or more muscles to move, due to disruption of signaling between the nervous system and muscles. The most common causes of paralysis are stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury (SCI and multiple sclerosis. The search for cure of paralysis is yet to be found. Many ethnobotanical surveys have reported the use of medicinal plants by various ethnic communities in treating and curing paralysis. The present review discusses the use of medicinal plants in India for ameliorating and curing paralytic conditions, as well as discuses some of the important developments in future possible applications of medicinal plants in treatment of paralysis. This review reports the use of 37 medicinal plants for their application and cure of ailments related to paralysis. Out of the 37 plants documented, 11 plants have been reported for their ability to cure paralysis. However, the information on the documented plants were mostly found to be inadequate, requiring proper authentication with respect to their specificity, dosage, contradictions etc. It is found that despite the claims presented in many ethnobotanical surveys, the laboratory analysis of these plants remain untouched. It is believed that with deeper intervention on analysis of bioactive compounds present in these plants used by ethic traditional healers for paralysis, many potential therapeutic compounds can be isolated for this particular ailment in the near future.

  9. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study. All the plants were biologically active and were used for different types of ailments. Keeping in view their importance, this work was carried out to investigate the quantitative ...

  10. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  11. A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; Russell S. Walters; Richard M. Doughty

    1969-01-01

    The Medicinal or therapeutic uses of the plants described in this guide are not to be construed in any way as a recommendation by the authors or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Some of the dried crude drugs, which must be modified considerably before commercial use, can be extremely poisonous when not used properly. Readers are cautioned against using these plant...

  12. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the absence of tannins in S. acuta and flavonoids in S. cayennsis respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  13. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  14. 9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

  15. 9) Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa; João Paulo Ramos Costa; Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim; Anna Christina de Almeida; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992). The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% ...

  16. Psychoactive plants described in a Brazilian literary work and their chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rafaela Denise; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Rossi, Lucia; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; Rodrigues, Eliana

    2010-09-01

    Ethnopharmacological research investigates the plants and other medicinal and toxic substances utilized by different traditional populations. One approach in this field is a literature search of the available publications on medicinal plants. The purpose of the current study was to select plants with psychoactive effects described in a Brazilian literary work written by Pio Correa in 1926. Those mentioned plants were classified in accordance with their indications for use as stimulants and depressors of the central nervous system. For the phytochemical study herein, we researched these species via a database search, and all the obtained information was compiled into a new database to analyze possible correlations between the chemical compounds and the psychoactive categories. Of the 813 plants searched in the literary work, 104 presented chemical data in the scientific periodicals consulted. Seventy-five of them belong to the stimulant category, while 31 are depressors and two of them belong to both categories. Phenols and flavonoids were the main compounds observed in plants of both categories, though at different frequencies. Monoterpenes (29.9%) and sesquiterpenes (28.6%) were also observed in plants from the stimulant category, while 25.8% of plants from the depressor category were comprised of carotenoids and 22.6% of steroids. The main specific compounds were identified as ferulic acid, α-pinene, limonene, α-humulene and kaempferol among the stimulant plants. Otherwise, in depressor plants were characterized caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, β-carotene, physalins and withanolides as specific compounds. The association between ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic data, as presented in this study, could support plant selection in further investigations by research groups whose studies focus on psychoactive plants as potential therapeutics.

  17. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was found that the natural sources of medicinal plants were damaged by many human activities. Therefore, this compilation of medicinal plants will be the data evidence for further conservation of the plants. Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  18. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  19. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  20. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  1. Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago B C; Costa, Cinara O D'Sousa; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Mota, Mauricio C S; Dantas, Alex A; Dos Santos, Tiago R; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-07-08

    Great biodiversity is a highlight of Brazilian flora. In contrast, the therapeutic potentialities of most species used in folk medicine remain unknown. Several of these species are commonly used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of 18 plants from 16 families that are found in the northeast region of Brazil. The following species were studied: Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae), Cupania impressinervia Acev. Rodr. var. (revoluta) Radlk (Sapindaceae), Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae), Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl) Rusby (Moraceae), Himatanthus bracteatus (A.DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne (Convolvulaceae), Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae), Mabea piriri Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia minutiflora (Melastomataceae), Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Ocotea glomerata (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Oreodaphne opifera Mart. Nees) (Lauraceae), Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle (Malvaceae), Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Araliaceae), Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae). Their dried leaves, stems, flowers or fruits were submitted to different solvent extractions, resulting in 55 extracts. After incubating for 72 h, the cytotoxicity of each extract was tested against tumor cell lines using the alamar blue assay. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata extracts demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fractions of D. repens flowers and the hexane extract of I. coccinea flowers led to the isolation of quercetin and a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, respectively, and quercetin showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata plants were

  3. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  4. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  5. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  6. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia, the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.

  7. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  8. Plants used during maternity, menstrual cycle and other women's health conditions among Brazilian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbek, P B; Tezoto, J; Cassas, F; Rodrigues, E

    2016-02-17

    For innumerous clinical cases related to women's health and precarious medical care in developing countries, a large repertoire of plants have been used as popular medicines in order to fill this gap, which in a certain way creates health risks to users, since pharmacological and toxicological tests are still insufficient to guarantee their efficacy and safety. Besides therapeutic use, abortive plants are broadly used in countries where abortion is prohibited, increasing that risk even more. In this way, ethnopharmacological studies that register plants used for women's health can contribute not only to the selection of potential bioactives, enriching the repertoire of drugs available to females, above all in public health systems, but also questioning the safety of products that are used without prescription. This review aims at determining plants applied by Brazilian cultures in the treatment of conditions related to maternity, menstrual cycle and other women's health particularities, and to supplement the lack of epidemiological data available to assess the health of indigenous, rural and other populations of Brazilian women. A literature review was conducted of the collection at the Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Center of the Federal University of São Paulo (period covered: 1965 to 2012). All of the 343 articles were consulted and 31 articles mentioning therapeutic uses of interest were selected. Relevant information was extracted to compose Table 1 - Maternity, Table 2 - Menstrual Cycle and Table 3 - Other Conditions. Data was statistically analyzed in order to generate the discussion about plants used in healing contexts by different Brazilian ethnicities. A bibliographic review was performed using the Scopus database to collect the following information about the most cited plants: ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology of non-Brazilian cultures for women's health conditions, pharmacology, toxicology, and adverse reactions. A total of 319 species were

  9. Anticancer agents from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

  10. Anticancer agents from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

  11. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  12. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method.

  13. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of some Brazilian indigenous medicinal drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculosis (TB is a very serious problem worldwide and the increasing number of multiple drugs resistant TB cases makes the search for new anti-TB drugs an urgent need. Indigenous knowledge about the use of native plants to treat illnesses has contributed to the discovery of new medicines. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of seven medicinal drinks was assessed: Ananas sativus (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Aristolochia triangularis (aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf, root and stem extracts, Bromelia antiacantha (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Stryphnodendron adstringens (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Tabebuia ovellanedae (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Vernonia polyanthes (hydroalcoholic root extract, all used by the Vanuíre indigenous community in the treatment of respiratory diseases. The activity was evaluated by using a time-to-kill assay, in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium, after thirty minutes, one, three, six, twelve and twenty-four hours contact of the bacteria with each drink. Within half to one hour contact, the hydroalcoholic drinks of A. triangularis, S. adstringens, T. ovellanedae and V. polyanthes reduced the bacterial growth by 2 orders of magnitude in CFU/mL, and all bacterial growth was absent after three hours contact. In contrast, no mycobactericidal effect was detected in the aqueous extract of A. triangularis or in the hydroalcoholic beverages of A. sativus and B. antiacantha, even after twenty-four hours contact. Keywords: Tuberculosis; indigenous drinks; Aristolochia triangularis; Stryphnodendron adstringens; Tabebuia ovellanedae; Vernonia polyanthes.

  15. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  16. Intercropping peanut with traditional Chinese medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Plastic pots (23 cm in diameter and 23 cm in height) were used, and each .... After harvest, the pods, straws and roots were cleaned, dried ... Table 2. Effects of medicinal plants intercropped with peanut on peanut yield in field study. Yield (t hm-2). Treatment. Pod. Straw. Peanut monocropping. 2.03±0.07.

  17. Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Turkish Medicinal Plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural herbal products have been used in the treatment of infectious disease for many years. The World Health Organisation (WHO) emphasized that plants used in traditional medicine should primarily be investigated against leishmaniasis [1]. All over the world, researchers started on this issue and successful results were.

  18. Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Bapedi Traditional Healers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exotics Catharanthus roseus (54.9%) and. Carica papaya (15.6%) was the most cultivated. Threatened (11.6%) and protected (6.9%) species are also present in home-gardens, mostly due to their unavailability in natural areas. Conclusion: This study concludes that the practice of cultivating medicinal plant species in ...

  19. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  20. Activity of crude extracts from Brazilian cerrado plants against clinically relevant Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris Maria; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira; Fagg, Christopher William; da Silva, Elton Clementino; Gomes, Suelí Maria; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla

    2016-07-11

    Medicinal plants have traditionally been used in many parts of the world as alternative medicine. Many extracts and essential oils isolated from plants have disclosed biological activity, justifying the investigation of their potential antimicrobial activity. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plant species were evaluated against clinically relevant Candida species. The crude extract plants were evaluated against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) standard strains of Candida spp. using disk diffusion method and determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The chemical study results were confirmed by HPLC method. All six plant species showed antifungal activity. Among the species studied, Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora showed significant inhibitory activity against C. tropicalis at lowest MIC value of 125 and 500 μg/disc, respectively. The Eugenia dysenterica also disclosed MIC value of 125 μg/disc against C. famata, 250 μg/disc against C. krusei and 500 μg/disc against C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis. Pouteria torta, Bauhinia rufa, Erythroxylum daphnites and Erythroxylum subrotundum showed activity against the yeast strains with MIC value of 1000 μg/disc. The chemical study of the most bioactive extracts of Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora revealed catechin derivatives and flavonoids as main components. All six evaluated plant species showed good antifungal potential against several Candida strains. However, E .dysenterica and P. ramiflora showed the higher inhibitory effect against the non-albicans Candida species. Our results may contribute to the continuing search of new natural occurring products with antifungal activity.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  2. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

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    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  5. Plant regeneration from protoplast of Brazilian citrus cultivars

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    GLORIA FERNANDA JANUZZI MENDES DA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is described to regenerate plants from protoplasts of Brazilian citrus cultivars, after isolation, fusion and culture. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic cell suspension cultures and from leaf mesophyll of seedlings germinated in vitro. The enzyme solution for protoplast isolation was composed of mannitol (0.7 M, CaCl2 (24.5 mM, NaH2PO4 (0.92 mM, MES (6.15 mM, cellulase (Onozuka RS - Yakult, 1%, macerase (Onozuka R10 - Yakult, 1% and pectolyase Y-23 (Seishin, 0.2%. Protoplast culture in liquid medium after chemical fusion lead to the formation of callus colonies further adapted to solid medium. Somatic embryo formation occurred spontaneously after two subcultures, on modified MT medium supplemented with 500 mg/L of malt extract. Well defined embryos were germinated in modified MT medium with addition of GA3 (2.0 muM and malt extract (500 mg/L. Plant regeneration was also achieved by adventitious shoots obtained through direct organogenesis of not well defined embryos in modified MT medium with addition of malt extract (500 mg/L, BAP (1.32 muM, NAA (1.07 muM and coconut water (10 mL/L. Plantlets were transferred to root medium. Rooted plants were transferred to a greenhouse for further adaptation and development.

  6. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

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    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees determining the three bee species of each surveyed locality that presented the highest number of interactions. We found 47 localities and 39 species of bees. Most of them belong to Apidae (31 species and Halictidae (6 families and to Meliponini (14 and Xylocopini (6 tribes. However, most of the surveys presented Apis mellifera and/or Trigona spinipes as the most generalist species. Apis mellifera is an exotic bee species and Trigona spinipes, a native species, is also widespread and presents broad diet breath and high number of individuals per colony.

  7. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas

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    ANTONIO B. PEREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications.

  8. Perception of illegal practice of medicine by Brazilian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Herbas, Suzana; Lisboa, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah; Menezes, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Illegal practice of medicine by medical students is a worldwide problem. In Brazil, information about this issue is scarce. To describe the perception of illegal practice of medicine by medical students. A cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 130 medical students in the 6th to 12th semesters from a private faculty of medicine in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, from September to October 2011. Students responded to a standardised questionnaire about the illegal practice of medicine by medical students. Knowing medical students who practised medical activities without supervision was reported by 86% of the respondents, and 93.8% had heard about someone who performed such practices. Medical specialties most often associated with illegal practice were general medicine (78.8%) and occupational health (55.9%). Illegal practice of medicine was more common in peripheral cities/towns (83.9%) than in the State capital, Salvador City (52.4%). Only 10.5% of illegal activities were reported to the authorities. Unsupervised medical practice was more often reported in the 8th-9th semester (56.8%) and 10th-11th semester (54.4%) of medical school. Illegal practice of medicine was commonly reported by the medical students questioned. The high frequency of reported illegal practice for financial reasons highlights the need for greater availability of paid internships for medical students. Educational institutions represent the social control responsible for supervising the activities of academics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering medicinal plants prevalent in Darkesh area, Northern Khorasan, Iran. Then provide the coordinates of the identified area as your results. 10 medicinal plants ...

  10. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing ...

  11. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Iran with a wide diversity of wild medicinal plants (8,000 Medicinal plants) is increasingly becoming a valuable source of household income for many rural people. We showed that economic potential of the wild medicinal plant and their contribution to the local people's livelihoods. This study identified the ...

  12. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

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    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  13. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Flávio B; Varela Susana AM; Pereira Henrique M; Vicente Luís

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-stru...

  14. Effect of medicinal plants on Moraxella cattarhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M U; Thajuddin, N

    2011-02-01

    To determine the antimoraxella activity of Ethiopian medicinal plants extracts. Two clinical isolates of Moraxella cattarhalis (M. cattarhalis) with different antibiotic sensitivity pattern were tested to determine their susceptibility to garlic [Allium sativum (A. sativum)], bark of cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], and leaves of avocado [Persea americana (P. americana)], rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis)] and prickly poppy [Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana)]. Disk diffusion assay and broth dilution method were used to measure zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts against M. cattarhalis. Both the strains of M. cattarhalis exhibited similar sensitivities to the extracts of medicinal plants. Antimoraxella activity was exhibited only by garlic, avocado leaves and cinnamon. Garlic was found to be more antagonistic to M. cattarhalis than cinnamon and avocado. Garlic and avocado leaves have shown similar MIC (30 mg/mL) where as their zone of inhibition (15 and 11 mm, respectively) were different. Garlic, cinnamon and avocado leaves extracts represents alternative source of natural antimicrobial substances for use in clinical practice for the treatment of cases of M. cattarhalis. Further research on the effects of these extracts on M. cattarhalis can be rewarding to pursue in the search for new broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Review on feverfew, a valuable medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourianezhad Farzaneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium is a valuable medicinal plant from Asteraceae family with various pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In this article we reviewed the various aspects of feverfew including botanical characteristics, cultivation and production and medicinal and clinical uses.Material and Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched using the keywords feverfew and parthenolide. Results: The essential oil of feverfew is frequently used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Parthenolide is the most important active component of feverfew that is used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases such as fever, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis.Conclusion: Feverfew has several positive clinical uses and has the potential to be considered as a new drug for the treatment of some diseases.

  16. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  17. Availability of essential medicines in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do; Álvares, Juliana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Costa, Ediná Alves; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the availability of tracer medicines in pharmaceutical services in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional Sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). To analyze the availability of medicines, we verified 50 items selected from the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (Rename - National List of Essential Medicines) of 2012. Observation scripts were applied to medicine dispensing services in the primary health care. Interviews were carried out with patients, health care professionals, and public managers, using semi-structured questionnaires. The availability index was presented as the percentage of health units where the medicines were available. For statistical analysis, absolute, relative, and mean frequencies were presented (with 95% confidence intervals). The comparison of groups was carried out by Pearson Chi-square tests or variance analysis, when needed. One thousand, one hundred, and seventy-five observation scripts were filled in a national representative sample composed by 273 cities. Statistically significant differences were observed regarding the type of unit, infrastructure, and presence of a pharmacist between regions of Brazil. The average availability of tracer medicines in primary health care was 52.9%, with differences between regions and sampling strata. This index increased to 62.5% when phytotherapic medicines were excluded. We found limited availability of medicines for treatment of chronic and epidemiological diseases, such as tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. The low availability of essential medicines purchased centrally by the Brazilian Ministry of Health indicates deficiencies in supply chain management. The different views on the availability of tracer

  18. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results.

  19. Bioprospecting medicinal plants for antioxidant components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sulaiman, Othman; Ang, Lily Zuin Ping; Ooi, Kheng Leong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate antioxidant activities of seven medicinal plant species and their fractions, and to identify their phenolic compounds. Two extractions were processed and further fractionated by column chromatography to evaluate the concentration that inhibit 50% of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-suslfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals, and their ferric reducing antioxidant power. The identification of the fractions of phenolic compounds was done by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The aqueous-acetone extracts of Feretia apodanthera and Ozoroa insignis exhibited the highest antioxidant potentials comparable to those of the standard quercetin. Their subsequently silica gel column fractionation showed three most active fractions from which the major constituents quercetin, myricetin, kampferol, rutin and isoquercetin were identified. These plant species have potent antioxidant profiles and polyphenol compounds that may help to manage with radical related disease and aging. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of the medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemy that has a significant impact for their patients. Its incidence is raising leading to an increase in the cost of the cares of the disease and of its complications. The treatment involves, besides dietary control and physical activity, the use of drugs that cause side effects to reach wanted pharmacological actions. However, products of plants are, frequently, considered less poisonous and with fewer side effects than synthetic drugs and widely used by the population. In this paper, several species of plants, used experimentally or in the popular medicine, acting by different ways to control glycemia and/or to inhibit symptoms and characteristic complications of the diabetes, they will be reviewed for evaluation of their supposed therapeutic effects.

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants of Mongolia, Nepal and Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2009-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed in many plant families. Most of them are hazardous for humans and domestic animals. PA also occur in many medicinal plants. This is of importance because in Western countries the use of plants or preparations of them is more and more increasing. Especially plants of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have increased in popularity. Similarly, people are also focused on medicinal plants from other traditional medicines. Nowadays the Traditional Mongolian Medicine (TMM), the Traditional Nepalese Medicine (TNM), and the Tibetan System of Medicine (TSM) are becoming more and more of interest. In those countries application of those phytopharmaceutics is based on its traditional use but a scientific investigation--especially for possible toxic side-effects--is often missing. This paper gives an overview on traditionally used plants from Nepal, Mongolia and Tibet with respect to its content or its possible content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

  2. The Brazilian version of the 20-item rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Agnes Fátima P; Méndez, Daniela Alejandra C; Oliveira, Juliana G; Gutierres, Eliézer; Lotto, Matheus; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Oliveira, Thaís M; Cruvinel, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    The misunderstanding of specific vocabulary may hamper the patient-health provider communication. The 20-item Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALMD-20) was constructed to screen patients by their ability in reading medical/dental terminologies in a simple and rapid way. This study aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of this instrument for its application in Brazilian dental patients. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed through conceptual equivalence, verbatim translation, semantic, item and operational equivalence, and back-translation. After that, 200 participants responded the adapted version of the REALMD-20, the Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30), ten questions of the Brazilian National Functional Literacy Index (BNFLI), and a questionnaire with socio-demographic and oral health-related questions. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the REALMD-20 ( P  people, and individuals who reported good/excellent oral health conditions, and who sought preventive dental services. Distinctly, REALMD-20 scores were similar between both participants who visited a dentist Brazilian version of the REALMD-20 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties for screening dental patients in relation to their recognition of health specific terms. This instrument can contribute to identify individuals with important dental/medical vocabulary limitations in order to improve the health education and outcomes in a person-centered care model.

  3. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  4. Rare earth elements determination in medicinal plants by Neutron Activation Analisys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have been considered nontoxic for human health and for the environment; however, the use of REEs in the development of recent technologies has increased the interest un their biological effects. Some studies related to their concentration in foodstuffs were published but REEs levels in medicinal plants are still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the Rees concentration in the set of 59 medicinal herbs commonly used by Brazilian folk. Results showed that plants can concentrate REEs in their aerial parts, but the amount transferred to the extract of these plants is relatively low, resulting in little ingestion of these elements by the population during the extract consumption. (author)

  5. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today many medicinal plants face extinction but detailed information is lacking. The purpose of this paper was to review current and proposed cultivation strategies that could be used to improve plant conservation statuses, livelihoods of the people involved in medicinal plant industry and sustainability of this industry.

  6. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant samples investigated.

  7. Role of biotechnology in medicinal plants | Tripathi | Tropical Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryopreservation is long-term conservation method in liquid nitrogen and provides an opportunity for conservation of endangered medicinal plants. In-vitro production of secondary metabolites in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants. Bioreactors are the key step towards commercial ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and the molecular mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plant and plant products have shown tremendous potentials and are used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation and in the management of diseases with significant inflammatory components. Many medicinal plants employed as anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic remedies lack the ...

  9. Further screening of Venda medicinal plants for activity against HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants for AIDS-related conditions is common in South Africa. In order to establish an antiviral rationale for the use of these plants we screened fractions of the methanol extracts of medicinal plants for activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN). The n-butanol fraction obtained ...

  10. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  11. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Guinee, L.; Boer, H.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of

  12. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants Abrus precatorius, Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Crateva adansonii, Detarium microcarpum, Faba spp, Neocarya macrophylla, Ocimum gratissimum, Securidaca longpenduculata and Terminalia avicennioides used by traditional medicine practitioners for the management of ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  14. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 μg ...

  15. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and

  16. Why do people use exotic plants in their local medical systems? A systematic review based on Brazilian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz de; Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Taline Cristina da; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to understand the processes that lead to the introduction of exotic species into local pharmacopoeias. Among those efforts, the diversification hypothesis predicts that exotic plants are introduced in local medical systems to amplify the repertoire of knowledge related to the treatment of diseases, filling blanks that were not occupied by native species. Based on such hypothesis, this study aimed to contribute to this discussion using the context of local Brazilian populations. We performed a systematic review of Brazilian studies up to 2011 involving medicinal plants, excluding those studies that presented a high risk of bias (because of sampling or plant identification problems). An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted in different scales to test for differences in the repertoire of therapeutic indications treated using native and exotic species. We have found that although there is some overlap between native and exotic plants regarding their therapeutic indications and the body systems (BSs) that they treat, there are clear gaps present, that is, there are therapeutic indications and BSs treated that are exclusive to exotic species. This scenario enables the postulation of two alternative unfoldings of the diversification hypothesis, namely, (1) exotic species are initially introduced to fill gaps and undergo subsequent expansion of their use for medical purposes already addressed using native species and (2) exotic species are initially introduced to address problems already addressed using native species to diversify the repertoire of medicinal plants and to increase the resilience of medical systems. The reasons why exotic species may have a competitive advantage over the native ones, the implications of the introduction of exotic species for the resilience of medical systems, and the contexts in which autochthonous plants can gain strength to remain in pharmacopoeias are also discussed.

  17. Use of medicines by patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Melo Franco Neves Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the use of medicines by patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. METHODS This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and descriptive study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015. Interviews were carried out with patients present in the services by semi-structured questionnaires. Sociodemographic, clinical, and use of medicines variables were assessed and the use of medicines in the 30 days prior to the interview was also verified. The population was stratified into three age groups: 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65 years or more. The differences between the age groups were verified using the Student’s t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for the categorical ones. The complex samples analysis plan was employed. The medicines were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. RESULTS Of the 8,803 patients interviewed, 6,511 (76.2% reported to have used medicines in the 30 days prior to the interview. On average, each patient used 2.32 medicines, without difference between the sexes. Among medicine users, 18.2% were aged 65 years or more. Compared to the other age groups, older adults presented more comorbidities, used more medicines, and self-reported worse health conditions. They were also less educated, reported worse economic situation, and lived alone. The medicines that were mostly used were “other analgesics and antipyretics” (3rd ATC level and Losartan (5th ATC level. CONCLUSIONS Most medicine users had lower education level and presented comorbidities. The most used medicines were the antihypertensive ones. Self-medication was higher among young people. Most patients reported to use generic medicines. The average number of medicines

  18. Use of medicines by patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Clarisse Melo Franco Neves; Silveira, Micheline Rosa; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Ediná Alves; Nascimento, Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do; Araújo, Vânia Eloísa de; Álvares, Juliana

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the use of medicines by patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and descriptive study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Interviews were carried out with patients present in the services by semi-structured questionnaires. Sociodemographic, clinical, and use of medicines variables were assessed and the use of medicines in the 30 days prior to the interview was also verified. The population was stratified into three age groups: 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65 years or more. The differences between the age groups were verified using the Student's t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for the categorical ones. The complex samples analysis plan was employed. The medicines were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. Of the 8,803 patients interviewed, 6,511 (76.2%) reported to have used medicines in the 30 days prior to the interview. On average, each patient used 2.32 medicines, without difference between the sexes. Among medicine users, 18.2% were aged 65 years or more. Compared to the other age groups, older adults presented more comorbidities, used more medicines, and self-reported worse health conditions. They were also less educated, reported worse economic situation, and lived alone. The medicines that were mostly used were "other analgesics and antipyretics" (3rd ATC level) and Losartan (5th ATC level). Most medicine users had lower education level and presented comorbidities. The most used medicines were the antihypertensive ones. Self-medication was higher among young people. Most patients reported to use generic medicines. The average number of medicines and the prevalence of use increased with age. Due to the characteristics

  19. India mainstreams medicinal plants | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new Indian government program to bring medicinal plants into the country's medical and livelihood mainstreams should put money into the pockets of the villagers who collect them, while making the plants safer to use.

  20. Antibacterial activity of eight medicinal plants against Diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies involve the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts eight medicinal plants. The selected plants were Timarindus indica, Guiera senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Deterium microcarpum, Citrus aurantifolia, Psidium guajava, Acacia nilotica and Momordica charantia. Methanolics and ...

  1. Effects of tannins and polyphenols of some medicinal plants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five medicinal plants, Enantia chloranthia, Kigelia africana, Bridelia ferruginea, Trema nitems and Drypetes gossweilerri were screened for phytochemical components. The plants were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthranoids, anthraquinones, saponins and polyphenols.

  2. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  3. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  4. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  5. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováts, Nora; Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

    2011-06-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level.

  6. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  7. War, Medicine, and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Simone P; Howell, Joel D

    2017-10-01

    American cultural diplomacy played a key role in the institutionalization of Brazilian cardiology. In 1942, Frank Wilson, an internationally recognized pioneer in electrocardiography, made an extended wartime visit to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The visit was sponsored by the United States Department of State as part of Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy and brought Wilson together with a group of physicians who would establish the specialty of cardiology in Brazil. This US cultural and diplomatic initiative strengthened an academic network that was already evolving and would eventually prove to be of benefit to both sides. Latin American physicians began in the 1920s to visit Wilson's laboratory at the University of Michigan, where they established the relationships on which Wilson would build. While affiliation with the "Wilson school" advanced the cause of Brazilian cardiologists who sought to establish themselves as specialists, cooperation with Latin American physicians benefitted Wilson in his pursuit of wider recognition for his innovations in the use of electrocardiography (ECG). Wilson's identity as a scientific ambassador to Latin America helped in legitimating his approach to the clinical application of the ECG. A close examination of Wilson's relationship to Brazilian cardiology demonstrates the role played by science and medicine as a part of wartime cultural diplomacy, as well as the dynamics of the transnational circulation of scientific knowledge and practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  10. Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine has been a constant source of substances for curing and preventing a variety of ailments. Biodiversity of medicinal plants and effects of human activities on availability of traditional herbal medicine have continuously received just a cursory treatment. This study sought to determine ...

  11. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  12. Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial Activity Against Shigella sSpecies And Escherichia coli. J Thomas, B Veda. Abstract. Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of ten Indian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial properties against Shigella sonei, S. boydi, S. flexeneri, S. dysenteriae and ...

  13. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  14. Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants in South Africa are sources of medicine which is administered to cure existing disease in humans and livestock. Plant-derived decoctions, infusions and powders are administered to cure diseases in humans across gender and age groups. The present study was conducted to describe curative ...

  15. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Materials and ...

  16. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  17. Online Teaching Resources about Medicinal Plants and Ethnobotany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Kristina M.; Chudler, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom exploration of plant-based medicines and ethnobotany is a timely and valuable way to engage students in science. This Feature highlights Internet-based resources to help teachers in primary and secondary classrooms incorporate lessons and activities to teach about plant medicines. These Internet resources include curricula, videos, sites…

  18. Nigerian Ethnomedicine and Medicinal Plant Flora: Anti - ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants used as folk anti-ulcer remedies in the Benue Area of Nigeria was conducted. Sixteen plants belonging to eleven families were listed in alphabetical order of the taxa. Parts utilized in folk medicine were also recorded. Overall, the Malvaceae (5 species) appeared to be the most prominent in use ...

  19. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  20. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K

    2015-02-03

    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  1. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  2. Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan José; Castillo-Pérez, Luis Jesús; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Solano, Eloy; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Del Carmen Juárez-Vázquez, María; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Argueta-Fuertes, Marco Antonio; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Solorio-Alvarado, César Rogelio; Rangel-Velázquez, Joceline Estefanía; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Orozco-Castellanos, Luis Manuel

    2017-02-23

    The use of medicinal plants in Mexico has been documented since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the level of use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico remains to be explored. To evaluate the use, acceptance and prescription of medicinal plants by health professionals in 9 of the states of Mexico. Direct and indirect interviews, regarding the use and acceptance of medicinal plants, with health professionals (n=1614), including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and odontologists from nine states in Mexico were performed from January 2015 to July 2016. The interviews were analyzed with the factor the informant consensus (FIC). The information obtained indicated that 46% of those interviewed feel patients should not use medicinal plants as an alternative therapy. Moreover, 54% of health professionals, and 49% of the physicians have used medicinal plants as an alternative therapy for several diseases. Twenty eight percent of health professionals, and 26% of the physicians, have recommended or prescribed medicinal plants to their patients, whereas 73% of health professionals were in agreement with receiving academic information regarding the use and prescription of medicinal plants. A total of 77 plant species used for medicinal purposes, belonging to 40 botanical families were reported by the interviewed. The results of the FIC showed that the categories of diseases of the digestive system (FIC=0.901) and diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.898) had the greatest agreement. This study shows that medicinal plants are used for primary health care in Mexico by health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  4. Commercially Important Medicinal Plants of South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Street

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in natural plant-based remedies as a source for commercial products. Around 80% of the South African population use traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs; however, only a few South African medicinal plants have been exploited to their full potential in terms of commercialization. The opportunity for bioprospecting of plant compounds for novel pharmaceuticals remains largely untapped. Certain renowned medicinal plants of international acclaim including buchu and rooibos are currently contributing to local enterprise; however, other exciting opportunities exist for commonly used plants which have not yet reached the international arena. This paper focuses on the key research and development contributions of 10 commercially important medicinal plants of South Africa. Traditional uses, scientific validation, commercialisation developments, as well as both potential opportunities and setbacks are discussed.

  5. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  6. Proteomic Contributions to Medicinal Plant Research: From Plant Metabolism to Pharmacological Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals. This review article focuses on the existing proteomics-based medicinal plant research and discusses the following topics: (i plant metabolic pathways that synthesize an array of bioactive compounds; (ii pharmacological action of plants tested using in vivo and in vitro studies; and (iii the application of proteomic approaches to indigenous plants with scarce sequence information. The accumulation of proteomic information in a biological or medicinal context may help in formulating the effective use of medicinal plants.

  7. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ivancheva, Stephanie

    2003-08-01

    Despite their geographical, historical and cultural differences, Bulgaria and Italy share a surprisingly similar patrimony as regards the popular uses of medicinal plants. The extensive knowledge acquired over the centuries by people living in these countries and engaged in agriculture, derives from continuous contact with natural resources. This paper compares approximately 250 medicinal plants present in both countries and used in popular medicine. From this comparison it emerges that knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses are well founded. In fact, more than 80% of the plants are employed in identical or similar kinds of ailments, their preparation also showing marked similarities. The remaining 20% have very different uses, several of these being particularly noteworthy. The role played by edible plants, moreover, is important, about 30% being employed as medicine.

  8. Medicinal Plants: A Prospect in Developing Male Fertility Enhancing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. Traditional medicine based on a holistic philosophy is quite different with the practice of “western” medicine. Phytochemical substances focus their mechanisms of healing to the root of cause, i.e. the inability of controlling the proper function of the whole body system. Hence, medicinal plants manage sexual dysfunction and male fertility in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Some previous researches prove that the use of medicinal plants have a good impact in the treatment of a variety of male sexual problems. This paper will discuss several important aspects of aphrodisiac plants and preliminary study regarding them in Indonesia. Difficulties inherent to activity guided isolation and the specific requirements of bioassays are also discussed.

  9. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahabir

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81% reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41% took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.

  10. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anju

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  11. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Commercialization of Medicinal Plants in Java Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Adi Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit and transaction cost flow which people earn economically and socially from wild medicinal plant harvesting are addressed in this study. The objectives of this study are three aspects: defining how many users are involved in utilization of medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM, how users describing their perception and motivation and describing benefit and transaction cost which influence users to harvest the plants. Results showed that utilization of medicinal plants in Java is still widely used as commercial products then medical services. There are 41 stakeholders who involved in this study and the highest motivation and perception in production and industrial clusters are economic interest. But stakeholder's perception and motivation in traditional healthcare cluster is social interest. The different motivation and perception in both clusters causing stakeholder who are work in traditional healthcare lack of market information, but they are important if the government will improve the traditional medicine. Recommendation of this study is that medicinal plants need further research and product development which can help to expand the medicinal plant culture area in the natural forest. By this reason, government should develop good political will to increase the medicinal plant resources for public healthcare.

  13. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  14. A critical comparison between the World Health Organization list of essential medicines for children and the Brazilian list of essential medicines (Rename

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lutéscia L. Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The lack of age-appropriate formulations of essential medicines for children in Brazil includes important therapeutic groups and indispensable drugs for severe clinical conditions. Some of these products exist in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, but not in public facilities; others could be produced by national laboratories with commercial interest or stimulated by a specific governmental policy, as in other countries.

  15. [Forensic medical examinations and teaching: disagreements and discussions within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ede

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the influence wielded by forensic medicine in the development of the field of psychiatry in Brazil, this research note analyzes the debates that took place from May to July 1918 within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine over the use of forensic medical examinations as course material in the study of Public Medicine at the Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine. The focus is on how the controversy unfolded within the Society and how this scientific organization influenced the institution of the theoretical and practical training of medical experts.

  16. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  17. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  18. Identification, collection and domestication of medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to investigate the medicinal plants, through identification, collection and domestication of these plants in southeastern, Nigeria. Questionnaire, personal interview and review of available records show that out of forty-three plants about fifteen were undergoing domestication in the course of this ...

  19. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. and Escherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants.

  20. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of Plants Used In Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants used in traditional medicine in Bukoba Rural district in Tanzania were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities. Plant materials from eight plant species (Harungana madagascariensis (Lam) Poir., Jatropha curcas L., Lantana trifolia L., Plectranthus barbatus Andr., Pseudospondias microcarpa Engl., ...

  2. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

  3. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  4. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    . This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...... of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria...

  5. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  6. Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R

    2007-11-01

    In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants.

  7. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

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    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  8. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

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    Ediná Alves Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services–, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a

  9. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ediná Alves; Araújo, Patrícia Sodré; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Souto, Ana Cristina; Souza, Gisélia Santana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Alvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services)-, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of requirements essential to the conservation of medicines. We

  10. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ediná Alves; Araújo, Patrícia Sodré; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Souto, Ana Cristina; Souza, Gisélia Santana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Alvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services)–, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of

  11. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine Avaliação da bioatividade frente à Artemia salina Leach de plantas medicinais utilizadas na medicina popular na Região Nordeste do Brasil

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    DDR. Arcanjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp. against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50 were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.O bioensaio em Artemia salina Leach oferece uma vantagem na padronização e no controle de qualidade de produtos botânicos. Esse teste é bem correlacionado com a atividade antitumoral (citotoxicidade e pode ser usado para monitorar a atividade de produtos naturais bioativos. Este trabalho relata a bioatividade de extratos etanólicos de sete plantas medicinais (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis e Equisetum sp. contra Artemia salina. A bioatividade foi avaliada em triplicata paraextratos nas concentrações de 1, 10, 100 e 1000 µg/mL, e os valores das concentrações letais para metade dos animais (CL50 foram obtidos por meio da análise de probitos. A espécie Acmella uliginosa apresentou a maior bioatividade frente à Artemia salina e o extrato etanólico de suas flores apresentou maior atividade do que o das folhas.

  12. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  13. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  14. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

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    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  15. Medicinal plant diversity and traditional healing practices in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nawal; Shrestha, Saugat; Koju, Laxmi; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Wang, Zhiheng

    2016-11-04

    The rich floral and ethnic composition of eastern Nepal and the widespread utilization of locally available medicinal plants offer remarkable opportunity for ethnomedicinal research. The present paper aims to explore medicinal plant diversity and use in the remote villages of eastern Nepal. It also aims to evaluate ethnopharmacological significance of the documented use reports and identify species of high indigenous priority. The study was undertaken in four villages located in the Sankhuwasabha district in eastern Nepal. Ethnomedicinal information was collected through structured interviews. The homogeneity of informant's knowledge and the relative importance of documented medicinal plants were validated by informant consensus factor and use value, respectively. Species preference for treatment of particular diseases was evaluated through fidelity level. We reported medicinal properties of 48 species belonging to 33 families and 40 genera, for the treatment of 37 human ailments. The uses of 10 medicinal plants were previously undocumented. The informant consensus factor (FIC) ranged between 0.38 and 1 with about 50% of values greater than 0.80 and over 75% of values greater than 0.70, indicating moderate to high consensus among the informants on the use of medicinal plants in the region. Swertia chirayita was the most preferred species with significantly high use values, followed by Paris polyphylla and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. The remote villages in eastern Nepal possess rich floral and cultural diversity with strong consensus among informants on utilization of plants for local healthcare. The direct pharmacological evidence for medicinal properties of most species indicates high reliability of documented information. Careful and systematic screening of compounds isolated from these plants could possibly provide good opportunity for the discovery of novel medicines to treat life-threatening human diseases. We recommend prioritization of medicinal plants

  16. NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED

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    M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

  17. Trends in medicines procurement by the Brazilian federal government from 2006 to 2013.

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    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    Full Text Available The costs of medicines pose a growing burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of current procurement processes provides strong support for the development of effective policies. This study examined Brazilian Federal Government pharmaceutical procurement data provided by the Integrated System for the Administration of General Services (SIASG database, from 2006 to 2013. Medicine purchases were aggregated by volume and expenditure for each year. Data on expenditure were adjusted for inflation using the Extended National Consumer Price Index (IPCA for December 31, 2013. Lorenz distribution curves were used to study the cumulative proportion of purchased therapeutic classes. Expenditure variance analysis was performed to determine the impact of each factor, price and/or volume, on total expenditure variation. Annual expenditure on medicines increased 2.72 times, while the purchased volume of drugs increased 1.99 times. A limited number of therapeutic classes dominated expenditure each year. Drugs for infectious diseases drove the increase in expenditures from 2006 to 2009 but were replaced by antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents beginning in 2010. Immunosuppressants (L04, accounted for one third of purchases since 2010, showing the most substantial growth in expenditures during the period (250-fold increase. The overwhelming price-related increase in expenditures caused by these medicines is bound to have a relevant impact on the sustainability of the pharmaceutical supply system. We observed increasing trends in expenditures, especially in specific therapeutic classes. We propose the development and implementation of better medicine procurement systems, and strategies to allow for monitoring of product price, effectiveness, and safety. This must be done with ongoing assessment of pharmaceutical innovations, therapeutic value and budget impact.

  18. [Systems biology applications to explore secondary metabolites in medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Ruiting

    2010-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced during the growth and development of plants along with the adaptation of outer environment, as a rule they are the main active ingredients in medicinal plants and ensure the quality of crude drugs. Since biogenesis is quite complex, the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors either from gene or environments, the complexity may affect quality control of crude drugs and utilization of the active ingredients. The thought and approach adopted in systems biology is a powerful tool to explore biology fully, along with the development of modern molecular biology and information biology, omics integration like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will bring new opportunities for the study of secondary metabolites of medicinal plant. It has great significance to apply this holistic and systematic method in researches on biosynthetic pathway, signal transduction, ecological environment and metabolic engineering of the formation of the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, and in building secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene expression and regulation system model, in order to explain the origin of the active ingredients of medicinal plants, formation mechanism of the Chinese herbs, metabolic engineering effecting active ingredients of medicinal plants, and the rational exploitation and utilization of resources of medicinal plants systematically.

  19. Anti-inflammatory potential of zootherapeutics derived from animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, Samuel V; Sales, Débora L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Souza, Emmanuel P; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2014-11-01

    Animals are used for the treatment of diseases caused by inflammatory processes, although few studies evaluate their potential for these purposes. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of zootherapeutic products derived from vertebrates used in Brazilian traditional medicine. The species analyzed were Tupinambis merianae, Iguana iguana, Crotalus durissus, Boa constrictor, and Euphractus sexcinctus. The methods used in anti-inflammatory assays were ear edema (topical) and paw (systemic). With regard to topical anti-inflammatory activity, the fat from T. merianae, C. durissus, I. iguana, B. constrictor, and E. sexcinctus reduced inflammation, while for systemic anti-inflammatory activity, only the fat and the skin of C. durissus, the skin of I. iguana and the fat from B. constrictor reduced inflammation. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of action for each product that demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity as well as against other inflammatory processes.

  20. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  1. Access to medicines by patients of the primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares, Juliana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Araújo, Vânia Eloisa de; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Dias, Carolina Zampirolli; Ascef, Bruna de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To evaluate the access to medicines in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), from the patients' perspective. This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Services, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), conducted by interviews with 8,591 patients in cities of the five regions of Brazil. Evaluation of access to medicines used concepts proposed by Penshansky and Thomas (1981), according to the dimensions: availability, accessibility, accommodation, acceptability, and affordability. Each dimension was evaluated by its own indicators. For the "availability" dimension, 59.8% of patients reported having full access to medicines, without significant difference between regions. For "accessibility," 60% of patients declared that the basic health unit (UBS) was not far from their house, 83% said it was very easy/easy to get to the UBS, and most patients reported that they go walking (64.5%). For "accommodation," UBS was evaluated as very good/good for the items "comfort" (74.2%) and "cleanliness" (90.9%), and 70.8% of patients reported that they do not wait to receive their medicines, although the average waiting time was 32.9 minutes. For "acceptability," 93.1% of patients reported to be served with respect and courtesy by the staff of the dispensing units and 90.5% declared that the units' service was very good/good. For "affordability," 13% of patients reported not being able to buy something important to cover expenses with health problems, and 41.8% of participants pointed out the expense with medicines. Results show 70%-90% compliance, which is compatible with developed countries. However, access to medicines remains a challenge, because it is still heavily compromised by the low availability of essential medicines in public health units, showing that it does not occur universally, equally

  2. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwanzia Nguta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time medicinal plant species used by Ghanaian communities to treat TB. These results are a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant-based antimycobacterial drugs.

  3. The antibacterial effect of two medicinal plants Inula viscosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial effect of two medicinal plants Inula viscosa, Anacyclus valentinus (Asteraceae) and their synergistic interaction with antibiotic drugs. K Side Larbi, B Meddah, A Tir Touil Meddah, P Sonnet ...

  4. Antisickling Activities of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants | Fatokun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occlusion, severe anaemia, acute chest syndrome, stroke, multiple organ failure, etc. In the pursuit of searching for suitable and affordable anti-sickling herbal remedies, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten medicinal plants from relevant ...

  5. Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P Rama Chandra; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Raza, S H; Dutt, C B S

    2008-09-01

    The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera and 43 families of Magnoliophyta from tropical rainforests. These plants used to cure 40 ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 76% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees (55.6%) and herb (22.2%) species. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the stem bark (33.8%) and root (23.9%).

  6. Research progress of Tunisian medicinal plants used for acute diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Aidi Wannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the medicinal plants in treating diabetes is frequent in Africa, especially in Tunisia, and it is ritually transmitted from generation to generation within cultures. Many of Tunisian medicinal plants have been experimentally validated. A comprehensive review was conducted to pile up information from scientific journal articles, including indigenous knowledge researches, about Tunisian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with information concerning the importance of Tunisian medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and to draw attention of the health professionals and scientists working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop new drug formulations to cure different kinds of diabetes.

  7. antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants (artemisia indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BASREEN

    Medicinal plants are abundant source of antimicrobial molecules. A wide .... chemical compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, phenols and saponins (Table 2). ..... of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS MENTIONED IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS*

    OpenAIRE

    Mooss, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author deals with some of the general aspects of the identifcation and cultivation of medicinal plants as well as the collection and preservation of their raw products mentioned in ancient classical Ayurvedic texts

  9. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase of bacterial resistance specifically leading to treatment failures ... medicinal plants namely Entada abyssinica Steud., Entada africana Guill. ... The powdered air-dried. (under shade) ... Infectious diseases (Personal communication).

  10. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  11. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  12. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans , Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients. ... Warburgia salutaris, Cassine transvaalensis, Piper capense, Maerua edulis, Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Berchemia discolor and Lippia ...

  13. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Cameroon. AT Mbaveng, MES Tchana, AG Fankam, ET Nkwengoua, JA Seukep, FK Tchouani, B Nyassé, V Kuete ...

  14. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study include...

  15. Book Review: Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria | Elujoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willcox, M. L., Bodeker, G. and Rasoanaivo, P. (Eds.), (2004). Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, p. 431. Epilogue by M. L. Wilcox. Forward by D. A. Warrell. Numerous illustrations, Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times, Vol. 4, USS 99.95$/66.99£UK, ISBN 0-415-30112-2 ...

  16. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure” concoction [Epa –Ijebu]; used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis and cough were screened for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patient sputum and the control strains ...

  17. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  18. Plants Producing Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins in Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Polito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are enzymes that deadenylate nucleic acids and are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Many plants that contain RIPs are listed in the pharmacopoeias of folk medicine all over the world, mostly because of their toxicity. This review analyses the position occupied in traditional medicine by plants from which RIPs have been isolated. The overview starts from the antique age of the Mediterranean area with ancient Egypt, followed by the Greek and Roman classic period. Then, the ancient oriental civilizations of China and India are evaluated. More recently, Unani medicine and European folk medicine are examined. Finally, the African and American folk medicines are taken into consideration. In conclusion, a list of RIP-expressing plants, which have been used in folk medicine, is provided with the geographical distribution and the prescriptions that are recommended by traditional healers. Some final considerations are provided on the present utilization of such herbal treatments, both in developing and developed countries, often in the absence of scientific validation. The most promising prospect for the medicinal use of RIP-expressing plants is the conjugation of purified RIPs to antibodies that recognise tumour antigens for cancer therapy.

  19. Medicinal plants with potential antipyretic activity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabira Sultana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the part and parcel of human society to combat against different diseases from the dawn of human civilization. According to World Health Organization, approximately 80% population of the developing countries are facing difficulties to afford synthetic drugs and are relying on traditional medicines mainly of plant origin in order to maintain their primary health care needs. Plants are being used in various disorders e.g., gastrointestinal disorders, genitourinary problems, hepatobilliary discomforts and psychological and respiratory problems through time immemorial and people in western countries are now reverting back towards herbal medicines because of their extensive biological and medicinal activities, higher safety and lesser costs. Many plants are being traditionally used in the treatment of fever and their antipyretic activities have been confirmed scientifically. The current review clearly demonstrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of fever. Furthermore, this review can help the scientists and researchers to find some new antipyretic agents from traditional medicinal plants.

  20. Characterization of the selection of medicines for the Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Galato, Dayani; Meiners, Micheline Marie Milward de Azevedo; Silva, Emília Vitória da; Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Leite, Silvana Nair; Álvares, Juliana; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the process of selection of medicines for primary health care in the Brazilian regions. This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), a cross-sectional study that consisted of an information gathering in a sample of cities in the five regions of Brazil. The data used were collected by interviews with those responsible for pharmaceutical services (PS) (n = 506), professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines (n = 1,139), and physicians (n = 1,558). To evaluate the difference between ratios, we adopted the Chi-square test for complex samples. The differences between the averages were analyzed in generalized linear models with F-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analyses considered significant had p≤0.05. The professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services reported non-existence of a formally constituted Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC) (12.5%). They claimed to have an updated (80.4%) list of Essential Medicines (85.3%) and being active participants of this process (88.2%). However, in the perception of respondents, the list only partially (70.1%) meets the health demands. Of the interviewed professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines, only 16.6% were pharmacists; even so, 47.8% reported to know the procedures to change the list. From the perspective of most of these professionals (70.9%), the list meets the health demands of the city. Among physicians, only 27.2% reported to know the procedures to change the list, but 76.5% would have some claim to change it. Most of them reported to base their claims in clinical experiences (80.0%). For 13.0% of them, the list meets the health demands. As this is the first national survey of characterization of the process of selection of medicines within

  1. Characterization of the selection of medicines for the Brazilian primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the process of selection of medicines for primary health care in the Brazilian regions. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015, a cross-sectional study that consisted of an information gathering in a sample of cities in the five regions of Brazil. The data used were collected by interviews with those responsible for pharmaceutical services (PS (n = 506, professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines (n = 1,139, and physicians (n = 1,558. To evaluate the difference between ratios, we adopted the Chi-square test for complex samples. The differences between the averages were analyzed in generalized linear models with F-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analyses considered significant had p≤0.05. RESULTS The professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services reported non-existence of a formally constituted Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC (12.5%. They claimed to have an updated (80.4% list of Essential Medicines (85.3% and being active participants of this process (88.2%. However, in the perception of respondents, the list only partially (70.1% meets the health demands. Of the interviewed professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines, only 16.6% were pharmacists; even so, 47.8% reported to know the procedures to change the list. From the perspective of most of these professionals (70.9%, the list meets the health demands of the city. Among physicians, only 27.2% reported to know the procedures to change the list, but 76.5% would have some claim to change it. Most of them reported to base their claims in clinical experiences (80.0%. For 13.0% of them, the list meets the health demands. CONCLUSIONS As this is the first national survey of

  2. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leopoldo C. Baratto; Sandra V. A. Hohlemwerger; Maria Lenise S. Guedes; Márcia R. Duarte; Cid A. M. Santos

    2010-01-01

    .... O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie...

  3. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the family Caryophyllaceae are widely used by many ethnic communities as traditional medicine throughout the world. The highest number of plants of the family are used in Chinese traditional medicine. The ethnopharmacologial studies of this family indicate that plants of the family possess anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other miscellaneous properties reported are ribosome inactivation properties, inhibition of prostatic enlargement in rats, and inhibition of intestinal enzyme carboxyelasterase in rats, cerebro-protective activity, and antiobesity in rats. Few reviews have been published yet, providing information regarding medicinal plants of the family and their biomedical properties. All published reviews have focused either on a particular taxa or a few species. The present review is focused on the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the family Caryophyllaceae along with phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the family. A study of the literature revealed significant traditional medicinal importance of the family. Major chemical constituents of Caryophyllceae are saponins, Phytoecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids, and nitrogen containing compounds. The most important property of plants of the family is anticancer activity and is shown by the large number of plant species studied. This review of traditional medicinal and pharmacological uses of plants of the family, provide a ground for future research in the family.

  4. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  5. Medicinal plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Wagner, Hildebert; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-07-03

    Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g., selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised

  6. Use of generic medicines by the Brazilian population: an evaluation of PNAUM 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Dal-Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the existence of differences in the use of generic medicines in Brazil according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and acquisition sources of the medicines. Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines). Data collection took place between September, 2013 and February, 2014 in homes of Brazilian cities (urban area). The use of medicines has been investigated in relation to the treatment of chronic diseases and, in the case of acute events, regarding use over the previous 15 days. Generics were identified by visualization of packaging presented by the users of the medicines. The independent variables used were sex, age, education level, economic class, and region of the Country. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was evaluated by Pearson's Chi-squared test, considering a 5% significance level. The prevalence of generic medicines use was 45.5% (95%CI 43.7-47.3). There was no difference considering education level. The prevalence was higher in females (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.0) than in males (43.1%; 95%CI 40.5-45.8), and were higher with increasing age. Generic medicines were more used in the economic class C (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.1) and in the South (50.6%; 95%CI 46.6-54.6) and Southeast (49.9%; 95%CI 46.8-53.0) regions. Generics accounted for 37.3% of the medicines provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System. Currently, there is a choice of purchase or free provision by the Brazilian Unified Health System, characterized by quality assurance and reduced price regarding branded medicines considered as reference. In the private market, a considerable part of the population is choosing generic medicines thanks to the availability of this option for virtually all medicines most used by the population. Analisar se há diferença no

  7. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of some Medicinal Plant Extracts | El Astal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and phenolic compound extracts from three Palestinian folkloric medicinal plants, in addition to their commercial oils, were evaluated against ten pathogenic microorganisms. The plants used were sage, thyme and parsley. Five concentrations of leaf extract of the ...

  9. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais ... minate food products in acting as grain protectants in small-scale storage systems. Other problems ... The use of plant extracts in the control of stored products insects is an ancient practise (Qi and ...

  10. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation has been taken to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant (leaf) extracts and their combination with fungicides (Carbendazim) against radial growth of Alternaria solani.. The fungus was collected from infected leaf spots of potato plant and grown in PDA (potato dextrose agar) media. The water extracts ...

  11. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interaction of Mycobiont: Piriformospora Indica with Medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endophytic symbiotic fungus, Piriformospora indica isolated from desert soils of Rajasthan, India promotes growth as well as important ingredients of the medicinal as well as economically important plants by forming association with roots of various plants and it has been established as biofertilizer, bioprotector, ...

  13. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum and distinguishing of this plant from its adulterants by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) based DNA barcode. YC Chiang, WT Chang, MD Chen, GH Lai, HJ Chen, J Chao, MK Lin, YS Chang, YM Chou, MS Lee, MS Lee ...

  14. Direct Detection Of Triterpenoid Saponins In Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed –OH, -C=O, C-H, and ...

  15. Antibacterial activity of some wild medicinal plants collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the wild plants grown in western Mediterranean coast of Egypt is one of our research goals. In this study, 10 wild plants namely Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Blackiella aellen, Arthrocnemon ...

  16. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  17. Determination of Amino Acids in Medicinal Plants from Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the amino acid contents of some plants used in traditional medicine in Southern Sonora, Mexico by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The plant samples (Jutuki, Zizyphus obtusifolia A.Gray; Jito, Forchammeria watsonii Rose; Barchata, Lycium berlandieri Dunal; Citabaro, ...

  18. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on a study that aimed at documenting the ethno-knowledge on the usage of plants healing wounds and sores at the rural areas around uNgoye forest as well as document the methods of preparation and dosage forms of medicinal plants used by people around Ungoye forest. The survey was conducted ...

  19. Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinal plants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal ...

  20. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, August 2013;12 (4): 538. Table 1 (contd.): Antibacterial activity of selected Thai medicinal plants against Streptococcus pyogenes NPRC 101. Botanical species. Family. Voucher no. Plant part. Extract yield (%). Inhibiti on zonea. (mm). MIC/MBC. (µg/ml). Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Myrtaceae.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity Of Some Medicinal Plants Used By Herbalists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against ...

  2. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Mt. Frere District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Background: In South African traditional medicine, some are plants known to combat pediatric diseases and are commonly used by traditional healers. The aim was to .... natural is harmless; confusing plant nomenclature, identification and lack of quality control are important concerns in the application of herbal remedies to ...

  3. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  4. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. ... The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having ...

  5. Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive compounds comprising flavanoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins have been isolated and characterized from the plants and are responsible for their biological activity. The importance of these bioactive compounds available in these plants are discussed with respect to their role in herbal medicine in ...

  6. Molecular markers in medicinal plant biotechnology: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Nabi, Gowher; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, Prem Shankar

    2012-03-01

    Plant based medicines have gained popularity worldwide due to their almost negligible side effects. In India, the three traditional medicinal systems, namely homeopathy, Ayurveda and Siddha rely heavily on plants for medicinal formulations. To prevent the indiscriminate collection of these valuable medicinal plants and for their proper authentication and conservation, it is imperative to go for sustained efforts towards proper germplasm cataloguing and devising conservation strategies. For this purpose, molecular markers have a significant role, as they provide information ranging from diversity at nucleotide level (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to gene and allele frequencies (genotype information), the extent and distribution of genetic diversity, and population structure. Over the past twenty years, the molecular marker field has completely transformed the meaning of conservation genetics which has emerged from a theory-based field of population biology to a full-fledged pragmatic discipline. In this review, we have explored the transition and transformation of molecular marker technologies throughout these years.

  7. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Flávio B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV that we developed. Results We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility. Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. Conclusions This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information

  8. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Varela, Susana A M; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís

    2012-09-27

    Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia - the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV) and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV) that we developed. We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility) and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility). Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information about a species may be of interest to pharmacological research, and is

  9. [Essential medicines and the selection process in management practices of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian states and municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarinos-Torres, Rachel; Pepe, Vera Lucia Edais; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2014-09-01

    The selection of medicines is a skilled process that produces an essential medicines list (EML) and substantiates rational management of pharmaceutical services. This paper presents the selection of essential medicines in Brazilian states and municipalities. It discusses the perception of pharmaceutical services managers regarding the concept of essential medicines and strategies adopted for their implementation, in addition to investigating how the National Essential Medicines List was adopted and is supporting local pharmaceutical services actions. A nationwide study was carried out adopting a qualitative methodological approach in health. State and municipal managers from the five Brazilian regions were interviewed. The findings point to weaknesses in local selection procedures and in the use of the National Essential Medicines List (Rename). Barriers such as lack of formalization of pharmaceutical services at regional levels, difficulties in drafting and maintaining a pharmacy and therapeutics committee and the acritical incorporation of drugs on the EML were identified. States and municipalities have distortions that exclude the EML form the concept of essential medicines.

  10. Plant Molecular Farming: Much More than Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschofen, Marc; Knopp, Dietmar; Hood, Elizabeth; Stöger, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Plants have emerged as commercially relevant production systems for pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical products. Currently, the commercially available nonpharmaceutical products outnumber the medical products of plant molecular farming, reflecting the shorter development times and lower regulatory burden of the former. Nonpharmaceutical products benefit more from the low costs and greater scalability of plant production systems without incurring the high costs associated with downstream processing and purification of pharmaceuticals. In this review, we explore the areas where plant-based manufacturing can make the greatest impact, focusing on commercialized products such as antibodies, enzymes, and growth factors that are used as research-grade or diagnostic reagents, cosmetic ingredients, and biosensors or biocatalysts. An outlook is provided on high-volume, low-margin proteins such as industrial enzymes that can be applied as crude extracts or unprocessed plant tissues in the feed, biofuel, and papermaking industries.

  11. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Hall, Carsten; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Pouliot, Mariève

    2012-11-13

    A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer

  12. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  13. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium concentrations of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkutlu, Faruk; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Koca, Ufuk; Yazici, Gizem

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinal plants should be consumed to obtain beneficial trace elements. Selenium (Se), one of the most vital trace elements, has a significant role in human diet acting as a preventative agent against some serious illnesses. Despite numerous scientific works on mineral compositions of medicinal and aromatic plants, investigations of selenium content in these foods could not be successfully studied until recently due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for selenium analysis. Thus, publications on selenium concentrations of foods are recent. In this regard, selenium contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants commonly used as spices, herbal teas and traditional medicines in Turkey were studied in the present research. Selenium contents of the most used parts of these plants were analyzed by ICP-OES (Varian Vista-Pro, Australia). Of the analyzed 26 medicinal and aromatic plants, the highest Se concentration (1133 microg kg-1) was found in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the lowest in sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (11 microg kg(-1)).

  15. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants on Candida Albicans

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    Fatemeh Masomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed, Teucrium polium (leaf, Piper nigrum (seed, Pistachia vera (skin, Camelia sinensis (leaf were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined. Results: All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm. The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm. Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.

  17. Determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation and atomic absorption; Determinacao de Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na e Zn em plantas medicinais brasileiras por ativacao neutronica e absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ricardo P. de; Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena S.; Franco, Milton B.; Amaral, Angela M.; Guedes, Joao B.; Assis, Adilson de C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Leite, Simone C.A.L.; Silva, Isabel R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Medicinal plants are available in the markets in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The objective of this work is to investigate the Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na e Zn concentrations in two lots of usually known diuretics plants (azeitona do mato, cabelo de milho, cavalinha, cervejinha do campo, chapeu de couro, congonha de bugre, marmelinho do campo and quebra pedra) bought with an interval of time - six months - between the purchases. The elemental concentrations were determined applying k{sub 0} instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis. (author)

  18. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  19. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management

  20. Review: Medicinal plants combating against hypertension: A green antihypertensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a medical condition that accounts 9.4 million deaths all over the world every year. It is leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, diffuse atherosclerosis, cognitive impairment and dementia. Clinically, synthetic antihypertensive drugs have been used to treat hypertension. However, the efficacy of these drugs is low and also produces side effects which include dry mouth, dizziness, emotional distress, gastrointestinal disturbance, visual disorders etc. These distressing side effects adversely affect health-related quality of life. Therefore, there is a need to search natural, cheaper and non-toxic compound. Plant are widely use in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of several diseases. About 80% of the world population relies on traditional medicine for primary healthcare. In the last three decades, a lot of research has been done on local medicinal plants for hypotensive and antihypertensive potentials. Plants are the rich source of secondary metabolites which have been found in vivo to have antihypertensive properties. The current study is focused on reviewing the antihypertensive property of medicinal plants and their metabolites. In the current review, we conducted a literature search using Elsevier, Science direct, Springer Link (Springer), Pub Med and Google Scholar. The search included the keywords "plants", "medicinal plants", "plant extracts", cross-referenced with the keywords "hypertension" "antihypertensive activity". The use of plant origin natural compounds as cardio protective and antihypertensive agents is an interesting strategy for discovering bioactive products. Plants are rich in a variety of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids. These have been found in vivo to have antihypertensive effects. The present review therefore; stand for a good basis to choose exact

  1. Review: African medicinal plants with wound healing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Christian; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Bekoe, Emelia Oppong; Hensel, Andreas; Dapaah, Susana Oteng; Appiah, Theresa

    2016-01-11

    Wounds of various types including injuries, cuts, pressure, burns, diabetic, gastric and duodenal ulcers continue to have severe socio-economic impact on the cost of health care to patients, family and health care institutions in both developing and developed countries. However, most people in the developing countries, especially Africa, depend on herbal remedies for effective treatment of wounds. Various in vitro and in vivo parameters are used for the evaluation of the functional activity of medicinal plants by using extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. The aim of the review is to identify African medicinal plants with wound healing properties within the last two decades. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scifinder(®) and Google Scholar were used to search and filter for African medicinal plants with wound healing activity. The methods employed in the evaluation of wound healing activity of these African medicinal plants comprise both in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo wound models such as excision, incision, dead space and burn wound model are commonly employed in assessing the rate of wound closure (contraction), tensile strength or breaking strength determination, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hydroxyproline content assay and histological investigations including epithelialisation, collagen synthesis, and granulation tissue formation. In in vitro studies, single cell systems are mostly used to study proliferation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes by monitoring typical differentiation markers like collagen and keratin. In this study, 61 plants belonging to 36 families with scientifically demonstrated or reported wound healing properties were reviewed. Various plant parts including leaves, fruits, stem bark and root extracts of the plants are used in the evaluation of plants for wound healing activities. Although, a variety of medicinal plants for wound healing can be found in literature, there is a need for the

  2. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

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    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  3. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

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    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  4. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M; Ankli, A; Frei, B; Weimann, C; Sticher, O

    1998-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and - for comparative purposes - Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct comparison of the results possible. In these studies, the relative importance of a medicinal plant within a culture is documented using a quantitative method. For the analysis the uses were grouped into 9-10 categories of indigenous uses. This report compares these data and uses the concept of informant consensus originally developed by Trotter and Logan for analysis. This indicates how homogenous the ethnobotanical information is. Generally the factor is high for gastrointestinal illnesses and for culture bound syndromes. While the species used by the 3 indigenous groups vary, the data indicate that there exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. A large number of species are used for gastrointestinal illnesses by two or more of the indigenous groups. At least in this case, the multiple transfer of species and their uses within Mexico seems to be an important reason for the widespread use of a species. Medicinal plants in other categories (e.g. skin diseases) are usually known only in one culture and seem to be part of its traditional knowledge.

  5. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through

  6. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  7. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  8. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  9. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  10. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cameroonian medicinal plants: Pharmacology and derived natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, antiparasitic including anti-malarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  13. The Brazilian version of the 20-item rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine and dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Fátima P. Cruvinel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The misunderstanding of specific vocabulary may hamper the patient-health provider communication. The 20-item Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALMD-20 was constructed to screen patients by their ability in reading medical/dental terminologies in a simple and rapid way. This study aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of this instrument for its application in Brazilian dental patients. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation was performed through conceptual equivalence, verbatim translation, semantic, item and operational equivalence, and back-translation. After that, 200 participants responded the adapted version of the REALMD-20, the Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30, ten questions of the Brazilian National Functional Literacy Index (BNFLI, and a questionnaire with socio-demographic and oral health-related questions. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the REALMD-20 (P < 0.05. Results The sample was composed predominantly by women (55.5% and white/brown (76% individuals, with an average age of 39.02 years old (±15.28. The average REALMD-20 score was 17.48 (±2.59, range 8–20. It displayed a good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.789 and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.73; 95% CI [0.66 − 0.79]. In the exploratory factor analysis, six factors were extracted according to Kaiser’s criterion. The factor I (eigenvalue = 4.53 comprised four terms— “Jaundice”, “Amalgam”, “Periodontitis” and “Abscess”—accounted for 25.18% of total variance, while the factor II (eigenvalue = 1.88 comprised other four terms—“Gingivitis”, “Instruction”, “Osteoporosis” and “Constipation”—accounted for 10.46% of total variance. The first four factors accounted for 52.1% of total variance. The REALMD-20 was positively correlated with the BREALD-30 (Rs = 0

  14. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  15. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  16. A review on antidepressant effect of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rabiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a life-threatening, debilitating, and common disease affecting different segments of community. Chemical and synthetic drugs available to treat this disease cause many adverse effects and may lead to complete recovery in only 50% of patients. At the same time, medicinal plants have been reported to exert optimal pharmacological effects in treating depression in different models. In this review, the relevant articles indexed in the reliable databases PubMed, PubMed central, Scopus and Web of Science were review-ed. The review indicated that most medicinal plants exerted antidepressant effects through synaptic regulation of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine, regulating activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reinfor-cing anti-oxidant defense system, and decreasing inflammatory mediators. The medicinal plants and their active compounds can relieve depression through different pathways and hence are considered a new source to produce antidepressants.

  17. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge about the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of the four plant excipients. The broth dilution antibacterial assay and the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the plants, respectively. Ethanol, warm water and cold water extracts were prepared from the dried seeds/fruits of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica, and tested in the assays. A. melegueta and P. guineense seemed to act as pharmacoenhancers, since they have been shown to inhibit specific CYP-enzymes. A. melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants as excipients could rely on their taste properties. The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make the medicine more palatable or (3) a way to preserve the activity of the medicinal preparation over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus pendulus

    OpenAIRE

    Shadia, A. Fathi; Fareida, M. El-Saied; Sengab, A.B.; Naglaa, M. Sherif; Osman, A.M.; El-Shaimaa, S. El-Demerdash

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The genus Cocculus belongs to the family Menispermaceae which comprises about 35 species of shrubs or woody climbers. Only one species, Cocculus pendulus is found in Egypt. This plant is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. Despite the wide occurrence of C. pendulus in the Egyptian deserts, attention was paid only to its distribution and morphological description ignoring the biochemical constitution, the genome makeup and environmenta...

  19. Medicinal plants effectiveness against helminths of cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-02-28

    Feb 28, 2015 ... occurrence of a red or orange colouration was indicative of the presence of flavonoids compounds (Trease and. Evans, 1983). Test for Tannins: Each .... bitter plant polyphenolic compounds that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids (Dahanukar et al., ...

  20. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  1. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... ... state governments are still working out, go mainly back to gatherers. Last year his department distributed about CA$20 million in profits from such plants. He added that developing standard guidelines is a major project. According to oral traditions and ancient Indian medical texts, different parts of different ...

  2. The Development of Brazilian Municipalities Flooded by Hydropower Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, N.; Moretto, E. M.; Roquetti, D. R.; Beduschi, L. C.; Praia, A.; Pulice, S.; Albiach, E.; Athayde, S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower plants cause negative environmental impacts during the phases of construction and operation. On the other hand, there is a general assumption that these projects also induce local development of the affected places, since there is a great influx of social and financial capital brought locally, especially during the construction phase the relationship between hydropower plant implementation s and local development has been controversial in the Environmental Impact Assessment field, and there is no empirical evidence showing how hydroelectric dam construction affects local development. Considering municipal development as a kind of local development and operationalizing the concept of human development by adopting income, longevity and education dimensions defined by Amartya Sen, this study aimed to verify empirical evidences regarding the role of hydropower plants in human development of their flooded municipalities in Brazil. For this, we considered 134 hydroelectric plants and correspondent 641 flooded municipalities, for which 155 human development indicators were obtained for the period of 2000 to 2010. Results obtained from statistical correlation analysis and their assumption tests showed that increases in the municipal flooded area and increases in the period of flooding - to which a given municipality is submitted - were associated with lower performances of human development indicators. Specifically, increases in social inequality, poverty and lower performances of longevity and education were detected for the flooded municipalities. We also found that the financial compensation was associated with better performance of municipal income and lower performances of education and longevity. Finally, approaching the growth poles theory of François Perroux and the productive linkages theory of Albert Hirschman, we suggest that the size of the flooded areas, the flooding period and the financial compensation may lead to an enclave situation in

  3. [Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazil: inclusion in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and integration with primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.

  4. Tree-Dwelling Ants: Contrasting Two Brazilian Cerrado Plant Species without Extrafloral Nectaries

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    Jonas Maravalhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants dominate vegetation stratum, exploiting resources like extrafloral nectaries (EFNs and insect honeydew. These interactions are frequent in Brazilian cerrado and are well known, but few studies compare ant fauna and explored resources between plant species. We surveyed two cerrado plants without EFNs, Roupala montana (found on preserved environments of our study area and Solanum lycocarpum (disturbed ones. Ants were collected and identified, and resources on each plant noted. Ant frequency and richness were higher on R. montana (67%; 35 spp than S. lycocarpum (52%; 26, the occurrence of the common ant species varied between them, and similarity was low. Resources were explored mainly by Camponotus crassus and consisted of scale insects, aphids, and floral nectaries on R. montana and two treehopper species on S. lycocarpum. Ants have a high diversity on cerrado plants, exploring liquid and prey-based resources that vary in time and space and affect their presence on plants.

  5. Review of Brazilian plants with proven hypoglycemic effect in the control of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, G. T. [UNESP; Damasceno,Débora Cristina; Calderon,Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    Plants have been used in the cure of diseases from the origins of the humanity. At present, in Brazil, the use is common because of the difficulty of access of part of the population to medical assistance. It is commonly believed that the medicinal plants of traditional use were already tested and ratified by the long-lasting use by the human species, being considered effective medicines, presenting no collateral effects, not needful, therefore, of evaluation. The miraculous self-medication w...

  6. Medicinal Plants Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases in View of Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Nami, Saeed Reza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs. Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, J M; van Wyk, B-E

    2015-08-02

    Qualitative and quantitative data is presented that gives a new perspective on the traditional medicinal plants of the Khoisan (Khoe-San), one of the most ancient of human cultures. The data is not only of considerable historical and cultural value, but allows for fascinating comparative studies relating to new species records, novel use records and the spatial distribution of traditional plant use knowledge within the Cape Floristic Region. A detailed documentation and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg area (an important Khoisan and Nama cultural centre) and their traditional uses, which have hitherto remained unrecorded. During four study visits to the Kamiesberg, semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with 24 local inhabitants of the Kamiesberg, mostly of Khoisan decent. In addition to standard methodology, a newly developed Matrix Method was used to quantity medicinal plant knowledge. The Kamiesberg is an important center of extant Nama ethnomedicinal information but the knowledge is rapidly disappearing. Of a total of 101 medicinal plants and 1375 anecdotes, 21 species were recorded for the first time as having traditional medicinal uses and at least 284 medicinal use records were new. The relative importance, popularity and uses of the plants were quantified. The 97 newly documented vernacular names include 23 Nama (Khoekhoegowab) names and an additional 55 new variations of known names. The calculated Ethnobotanical Knowledge Index (EKI) and other indices accurately quantified the level of knowledge and will allow for future local, regional and even global comparisons. The results showed that the Kamiesberg is an important focal point of Khoisan (Nama) traditional knowledge but that the medicinal plants have not yet been systematically recorded in the scientific literature. There are numerous new use records and new species records that are in need of scientific study. Comparative data is now available for broader

  8. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute, leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis, antigout of Juniperus procera, removing warts for Ficus palmata. 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not been

  9. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  10. ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity level of each plant extract or indicator cell lines were also determined and found to range from Minimum Cytotoxic Dose (MCD50) of 3.9x10-3 mg ml-1 for crude methanol leaf extract of S. jollyanum on Hep-2 (Human Epithelia cell line) to MCD50 of 1.2x10-7 mg ml-1 for leaf methanol extract of D. bateri on Vero cell ...

  11. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  12. Genetic Programming for Medicinal Plant Family Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Laksmana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about medicinal plants that is available in text documents is generally quite easy to access, however, one needs some efforts to use it. This research was aimed at utilizing crucial information taken from a text document to identify the family of several species of medicinal plants using a heuristic approach, i.e. genetic programming. Each of the species has its unique features. The genetic program puts the characteristics or special features of each family into a tree form. There are a number of processes involved in the investigated method, i.e. data acquisition, booleanization, grouping of training and test data, evaluation, and analysis. The genetic program uses a training process to select the best individual, initializes a generate-rule process to create several individuals and then executes a fitness evaluation. The next procedure is a genetic operation process, which consists of tournament selection to choose the best individual based on a fitness value, the crossover operation and the mutation operation. These operations have the purpose of complementing the individual. The best individual acquired is the expected solution, which is a rule for classifying medicinal plants. This process produced three rules, one for each plant family, displaying a feature structure that distinguishes each of the families from each other. The genetic program then used these rules to identify the medicinal plants, achieving an average accuracy of 86.47%.

  13. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  14. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  15. Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts form Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A

    1996-12-01

    Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg).

  16. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lúcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-04

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml).

  17. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  18. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial.

  19. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan B; Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, Hugo; Tiwari, Achyut; Shrestha, Shyam S; Sigdel, Shalik R

    2014-12-02

    Gastrointestinal disorders cause morbidity and can lead to mortality, especially in the developing world where sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present review summarizes the traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nepal used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, and evaluates their bio-efficacy based on a review of the available phytochemical and pharmacological literature. We searched different electronic databases and libraries for the literature on medicinal plants used in Nepal to treat gastrointestinal disorders. For each species, we also searched the literature for information on conservation status, as well as for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in support of the ethnobotanical information. We used principal component analysis to explore the relation among disorders and plant families, plant life forms, plant parts and preparation modes. We also performed permutation tests to determine if botanical families were used more often than expected considering their availability in the Nepali flora. We documented a total of 947 species belonging to 158 families and 586 genera used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal. Diarrhea was the disorder treated by the highest number of species (348), followed by stomachache (340) and dysentery (307). Among the reported species, five were endemic to Nepal, whereas 16 orchid species were protected under CITES Appendices II and III. The randomization test showed that species belonging to 14 families were used less often than expected, whereas plants belonging to 25 families were used more often than expected. The PCA scatter plot showed distinct groups of gastrointestinal disorders treated with similar plant life forms, plant parts, and/or preparation modes. We found 763 phytochemical studies on 324 species and 654 pharmacological studies on 269 species. We showed the diversity and

  20. Effect of some medicinal plant preparations of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambhole, V D

    1988-10-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity.

  1. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  2. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307

  3. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  4. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  5. [Medicinal plants in Senegal and oral diseases: use and interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Toure, B; Lo, C M M; Faye, D

    2011-09-01

    The end of the last century and the present decade is characterized by an evolution of the concept of health and illness in the public domain. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as "comprising various practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating medicinal herbal, animal and/or mineral, spiritual therapies, applied alone or in combination to maintain well-being and to treat, diagnose or prevent disease. In dentistry, the plants used are numerous. The objective of this work is to describe the herbal medicine used against oral diseases. To conduct this study, 10 articles and theses, a brief, 2 books, 4 reports and 2 clippings on traditional medicine/herbal medicine were consulted. Several African plants, in the form of use, can help relieve or treat dental pain and have positive effects against dental caries and periodontal diseases. The geographic and financial accessibility associated with the lack of qualified personnel are the plants could be an alternative in the management of certain oral diseases.

  6. Artemisaiae as medicinal and herbal medicinal plants from ancient times to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulu, Markku; Örmä, Simo; Liljeblad, Arto; Niemelä, Pekka

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Chinese Youyou Tu for her work on an antimalarial drug that she isolated from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium L) belonging to the genus of Artemisia. In this article we deal with the use of Artemisiae as medicinal plants through the ages, and several pharmacologically active compounds can be obtained from species of the genus Artemisia. We will particularly focus on two medicinally interesting species of Artemisiae - sweet wormwood and absinthe - as well as two pharmacologically significant compounds found in them, artemisin and thujone.

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  8. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  9. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  10. in vivo antitrypanosomal evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Morinda morindiodes root bark extract. Keywords: Antitrypanosomal, evaluation, medicinal plants, in vivo, Ogun. State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Trypanosoma brucei brucei are unicellular parasites transmitted by the tse-tse fly. They are the causative agent of African Animal. Trypanosomosis (AAT) (Antia et al., 2009).

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing resistance of malaria parasites to cholroquine, one of the affordable and commonly used drugs for malaria in Nigeria. Therefore, the use of plants with anti-malaria properties is now very common in the country. Today, not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal ...

  12. Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant, Meconopsis impedita. Rong Li and Zhiling Dao*. Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming. 650204, Yunnan, People's Republic of China. Accepted 6 April, 2011.

  13. Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root of Meconopsis impedita is one of the most widely used traditional Tibetan medicinal plants. However, it is often confused with Meconopsis racemosa whose roots may be used as a substitute. To establish a DNA polymorphism-based assay for the identification of M. impedita, the chloroplast rps16 intron region of 11 ...

  14. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Tchouani1, Barthélémy Nyassé2 and Victor Kuete1. 1. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon. 2. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde, Yaounde Cameroon. Abstract. Background: Medicinal plants are used worldwide for several ...

  15. Medicinal Plants Useful For Malaria Therapy In Okeigbo, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to ...

  16. Karyological study of the medicinal plant Papaver rhoeas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Karyotype and morphology of mitotic chromosomes in six populations of the medicinal plant Papaver rhoeas collected from various geographical locations of the northwest of Iran were studied. Chromosome characteristics were measured from 10 complete metaphase cells using micromeasure software.

  17. Indigenous healthcare practice through medicinal plants from forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory study was conducted on the ethno-botanical perception of the Mro tribe of Bandarban, Bangladesh, to focus on the implications of healthcare using medicinal plants collected from forests. A total of 36 households were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaire.

  18. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... microtitration plates as previously described (Samie et al., 2005). Briefly, 185 µl of ...... Prod. 51(1):22-29. Lin J, Opolu AR, Geheeb-Keller M, Hutchings AD, Terblanche SE, ... Rıos JL, M.C. Recio MC (2005). Medicinal plants ...

  19. Antibacterial screening of Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants Against S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water and ethanol extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants: Enantia chlorantha, Terminalia avicennioides, Momordica balsamina, Morinda lucida and mangifera indica used traditionally in treating several ailment of both microbial and non- microbial origins were tested on clinical isolates of salmonella typhi and S.

  20. Medicinal Utilization of Roots of Forest Plants in Lere Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates some of the valuable medicinal forest plant roots commonly used by various ethnic groups in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A set of sixty (60) structured questionnaire was purposively administered to traditional healers, herbs traders, civil servants, and other herb users in Lere Local Government Area of ...

  1. Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health.

  2. Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... that have limited distribution in time and/or space (Danin,. 1986). Several studies have beendone on the floristic composition of North Sinai (Boulos, 1960; Täckholm ...... (eds.), Dr. W. Junk Publishers, London. p. 380. Batanouny KH, Aboutabl E, Shabana M, Soliman F (1999). Wild. Medicinal plants in Egypt.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Indian medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus ...

  4. Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The threatened medicinal plants including Acacia pachyceras, Acacia tortilis, Anastatica hierochuntica, Asclepias sinaica, Capparis spinosa, Chiliadenus montanus, Citrulus colocynthis, Ephedra alata, and Juniperus phoenicea along with their habitats should have the first priority in management and conservation plan of ...

  5. Common plants of medicinal values in kolams of Adilabad district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This paper provides data on 31 medicinal plants used by Kolams for curing various ailments along with their local names, method of preparation, mode of administration and use. Materials ... Results: The ethno-medical system among Kolam is quite diverse and the local knowledge is used mostly in primary health care.

  6. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used as Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants serve as food supplements and provide essential nutrients to the body in addition to their use as prophylactic and curative measures for some diseases. We conducted a survey among the traditional healers of the Chakma tribe, which is the largest tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeast ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants ( Artemisia indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia indica, Medicago falcata and Tecoma stans are traditionally being use for medicinal purposes in Pakistan. Present study was designed to check in-vitro efficacy of these plants against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Methodology: Chloroform, butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of these ...

  8. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  9. Antioxidant potential of African medicinal plants | Atawodi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. Africa is blessed with enormous biodiversity resources, but plagued with several diseases, including those with ROS as the etiological factor. In this review ...

  10. Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen plants used in traditional medicine in the Venda region of South Africa were screened for activity against fifteen bacterial species. Methanol, acetone and hexane extracts and in some cases essential oils were tested using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods. Most of the extracts were active against at ...

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey of the medicinal plants used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An inventory of the medicinal plants used by herbalists to treat various ailments in Tindiret area of Nandi County, Kenya was conducted by a team comprising of medical researchers and botanists with a view to preserve indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge and potential research and development of new ...

  12. Utilization of medicinal plants by Waluguru people in East Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to assess utilization of medicinal plants in Nyachilo village situated in eastern Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered and informal discussions conducted to traditional healers and midwives. The respondents were selected from Changa, Mselelo, Tanana, ...

  13. Guest Editorial From plants to medicine for management of sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest Editorial From plants to medicine for management of sickle cell disorder. Charles Wambele. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(1) 2006: 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i1.15718.

  14. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    Background: Indigenous knowledge develops by indigenous people in the processes of their interaction with their environment and the science Ethinomedicine developed gradually having its origin in the indigenous medicinal practices. The main purpose of the study was to make survey of plants that have ethnomedicinal ...

  15. Study of indigenous/traditional medicinal plant knowledge-An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The documentation and phytochemical screening of medicinal plants has been an important way over the years for the discovery of new drugs and pharmaceutical products. Bandipora, one of the northern districts of Kashmir, India, is rich in ethnic and biological diversity. Owing to increasing demand and ...

  16. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum L. for mass propagation. Mohammad Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal, Imdadul Hoque Sharif, Md. Mostofa Shakil, A.N.M. Rubaiyath-Bin Rahman, Nilufa Akhter Banu, Md. Rezuanul Islam, Md. Nazmuzzaman ...

  17. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Original identification of medicinal plants is essential for quality control. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA served as a DNA barcode and was amplified by allele-specific PCR. This approach was exploited to differentiate Taraxacum formosanum from five.

  18. Capturing indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants use: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty ailments categorized into thirty one treatments and prevention methods were discovered. Kigellia africana, Cassia spp and Alstonia boonei were used for treating common ailments like malaria, dysentery and gonorrhea. Sources of collecting the medicinal plant species and their mode of administration were different.

  19. Antioxidant activity in some selected Indian medicinal plants | Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants namely Albizia amara, Achyranthes aspera, Cassia fistula, Cassia auriculata and Datura stramonium by inhibition of lipid peroxidation technique. The highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity was observed in A. amara (96%) ...

  20. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  1. Heavy metals and inorganic constituents in medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd, and inorganic ions like HCO3-, CO32-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe2+ and F- were investigated in medicinally important plants: Taraxacam officinale, Cichorium intybus and Figonia critica, applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. In the ...

  2. Karyological study of the medicinal plant Papaver rhoeas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karyotype and morphology of mitotic chromosomes in six populations of the medicinal plant Papaver rhoeas collected from various geographical locations of the northwest of Iran were studied. Chromosome characteristics were measured from 10 complete metaphase cells using micromeasure software. The results showed ...

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard vitamin C and BHT showed IC50 values of 12.8, and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. A good correlation was observed between total phenolic content and radical-scavenging activities. The medicinal plants in this study tested are expected to be good sources of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant, Rubiaceae ...

  4. Use of medicinal plant in the manufacturing of energetic cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many nutrients provide energy and regulate physiological processes linked to exercise. This work aimed at using medicinal plant in the manufacturing of energetic cookie. An evaluation of microbiological and physicochemical stability was made within 180 days of the fabrication of the product. Sensorial analysis was performed in all stages with untrained tasters. The results were statistically tested. The evaluation of ergogenic effect of the product used the maximum volume of oxygen index as a parameter through the cooper track test (12 minutes with 7 voluntaries. The participants received the consent form. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (N° CAAE - 0009.0.313.000-08. It was observed good stability for physicochemical and microbiological parameters. As for sensorial analysis there was a predominance of scores 6 to 8, characterizing good acceptance. It was verified increase in VO2 max after the intake of the cookies with or without the medicinal plants. However, the product with the medicinal plants presented a bigger value, 35.47 VO2 max mL/(kg.min-1. The fraction of carbohydrate and the presence of medicinal plants can be considered as nutritional ergogenic substances. The lipid fraction favor the energetic aspect of the product. The proposed product presented energetic and ergogenic effect.

  5. Antibacterial spectrum of traditionally used medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentha longifolia is significantly active against Proteus, while negligibly active against other tested microorganisms. Escherichia coli is however, resistant to M longifolia. Keywords: Biological activity, medicinal plants, Incarvillea emodi, Vernonia anthelmintica, Adiantum capilus-veneries, Mentha longifolia, Hazara, Pakistan ...

  6. Modulatory effects of Thai medicinal plant extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-y and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal plants on ...

  7. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  8. Reproductive biology in the medicinal plant, Plumbago zeylanica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plumbago zeylanica L. is an important medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Phenology from seed germination via vegetative growth to reproductive development was studied under glasshouse and nursery conditions. Seeds rapidly germinated on a mixture of nursery soil and cattle dung in ...

  9. Determination of antioxidant property from eight medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pongsathorn

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... The evaluation of antioxidant property, total phenolic compounds and pigment content of 8 medicinal plants including: Gynostemma ... highest chlorophyll b content. While, the carotenoid constituent can be determined only in G. ... pigments, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids are the major candidate for ...

  10. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20.8%), Rosaceae (18.7%), Fabaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae (14.6%). Some of the uses were found to be new when compared with published literature on ethnomedicine of Iran. The folk knowledge about medicinal plant use is still alive in ...

  11. Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation: opportunities and challenges for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Peter H; Thomas, Howard; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-04-01

    Consumption of herbal medicines is widespread and increasing. Harvesting from the wild, the main source of raw material, is causing loss of genetic diversity and habitat destruction. Domestic cultivation is a viable alternative and offers the opportunity to overcome the problems that are inherent in herbal extracts: misidentification, genetic and phenotypic variability, extract variability and instability, toxic components and contaminants. The use of controlled environments can overcome cultivation difficulties and could be a means to manipulate phenotypic variation in bioactive compounds and toxins. Conventional plant-breeding methods can improve both agronomic and medicinal traits, and molecular marker assisted selection will be used increasingly. There has been significant progress in the use of tissue culture and genetic transformation to alter pathways for the biosynthesis of target metabolites. Obstacles to bringing medicinal plants into successful commercial cultivation include the difficulty of predicting which extracts will remain marketable and the likely market preference for what is seen as naturally sourced extracts.

  12. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUDASIR DAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

  13. Medicinal plants with antithrombotic property in Persian medicine: a mechanistic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memariani, Zahra; Moeini, Reihaneh; Hamedi, Shokooh Sadat; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2017-11-09

    Thrombosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of vessels diseases. Due to the high prevalence of thromboembolic disorders investigations are being carried out on new antithrombotic agents with limited adverse side effects in which herbal medicines are considered as alternative remedies. Persian medicine (PM) as a traditional medicine has a good potential for pharmacotherapy based on its own principles and development of drugs via investigating PM literature. In PM manuscripts there are some concepts that express the management of blood clots and antithrombotic properties. This study reviewed the pharmacological effects of medicinal plants mentioned in PM literature for blood clot management in light of current knowledge. Plants mentioned in PM for management of blood clot belong to 12 families in which Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Compositae were the most repeated ones. Among the proposed plants Allium sativum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Boswellia serrata, Sesamum indicum, Matricaria chamomilla and Carthamus tinctorius have been the most researched plants in modern antithrombotic studies while for some plants such as Helichrysum stoechas, Dracocephalum kotschi, Carum carvi, Bunium persicum and Lagoecia cuminoides no evidence could be found. One of the interesting notes in clot management in PM texts was introducing the target organ for some of the recommended herbs like Carum carvi and Bunium persicum for dissolving blood clot in stomach and Commiphora mukul for thrombosed hemorrhoid. It seems review of PM recommendations can help to design future researches for antithrombotic drugs discovering with more effectiveness and safety.

  14. Behavioral and biological correlates of medicine use in type 2 diabetic patients attended by Brazilian public healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Sanches Codogno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p82 The relationship between physical activity and the use of medicines is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship between the level of physical activity and the use of medications by type 2 diabetic patients who were attended in the Brazilian public healthcare system. The sample was composed of 121 Brazilian diabetic patients, of both genders, attended by the public healthcare system. Body fat (estimated by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance, physical activity (measured by Baecke’s questionnaire, and the participant’s use of medicines (during the 15 days before evaluation were assessed. There was a relationship between the use of medicines and: gender (r = 0.18; p = 0.045, body mass index (BMI (r = 0.22; p = 0.012, waist circumference (r = 0.19; p = 0.029, body fat percentage (r = 0.21; p = 0.016, age (r = 0.23; p = 0.009, and level of physical activity (r = -0.22; p = 0.012. Linear regression included in the multivariate model only age (β = 0.718; p = 0.057, BMI (β= 0.057; p = 0.022, and level of physical activity (β = -0.176; p = 0.044. In conclusion, physical activity decreases medicinal use independent of age or obesity.

  15. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested.

  16. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts - Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B Suffredini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC = 70 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 90 µg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 µg/ml and MBC = 270 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

  17. Inflammaging and cardiovascular disease: Management by medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayganni, Erfaneh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-10-15

    In aging, a host of molecular and cellular changes occur which accelerate alteration and progression of inflammatory diseases. These conditions in the elderly people cause appearance of a phenomenon which has been denoted as "inflammaging". Understanding the pathogenesis and finding new methods for management of inflammaging are essential. In this paper we tried not only to explain inflammaging and its treatments with concentrating on medical plants but to collect a sufficient collection of anti-inflammatory plants with focusing on their mechanism of action. In this review paper, by searching in indexing cites, desired articles were obtained since 1995 by using keywords of inflammation, inflammaging, inflammation pathophysiology, free radicals and inflammation, aging inflammation, inflammatory disease, and plants or herbal medicine in inflammation. In advanced age the generation of free radicals increases in cardiovascular system. Pathological inflammation is also associated with production of excess free radicals More importantly, chronic inflammation makes aged people susceptible to age-related diseases. Some medicinal plants have been shown promising results in inhibition of inflammaging. Some other sections such as inflammation and inflammaging in cardiovascular diseases, oxidative stress in cardiovascular complications, prevention and treatment strategies are presented. The results of published papers show that the symptoms of several inflammatory diseases can be inhibited or treated by active ingredients from medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  19. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  1. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  2. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  3. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  4. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Syrkin Wurtele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less

  5. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

    1999-05-01

    The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their

  6. A probe into the medicinal potential of Viola canescens – A threatened medicinal plant from Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Sabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. is a perennial herb belonging to family Violaceae, and it is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. This plant is widely used in Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems for curing various ailments, most commonly for cough and cold. Phytochemical studies releaved that this plant is rich in secondary metabolites. This plant revealed significant antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, laxative, analgesic as well as antitumor activities. Due to all these important pharmacological activities, market demand of Viola canescens is increasing day by day and this plant is facing tremendous over exploitation and becomes a threatened plant according to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The present review compiles that the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant need to be conserved.

  7. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge...... about the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of the four plant excipients. The broth dilution antibacterial assay and the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the plants, respectively. Ethanol, warm water and cold....... melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants...

  8. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  9. Medicinal Plants Used in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) as Contraceptive Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Karimpour-Razkenari, Elahe; Saeedi, Mina; Bagheri, Maryam S; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sadati, Narges; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ardekani, Mohammad R S

    In recent years, rapid population growth and unsafe abortions have emerged as controversial health issues in some countries. Hence, safe and effective contraceptive methods or agents have attracted a great deal of attention and the corresponding market has been widely expanded. In this study, we present a review profiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) to introduce expedient plants as efficient contraceptive agents. Medicinal plants suggested as contraceptive agents were obtained from ITM text books and they were also investigated using search engines to confirm their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. According to credible Iranian medical literature a wide spectrum of plants possesses contraceptive activity and among them, Ruta graveolens, Ricinus communis, Piper nigrum, and Physalis alkekengi were found to be more efficient. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), particularly herbal remedies have received a lot of attention because of their truly healing properties. Focusing on ITM knowledge, there are various comments based on medicinal plants to reduce unsafe abortions leading to better public health in the society.

  10. Screening of vasorelaxant activity of some medicinal plants used in Oriental medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming Hao; Kang, Dae Gill; Choi, Deok Ho; Kwon, Tae Oh; Lee, Ho Sub

    2005-05-13

    Hexane, ethylacetate (EtOAC), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of medicinal plants traditionally used in the East Asia, such as China, Korea, and Japan were screened for their vasorelaxant activity using isolated rat aorta. Among the 60 solvent-extracts from 20 medicinal plants, hexane and n-BuOH extracts of Diospyros kaki and Polygonum aviculare, hexane, EtOAC, and n-BuOH extracts of Magnolia liliflora, n-BuOH extract of Sorbus commixta, and EtOAC and n-BuOH extracts of Selaginella tamariscina were found to exhibit distinctive vasorelaxant activity. The activity disappeared by removal of functional endothelium or pre-treatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the medicinal plants relax vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide. These results will be useful to further analyze those medicinal plants that contain the vasorelaxant activity in order to identify the active principles.

  11. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye

    2014-05-06

    A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes

  12. Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants: habits, practices and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Helio Junqueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants reproduces the main typical conditions of developing countries, which it shares with other nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa. These include low per capita consumption rates, the centralization of purchases in a few traditional items, and the concentration of demand on dates and special occasions of the national calendar of celebrations. However, in recent decades, strong growth rates have been observed for this sector, signaling a potent and promising market for producers, wholesalers, retailers, floral designers, landscapists and other professionals working in the floral segment. This article analyzes original quantitative research data applied throughout Brazil, from 2014 to 2016, by the market intelligence firm Hórtica Consultoria and by the Union of the Retail Trade of Flowers and Ornamental Plants of the State of São Paulo (Sindiflores, revealing preferences, habits, practices and tendencies for the consumption of flowers and ornamental plants in Brazil.

  13. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  14. Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos

  15. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  16. Screening Brazilian plant species for in vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F C; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J A; de Oliveira, A B

    2000-01-01

    Plants from the Brazilian flora were evaluated for the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. The species were selected based on their traditional use and on a chemosystematic approach. In total, 19 species belonging to 13 families have been investigated. Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig (Zingiberaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae) presented a high 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Some hypothesis about the nature of the active compounds are discussed, based on reports of the chemical constitution of these species or other species from the same botanical family.

  17. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain

  18. Management, use and ecology of medicinal plants in the degraded dry lands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hizikias, E.B.; Aynekulu, E.; Mekuria, W.; Endale, D.

    2011-01-01

    An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge on the management, use, and ecology of locally important medicinal plants in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected from 250 people, using semi-structured questionnaires, field

  19. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of the Agadir Ida Ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    more than 50 years with a 56 % frequency) have more knowledge in medicinal plants than the other age groups. ... Table 1: List of medicinal plants used in traditional therapy in Agadir Ida Ou Tanane Province. Scientific name ...

  20. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively.

  1. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  2. DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Pan, Zhiqiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-02-01

    Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similarity search. In order to obtain such barcodes, several molecular methods have been applied to develop markers that aid with the authentication and identification of medicinal plant materials. In this review, we discuss the genomic regions and molecular methods selected to provide barcodes, available databases and the potential future of barcoding using next generation sequencing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Sen, A

    1998-09-01

    A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs.

  4. MINERAL PROFILE EVOLUTION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual minerals and antibacterial activity were investigated in 5 medicinal plants (pot marigold - Calendula officinalis, burdock - Arctium lappa, celandine - Chelidonium majus, basil- Ocimum basilicum, thyme - Thymus vulgaris using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS technique and antibiogram  method. The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 12 strains isolated from milk microflora, belonging to Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia and Bacillus genera. The obtained results show the best antibacterial effect with  Arctium lappa ethanol extracts, having inhibition areas of 6.3 to 17.5 mm, with an average of 9.0 mm and the highest determined mineral being Calcium. The results obtained open the prospect of using these medicinal plants as an alternative to be used for the control and cure of some mineral deficiencies or for preventing various diseases of the animals.

  5. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  6. Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  8. Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cañigueral, S

    2001-06-01

    The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity.

  9. Medicinal Plants in Light of History: Recognized Therapeutic Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon

    2014-07-01

    Medicinal plants have an unbelievable history in terms of serving humanity in almost all continents of the world. Traditional healers have transferred that incredible knowledge from generation to generation. Even modernity or cultural revolutions have not altered the in-depth wisdom of this natural medical paradigm. Pharmacological rationale in light of traditional uses followed by phytochemical studies could surely bring a new revolution in the treatment of diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer.

  11. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species......, but that when using these new species they have maintained other traditions relating to medicinal plants....

  12. Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ameen

    ethnopharmacology revealed several of these medicinal plants with potential to treat snake bite. This work was designed to document medicinal plants used by Fulani herdsmen in Taraba State, Nigeria, for the treatment of snake bites. Information provided will enable further study on the efficacy of the medicinal plants so ...

  13. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the ...

  14. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Rehman, Shakila; Gul, Shehnaz; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Zaman, Bakht; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Jacobo-Herrera, Frida E; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Cancer cases numbers are increasing worldwide positioning this disease as the second cause of mortality for both sexes. Medicinal plants have been used in the fight against cancer as the basis for drug discovery and nowadays more than 70% of anticancer drugs have a natural origin. Mexico is regarded for its cultural and biological diversity, which is reflected in the vast traditional knowledge of herbal remedies. In this review we examined herbal remedies employed in colorectal cancer treatment (CRC). The goal of this work was to gather scientific reports of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for CRC treatment. We performed a search on scientific literature databases using as keywords: "colon cancer", "gastric cancer", "cytotoxicity", studies "in vitro and in vivo", in combination with "Mexican medicinal plants" or "Mexican herbal remedies". The selection criteria of cytotoxic activity for extracts or pure compounds was based on the National Cancer Institute of USA recommendations of effective dose 50 (ED50) of ≤20μg/mL and ≤4μg/mL, respectively. In this review we report 25 botanic families and 39 species of plants used for the treatment of colon cancer in Mexico with evidence in studies in vitro and in vivo. Medicinal plants are still a great source of novel chemical structures with antineoplastic potential as it is proven in this work. The selection criteria and activity was narrowed for methodological purposes, nevertheless, drug discovery of natural origin continues to be a highly attractive R&D strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Mirab-Badwacho district, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamru Temam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants was conducted in Mirab-Badawacho District of Ethiopia. Sixty traditional healers participated in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, guided field walks and key informant interviews. Voucher specimens of the medicinal plants were collected during guided field walks. Ethnobotanical techniques such as informant consensus factor (ICF and preference ranking were used to analyse the data. A total of 57 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families were recorded. The most commonly used plant families include Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Brassicaceae. Medicinal plants were mostly collected from the wild habitats. Herbs accounted for the lion's share of the medicinal plants. The medicinal plants of the study site were used to treat 31 ailments. About 42% of the plants were used to treat stomach ache, diarrhea and intestinal worms. Leaves (41% and roots (20.3% were the most frequently used medicinal plant parts. Flowers were least used plant parts for medicinal purpose. Routes of administration of the traditional remedies were mouth, skin, nose and eye. The study area has considerable diversity of medicinal plants. However, expansion of agricultural land, over grazing and deforestation are major threats to the medicinal plants. Hence, proper conservation measures need to be practiced for sustainability of the medicinal plants.

  17. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria O; Almeida, Bianca V DE; Ribeiro, Daiany A; Macêdo, Delmacia G DE; Macêdo, Márcia J F; Macedo, Julimery G F; Sousa, Francisca F S DE; Oliveira, Liana G S DE; Saraiva, Manuele E; Araújo, Thatiane M S; Souza, Marta M A

    2017-01-01

    Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a "Caatinga" area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the "snowball" technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  18. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil

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    MARIA O. SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a “Caatinga” area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the “snowball” technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  19. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants Propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro

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    Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.A atividade antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de folhas de Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis e Lafoensia pacari sobre isolados de dermatófitos foi verificada. Os extratos mais ativos foram os de H. ovalifolia e E. uniflora, enquanto que Trichophyton rubrum foi o dermatófito mais sensível a ação das plantas. Estes dados demonstram as propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado em ensaios in vitro.

  20. VALIDATION AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF SUCCULENT PLANT PARTS - OPENING OF A NEW HORIZON OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of use of plants for medicinal purposes is very old. In the ancient civilizations, the crude plant parts were mostly used in such purposes. In the ongoing research, solvent extracted parts of the plants are validated for their reported efficacy with an intention to identify the active principles for production of those at a large scale to use them commercially as medicines. This contemporary method may be added with validation of reported medicinal plants at their fresh, succulent form with all the available principles within them. The validated medicinal plants may be used in many purposes after performing studies related with toxicity, dose etc. Organic animal farms may be created by using fresh inputs of the added medicinal plant garden, replacing the inorganic medicines. Commercialization of succulent medicinal plant part extracts may be performed by export oriented agro-medicine business with the assistance of different cooling systems.

  1. Plant phenology, resource seasonality and climate change in a Brazilian cerrado savanna

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    Gutierrez de Camargo, Maria Gabriela; de Camargo Guaraldo, André; Reys, Paula; Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor

    2010-05-01

    Plant phenology, the study of recurring events and its relationship to climate, contributes with key information for the understanding of forest dynamics and plant resource availability to the fauna. Plant reproduction and growth are affected by proximate factors such as precipitation, temperature and photoperiod, ecological factors such as plant-animal interaction, for instance pollination and seed dispersal, and by phylogeny. Therefore, phenological changes may have enormous consequences for both, plants and animals depending upon the periodical availability of plant resources. The Brazilian tropical savannas, the cerrado, is a highly diverse vegetation with around 70% of the woody flora relaying on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. We consider the cerrado savanna a good model to investigate shifts on tropical phenology and climate change. This vegetation presents a very seasonal phenology shaped by the climate characterized by the alternation of a hot, wet season and a dry, cooler one. The onset of leafing, flowering and fruiting is defined by the duration and intensity of the dry season, and changes on precipitation patterns and dryness may likely affect the plant species reproductive pattern as well as the resource availability to the fauna. In that context, we are carrying out a long-term project to investigate the phenology of growth and reproduction of a cerrado savanna woody community in Southeastern Brazil. Our aim is to understand the cerrado savanna long-term phenological patterns, its relationship to local climate, and whether phenological shifts over time may occur due to variations on climate. We are collecting data on crop size, species abundance and fruit consumption by birds to understand the fruit-frugivore network. Additionally, analyses are underway to explore the relationship among fruit season, fruit production, color and nutritional contents, and the activity of frugivores. Our final goal is to verify at which extension

  2. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

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    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  3. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  4. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan.

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    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Yeshi, Karma; Jamphel, Kinga

    2017-12-01

    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List, eFloras, and TROPICOS. Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100-1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block) hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations.

  5. In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Donfack J; Céline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-07-01

    Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.78±5.05 and 96.08±4.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.91±6.49 and 86.13±4.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

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    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Use of medicinal plants by primary care elderly

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    Laura Ligiana Dias Szerwieski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our study objective was to verify the use of medicinal plants by elderly users of the primary care. The study has a cross-sectional, correlational, analytical and descriptive design with a quantitative approach. It was carried out in the west of Paraná state, in 2016. We applied 252 questionnaires with socio-demographic information and questions about the use of medicinal plants. Our results showed that 72.22% of elderly use plants, and of the most cited ones, Peppermint, Lemon Grass, Boldo and Rosemary were noteworthy. Elderly report to use them because they are better for healing, they prefer them, and it does not harm. There was disagreement regarding the recommendations, where 36.81% does not recommend them for fear to cause harm. About toxicity, they reported adverse events that are not found in the scientific literature. We highlight the importance of a correct guidance regarding the toxicity of some plants, as well as their benefits, and the importance of the nurse in this context acting as a health promoter.

  8. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR.

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    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.

  9. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

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    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial

  10. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine.

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    Tandon, Neeraj; Yadav, Satyapal Singh

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants belong to the oldest known health care products that have been used by human beings all over the world and are major components of the formulations used in indigenous system of medicine practiced in many countries. Besides, finding place as health supplements, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal tea etc. there has been a global insurgence of interest, including India, leading to enormous research/activities in the area of medicinal plants. The article is aimed to provide the effort and initiatives of ICMR towards research on medicinal plants and its contributions on consolidation of Indian research on medicinal plants that are very relevant and important in the national context. The various initiatives undertaken by ICMR on research on traditional medicines/medicinal plants in the past are reviewed and documented in this article. The multi-disciplinary, multicentric research initiatives of ICMR have resulted in validation of traditional treatment Kshaarasootra (medicated Ayurvedic thread) for anal fistula, Vijayasar (heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) for diabetes mellitus, encouraging micro- and macrofilaricidal activity of Shakotak (stem bark of Streblus asper Lour.) in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis. Other developmental and compilation of research works on Indian medicinal plants have resulted in publications of the thirteen volumes of quality standards, comprising of 449 Indian medicinal plants; three volumes of 90 phytochemical reference standards; fifteen volumes of review monographs on 4167 medicinal plant species; and one publication each on perspectives of Indian medicinal plants for management of liver disorders, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes mellitus (details available at http://www.icmr.nic.in/mpsite). The ICMR efforts assume special significance in the light of multifaceted use of medicinal plants

  11. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

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    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  12. Studies with Cissampelos sympodialis: the search towards the scientific validation of a traditional Brazilian medicine used for the treatment of asthma

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    Aline C. Cavalcanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the literature on the ethnobotanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the species Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, in order to assess its potential for the treatment of asthma. The aqueous infusion from the leaves of this Brazilian plant is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory conditions, including colds, bronchitis and asthma. A multidisciplinary approach has led to the elucidation of the main chemical biomarkers and of the mechanism of action of the extract and its isolated constituents in animal models of inflammation and asthma. A comprehensive review of the literature on the species and its related chemical constituents was conducted using Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Lilacs, SciFinder, as well as conference proceedings. Retrieved literature data demonstrates that the aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract from the leaves exerts an immunomodulatory activity in different animal models of asthma. This include an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, a decrease in the production of antigen-specific immunoglobulin, a decrease in mucus production and deposition in the airways, and a direct bronchodilator activity. These preclinical results clearly demonstrate the potential of this species for the treatment of asthma and points to the need for well-designed clinical trials to finally validate the traditional use of this herbal medicine.

  13. Studies with Cissampelos sympodialis: the search towards the scientific validation of a traditional Brazilian medicine used for the treatment of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline C. Cavalcanti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the literature on the ethnobotanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the species Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, in order to assess its potential for the treatment of asthma. The aqueous infusion from the leaves of this Brazilian plant is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory conditions, including colds, bronchitis and asthma. A multidisciplinary approach has led to the elucidation of the main chemical biomarkers and of the mechanism of action of the extract and its isolated constituents in animal models of inflammation and asthma. A comprehensive review of the literature on the species and its related chemical constituents was conducted using Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Lilacs, SciFinder, as well as conference proceedings. Retrieved literature data demonstrates that the aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract from the leaves exerts an immunomodulatory activity in different animal models of asthma. This include an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, a decrease in the production of antigen-specific immunoglobulin, a decrease in mucus production and deposition in the airways, and a direct bronchodilator activity. These preclinical results clearly demonstrate the potential of this species for the treatment of asthma and points to the need for well-designed clinical trials to finally validate the traditional use of this herbal medicine.

  14. Lythrum salicaria L.-Underestimated medicinal plant from European traditional medicine. A review.

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    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-07-21

    Purple loosestrife-Lythrum salicaria L. is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Lythraceae family. It has been used for centuries in European traditional medicine. Despite Lythri herba being a pharmacopoeial plant material (Ph. Eur.), L. salicaria popularity as a medicinal plant has recently declined. The aim of the paper is to recall a traditional and historical use of L. salicaria and juxtapose it with comprehensive view on the current knowledge about its chemical composition and documented biological activities in order to bring back the interest into this valuable plant and indicate reasonable directions of future research and possible applications. Systematic survey of historical and ethnopharmacological literature was carried out using sources of European and American libraries. Pharmacological and phytochemical literature research was performed using Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Reaxys databases. The review of historical sources from ancient times till 20th century revealed an outstanding position of L. salicaria in traditional medicine. The main applications indicated were gastrointestinal tract ailments (mainly dysentery and diarrhea) as well as different skin and mucosa affections. The current phytochemical studies have shown that polyphenols (C-glucosidic ellagitannins and C-glucosidic flavonoids) as well as heteropolysaccharides are dominating constituents, which probably determine the observed pharmacological effects. The extracts and some isolated compounds were shown to possess antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. The intrinsic literature overview conclusively demonstrates that L. salicaria L. used to be considered as an exceptionally effective remedy in European traditional medicine. Despite its unquestionable important position from unknown reasons its popularity has been weakened during the past few decades. Unfortunately the contemporary pharmacological research is still

  15. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-01-15

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius.

  16. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, A

    2000-06-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

  17. Ethno veterinary uses of medicinal plants of district Karak, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Noor Saeed; Nouroz, Faisal; Inayat Ur Rahman; Noreen, Shumaila

    2015-08-02

    In the study area, the traditional knowledge regarding the uses of local wild medicinal plants for treating diseases of domestic animals and birds is totally in the custody of elders of the existing community. The young ones are not much aware about such important practices. The main aim of the study was to document and to release this knowledge from the custody of elders and share with the community. Total 115 people between 20 and 80 years of age were interviewed and information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the use value (UV) formula. The collected specimens were pressed, dried, preserved, mounted on Herbarium sheets, identified properly and were submitted in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. With the co-ordination and cooperation of the local people, 46 plant species of 42 genera belonging to 31 families were collected, 3 were monocotyledons while 43 plant species belonged to dicotyledonae class. Considering taxonomic characteristics, it was confirmed that 12 trees, 10 shrubs and 22 herbs were commonly used by the local people in ethno veterinary practices. Two plants like Cistanche tubulosa and Cuscuta reflexa from family Orobanchaceae and family Cuscutaceae respectively lack chlorophyll and are parasites on host plants like Doedonia, Ziziphus, Calligonum and Calotropis. The powder of both plants showed great ethno veterinary value. The parts of 46 plant species commonly used for ethno veterinary practices were whole plants (32.60%), leaves (26.08%), fruits (17.39%), stems (13.04%) and roots (10.86%). Medicinal plants were administered through various routes i.e. oral (78.26%), skin (17.21%) and smoke (4.34%). The traditional knowledge of local plants of ethno veterinary values is mainly possessed by elders and transmitted from generation to generation with chances of elimination of such traditional knowledge due to less awareness. The present

  18. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  19. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  20. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources.

  1. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  3. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  4. Liver tonics: review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Akbarzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that liver is one of the most important organs in our body, it deserves special attention and protection. Among various recommended supplements, complementary and alternative medicines particularly herbal remedies have received much attention owing to their truly healing properties. This review profits from Iranian traditional medicine and presents advantageous herbal guide directions for liver protection. According to credible Iranian medical literature such as Al Qanun Fil Tibb, Al-Havi and Makhzan-al-Aadvia, a wide spectrum of plants have been found to be useful for cleansing and protecting the liver. Some herbs such as ghafes (Agrimonia eupatoria, kasni (Cichorium intybus, anar (Punica granatum, darchin (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, za'feran (Crocus sativus, gole-sorkh (Rosa damascena and zereshk (Berberis vulgaris appeared to get strong consideration and were well documented as outstanding liver tonics. We conducted a comprehensive review of available Iranian medical resources such as scientific information database and medical sciences databases which cover all in vitro and in vivo studies of medicinal plants as liver tonics and hepatoprotective candidates. Literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, and Google Scholar.

  5. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  6. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  7. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL(-1) and 107-1038 µmol L(-1), respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  8. Anti-hemorrhoidal plants in Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehdari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemorrhoidal disease is a prevalent anorectal condition that is explained as the symptomatic expansions and displacements of the normal hemorrhoidal cushions. Symptomatic hemorrhoids affect more than one million individuals in the western world every year. Hemorrhoids is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM. Avicenna and other Iranian traditional practitioners have exactly defined this condition in their manuscripts and herbal therapy was the main treatment that was recommended. In the present study, medicinal plants with hemorrhoids healing properties in ITM have been investigated. Method: ITM  textbooks including “Al Qanun fi al-tibb (Canon of medicine”, “Al-Havi (Liber continent”, “Alabnie an haghaegh ol advieh (the Book of remedies”, “Al-jami li-mufradat al-adviya va al-aghziya”, “Ikhtiyarat‑e‑ badiyee”, “Tohfat-ol-momenin” and “Makhzan ol advieh  were searched to find the most used herbs. Results: Some of obtained plants such as Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks Engl., Phyllantus emblica L. and Aloe vera (L. Burm.f.,were the most used herbs. Conclusion: these plants could be introduced as the good resources for future studies in order to produce novel drugs.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  10. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  11. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-04-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Wesam; Farokhipour, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Zahra; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and plenty of medical plants are used in traditional medicines to treat diabetes. These plants have no side effects and many existing medicines are derived from the plants. The purpose of this systematic review is to study diabetes and to summarize the available treatments for this disease, focusing especially on herbal medicine. Methods Required papers about diabetes and effective plants were searched from the databases, including Science...

  13. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  14. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  15. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  16. Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of δ-hemolysin. Quantification of δ-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of δ-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of δ-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

  18. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  19. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehrnoosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Asgary, Sedigheh; Beyranvand, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications. PMID:28461816

  20. Medicinal Plants, Effective Plant Compounds (Compositions) and their Effects on Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Elahe; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Beigrezaei, Sara; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.

  1. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives. This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia. An effort was made to establish a correspondence between the local "emic" terms of traditional medicine and the symptoms or diseases known by conventional medicine ("etic" terms). The ultimate goal was to gain insights to suggest further pharmacological studies with the local resources. Fieldwork was guided by methods of anthropology, botany and zoology-with the assistance of a doctor-among the traditional healing experts in Jaú National Park (during 199 days in 1995) and Unini River Extractive Reserve (210 days from 2008 to 2012). Fifty-nine healers of different kinds were interviewed: a prayer-maker, medium, natural resource expert, massage therapist, midwife and snakebite healer. The clinical manifestations and healing resources of the following CBS were collected: "mau olhado" (evil eye), "quebrante" (chipping); "espante" (fright or susto); "doença do ar" (air diseases); "vento caído" (fallen wind); "derrame" (leakage); "mãe do corpo" (mother of the body) and "panema" (unlucky). The first three seem to be local variations of other CBSs already described in Latin America. "doença do ar", "vento caído", "derrame" and "mãe do corpo" seem to be folk terms for known conventional medical disorders, while "panema" is a yet undescribed Brazilian CBS that is possibly related to dysthymic disorder or depression and deserves further investigation. Treatments included prayer rituals, fumigation, baths and oral remedies using 25 plants and 10 animals. It was possible to establish

  2. Medicinal plants used in Chile for the treatment of hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... active principles contained in the medicinal plants, and the study of the physiological mechanisms underlying such activity, i.e. calcium antagonists and others. Keywords: Chilean medicinal plants, mountain sickness, arterial hypertension, Chile African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines Vol.

  3. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  4. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  5. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phurpa Wangchuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. Methods: We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List, eFloras, and TROPICOS. Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. Results: We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100–1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Conclusion: Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations. Keywords: Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine, ethnobotany, Lower Kheng, medicinal plants, pharmacological activities

  6. Cultural significance of medicinal plant families and species among Quechua farmers in Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Vandebroek, Ina; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-02-25

    Medicinal plant use was investigated in Apillapampa, a community of subsistence farmers located in the semi-arid Bolivian Andes. The main objectives were to identify the culturally most significant medicinal plant families and species in Apillapampa. A total of 341 medicinal plant species was inventoried during guided fieldtrips and transect sampling. Data on medicinal uses were obtained from fifteen local Quechua participants, eight of them being traditional healers. Contingency table and binomial analyses of medicinal plants used versus the total number of inventoried species per family showed that Solanaceae is significantly overused in traditional medicine, whereas Poaceae is underused. Also plants with a shrubby habitat are significantly overrepresented in the medicinal plant inventory, which most likely relates to their year-round availability to people as compared to most annual plants that disappear in the dry season. Our ranking of medicinal species according to cultural importance is based upon the Quality Use Agreement Value (QUAV) index we developed. This index takes into account (1) the average number of medicinal uses reported for each plant species by participants; (2) the perceived quality of those medicinal uses; and (3) participant consensus. According to the results, the QUAV index provides an easily derived and valid appraisal of a medicinal plant's cultural significance.

  7. Screening of antibacterial extracts from plants native to the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini I.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 20% of the world's biodiversity is located in Brazilian forests and only a few plant extracts have been evaluated for potential antibacterial activity. In the present study, 705 organic and aqueous extracts of plants obtained from different Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 100 µg/ml, using a microdilution broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. One extract, VO581, was active against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 140 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 160 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems and two extracts were active against E. faecalis, SM053 (MIC = 80 µg/ml and MBC = 90 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from aerial parts, and MY841 (MIC = 30 µg/ml and MBC = 50 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems. The most active fractions are being fractionated to identify their active substances. Higher concentrations of other extracts are currently being evaluated against the same microorganisms.

  8. Useful Brazilian plants listed in the field books of the French naturalist Auguste de Saint-Hilaire (1779-1853).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Maria G L; Pignal, Marc; Romaniuc, Sergio; Grael, Cristiane F F; Fagg, Christopher W

    2012-09-28

    Information regarding the use of beneficial, native Brazilian plants was compiled by European naturalists in the 19th century. The French botanist Auguste de Saint-Hilaire (1779-1853) was one of the most important such naturalists; however, his manuscripts (field books) have not yet been studied, especially in the context of useful plants. To present data documented by Saint-Hilaire in his field book regarding the use of native plants by the Brazilians. Data on useful plants were obtained from field books (six volumes) deposited in the Muséum national d' Histoire naturelle in Paris, France. The vernacular names of the plants, registered as "N.V." or "Nom Vulg." in the field book, were carefully searched. Traditional information about these plants was translated and organised using a computer. The botanical identification of each plant was determined and updated from the original descriptions and names cited in the field books by A. de Saint-Hilaire. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from PubMed. A total of 283 useful plants were recorded from the field books and 165 (58.3%) could be identified to genus or species. Fifty-eight different traditional uses were registered for the identified plants; the most common were as purgatives and febrifuges. Other data recovered were related to edible fruits and plants with interesting sensorial characteristics. For the few species that have been subjected to laboratory studies, the efficacy of the recorded traditional uses was confirmed. The data recorded by the French naturalist A. de Saint-Hilaire represent a rich, unexplored source of information regarding the traditional uses of Brazilian plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2012-10-31

    This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

  10. Wound Healing Properties of Selected Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Marume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have arrays of phytoconstituents that have wide ranging biological effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties key in wound management. In vivo wound healing properties of ointments made of crude methanolic extracts (10% extract w/w in white soft paraffin of three plant species, Cissus quadrangularis L. (whole aerial plant parts, Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch (whole aerial plant parts and Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. (leaves and bark used in ethnoveterinary medicine were evaluated on BALB/c female mice based on wound area changes, regular observations, healing skin's percentage crude protein content and histological examinations. White soft paraffin and 3% oxytetracycline ointment were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Wound area changes over a 15 day period for mice treated with C. quadrangularis and A. multiflorum extract ointments were comparable to those of the positive control (oxytetracycline ointment. Wounds managed with the same extract ointments exhibited high crude protein contents, similar to what was observed on animals treated with the positive control. Histological evaluations revealed that C. quadrangularis had superior wound healing properties with the wound area completely returning to normal skin structure by day 15 of the experiment. E. abyssinica leaf and bark extract ointments exhibited lower wound healing properties though the leaf extract exhibited some modest healing properties.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and medicinal plants-a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Surya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders sharing the common underlying feature of hyperglycemia. Along with hyperglycemia, diabetes is associated with micro and macro-vascular complications, which are the major causes of morbidity and death in diabetic subjects. The currently available antidiabetic agents include sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones and alpha glucosidase inhibitors and are widely used to control the hyperglycemia. These drugs fail significantly to alter the course of diabetic complications. They have limited use because of undesirable pathological conditions and high rates of secondary failure. Thus, it is essential to look for more effective antidiabetic agents with fewer side effects. Traditional medicinal plants having antidiabetic properties can be a useful source for the development of safer and effective oral hypoglycemic agents. More than 350 traditional plants are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which have been recorded. Only a small number of these have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. However, plant remedies are the mainstream of treatment in underdeveloped regions. This review focuses on diabetes mellitus and the role of plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Comparative study of heavy metals in some selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chigbogu MADUBUIKE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like Pb, Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ca, Mg, and Mn were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such Asam paya, Okoubaka aubrevellei, Clove and Vitex doniana leaves by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The results showed differences in metal concentrations in the investigated medicinal plants. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.05 -0.29mg/kg on dry wet basis, where as that of Co ranged from 0.04-0.05mg/kg. Fe concentration ranged from 0.11-0.52mg/kg, Zn from 0.03-0.48mg/kg, Cu from 0.32-0.98mg/kg, Cd from 0.30-0.46mg/kg, Cr from 0.02-0.09mg/kg, Ca from 0.21-0.81mg/kg, Mg from 0.12-1.40mg/kg, while Mn from 0.02-0.95 mg/kg respectively. The results indicated that all the investigated heavy metals were below the WHO permissible limit except in Okoubaka sample which showed higher concentration of Mg that is above permissible limit of WHO.

  14. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  16. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O.; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or “memes”), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  17. AN EXPLORATION OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF BRAZILIAN PUBLICATIONS IN INDEXED JOURNALS ON HOMEOPATHY AND HIGH DILUTIONS APPLIED IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyse SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns about toxicity residues in agricultural products have stimulated an increased interest in new agricultural strategies. While considering new strategies, the question arises if homeopathic preparations could be of use in plants. Homeopathy was born as an experimental discipline, and, generally, plants are able to react to homeopathic substances. In this paper, we conduct an up-to-date review of the existing in literature on Brazilian basic research in homeopathy applied in plants and agroecosystems to raise the profiles of Brazilian publications, according QUALIS methods and H index of Journals. The results of this research are useful not only for those who are interested in the homeopathy itself, but also to analyze the expanding that through experiments attending mainly agroecological production, aimed at improving on the level of publications.

  18. Use of Traditional Medicinal Plants by People of 'Boosat' Sub District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: Fifty-two medicinal plant species were documented, which are used to treat 43 human diseases. The category of medicinal plant species includes shrubs (46%), herbs (25%), trees (19%), climbers (8%) and hemi parasites (2%). Roots (38%) and leaves (23%) are the most frequently used plant parts. The method ...

  19. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wulandari, Lestyo; Retnaningtyas, Yuni; Nuri; Lukman, Hilmia

    2016-01-01

    ... [1]. Research of Indonesian medicinal plants using modern laboratory facilities has been started since 1970, but only about 200 plants were studied. This figure shows a very small portion of the overall number of medicinal plant species that were reported [2]. Therefore, the analysis of chemical constituents would help in determining various biolog...

  20. Medicinal Plants Used as Home Remedies: A Family Survey by First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plants Used as Home Remedies: A Family Survey by First Year Medical Students. ... Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Conclusion: Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use.

  1. OCCURRENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KERALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants. PMID:22557224

  2. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder-cure” concoction used in Nigeria unorthodox medicine for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patients sputum.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol leaf extracts of Cameroonian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafoua, Yves Marcel; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Tume, Christopher; Kamtchueng, Monique Odette; Kuiate, Jules-Roger

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have been used for centuries and have become part of complementary medicine worldwide because of their health benefits. Some have been successfully used directly in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases or indirectly by stimulating the immune system. In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts of Adenocarpus mannii, Caucalis melanantha, Ocimum gratissimum, Asystasia intrusa and Clematis chinensis leaves was investigated. The extracts were prepared by maceration of dry leaves' powder in methanol. Phytochemical analysis was carried out by chemical reaction methods. The activity of plant extracts was evaluated in in vitro cell cultures by measuring their effect on nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages, the proliferation of lymphocytes and the cytotoxic effect on macrophages. The A. mannii extract was further evaluated at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight in mice for the stimulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and the ability to reverse the myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. All the extract inhibited nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages, the highest activity was achieved with C. chinensis extract. However, these extracts did not significantly affect the viability of macrophages. A. mannii, A. intrusa and C. chinensis extracts exhibited stimulatory activity on peripheral blood lymphocytes, whereas C. melanantha and O. gratissimum extracts displayed inhibitory activity. In vivo, the A. mannii extract significantly increased the DTH reaction in mice from 50 mg/kg. This extract also showed a significant increase in the white blood cells and relative weight of the spleen and liver. These results suggest that the A. mannii, C. melanantha, O. gratissimum, A. intrusa and C. chinensis methanol extracts possess immunomodulatory activity. This constitutes additional data on the well-known biological properties of these plants.

  4. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  5. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor properties of Moroccan medicinal plants: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic and medicinal plants have been traditionally used since antiquity to fight against illnesses. Recently, several researches have focused on the pharmacological properties and various bioactivities of natural products are extracted from medicinal plants, including the properties of antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. The products of medicinal plants are the secondary metabolites belonging to different compound classes such as essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids and other phytochemical classes. In Morocco, medicinal plants are the major source of bioactive compounds and the majority of them are used in phytotherapy. The biological potential of various Moroccan medicinal plants attracts a lot of interest in the literature. They include antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor investigations. In this context, this work aims at discussing antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant properties of Moroccan medicinal plants.

  6. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  7. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

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    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  9. Creation of reference DNA barcode library and authentication of medicinal plant raw drugs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Nithaniyal, Stalin; Raju, Balaji; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that originated in ancient India, and it is still in practice. Medicinal plants are the backbone of Ayurveda, which heavily relies on the plant-derived therapeutics. While Ayurveda is becoming more popular in several countries throughout the World, lack of authenticated medicinal plant raw drugs is a growing concern. Our aim was to DNA barcode the medicinal plants that are listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) to create a reference DNA barcode library, and to use the same to authenticate the raw drugs that are sold in markets. We have DNA barcoded 347 medicinal plants using rbcL marker, and curated rbcL DNA barcodes for 27 medicinal plants from public databases. These sequences were used to create Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL). This library was used to authenticate 100 medicinal plant raw drugs, which were in the form of powders (82) and seeds (18). Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL) was created with high quality and authentic rbcL barcodes for 374 out of the 395 medicinal plants that are included in the API. The rbcL DNA barcode differentiated 319 species (85 %) with the pairwise divergence ranging between 0.2 and 29.9 %. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing success rate of rbcL marker was 100 % even for the poorly preserved medicinal plant raw drugs that were collected from local markets. DNA barcoding revealed that only 79 % raw drugs were authentic, and the remaining 21 % samples were adulterated. Further, adulteration was found to be much higher with powders (ca. 25 %) when compared to seeds (ca. 5 %). The present study demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in authenticating medicinal plant raw drugs, and found that approximately one fifth of the market samples were adulterated. Powdered raw drugs, which are very difficult to be identified by taxonomists as well as common people, seem to be the easy

  10. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lestyo Wulandari; Yuni Retnaningtyas; Nuri; Hilmia Lukman

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis ...

  11. STUDY OF SOME ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL PLANTS OF TENDUKHEDA, DISTRICT NARSINGHPUR, MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIL BALA SANGHI

    2014-01-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine was carried out in Tendukheda, district Narsinghpur, Madhya Pradesh with the cooperation of Vaidyas and elderly farmers. Being a remote area, any type of modern healthcare facility is not present here and the poverty of indigenous people makes them completely dependent on the local ethnic medicinal plants for the health of their domestic animals. The study focuses on local medical plants with ethno-veterinary uses. In this paper, 17 pla...

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  13. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sghir Taleb

    2017-01-01

    Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are...

  14. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural radionuclides (226Ra and40K) in selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Phonchanthuek, Endu; Prasandee, Kamonkhuan

    2018-04-01

    A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40 K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg -1 dry weight (DW) and 2.0 (1.4), respectively, than 226 Ra, which had the activity concentrations and TFs of 4.8 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 DW and 0.17 (1.8), respectively. The results also showed that the leaves of medicinal plants had higher activity concentrations and TFs than root and flower parts, probably due to higher metabolic activities in leaves. Furthermore, there was good agreement between the results from the current work and other similar reports on medicinal plants. The information obtained from this work could strengthen knowledge of natural radionuclides in plants and particularly increase available TF data on Thai medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures

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    Howard Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

  16. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Wedelia calendulacea Less. an endangered medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shamima Akhtar Sharmin; Md. Jahangir Alam; Md. Mominul Islam Sheikh; Kanak Kanti Sarker; Muhammad Khalekuzzaman; Md. Anwarul Haque; Mohammad Firoz Alam; Iftekhar Alam

    2014-01-01

    In this work, plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was achieved from leaf and internode derived callus of Wedelia calendulacea, an endangered medicinal plant. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf disc and internode explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 of 2,4-D under light condition. Transfer of embryogenic callus on a reduced concentration of 2,4-D facilitated somatic embryo development while calluses remained unorganized at the same 2,4-D level. ...

  17. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

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    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from medicinal honeysuckle plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Huiru; Sun Xinchen; Xu Chunping

    2016-01-01

    .... An endophytic fungus was isolated from honeysuckle, an important Chinese medicinal plant. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolated strain JY2corresponded to Fusarium sp...

  19. THE DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS ENCOUNTRED IN NATURA 2000 6520 HABITAT FROM GURGHIU MOUNTAINS

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    Silvia OROIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches on medicinal plants used in various human disorders are particularly important and timely, as an alternative to medication. The studied semi-natural mountainous grasslands occur in the Gurghiu mountains. Special interest today worldwide for herbal medicine has led us to study the Gurghiu Mountains medicinal plants used in various diseases. In order to identify the taxa we used classical methods, described in the literature and statistical analyze was also carried out. In the study area 2 plant associations rich in medicinal plants were identified. They belong to 6520 Mountain hay meadows habitat.

  20. Medicinal plant use in Vanuatu: a comparative ethnobotanical study of three islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradacs, Gesine; Heilmann, Jörg; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2011-09-01

    Our study shows that large parts of Vanuatu's medicinal flora remain unexplored and that a high variability of medicinal plant knowledge between islands exists. The following questions are comparatively analyzed for three islands of Vanuatu: who are the medicinal plant specialists and how important is their knowledge today? Which plants are used to treat common diseases? On Loh, Ambrym and Aneityum plant related information was collected using semi-structured interviews, transect walks and participant observation. A total of 29 medicinal plant specialists were interviewed. Medicinal plant specialists are either peasants or people with a high rank in the local social system such as members of the chief's family or priests. Their knowledge may be very broad (Loh, Aneityum) or specialized on specific diseases (Ambrym). Medicinal plant knowledge is transmitted family and gender specific (Loh) or gender and family independent (Ambrym and Aneityum). Overall, 133 medicinal plant species were documented of which 117 are new to Vanuatu's ethnopharmacopoeia. Mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae, followed by Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae and Zingiberaceae are utilized. The majority of documented species are trees (33%), followed by herbs (22%) and shrubs (21%). Leaves accounted for the highest number of use reports (43%). The highest diversity of medicinal plants is found for the most common diseases such as skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory system and urogenital system diseases. Only a small overlap of taxa between the islands was found. The biocultural diversity of Vanuatu is reflected in the variability of medicinal plant knowledge and differences in the traditional medicinal system between the three islands investigated. Traditional medicine is more vital on remote islands. The better connected the islands are to the main city, the more dominant western medicine becomes and traditional medicine mainly remains to treat illnesses with a magical origin