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Sample records for brazilian mammalogy trends

  1. An overview of Brazilian mammalogy: trends, biases and future directions

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    Daniel Brito

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammals are among the most charismatic and well-studied organisms, and Brazil harbors the largest mammal diversity of the world. The Brazilian Society of Mammalogy was established in 1985, and since 2001 it organizes the Brazilian Congress of Mammalogy. We used the proceedings of all three editions of this congress together with papers indexed in Web of Science and Scielo to evaluate trends in Brazilian mammalogy. All contributions were categorized according to mammalian order, biome, topic of research and state of authors' affiliation. Our results show that mammalian orders with higher species richness receive more attention, but the ranking is different between abstracts and papers. Higher species richness did not translate into more attention for more speciose biomes, and again the ranking was different between papers and abstracts. There are research topics that receive much higher attention than others, and also other important ones, like Taxonomy, that have been neglected. States with greater human populations produce both more papers and abstracts. We conclude that the higher number of publication in the Atlantic Forest is caused by the concentration of mammalogists in the south and southeastern regions of the country. Contrary to what is normally believed, mammalian orders received attention according to their species richness, and not their charisma, probably because richer orders provide more study models. We suggest that additional funding mechanisms should be set in place in order to encourage more research on mammalian orders, topics, and states which have been neglected so far, in order to improve the knowledge on important Brazilian mammal biodiversity.

  2. Support for Society for Marine Mammalogy 2015 Biennial Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT Support for Society for Marine Mammalogy 2015...Marrine Mammalogy , which addressed the long term goal above by: o Facilitating exchange of information amongst internationally recognized experts by... research capacity by enabling their attendance at workshops, talks and poster sessions. o Production of online documents from workshop and conference

  3. Influences on the selection of content in mammalogy courses: A quantitative and qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, James R.

    course content. The interviewees indicated interaction with other instructors was centered on research interests. An effort should be made to involve the American Society of Mammalogists in the teaching of mammalogy. Instructors should be aware of the role they play in the professional development of future marnmalogy instructors. Other upper-level undergraduate organismal courses should be researched to determine differences and this study should be repeated at regular intervals to gauge trends.

  4. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    in the Brazilian seafaring labor market, it is relevant to research the interaction between various factors that can provide insights regarding the nature of this distinct labor sector. This paper explores the economic indicators that can possibly influence the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market...... regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...

  5. Recent trends in Brazilian Historical Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rosa Virgínia Mattos e

    1999-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the new directions taken by Historical Linguistics in Brazil, which gives special attention to Brazilian Portuguese, studying dialectal and sociolinguistic aspects. A special reference is made to projects that bring together researchers from several universities in the country.

  6. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

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    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  7. Smoking trend indicators in Brazilian capitals, 2006-2013

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the trend of indicators related to smoking in the capitals of Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Information on smoking trends extracted from the survey of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are analyzed through telephone interviews - VIGITEL conducted from 2006-2013 for the adult population in Brazilian capitals. To estimate the trend, the simple linear regression model was used. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil showed a relative reduction of 0.62% for each year of the survey, ranging from 15.6% in 2006 to 11.3% in 2013. A decrease was observed in both sexes in all age ranges except between 55 and 64 years in all education levels and regions. The total population of former smokers remained stable, with a reduction for men. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day decreased from 4.6% (2006 to 3.4% (2013, or 0.162 percentage points per year. Passive smoking at home decreased among women 13.4% (2009 to 10.7% (2013, a reduction of 0.72% per annum. Passive smoking at work has remained stable over the period. The smoking trend reduced in the period in most indicators, reflecting the importance of the tobacco control actions in the country.

  8. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015.

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    Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Beraldo, Rodrigo Alves; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) Department of Informatics (DataSUS). Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  9. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015

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    Eduardo Angeli Malavolta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] Department of Informatics (DataSUS. METHODS: Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. RESULTS: During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. CONCLUSION: The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  10. Temporal Trends of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Simultaneity in Brazilian Students.

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    Martins, Rafaela Costa; Ricardo, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso; Mendonça, Gerfeson; de Rosa, Daiana Lopes; da Gama Bastos, Letícia Lemos Ayres; de Vargas Nunes Coll, Carolina; Bielemann, Renata Moraes

    2018-02-09

    To evaluate trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior simultaneity among Brazilian students from 2009 to 2015 and its association with independent variables. This study presents a panel of 3 cross-sectional studies carried out in 2009, 2012, and 2015 (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar-PeNSE). The population was comprised of ninth-grade public and private schools students from Brazilian capitals. Physical activity and sedentary behavior variables were combined to create the outcome of simultaneity of these risk factors. A large proportion of students were simultaneously inactive and sedentary in the 3 surveys. However, it was possible to observe a downward trend (2009: 56.4%; 95% confidence interval, 55.7-57.1; 2012: 53.7%; 95% confidence interval, 53.0-54.4; 2015: 51.9%; 95% confidence interval, 51.2-52.7). In 2015, estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior simultaneity were greater than 48% for 20 out of 27 of the Brazilian states. Significant declining trends were observed among mideast residents, females, nonwhite, and those attending private schools. Only around 5%-7% of the adolescents were both active and nonsedentary in the 3 surveys. Despite of a slight decreasing trend in the proportion of Brazilian students simultaneously inactive and sedentary throughout the period, the prevalence remained elevated across the surveys.

  11. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

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    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  12. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents.

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    Flores, Larissa S; Gaya, Anelise R; Petersen, Ricardo D S; Gaya, Adroaldo

    2013-01-01

    To describe and analyze the trends of occurrence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren. This was a longitudinal study of trends conducted in a voluntary sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. The sample was grouped by year of collection (period I: 2005 and 2006; period II: 2007 and 2008, and period III: 2009-2011), age category (children: 7 to 10 years, and adolescents: 11 to 14 years), and stratified by gender. The body mass index was used to classify the nutritional profile. Trend analysis was verified using multinomial logistic regression (p<0.05). Mean occurrences were 2.11% for underweight, 22.27% for overweight, and 6.8% for obesity. There was a decrease of underweight in male adolescents from period I to II, as well as an increase in female children from period II to III. Regarding overweight, there was an increase followed by a decrease in male children. Regarding obesity, there was an increase from period I to II in all age groups and for both genders. The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

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    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  14. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  15. The Importance of Mammalogy, Infectious Disease Research, and Biosafety in the Field.

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    Mauldin, Matthew R; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of data and multitudes of publications have been independently generated by researchers in mammalogy and infectious diseases. The frequent confluence of these fields in epidemiological research as well as the facility of the data generated to be used in applied methods (e.g., conservation, public outreach, public health interventions) suggests that the intersection of these fields is important not only to their committed scientists but also to other areas of investigation, including public health. Given the increased frequency with which researchers in these fields interact with potentially infected humans, animals, and tissues, their occupations present a higher risk of exposure to a variety of pathogens than those in other fields of biology or among most jobs of the general public. However, a variety of methods are available for minimizing this risk, including increasing awareness of potential risks, using medical prophylaxes (when available), properly employing personal protective equipment, and using adequate disinfectants. Although instances of serious illness from zoonotic diseases among field researchers may be uncommon, they do occur; the purpose of this document is to increase awareness of risks that researchers-principal investigators and students alike-face and highlight steps and resources that can mitigate those risks.

  16. Clitic position and clitic placement in complex predicates: Brazilian Portuguese viewed from two trends

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    Aroldo Leal de Andrade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the hypothesis according to which Brazilian Portuguese is formed by two trends – the cultured norm and the vernacular or popular norm – with focus on the problem of the position and placement of pronominal clitics in complex predicates. To do so, we have constructed a database composed of letters written at different moments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and classified according to the education level of their authors. Two structure types were identified: infinitival periphrases and compound tenses. First, we have described the variation in the application of clitic climbing in the nineteenth century data, in order to identify the relevant factor groups, which were very similar to those found for European Portuguese. Subsequently, we have analyzed the quantitative evolution of clitic position and placement until the twentieth century from the classification between cultured and non-cultured authors, with the help of a grammar competition model. We have noticed, regarding clitic position, that the change was parallel in the two studied trends. This suggests that the hypothesis that the trends formed by cultured and non-cultured speakers tend to come closer to each other is a generalization that depends on the sensitivity of each studied phenomenon to external variables, and that syntactic phenomena such as clitic position tend to be less sensitive to such variables.

  17. Prospects and Trends in the Brazilian Market for Biologically Sourced Products

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    Luciana da Silva Madeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to select the most interesting Brazilian biopharmaceuticals, with the best market opportunity for production. The biopharmaceuticals filgrastim, infliximab, somatropin, imiglucerase, betainterferon and factor VIII were selected because they are not produced in Brazil and thus could increase the technological capacity of domestic production. The use of a data mining tool facilitated the results achieved here, using the patents deposited in several banks worldwide as the source information. The prospects and trends of producing biopharmaceuticals in Brazil are of great interest to the country to establish a competitive industry and reduce the vulnerability of the National Health System, such as display windows of opportunity, showing the possibility of moving towards the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  18. The history of sociology as a field of research and some recent trends in Brazilian social thought.

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    Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert

    2017-01-01

    The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.

  19. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

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    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006.

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    Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Girianelli, Vania Reis; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the corrected trend of overall cancer mortality and leading sites in the state capitals and other municipalities of Brazil between 1980 and 2006. Data on deaths (n = 2,585,012) caused by cancer between 1980 and 2006 were obtained from Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (Mortality Information System), and demographic data were provided by Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The rates of overall cancer mortality and major types were corrected by proportionally redistributing 50% of ill-defined causes of death and standardizing them by age according to the standard world population. Trend curves for Brazil and its major regions were calculated for state capitals and other municipalities according to sex, and were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. Among men, ascending mortality rates were observed for lung, prostate and colorectal cancer; declining rates for stomach cancer; and stable rates for esophagus cancer. Among women, mortality from breast, lung and colorectal cancer increased, and the rates for cervical and stomach cancer declined. Mortality evolution varied across the regions of Brazil, with distinct patterns between state capitals and other municipalities. The correction of mortality rates based on redistribution of ill-defined causes of death increased the magnitude of the overall cancer mortality in Brazil by approximately 10% in 1980 and 5% in 2006. In the inland municipalities no decrease or stability was identified, differently from what was observed in the state capitals. Limited scope of prevention actions and lower access to services of cancer diagnosis and treatment for the population living away from large urban centers may partly explain these differences.

  1. Patterns of Care and Temporal Trends in Ischemic Stroke Management: A Brazilian Perspective.

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    Alves, Monique Bueno; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Miranda, Renata Carolina Acri; Massaud, Rodrigo Meireles; Vaccari, Andreia Maria Heins; Cendoroglo-Neto, Miguel; Diccini, Solange

    2017-10-01

    Demonstration of an improvement process of quality indicators in stroke care is essential to obtain certification as a primary stroke center (PSC). Our aim was to evaluate factors that influence temporal trends in quality indicators of ischemic stroke (IS) in a Brazilian hospital. We evaluated patients discharged with IS from a tertiary hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. Ten predefined performance measures selected by the Get With the Guidelines-Stroke program were assessed. We also compared 5 quality indicators available from a secondary community hospital for the first year of the series to those found in the tertiary hospital. We evaluated 551 patients at the tertiary stroke center (median age 77.0 years [interquartile range 64.0-84.0]; 58.4% were men). The quality indicators that improved with time were the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy (P = .02) and stroke education (P = .04). The median composite perfect care did not consistently improve throughout the period (P = .13). After a multivariable adjustment, only thrombolytic treatment (odds ratio [OR] 2.06, P higher. The quality indicators with worse performance (anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation and cholesterol reduction) were similar in the tertiary and secondary community hospitals. We found a significant improvement in some quality indicators across the years in a PSC located in Latin America. The overall perfect care measure did not improve and was influenced by being discharged in a JCI visit year, having dyslipidemia, and having undergone thrombolytic treatment. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in medicines procurement by the Brazilian federal government from 2006 to 2013.

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    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    Full Text Available The costs of medicines pose a growing burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of current procurement processes provides strong support for the development of effective policies. This study examined Brazilian Federal Government pharmaceutical procurement data provided by the Integrated System for the Administration of General Services (SIASG database, from 2006 to 2013. Medicine purchases were aggregated by volume and expenditure for each year. Data on expenditure were adjusted for inflation using the Extended National Consumer Price Index (IPCA for December 31, 2013. Lorenz distribution curves were used to study the cumulative proportion of purchased therapeutic classes. Expenditure variance analysis was performed to determine the impact of each factor, price and/or volume, on total expenditure variation. Annual expenditure on medicines increased 2.72 times, while the purchased volume of drugs increased 1.99 times. A limited number of therapeutic classes dominated expenditure each year. Drugs for infectious diseases drove the increase in expenditures from 2006 to 2009 but were replaced by antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents beginning in 2010. Immunosuppressants (L04, accounted for one third of purchases since 2010, showing the most substantial growth in expenditures during the period (250-fold increase. The overwhelming price-related increase in expenditures caused by these medicines is bound to have a relevant impact on the sustainability of the pharmaceutical supply system. We observed increasing trends in expenditures, especially in specific therapeutic classes. We propose the development and implementation of better medicine procurement systems, and strategies to allow for monitoring of product price, effectiveness, and safety. This must be done with ongoing assessment of pharmaceutical innovations, therapeutic value and budget impact.

  3. Secular trend in height in enlisted men and recruits from the Brazilian Navy born from 1970 to 1977

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    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available This study presents data from a survey on height trends in Brazilian Navy enlisted men and recruits born from 1970 to 1977. The sample consisted of 52,574 enlisted men and 4,459 recruits ranging in age from 18.00 to 18.99 years. The statistical processing employed two-way analysis of variance procedure, simple linear regression comparing height and year of birth and multiple analysis controlling for schooling (regression coefficient and the chi-square. The results show that enlisted men and recruits displayed height increments, characterizing a contemporary process of secular trend. Such increments were also present in the country's various macro-regions. The results were compared to a recent investigation of a national scope the National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN and both enlisted men and recruits displayed higher median height than that reported by the PNSN. Level of schooling for individuals in the Navy is high, far superior to that of the Brazilian population as a whole. This set of data suggests that young men enlisting in the Navy are on average of a higher socioeconomic status than the Brazilian population in general, which limits possibilities for extrapolating the findings from this research.

  4. [Suicide mortality temporal trends in people aged 60 years or more in the Brazilian states: 1980 to 2009].

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    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this paper is to determine the temporal evolution of mortality by suicide in people aged 60 or more per State in Brazil between 1980 and 2009. Historical mortality by suicide data (ICD-9 codes E950 to E959 and ICD-10 codes X60 to X84 and Y87.0) were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM / MS). Data regarding population counts were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. In the assessment of temporal trends the Poisson regression model was used, in which the dependent variable was the number of deaths and the centralized calendar year was the explanatory variable. Statistically significant trends were considered those whose p-value was d" 0.05. The results revealed the presence of a statistically significant increasing trend in four states and a decrease in two (general population; 60 years or more). In the male population there was an increase in five states and a reduction in two. The female rate showed an increase in one state and a decrease in three. There was an increasing trend in Piauí, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte and a reduction in Amazonas, Roraima, and São Paulo for people aged between 60 and 69. Increasing rates were observed in the population aged 70-79 in Piauí and decreasing trends in Roraima.

  5. Time trends in physical activity of adult users of the Brazilian National Health System: 2010-2014. Longitudinal study

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    Bruna Camilo Turi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In this longitudinal study, we aimed to describe time trends of physical activity (PA in different domains from 2010 to 2014 among users of the Brazilian National Health System, taking into account the effects of sex, age and economic status (ES. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study conducted in five primary care units in Bauru (SP, Brazil. METHODS: The sample was composed of 620 men and women who were interviewed in 2010, 2012 and 2014. The same group of researchers conducted the interviews, using the questionnaire developed by Baecke et al. Scores for occupational, exercise/sport, leisure-time/transportation and overall PA were considered in this longitudinal survey. Time trends of PA over the four years of follow-up were assessed according to sex, age and ES. RESULTS: We found that after four years of follow-up, the reduction in overall PA (-13.6%; 95% confidence interval, CI = -11.9 to -15.3 was statistically significant. Additionally, declines in the occupational domain and exercise/sports participation were affected by age, while the reduction in overall PA was affected by sex, age and ES. CONCLUSIONS: Overall PA decreased significantly from 2010 to 2014 among these outpatients of the Brazilian National Health System, and age and male sex were important determinants of PA in its different domains.

  6. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

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    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  7. Trend analysis of the quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme by region and state from 2006 to 2013.

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    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; de Lima Vazquez, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro

    2018-02-02

    Quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme can provide a perspective on its effectiveness in Brazilian macro-regions and states. The aim of this study was to perform a trend analysis of the cervical cancer screening program's quality indicators, according to Brazilian regions and states, from 2006 to 2013. Using information from approximately 62,000,000 exams obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer Screening (SISCOLO), joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the Annual Percentage Change (APC). The estimated number of women in the target age group (25-64 years) who underwent Pap testing over a three-year interval was lower than that recommended by international guidelines in the North, Northeast and Midwest regions, and the trends for this indicator remained stationary over the years in all regions of Brazil. Overall, the index of positivity in Brazilian regions and states is below that preconized by the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Additionally, the frequencies of unsatisfactory cases are in line with international guidelines but above those preconized by INCA guidelines. All positive cytological diagnoses were lower than those preconized by INCA. The results show that the cervical cancer screening programme is still far from efficient because most of the quality indicators in Brazilian regions and states are outside of the parameters preconized by national and international organizations.

  8. Secular trends of height, weight and BMI in young adult Brazilian military students in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J A; Avila, R A; Gonçalves, E M; Barbeta, V J O; Morcillo, A M; Guerra-Junior, G

    2013-01-01

    Secular trends of increasing weight and height over past centuries are well documented in developed countries. However, these data are still scarce in developing countries such as Brazil. To verify the secular trends of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of military students from Brazilian Army schools who were born between the 1920s and 1990s. A retrospective study was performed, which included a survey of data from the files of two Army schools. The sample was composed of subjects aged between 18-20 years old. The study analysed 2169 heights and 1741 weights and BMIs. During the evaluation period, height increased 7.3 cm, weight 9.8 kg and BMI 1.8 kg/m(2). The most significant gains were observed in subjects born from the 1920s to the 1940s and the 1960s to the 1970s. Secular trends of growth in military students born in the 20th century were positive in Brazil, although increases were not constant decade-by-decade.

  9. Dental caries and fluorosis prevalence study in a nonfluoridated Brazilian community: trend analysis and toothpaste association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A C; Da Cunha, F L; Meneghim, M de C; Werner, C W

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare data from previous surveys to current prevalence rates of dental caries and dental fluorosis in eleven- and twelve-year-olds in a non-fluoridated Brazilian community (toothpaste and the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. The sample subjects are randomly selected schoolchildren who were examined with a dental probe and buccal mirror under natural light. The intra-examiner error was calculated, using Kappa statistics (K tau 0.85). The results showed that between 1991 and 1997 there was a 56.7 percent decrease in the prevalence of dental caries and an 80.1 percent increase in dental fluorosis. Children with dental fluorosis were 1.75 times more likely to be free of caries (OR = 1.75-CI:0.43, 6.68). Children who started using fluoride toothpaste before the age of three were 4.43 times more likely to have dental fluorosis than those who started using it after the age of three (OR = 4.43-CI:0.51, 99.61). The results of the cross-sectional surveys conducted with schoolchildren in 1991, 1995, and 1997 suggest a continuing decrease in the prevalence of dental caries and an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis in this nonfluoridated Brazilian town.

  10. Antibiotic use in Brazilian broiler and pig production: an indication and forecast of trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma-Bakker, M.H.; Bondt, N.; Neijenhuis, F.; Mevius, D.J.; Ruiter, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight in antibiotic use in relation to imported products the current use of antibiotics in pork and broiler production in Brazil are identified and trend forecasting of antibiotic use in the coming 3-5 years is performed.

  11. Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants: habits, practices and trends

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    Antonio Helio Junqueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants reproduces the main typical conditions of developing countries, which it shares with other nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa. These include low per capita consumption rates, the centralization of purchases in a few traditional items, and the concentration of demand on dates and special occasions of the national calendar of celebrations. However, in recent decades, strong growth rates have been observed for this sector, signaling a potent and promising market for producers, wholesalers, retailers, floral designers, landscapists and other professionals working in the floral segment. This article analyzes original quantitative research data applied throughout Brazil, from 2014 to 2016, by the market intelligence firm Hórtica Consultoria and by the Union of the Retail Trade of Flowers and Ornamental Plants of the State of São Paulo (Sindiflores, revealing preferences, habits, practices and tendencies for the consumption of flowers and ornamental plants in Brazil.

  12. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  13. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

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    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  14. Circumcisions for medical reasons in the Brazilian public health system: epidemiology and trends

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    Fernando Korkes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological factors associated tomedical circumcision, based on data from the Brazilian public healthsystem. Methods: Using the Unified Health System public databasebetween 1984 and 2010, hospital admissions associated with surgicaltreatment of phimosis were searched. A total of 668,818 men admittedto public hospitals who underwent circumcision were identified andincluded in the present study. Results: A mean±standard deviation of47.8±13.4 circumcisions/100,000 men/year was performed throughthe Unified Health System for medical reasons. During the 27-yearperiod evaluated, 1.3% of the male population required circumcisionfor medical reasons. Total number of circumcisions and circumcisionrate increased in childhood, declined progressively after 5 years ofage and rose again progressively after the sixth decade of life. Inthe regions of the country with better access to healthcare, 5.8%of boys aged 1 to 9 years old required circumcisions. From 1992 to2010 there were 63 deaths associated with circumcisions (mortalityrate of 0.013%. Conclusion: In conclusion, yearly circumcisionrates could be estimated in Brazil, and a very low mortality rate wasassociated with this procedures. Circumcision is mostly performed inchildren in the first decade of life and a second peak of incidence ofpenile foreskin diseases occurs after the sixth decade of life, whencircumcision is progressively performed again.

  15. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

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    Fernando Cesar Sala

    2012-06-01

    for hot and high rainfall summer season. Brazilian preference for the Grand Rapids type is a unique event in the world market of lettuce. Crisp head lettuce had increased its preference, but there are many limitations to grow this type outdoors in our rainy hot summer. Thicker leaves of iceberg have a better flavor, crispness and long shelf live under refrigeration for its post-harvest management. Crispness is an important and mandatory quality for the fresh cut market which is a growing tendency. Considerations on breeding focus to get tropical-adapted varieties with crispness and resistance to specific Brazilian diseases which are limiting to lettuce are discussed.

  16. Trends of main indicators of leprosy in Brazilian municipalities with high risk of leprosy transmission, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Lucia R S; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Garcia, Leila P

    2016-09-05

    Leprosy incidence has reduced in recent years in Brazil, although the disease still persists as a public health problem in some regions. To investigate the trends of selected leprosy indicators in Brazilian municipalities with high risk of transmission is essential to provide effective control of the disease, yet this area has not been investigated. This is an ecological time-series study with multiple groups using Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) data. All 692 municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso, Tocantins, Rondônia, Pará and Maranhão were included. The incidence rates of leprosy were calculated, as well as incidence rates in children under 15 years per 100,000 inhabitants and rates of new cases presenting grade-2 disabilities per 100,000 inhabitants. Joinpoint Regression was used to analyse the time trends of the different indicators studied. The spatial distribution of temporal variations of the indicators in the period was presented. Between 2001 and 2012, 176,929 leprosy cases were notified in the area studied, this being equivalent to 34.6 % of total cases in Brazil. In the aggregate of municipalities, there was a reduction in incidence rate of leprosy from 89.10 to 56.98 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants between 2001 and 2012, with a significant reduction between 2003 and 2012 (APC: - 6.2 %, 95 % CI: -7.2 % to -5.2 %). The incidence rate in leprosy incidence rate, strategies for controlling this disease need to be enhanced to enable early case detection, especially in hyperendemic municipalities, in order to prevent disability.

  17. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006 to 51.0% (2012, with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  18. Local content: worldwide trends and the Brazilian experience in the oil and gas sector; Conteudo local: tendencias mundiais e a experiencia brasileira no setor de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa Junior, Oswaldo A.; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores Independentes de Petroleo e Gas - ABPIP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandez y Fernandez, Eloi [Organizacao Nacional da Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years a trend on increasing requirements for local investments has been observed worldwide in the petroleum industry. Host countries expect to have increasing social and economical benefits from the development of the oil and gas industry. This expectation drives at a more comprehensive concept of local content to include commitment with social, industrial, and technological development. The Brazilian experience has shown a lot of emphasis on local industry development. Initiatives from governmental authorities and the private sector have been implemented to increase the local industry participation in the oil and gas projects. The current regulation focus on the full and fair opportunities for the local suppliers and the local content commitment established in the E and P concession agreements. A key issue on promoting local content initiatives is to assure that the competitiveness of the indigenous industry will be developed and preserved. The constraints on building up the local industry competitiveness will be addressed, focusing on the taxation overburden, lack of adequate local financing, and internal structural aspects affecting industrial productivity. In addition to this, the experiences on measuring local content for offshore construction and drilling are highlighted. Technology development and technical capability have been addressed by incentive programs for the O and G sector. Finally, the technology learning process and the regulatory requirements to invest in R and D programs conducted by Brazilian technological institutions are discussed. (author)

  19. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

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    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  20. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  1. Hematological approaches to multiple myeloma: trends from a Brazilian subset of hematologists. A cross-sectional study

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    Lucila Nassif Kerbauy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: For the last nine years, hematologists and oncologists have gathered annually at an educational symposium organized by a Brazilian and an American hospital. During the 2015 Board Review, a survey among the attendees evaluated the differences in management and treatment methods for multiple myeloma (MM. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study during an educational hematology symposium in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hematologists present at the symposium gave responses to an electronic survey by means of mobile phone. RESULTS: Among the 350 attendees, 217 answered the questionnaire. Most of the participants believed that immunotargeting agents (iTA might be effective for slowing MM progression in heavily pretreated patients (67% and that continued exposure to therapy might lead to emergence of resistant clones in patients with MM (76%. Most of the physicians use maintenance therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (95% and 45% of them would further restrict it to post-transplantation patients with underlying high-risk disease. The first-line drugs used for transplantation-ineligible patients (TI-MM were bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (31%, bortezomib-dexamethasone (28%, lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd; 17% and melphalan-based therapy (10%. Lenalidomide was the drug of choice for post-transplantation maintenance for half of the participants. No significant differences were observed regarding age or length of experience. CONCLUSION: The treatment choices for TI-MM patients were highly heterogenous and the melphalan-based regimen represented only 10% of the first-line options. Use of maintenance therapy after transplantation was a common choice. Some results from the survey were divergent from the evidence in the literature.

  2. THE EXPANSION OF DISTANCE LEARNING (DL IN BRAZILIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: TRENDS FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE NEXT DECADE

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    Leandro José Morilhas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the expansion of distance learning (DL in Brazil’s Higher Education is analyzed with a view to addressing the following research query: How many schools, in Brazil, will offer undergraduate studies in the DL mode over the next five years?To this effect, bibliographical data was researched and historical series of variables were compiled – number of schools, of courses and of enrolled students, among other elements – to generate comparative graphs between the in loco (classroom and the distance modes. Thus, the evolution of both types during the period studied is presented.Furthermore, a simple linear regression was used to correlate the variables ‘number of institutions’ and ‘time’, in order to extrapolate growth trends for the 2007-2011 period. Results point to a sharp expansion of DL, in all studied variables, and indicate that this may increase even further in the future.It also became evident that the growth of distance learning will have to overcome certain challenges, including better access to computers and to the Internet and the development of qualified personnel and of specific software to deal with it.Key words: Distance learning. Distance education. Extrapolation of trends and linear regression. Future studies.

  3. Historical trends in Brazilian journalism Tendências históricas do jornalismo brasileiro

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    José Salvador Faro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a synthesis of the history of the printed press and of journalism in Brazil. The book analyzes the various periods of this process in its relations with the country's political and economic conjuncture, from colonial times to the moment of redemocratization in the 1980s and the most current trends indicated by the printed press since 2002. Obra de síntese sobre a história da imprensa e do jornalismo no Brasil, o livro procura analisar os diversos períodos desse processo e suas relações com a conjuntura política e econômica do país, desde o período colonial até o momento da redemocratização nos anos 1980 e as tendências mais atuais, evidenciadas nas páginas dos veículos de informação a partir de 2002.

  4. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Esaú Samuel; Sampaio, Vanderson; Sachett, Jaqueline; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis López; Muniz, Emiro; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012). Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%), in the male gender (78.9%) and in those living in rural areas (85.6%). The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

  5. Analyzing NEXRAD doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jason W; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. These echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. Modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the United States (NEXt-generation RADar or NEXRAD) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. These images can be used to investigate the flight behavior of groups of bats and population trends in large colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in south-central Texas which are clearly imaged by local NEXRAD radar stations. In this study, we used radar reflectivity data from the New Braunfels, Texas NEXRAD station to examine relative colony size, direction of movement, speed of dispersion, and altitude gradients of bats from these colonies following evening emergence. Base reflectivity clear-air-mode Level-II images were geo-referenced and compiled in a GIS along with locations of colonies and features on the landscape. Temporal sequences of images were filtered for the activity of bats, and from this, the relative size of bat colonies, and the speed and heading of bat emergences were calculated. Our results indicate cyclical changes in colony size from year to year and that initial headings taken by bats during emergence flights are highly directional. We found that NEXRAD data can be an effective tool for monitoring the nightly behavior and seasonal changes in these large colonies. Understanding the distribution of a large regional bat population on a landscape scale has important implications for agricultural pest management and conservation efforts.

  6. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. Orientações atuais da Lingüística Histórica brasileira Recent trends in Brazilian Historical Linguistics

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    Rosa Virgínia Mattos e SILVA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the new directions taken by Historical Linguistics in Brazil, which gives special attention to Brazilian Portuguese, studying dialectal and sociolinguistic aspects. A special reference is made to projects that bring together researchers from several universities in the country.

  9. Tendências comportamentais frente à saúde de imigrantes brasileiros em Portugal Behavioral health trends of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal

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    Maria da Penha de Lima Coutinho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo principal obter um conhecimento das condições e configurações das formações de imigrantes brasileiros no contexto português. De modo mais específico, procurou-se determinar quais fatores influenciam a busca, pelos imigrantes, dos serviços de saúde existentes no país acolhedor. A amostra foi composta por 75 brasileiros que vivem em Portugal, sendo 35 homens e 40 mulheres. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário sociodemográfico e analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Os resultados mostraram um perfil atualmente crescente do imigrante brasileiro em Portugal e a sua inserção em um grupo de risco social, refletido nas suas precárias condições psicológicas, sociais e, mais especificamente, no campo da saúde.This study aimed to understand the main conditions and setting of the Brazilian immigrants formations in the Portuguese context. Specifically, the aim was to clarify which factors contribute to determine the searching for Health services in the host country. The sample was consisted by 75 Brazilians who live in Portugal, from which 35 were men and 40 were women. The data were collected by a socio-demographic questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed an increasing of a Brazilian Immigrants' profile in Portugal, and the insertion of such into a group of social risk, reflected in their psychological and social conditions, and more specifically in the Health field.

  10. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses Evolução da pesquisa em aleitamento materno conduzida pela enfermagem brasileira

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    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.Sabe-se que o aleitamento materno exclusivo é importante para a sobrevivência, crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil. Os objetivos desta revisão foram: apresentar uma síntese da produção intelectual da enfermagem brasileira na área do aleitamento materno nos últimos vinte anos, criticar questões teóricas e metodológicas dos estudos, e providenciar direções para futuras pesquisas e práticas de enfermagem em relação ao aleitamento materno. Os estudos incluídos nesta revisão foram identificados por meio de busca no LILACS para estudos publicados em português. Os artigos foram organizados e analisados cronologicamente, traçando uma comparação com a evolução do Programa Nacional de Aleitamento Materno. A lacuna da pesquisa em aleitamento materno pela enfermagem brasileira precisa ser preenchida como uma agenda prioritária. Além disso, as peculiaridades culturais, sociológicas e antropológicas que caracterizam cada região brasileira precisam ser

  11. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  12. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  13. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  14. ENDEF e PNSN: para onde caminha o crescimento físico da criança brasileira? ENDEF and PNSN: trends in physical growth of Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compara os resultados dos dois inquéritos nutricionais de abrangência nacional realizados no Brasil, quais sejam, O Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar (ENDEF, de 1974-75, e a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN, de 1989. A comparação indicou uma redução de mais de 60% da prevalência de desnutrição, avaliada através de antropometria. Resultados de inquéritos regionais e o comportamento da mortalidade infantil ao longo do período mostraram-se ambos consistentes com a melhoria do estado nutricional. Observou-se uma tendência de memor redução dos níveis de desnutrição naquelas regiões (Norte e Nordeste onde as prevalências eram mais elevadas na década de 70, ampliando os diferenciais regionais. A melhoria do estado nutricional infantil é atribuída à elevação da renda familiar na década de 70, e à expansão contínua da cobertura de serviços públicos (saneamento, saúde, educação e programas de suplementação alimentar nas décadas de 70 e 80, ambas favorecidas pela queda pronunciada observada nos níveis de fecundidade da população. O autores alertam para o fato de que a inexistência de sinais de recuperação econômica, aliada aos cortes nos gastos sociais do governo e a persistência de desiqualdade na distribuição de renda, entre outros fatores, tornam improvável que se repitam nos próximos anos os avanços na situação nutricional observados desde a década de 70.This paper compares the results of two nationally representative nutritional surveys carried out in Brazil: the "Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar (ENDEF" (National Survey on Household Expenses, conducted in 1974-77, and the "Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN" (National Survey on Health and Nutrition, conducted in 1989. The findings point to a reduction of more than 60% in the prevalence of undernutrition, as evaluated by anthropometric parameters. The results from regional surveys and the trends in infant

  15. Tendências da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais dos estados do Brasil, 1980-2004 Trends of cancer mortality in Brazilian state capitals, 1980-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    of state capitals comprises about a quarter of the total Brazilian population and for these cities mortality data available have a better quality than for the entire country, enabling analyses of trends in cancer rates based on more accurate data. METHODS: Mortality and population data were collected from government databases (SIM/DATASUS and IBGE, respectively. Age-adjusted (world standard and age-specific mortality rates were calculated for both genders . Linear regression was used to investigate changes in trends. RESULTS: For all cancers as a whole mortality rates declined throughout the study period for both men and women (-4.6% and -10.5%, respectively. For both genders , the cancer that decreased most was stomach cancer. Among men, lung cancer death rates presented a slight reduction, while prostate cancer rates increased. Among women, "uterus, site unspecified' presented a downward trend, while lung cancer rates increased. The trend for breast cancer remained stable, and cervix uterus rates showed a slight increase at the end of the period. CONCLUSION: As already seen in developed countries, all cancer mortality rates tended to decline in Brazilian state capitals over the period 1980-2004, a tendency largely due to a decline in stomach cancer death rates for both genders.

  16. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    RASKIN, SALMO; ALLAN, NASSER; TEIVE, HÉLIO A.G.; CARDOSO, FRANCISCO; HADDAD, MÔNICA SANTORO; LEVI, GILBERTO; BOY, RAQUEL; LERENA JR, JUAN; SOTOMAIOR, VANESSA SANTOS; JANZEN-DÜCK, MÔNICA; JARDIM, LAURA BANNACH; FELLANDER, FLÁVIO R.; ANDRADE, LUIZ AUGUSTO FRANCO

    2000-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repe...

  17. Repercussões de tendências internacionais sobre a formação de nossos professores International trends on teacher education and their influence on brazilian system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menga Lüdke

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa aspectos de propostas sobre a formação de professores desenvolvidas em vários países ou apresentadas pelo Banco Mundial, focalizando de modo especial as experiências da França, da Inglaterra e da Espanha, e seus possíveis reflexos sobre as propostas hoje correntes entre nós.The article analyzes aspects from teacher education proposals carried out in different countries or presented by the World Bank. It pays special attention to the French, English and Spanish experiences in teacher education and their repercussion on current Brazilian proposals.

  18. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  19. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  20. Panorama da Pesquisa Acadêmica Brasileira em Nanocompósitos Polímero/Argila e Tendências para o Futuro Scenario of the Brazilian Academic Research into Nanocomposites Polymer/Clay and Trends for the Future

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    Priscila Anadão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa em nanocompósitos polímero/argila foi iniciada pela Toyota no final dos anos 80. A partir deste marco, a comunidade científica mundial voltou sua atenção para este tipo de material graças às propriedades mecânicas, químicas e térmicas avançadas em comparação com os compósitos tradicionais. Não foi diferente no Brasil, tal atenção pode ser comprovada pelos inúmeros trabalhos científicos sobre nanocompósitos que começaram a despontar no início do século XXI. Assim, o presente artigo objetiva, após discorrer sobre as definições que concernem nanocompósitos polímero/argila, apresentar as pesquisas científicas brasileiras em nanocompósitos de polímeros de uso geral, de polímeros de engenharia e de outros tipos de polímeros, relacionando-os com o método de produção empregado, morfologia final e propriedades decorrentes da formação de nanocompósitos. Por fim, o mapa da pesquisa brasileira em nanocompósitos polímero/argila e sua perspectiva para o futuro são apresentados.The research on polymer/clay nanocomposites was initiated by Toyota in the late 80s. From then on, the world scientific community has turned its attention to this type of material due to the enhanced mechanical, chemical and thermal properties in comparison to traditional composites. In Brazil, it was not different, as can be seen from the countless scientific works on nanocomposites which have emerged in the early 21th century. The aim thus is, after discussing the definitions related to the polymer/ clay nanocomposites, to show Brazilian scientific works on the general use of plastics, engineering plastics and other types of polymers, correlating them with their production method, final morphology and resulting properties. Finally, a map of the Brazilian research into polymer/clay nanocomposites and their future perspective are presented.

  1. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

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    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  2. Short communication Evaluation of genetic trends for traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RamatsomaN

    2014-03-27

    Mar 27, 2014 ... past two or three decades, have aided selection decisions. This has been ... evaluations for these traits and the noted potential for selection to implement favourable genetic trends, development of ... contrast, the annual trend for milk yield EBV of Brazilian Holsteins estimated from an animal model was 9.25.

  3. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  4. Latin America and the rise of China: a Brazilian perspective

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    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the impacts of China’s rise on Latin American countries. The literature on the topic has stressed the emergence of an asymmetrical pattern of relationship, where the region would be trapped in a less dynamic status of producer and exporter of raw materials. We focus on identifying the post-global financial crisis trends, providing fresh evidence concerning the characteristics of Sino-Latin American economic relationships, emphasizing the Brazilian experience. Ours results suggest that, particularly in the Brazilian case, there is evidence of the emergence of an increasingly regressive pattern of production and trade specialization.

  5. Tendências de pesquisas brasileiras sobre mulheres mastectomizadas Tendencias en la investigación sobre la mujer brasileña sometida a mastectomía Trends in research with Brazilian women after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Braga de Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    rehabilitación. La región en la que se desarrolló la investigación fue el sureste, seguida del noroeste. Muchos de los artículos no presentaban datos informativos metodológicos fundamentales para la comprensión del lector, lo cual dificulta la búsqueda en dichas bases de datos.The objective was to analyze the trends in research conducted in Brazil with women having mastectomies. This was a bibliographical study using a quantitative approach, performed from June 15 to July 31, 2009. To collect empirical data, we used a structured instrument, then the data were tabulated, analyzed, transformed into percentages and grouped into a table for easy viewing of the information. The sample consisted of abstracts obtained through an electronic search, using the BIREME, LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and BDENF databases. One hundred and eleven articles were found and after applying the inclusion criteria, there was a final sample of 69 articles. Trends identified in the majority of abstracts were for qualitative research, the main focus being on rehabilitation. The region that has carried out most investigations was the Southeast, followed by the Northeast. Many articles had no essential methodological information to allow the reader to understand the data, making it difficult to conduct searches in these databases.

  6. Trajetória e tendências dos cursos de enfermagem no Brasil Trayectoria y tendencias de los cursos de graduación en enfermería en Brasil Trajectory and trends of Brazilian nursing diploma courses

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    Elizabeth Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa a trajetória da educação em enfermagem no Brasil; analisa as tendências dos cursos de graduação (1991-2004 e traça um perfil do estudante de graduação de enfermagem que participou do Exame Nacional de Cursos (ENADE, em 2004. Para traçar o referido perfil são utilizados 18 indicadores sócio-familiares e acadêmicos dos respondentes do questionário do aluno. Apontam-se algumas perspectivas e desafios à educação em enfermagem no país, com vistas a subsidiar educadores e educandos na sua prática acadêmica.El texto analiza el camino de la educación de enfermeria en Brasil y las tendencias de los cursos del grado (1991-2004 y polilla un perfil del estudiante graduación en enfermeria han participado en el Examen Nacional de Cursos (ENADE, en 2004. Para dibujar el referido 18 indicadores del compañero-familia y los respondentes al perfil de los académicos de la encuesta del estudiante ellos se usan. Se apuntan un poco de perspectivas y desafíos a la educación em enfermería en el país, con las vistas para subvencionar a educadores y estudiantes en el his/her la práctica académica.The text analyzes the path of the education in nursing in Brazil and analyzes the trends of the diploma courses (1991-2004 and describes a profile of the nursing graduation students that participated in the National Exam of Courses (ENADE, in 2004. To draw the referred profile 18 partner-family indicators and the respondents of the student's questionnaire academics they used. Some perspectives and challenges are pointed to the education in nursing in the country, with views to subsidize educators and students in his/her academic practice.

  7. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  8. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

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    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  9. Tendências evolutivas dos cirurgiões de catarata presentes no IV Congresso Brasileiro de Catarata e Cirurgia Refrativa Evolutionary trends of cataract surgeons who attended the IV Brazilian Congress of Cataract and Refractive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony Rodrigues de Santhiago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Dar continuidade ao processo de atualização e aperfeiçoamento da cirurgia de catarata no Brasil, além de obter dados para uma análise comparativa das atuais tendências cirúrgicas nacionais e internacionais. MÉTODOS:Em maio de 2007, foram obtidos dados de 188 participantes de um congresso de Catarata e Cirurgia Refrativa através questionários autoaplicáveis, contendo perguntas objetivas a respeito da cirurgia de catarata. Análise estatística foi feita através teste T e Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 95,8% dos participantes praticam a facoemulsificação, enquanto somente 4,2% preferem usar a técnica extracapsular convencional. Para 73,4% dos participantes, o bloqueio peribulbar é preferido em relação ao uso de anestésico tópico (20,2%. A técnica de facoemulsificação mais realizada é a de dividir e conquistar (32,0%. A hidroximetilcelulose foi o viscoelástico de escolha para 60,8% dos colaboradores. O aparelho de facoemulsificação mais usado pelos participantes foi o Infiniti® (24,0%, seguido pelo Legacy® (19,8%. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados deste estudo foram consistentes com o que era esperado, tendo como base pesquisas semelhantes. Destaca-se um aumento considerável do número cirurgiões adeptos à facoemulsificação e tendências no sentido de maior utilização de incisões corneanas temporais e anestesia tópica.Purpose: To continue the updating and improving process of the cataract surgery in Brazil, through recently pulled out and documented registries. In addition, we want to obtain data for a comparative analysis of the current national and international surgical trends. METHODS:In May 2007, data were obtained from 188 participants of a Congress of Cataract and Refrative Surgery who answered simple and multiple-response questions about cataract surgery. Data were analyzed by statistic means of Chi-square test and T test. RESULTS:95.8% of respondents practice phacoemulsification, while only

  10. NO UNDERSKIRTS IN AFRICA: EDISON CARNEIRO AND THE "LINEAGES" OF AFRO-BRAZILIAN RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Maggie, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The article presents the folklorist, essayist, journalist and anthropologist Edison Carneiro (1912-1972) and situates him among the "lineages" or intellectual affiliations in the context of studies on Afro-Brazilian religious groups. Describing the life of Edison Carneiro, his relationship with American anthropologist Ruth Landes and his participation in the folkloric movement, I look to situate Carneiro among the various intellectual trends found within the study of Afro-Brazilian r...

  11. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  12. Magnitude e tendência da epidemia de Aids em municípios brasileiros de 2002-2006 Magnitud y tendencia de la epidemia de SIDA en ciudades brasileñas de 2002-2006 Magnitude and trend of the AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities, from 2002 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2010-06-01

    ", pero sin significancia a punto de alterar la participación proporcional (8,7% de esos municipios en el conjunto de casos en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: La epidemia de SIDA permanece concentrada en los centros urbanos y la interiorización es caracterizada por la ocurrencia irregular y de pequeña magnitud. Municipios con bajo IDH y con transmisión exclusivamente por relaciones heterosexuales presentaron baja capacidad de crecimiento y la reducción de la epidemia está asociada especialmente con la disminución de la transmisión entre usuarios de drogas inyectables.OBJECTIVE: To analyze different patterns of occurrence of AIDS in Brazilian cities between 2002 and 2006, associating trend and magnitude with socio-demographic indicators and local characteristics of the epidemic. METHODS: This was an ecological study that categorized cities according to magnitude and trend of the epidemic and subsequently analyzed, considering social indicators, types of HIV transmission and year of first case reported. Data came from the Brazilian Epidemiological Surveillance System, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the United Nations Development Program for Brazil. Linear regression was used to estimate trend and chi-square statistics and ANOVA to analyze indicators. RESULTS: A total of 4,190 cities (75.3% reported AIDS cases between 2002 and 2006. Of these, 3,403 (81.2% had an occurrence of "small magnitude" (mean = 4.7 cases, 367 (8.8% of "average magnitude" (mean = 30.3 cases and 420 (10.0% of "great magnitude" (mean = 378.7 cases. Cases of "small magnitude" were associated with lower incidence; beginning of the epidemic after 1991; presence of one or two types of transmission; especially heterosexual contact; with occurrences of cases in one or two years of the period; and lower human development index (HDI. Those of a "great magnitude" were associated with larger cities and higher HDI; presence of all types of transmission; beginning of the epidemic between 1980

  13. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  14. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Calabró, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work.

  15. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  16. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  17. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  18. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  19. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  20. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  1. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  2. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study Evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos em um hospital terciário brasileiro: um estudo de 4 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas duas décadas, os enterococos emergiram como importantes patógenos nosocomiais no mundo inteiro. Neste estudo, foi analisada a distribuição das espécies e a evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos obtidos em um hospital terciário, no período de 2006 a 2009. M

  3. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  4. Stakeholder Theory and Value Creation Models in Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Giugni Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study is to understand how top Brazilian firms think about and communicate value creation to their stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – We use qualitative content analysis methodology to analyze the sustainability or annual integrated reports of the top 25 Brazilian firms by sales revenue. Findings – Based on our analysis, these firms were classified into three main types of stakeholder value creation models: narrow, broad, or transitioning from narrow to broad. We find that many of the firms in our sample are in a transition state between narrow and broad stakeholder value creation models. We also identify seven areas of concentration discussed by firms in creating value for stakeholders: better stakeholder relationships, better work environment, environmental preservation, increased customer base, local development, reputation, and stakeholder dialogue. Practical implications – This study shows a trend towards broader stakeholder value creation models in Brazilian firms. The findings of this study may inform practitioners interested in broadening their value creation models. Originality/value – This study adds to the discussion of stakeholder theory in the Brazilian context by understanding variations in value creation orientation in Brazil.

  5. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  6. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  7. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  8. Tendências nas condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998, 2003 Trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar as tendências das condições de saúde e do uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios (PNAD. Foram incluídos no estudo 28.943 e 35.042 participantes das PNAD 1998 e 2003 com idade > 60 anos, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que houve melhora nas condições de saúde dos idosos nesse período, considerando-se indicadores como percepção da saúde, ter estado recentemente acamado, capacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária e número de doenças crônicas. Os resultados também monstraram que houve aumento do número de consultas médicas e odontológicas entre 1998 e 2003. Tais tendências foram consistentemente observadas em ambos os sexos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do suplemento de saúde da PNAD como fonte de informação para o monitoramento e/ou vigilância das condições de saúde da população idosa brasileira.This study examined trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly, based on health data from the National Household Sample Surveys (PNAD conducted in 1998 and 2003. 28,943 and 35,042 individuals aged > 60 years were included in the study, respectively. The results showed an improvement in health conditions in the study population during this period, as measured by self-rated health, having remained bedridden in the previous two weeks, ability to perform selected activities of daily living, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported arthritis. There was also an increase in the number of doctor and dentist visits from 1998 to 2003. The trends were consistent for both men and women. The results emphasize the importance of the PNAD health supplement as a source of information for the surveillance or monitoring of health and health-related conditions in the Brazilian elderly population.

  9. [Trend sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Pralle, H

    2015-06-01

    Popular trend sports are characterized by intensive and high speed performance. Due to the high energy mechanism in falls, typical injury distributions and patterns result. In a retrospective study the injury patterns and frequencies in mountain bike athletes were analyzed and pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic options in the treatment of high energy injuries to the carpal bones are shown. Based on a retrospective survey over 2 successive years, active mountain bike athletes (World Cup Series) were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Injury patterns and frequencies were analyzed. The pathophysiology, diagnostics and therapy of high energy carpal injuries are discussed. In this study 107 World Cup mountain bike athletes were enrolled. Injuries of the extremities were found in more than 75% of athletes with a higher prevalence in the upper extremities (40.7%) than the lower extremities (34.84%), followed by injuries of the head and face (13.3%, of which 10.6% were traumatic brain injuries) and the trunk (10.6%). Fractures and dislocations of the hand and wrist were found in approximately half of the athletes (50.9%). In popular trend sports injuries of the extremities are common, especially of the carpal bones and ligaments. It is important to distinguish stable from destabilizing injuries in order to provide adequate therapeutic options.

  10. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  11. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific - A re-examination of evidence for sequential megafauna collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, P.R.; Burkanov, V.N.; Dahlheim, M.E.; Friday, N.A.; Fritz, L.W.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mizroch, S.A.; Muto, M.M.; Rice, D.W.; Barrett-Lennard, L. G.; Black, N.A.; Burdin, A.M.; Calambokidis, J.; Cerchio, S.; Ford, J.K.B.; Jacobsen, J.K.; Matkin, C.O.; Matkin, D.R.; Mehta, A.V.; Small, R.J.; Straley, J.M.; McCluskey, S.M.; VanBlaricom, G.R.; Clapham, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Springer et al. (2003) contend that sequential declines occurred in North Pacific populations of harbor and fur seals, Steller sea lions, and sea otters. They hypothesize that these were due to increased predation by killer whales, when industrial whaling's removal of large whales as a supposed primary food source precipitated a prey switch. Using a regional approach, we reexamined whale catch data, killer whale predation observations, and the current biomass and trends of potential prey, and found little support for the prey-switching hypothesis. Large whale biomass in the Bering Sea did not decline as much as suggested by Springer et al., and much of the reduction occurred 50-100 yr ago, well before the declines of pinnipeds and sea otters began; thus, the need to switch prey starting in the 1970s is doubtful. With the sole exception that the sea otter decline followed the decline of pinnipeds, the reported declines were not in fact sequential. Given this, it is unlikely that a sequential megafaunal collapse from whales to sea otters occurred. The spatial and temporal patterns of pinniped and sea otter population trends are more complex than Springer et al. suggest, and are often inconsistent with their hypothesis. Populations remained stable or increased in many areas, despite extensive historical whaling and high killer whale abundance. Furthermore, observed killer whale predation has largely involved pinnipeds and small cetaceans; there is little evidence that large whales were ever a major prey item in high latitudes. Small cetaceans (ignored by Springer et al.) were likely abundant throughout the period. Overall, we suggest that the Springer et al. hypothesis represents a misleading and simplistic view of events and trophic relationships within this complex marine ecosystem. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  12. Fertilizer trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  13. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  14. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  16. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  17. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  18. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  19. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  20. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006 Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006 Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-12-01

    Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The rates of overall cancer mortality and major types were corrected by proportionally redistributing 50% of ill-defined causes of death and standardizing them by age according to the standard world population. Trend curves for Brazil and its major regions were calculated for state capitals and other municipalities according to sex, and were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. RESULTS: Among men, ascending mortality rates were observed for lung, prostate and colorectal cancer; declining rates for stomach cancer; and stable rates for esophagus cancer. Among women, mortality from breast, lung and colorectal cancer increased, and the rates for cervical and stomach cancer declined. Mortality evolution varied across the regions of Brazil, with distinct patterns between state capitals and other municipalities. CONCLUSIONS: The correction of mortality rates based on redistribution of ill-defined causes of death increased the magnitude of the overall cancer mortality in Brazil by approximately 10% in 1980 and 5% in 2006. In the inland municipalities no decrease or stability was identified, differently from what was observed in the state capitals. Limited scope of prevention actions and lower access to services of cancer diagnosis and treatment for the population living away from large urban centers may partly explain these differences.

  1. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  2. No Underskirts in Africa: Edison Carneiro and the "Lineages" of Afro-Brazilian Religious Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maggie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the folklorist, essayist, journalist and anthropologist Edison Carneiro (1912-1972 and situates him among the “lineages” or intellectual affiliations in the context of studies on Afro-Brazilian religious groups. Describing the life of Edison Carneiro, his relationship with American anthropologist Ruth Landes and his participation in the folkloric movement, I look to situate Carneiro among the various intellectual trends found within the study of Afro-Brazilian religions. I argue that the author occupied an ambiguous position in terms of the African presence in the constitution of Afro-Brazilian religions, showing close proximities to Ruth Landes, Franklin Frazier, Ruth Benedict, Donald Pierson and Robert Park on the one hand, and Melville Herskovitz, Roger Bastide and Arthur Ramos on the other. Carneiro’s studies of Candomblé de Caboclo express this double bind.

  3. Humanism and solidarity in brazilian foreign policy under Lula (2003-2010: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aurélio Pimenta de Faria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The "humanistic" or "solidarity-based" trend in the Brazilian strategy of international insertion, adopted after the rise to power of President Lula and considered innovative, consolidated the objective of prioritizing the South-South axis and can be explained by domestic, regional, and systemic reasons. This strategy was put into practice by increasing the international aid granted by Brazil, by transferring resources and technology and by the emphasis placed on conveying to partner countries some of the domestic social policies and programmes developed successfully by the Brazilian government. The aims of this paper are: (a to look at how this "humanism" and "solidarity" appeared in the discourse of the Brazilian authorities; (b to discuss the reasons for them and their logic in the national, regional, and systemic dimensions; and (c to map the initiatives adopted, the preferred partners and areas, the resources used and the intragovernmental connections necessary for their implementation.

  4. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  5. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  6. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  7. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  8. Perception, knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian orthodontists on the treatment of Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO K. KAIEDA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the perception and knowledge of Brazilian orthodontists on the ideal moment to treat Class II malocclusions. Questionnaires with open, semi-open and close questions were sent by e-mail to 1653 Brazilian orthodontists. These orthodontists were registered in the Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR. One-hundred and three (9.86% Orthodontists replied to the questionnaires. Most of them were males (60.5% with specialization as the highest level of professional qualification (59.9%. Most of the orthodontists (51% reported preference for treating Class II malocclusions in late mixed dentition, followed by the early mixed dentition (29%. The age range between 10 and 12 years old figured as the most prevalent in patients searching for treatment (42.7%. Most of the patients searching for treatment were females (69.7%. Preferences for functional orthopedic appliances were reported by 35% of the orthodontists. Brazilian orthodontists revealed a trend for treating patients with Class II malocclusions in the late mixed dentition. Female patients aged from 10 to 12 years old represented the majority of patients that search for orthodontic treatment. Functional orthopedic appliances were preferred by Brazilian orthodontists for treating Class II malocclusions.

  9. Evidences of Validity of the Brazilian Scale of Learner's Attitude towards Distance Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco Antonio, Jr.; Cortat, Mariane; Flores, Clarissa Leite; Santos, Flávio Augusto Mendes; Alves, Gleidilson Costa; Faiad, Cristiane; Ramos, Wilsa Maria; Rodrigues da Silva, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Online learning is one of the fastest growing trends in educational uses of technology. In this study, an instrument to measure the social attitudes of the Brazilian students based on distance education was developed and validated. The study population consisted of public administration undergraduate students that has been providing by distance…

  10. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  11. Economic and social characteristics of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    The question of whether Brazilians have improved their economic situation since 1970 is controversial. A number of questions on the Brazilian census of 1980 dealt with the economic and social characteristics of the population. The usefulness of census data lies in their capacity to indicate trends every 10 years. Consequently, one can get some idea of whether Brazil is making progress in certain aspects of modernization or in improving the skills and living conditions of the people. Census data have limitations. They indicate averages, not specific cases. They fail to raise a number of questions about economic and social conditions that would improve understanding. Discussion is focused on population structure and the economy, income, housing, education, and health. Brazil is continuing the process of modernization by which population shifts from the primary sector (agriculture and mining) into other sectors of the economy. The 14.88% of the work force in agriculture, livestock, and fishing represent about 30% of the potentially economically active (PEA) population. 1/3 of the population is still rural, but the trend since 1940 is striking. The momentum of decline intensified in both 1960-70 and 1970-80, reflecting a process of abandoning small farms, mechanizing larger farms, and a general flow of population to the cities. All other sectors of the economy have increased the proportion of people working in them. The data of 1980 reflect a period of sustained economic growth that culminated in that year with an increase of 8%. In 1981 and 1982, Brazil had been in a recession so that in 1983 some of these figures might have changed. The dispute began when the results of the 1970 census were used to show that income was becoming more concentrated, i.e., the top percentages, in comparison with 1960, received a larger share of national income, while the lowest percentages received less. The differences in income between men and women is particularly strong in the

  12. Ischaemic heart disease deaths in Brazil: current trends, regional disparities and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cristina P; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Sabbag, Ary Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Olandoski, Marcia; Franco, Oscar H; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the trend of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in Brazil during the last decade (2000-2010) for various population characteristics and to forecast the upcoming mortality trends across regions in Brazil until the year 2015. Nationwide comparative observational study. The population studied encompassed all adult residents (≥ 20 years) living in five Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, economic and mortality data were obtained from Brazilian National Mortality Data System and National Applied Economics Research Institute. Subnotified deaths were redistributed proportionally to IHD deaths. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex and region, were calculated employing a standard Brazilian population and constructing multivariate regression models to quantify and to project temporal trends. Absolute numbers of death due to IHD and region-specific death rates in Brazil by age and sex. During the study period, 627 786 men and 452 690 women died due to IHD in Brazil. ASMR trends across all regions for men and women converged, driven by a declining trend in the South and Southeast and an opposite incline in the North and Northeast (p < 0.05). Future projections demonstrated potential widening of the observed North-South gap in coming years. The IHD death trend in Brazil has changed from a decline to a stagnant state. However, a significant discrepancy in mortality trends exists between the northern and southern regions, which is likely to widen further. Reappraisal of the public health policies tailored to populations with diverse socioeconomic structures is urgently required.

  13. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  14. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  15. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  16. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  17. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  18. Business process trends

    OpenAIRE

    von Rosing, Mark; Polovina, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Business process and business process management (BPM) concepts have matured over the years and new technology, concepts, standards and solutions appear. In this chapter\\ud we will therefore focus on the current and future process trends. We will elaborate on the importance of trends, the maturity of the subject, giving a perspective on what emerging trends, industry trends, mega trends are, what is hyped at the moment, and what has reached a market adoption where it has started to become the...

  19. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  20. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  1. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  2. Sociocultural and Environmental Influences on Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Child Feeding and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria H; Machado, Marcia M T; Mezzavilla, Raquel S; Detro, Barbara M

    2017-05-01

    Background Length of residence in the United States (US), changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors, and economic and social barriers contribute to high childhood obesity rates among children from immigrant families in the US. Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on health issues affecting Brazilian children in immigrant families. Understanding sociocultural and environmental influences on parents' beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status is essential to altering obesity trends in this group. Methods Qualitative study consisting of five focus groups with a convenience sample of 29 Brazilian immigrant mothers. Results Analyses revealed that the sociocultural and environment transitions faced by Brazilian immigrant mothers' influence their beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status. Additionally, acculturation emerged as a factor affecting mothers' feeding practices and their children's eating habits, with mothers preferring Brazilian food environments and that their children preferring American food environments. Mothers viewed themselves as being responsible for promoting and maintaining their children's healthy eating and feeding behaviors, but changes in their social and cultural environments due to immigration and the pressures and demands of raising a family in a new country make this difficult. Conclusions Health promotion interventions to improve healthful eating and feeding practices of Brazilian children in immigrant families must account for social and cultural changes and daily life demands due to immigration as well as potential variation in the levels of acculturation between mothers and their children.

  3. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  4. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 in Brazilian educational narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text presents the partial conclusions of the research in which a comparative analysis was made of narratives that address the issue of Brazilian Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 within the set of History textbooks of Elementary School approved by the Brazilian National Textbook Program (Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD/2011. Possible trends of sense production based on reading are looked for in the set of narratives, considering that, in the organization of their components, such texts carry a potential of meanings which are updated at each reading. Since the narratives cover recent historical events, it is concluded that social memory and history play a peculiar role as mechanisms external to narrative that reflect their internal mechanisms and possibilities of history meaning. In this analysis, elements of language studies and theory of history, with regard to its teaching, are broadly present. How to reference this article Rocha, H. (2015. A Ditadura Militar (1964-1985 nas narrativas didáticas brasileiras. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 97-120. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.006

  6. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  7. Marketing Trends to Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  8. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... opioid overdose Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  9. Factors associated with functional ability in Brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study, designed as a cross-sectional sample of 621 elderly residents in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil was to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate functional ability and associated factors in Brazilian elderly. Interviews were conducted at study subjects' houses using a questionnaire focused on socio demographic information and health conditions. Elderly who reported some difficulty in performing six or more activities, or total inability to carry out at least three activities identified on the scale developed by Katz et al. (1963) and Lawton and Brody (1969) were considered to have inadequate functional ability. Data analysis included frequency distribution, bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression. The prevalence of inadequate functional ability was of 16.2% (95% CI: 13-19%) in the sample analyzed. With aging, there was a significant trend of inadequate functional ability increasing in men (χ(2) for trend=8.481; p=0.003) and women (χ(2) trend=13.667; pfunctional ability were age over 80 years, low monthly income, poor self-health perception, history of hospitalization in the last year, use of 5 or more medicines in the last 15 days; history of depression, history of osteoporosis, and negatively associated to physical activity. Factors associated with inadequate functional ability highlighted in this study demonstrate the importance of health programs in Brazil focused on adults and the elderly in preventing or delaying functional decline and promote healthy aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  11. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  12. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  13. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  14. Phylodynamics of the Brazilian feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ortiz, Lucía; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Comerlato, Juliana; Costa, Cristina Santos; Zani, André; Duda, Naila Blatt; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Raissa Nunes; da Costa, Fernanda Vieira Amorim; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2017-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil. Forty six reference-sequences from the GenBank were used with our 31 sequences to infer the virus subtypes. Our sequences belong to the subtype B and three of them result from a recombination with the previously described subtype F. The other 28 Brazilian samples belonging to subtype B and another 46 Brazilian sequences from the GenBank were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor of each Brazilian clade, using a Bayesian approach and a relaxed molecular clock model. The analyses of Brazilian sequences suggest several different entries of the virus in the Brazilian cat population between 1981 and 1991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  16. [Trends on anophthalmic socket repair in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Roberta Lilian Fernandes de; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Zornoff, Denise de Cássia Moreira; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most common approach to repair the anophthalmic socket in Brazil, and to compare the data with the trends in other countries. Exploratory study using electronic questionnaire sent by Internet to ophthalmologists members of the Brazilian Orbit and Oculoplastic Society (SBCPO). The received answers were analyzed by adhesion analysis, using Chi-square test. We received 75 answered questionnaires. Fifty-three per cent of the respondents frequently treat anophthalmic socket and use the 18 mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate sphere in the majority of the surgeries, mainly covered by sclera (92%). Only seven interviewees had used integrated implants with pegging procedure. Eighty-two per cent of the ophthalmologists use the dermolipid graft to reconstruct the anophthalmic socket. They also follow the patients bi-annually. The treatment of anophthalmic socket in Brazil generally involve polymethylmethacrylate sphere with 18 mm diameter. Pegging procedure is uncommon between us.

  17. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Nabout

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI. The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  18. NASA trend analysis procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  19. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  20. THE COURSE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION PUBLICATIONS OF BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN SOME BRAZILIAN TRANSLATION JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the course of publications about Translation and Interpretation of Brazilian sign language in some Brazilian Translation journals. Results show a sum of 36 works published, distributed over Translation journals of different regions of Brazil. The established subjects and the ones that emerged from 1990 to 2014 were also examined in these publications.

  1. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  2. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  3. Trends in Web characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, João; Gomes, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—The Web is permanently changing, with new technologies and publishing behaviors emerging everyday. It is important to track trends on the evolution of the Web to develop efficient tools to process its data. For instance, Web trends influence the design of browsers, crawlers and search engines. This study presents trends on the evolution of the Web derived from the analysis of 3 characterizations performed within an interval of 5 years. The Web portion used as a c...

  4. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  5. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  6. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  7. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  8. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSD r values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , aflatoxin G 1 , and aflatoxin G 2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  9. Case Study: Brazilian Virtual Herbarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Virtual Herbarium (BVH is a project of the Brazillian Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA that has been running since 2009. The Virtual Herbarium provides an infrastructure that gathers digital records of plant specimens from primary source, mainly in Brazil, and makes them available through a central web portal. The source herbaria have complete control over what data is made through the portal and the data collected by BVH is made fully available. BVH in common with many data infrastructures, faces challenges in retaining funding. Most funding sources are project based and as has been noted elsewhere this creates problems for the sustaining of infrastructures. BVH therefore has an interest in demonstrating the use of the data resources it hosts. Through the OCSDNet project it has strengthened its capacity in this area to develop tools showing its wide usage. Overall the BVH hosts over eight million records (as of October 2017 and received 70 billion data requests in October 2017. Its users are mainly in Brazil but there is also substantial global usage. The primary uses are for research and education. There are a broad range of educational users, including universities but also schools. Through providing a central aggregation and access point BHV provides a data infrastructure that is greater – and more useful – than the sum of its parts.

  10. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  11. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  12. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  13. Evolução das desigualdades sociais em saúde entre idosos e adultos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 1998, 2003 Health inequality trends among Brazilian adults and old-aged: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as desigualdades sociais em saúde de adultos (20-64 anos e idosos (> 65 anos brasileiros se alteraram entre 1998 e 2003. O estudo foi realizado em uma amostra de 203.455 e 239.700 participantes da PNAD 1998 e 2003, respectivamente. As condições de saúde e função física, uso de serviços de saúde e filiação a plano de saúde daqueles pertencentes ao quintil inferior da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita foram comparadas às daqueles com renda mais alta, utilizando-se métodos multivariados de análise. Os resultados mostraram que nos dois anos considerados, os indivíduos no estrato mais baixo de renda apresentavam piores condições de saúde, pior função física e menor uso de serviços de saúde, tanto na faixa etária de 20-64 quanto na de > 65 anos de idade. As forças das associações entre renda domiciliar per capita, condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde não se modificaram entre 1998 e 2003, indicando que não houve alterações nas desigualdades sociais em saúde no período estudado. A persistência dessas desigualdades aponta para a ineficiência de políticas, nos últimos cinco anos, que as reduzissem.The aim of this study was to verify whether health inequalities among Brazilian adults (20-64 years and old-aged (> 65 years have changed from 1998 to 2003. The study was conducted in samples of 203.455 and 239.700 participants of the National Household Sample Survey in 1998 and 2003 respectively. The health characteristics of those in the lower quintile of the per capita family income were compared to those with higher income by means of multivariate analysis methods. The characteristics considered in this study were health conditions and physical functioning, use of medical and dental services and health plan affiliation. The results from both years showed poorer health conditions, poorer physical functioning and less use of medical and dental services

  14. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  15. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  16. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  17. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  18. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    including breaking news, meme , and commemorative day, on the context patterns. Table 2 shows the example pattern of classifying context pattern feature...used the following rule to find the ‘ meme ’. If the trending topic contains ‘#’ AND ‘subject+verb’, then trending topic is ‘ Meme ’. Table 2 Context

  19. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  20. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  1. [Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Luquetti, Alejandro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Coura, José Rodrigues; Torres, Rosália Morais; Melo, José Renan da Cunha; Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Oliveira, Wilson de; Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Pinto, Fabiane Scalabrini; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Rassi, Anis; Fragata, Abílio Augusto; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Correia, Dalmo; Jansen, Ana Maria; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Rassi, Anis; Campos, Dayse Elisabeth; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Santos, Silvana Eloi; Chiari, Egler; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Moreira, Eliane Furtado; Marques, Divina Seila de Oliveira; Silva, Eliane Lages; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; Cardoso, Alessandra Viana; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Costa, Veruska Maia da; Vivaldini, Simone Monzani; Oliveira, Suelene Mamede; Valente, Vera da Costa; Lima, Mayara Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition that presents high morbidity and mortality burden, with considerable psychological, social, and economic impact. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence. The consensus is based on collaboration and contribution of renowned Brazilian experts with vast knowledge and experience on various aspects of the disease. It is the result of close collaboration between the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health. This document shall strengthen the development of integrated control measures against Chagas disease in the country, focusing on epidemiology, management, comprehensive care (including families and communities), communication, information, education, and research.

  2. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  3. Is size structure a good measure of future trends of plant populations? an empirical approach using five woody species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna A estrutura de tamanho é uma boa medida de tendências futuras em populações de plantas? uma abordagem empírica com cinco espécies lenhosas de Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bernucci Virillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Size distributions in woody plant populations have been used to assess their regeneration status, assuming that size structures with "reverse-J" shapes represent stable populations. We present an empirical approach of this issue using five woody species from the Cerrado. Considering count data for all plants of these five species over a 12-year period, we analyzed size distribution by: a plotting frequency distributions and their adjustment to the negative exponential curve and b calculating the Gini coefficient. To look for a relationship between size structure and future trends, we considered the size structures from the first census year. We analyzed changes in number over time and performed a simple population viability analysis, which gives the mean population growth rate, its variance and the probability of extinction in a given time period. Frequency distributions and the Gini coefficient were not able to predict future trends in population numbers. We recommend that managers should not use measures of size structure as a basis for management decisions without applying more appropriate demographic studies.As estruturas de tamanho de populações têm sido frequentemente usadas para inferir sobre a capacidade de regeneração de uma população, assumindo que as estruturas de tamanho com formato "J-invertido" representam populações estáveis. Nós apresentamos uma abordagem empírica desta questão com cinco espécies lenhosas de Cerrado. Usando dados de contagem de todas as plantas destas cinco espécies por um período de doze anos, nós analisamos a distribuição de tamanho dos indivíduos de duas maneiras: a por meio de histogramas de frequência em classes de tamanho, e seu ajuste a uma curva exponencial negativa; b calculando o coeficiente de Gini. Para verificar a existência de uma relação entre a estrutura de tamanho e as tendências futuras em número, consideramos a estrutura de tamanho no ano do primeiro censo. Foram

  4. [The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and foreign trade: is there evidence of regressive specialization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Fábio Batista; Cassiolato, José Eduardo; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois

    2012-03-01

    Based on an exploratory discussion, the aim of this article is to investigate whether there is evidence of regressive specialization in the foreign trade pattern of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry since trade liberalization in the 1990s. A descriptive statistical analysis drew on data for foreign trade in pharmaceutical and organic chemical products, available in the Aliceweb system of the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade, covering the periods 1989-1995 and 1996-2008. The results, especially concerning trends in Brazil's trade with developed countries, suggest evidence of regressive specialization.

  5. Brazilian-Argentine Relations in the 1980s: from Wary Rivalry toward Friendly Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Trends Straining the Linkage i. Argentine instability, or return to power there of the ?eronists or r-ght-wing military sectors. 2. Rapid Brazilian g ...Ano XV, No. 57 (january-March 1982), pp. 9-27. Stanley Hilton, "Las relaciones argentino-brasilenas: El punto de vista del Brasil," in Carlos J...34Brazil’s Foreign Policy: More Actcrs and Expanding Agendas," in Jennie K. Lincoln and Elizabeth G . Ferris, eds., Zhe Dynamics of Latin’American Foreign

  6. Healthy food trends -- kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these medicines work. ...

  7. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000731.htm Healthy food trends -- quinoa To use the sharing features on ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  8. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000728.htm Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds To use the sharing features on ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  9. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  10. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  11. Interpretações sobre a burguesia industrial brasileira: um breve balanço The Brazilian industrial bourgeoisie: a brief critical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo de Sousa Barbosa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos realizar um breve balanço das principais correntes interpretativas que buscaram compreender e explicar o “comportamento” e a “mentalidade” da burguesia nas décadas que marcaram a sua origem e posterior consolidação. Palavras-chave: Burguesia industrial. Capitalismo brasileiro. Hegemonia. In this article we intend to make a brief critical record of the main interpretative trends that tried to understand and explain the “behavior” and the “mentality” of the Brazilian industrial bourgeoisie in the decades that determined its origin and subsequent consolidation. Keywords: Industrial bourgeoisie. Brazilian capitalism. Hegemony.

  12. [The Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC) and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) governments and the policy for the civil servant workforce of the Brazilian government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosario; Lamarca, Isabel

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the configuration of the active civil servant workforce of the Brazilian government during Fernando Henrique Cardoso - FHC - (1995-2002) and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - Lula - (2003-2010) mandates. The article associates the condition of the workforce of the Brazilian government with the changes in the government coalition. The residual participation of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in the direct provision of public services influenced the downward trend of the federal workforce.The implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) was strongly affected by the structural adjustment of the workforce at the federal level during the decades of 1990 and 2000.

  13. Security of the Brazilian Amazon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Thk document may not be Mased fog openi puiks&adM tr it ha beat domed by the appropriate militarvice or TIC M AY5, 1921 SECURITY OF THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON...34Seguridad y Ecologia. Reforinulacion de tin concepto". Nueva Sociedad . (may/June 1990 - no 107): 21- 26. McIntyre, Loren. "Last Days of Eden

  14. Anthropometry of Brazilian Air Force pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gilvan V; Halpern, Manny; Gordon, Claire C

    2017-10-01

    Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017. The participants were measured countrywide, in all five Brazilian Geographical Regions. Thirty-nine anthropometric measurements related to cockpit design were selected. The results of 2133 males and 206 females aged 16-52 years constitute a set of basic data for cockpit design, space arrangement issues and adjustments, protective gear and equipment design, as well as for digital human modelling. Another important implication is that this study can be considered a starting point for reducing gender bias in women's career as pilots. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes the first large-scale anthropometric survey of the Brazilian Air Force pilots and the development of the related database. This study provides critical data for improving aircraft cockpit design for ergonomics and comprehensive pilot accommodation, protective gear and uniform design, as well as digital human modelling.

  15. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  16. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  17. Brazilian Review of Finance 2012 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online; a printed version is maintained, in part, thanks to a grant from CNPq/CAPES. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The journal is indexed by EconLit, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Gale and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 18 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 30% for papers submitted in 2010, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for all articles published in 2011 was 266. The worst case was 462 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 432. The worst case was 599 days. The average number of hits per article as of January 2012 was 1,249. Sixty-four individuals served as reviewers in 2011.

  18. Hemoglobin Variant Profiles among Brazilian Quilombola Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rayra P; Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Soares, Leonardo F; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Silva, Denise Oliveira; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ana F; Fiuza, Luciana M; Guarda, Caroline C; Adorno, Elisângela V; Barbosa, Cynara G; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2017-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) variant; individuals from Piauí State had a higher frequency of the Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) variant compared to the other states, and individuals from Pará State only carried the Hb S variant. The present study revealed a specific distribution of Hb variants that could represent different waves of African influence in these Brazilian populations.

  19. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  20. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  1. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  2. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  3. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  4. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  5. H-index in the Brazilian Academy of Sciences: comments and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Ponciano, Luiza C M O

    2008-12-01

    Bibliometric parameters have been used in order to evaluate a scientist's performance. The h-index has been gradually accepted as the most adequate parameter for this purpose. To have an idea of this index among Brazilian scientists, we performed an analysis of this parameter for the full members of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (BAS). The h-index of 402 members listed in 10 distinct categories by the BAS was determined, cross-checked with the curriculum vitae of each of them listed at the Plataforma Lattes database (CVL) and compared with each other. Despite the large production, mostly in journals without impact factor, the h-indexes among the BAS members are comparatively low and show a large variation in all of the 10 categories, particularly in Biomedical and Physical sciences. The highest average of h-index values was found in Biomedical, Health and Chemical sciences; the lowest values were found in Human sciences where this index is meaningless. Several problems due to the trend that new and "fresh" publications need be constantly produced (the "bakery-effect") are discussed. This study points to the need of developing countries such as Brazil to invest in national scientific journals in order to make them gradually part of the mainstream journals. This would have a positive effect on bibliometric parameters of Brazilian researchers, including the h-index.

  6. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: olcosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  7. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  8. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  9. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  10. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-03-01

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about-right scale and purchase intent. External preference mapping and the ideal sensory characteristics of dulce de leche were determined. The results were also evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks, and logistic regression. Overall, significant product acceptance was related to intermediate scores of the sensory attributes in the descriptive test, and this trend was observed even after consumer segmentation. The results obtained by sensometric techniques showed that optimizing an ideal dulce de leche from the sensory standpoint is a multidimensional process, with necessary adjustments on the appearance, aroma, taste, and texture attributes of the product for better consumer acceptance and purchase. The optimum dulce de leche was characterized by high scores for the attributes sweet taste, caramel taste, brightness, color, and caramel aroma in accordance with the preference mapping findings. In industrial terms, this means changing the parameters used in the thermal treatment and quantitative changes in the ingredients used in formulations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Imposex reduction and residual butyltin contamination in southern Brazilian harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ítalo Braga; Rossato, Martina; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-05-01

    The imposex incidence was appraised in South American gastropods, considering the scenario before and after the global ban of tributyltin (TBT). A statistically significant reduction in imposex indexes was observed in Stramonita haemastoma collected in 2006 and 2010 from areas under the influence of four coastal harbors from southern Brazil. This reduction may be because of the effectiveness of the global ban issued by the International Maritime Organization, although the restrictions on TBT-based antifouling paints in Brazil might also have helped. Even so, a residual organotin contamination was still detected in female tissues (levels ranged from 7.6 to 164.9 ng Sn/g for TBT; from imposex and environmental levels of organotins is expected in every ocean worldwide soon after the implementation of national and international restriction regulations, this will depend on the effectiveness of the global TBT ban; the effectiveness of local restrictions on producing, selling, and using TBT-based antifouling paints; and specific characteristics of local sediments, because metabolization rates and sorption/desorption of TBT previously deposited might affect its environmental bioavailability. Therefore, the reduction trend detected in the present study cannot be extrapolated to other Brazilian or South American coastal areas. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. The Trend-in-trend Research Design for Causal Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinyao; Small, Dylan S; Leonard, Charles E; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend. Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio (OR) using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction (observed OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4), and known null associations between rofecoxib and severe hypoglycemia (OR = 1.1 [0.92, 1.3]) and nonvertebral fracture (OR = 0.84 [0.64, 1.1]). The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B178.

  13. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  14. Tropospheric ozone trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.; Roemer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of chemical reactive trace gases have substantially altered the composition of the troposphere. These perturbations have caused tropospheric O3 increases, in particular in the Northern Hemisphere. It remains, however, difficult to accurately establish O3 trends throughout the

  15. Travel and tourism trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  16. Ten Top Tech Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  17. Trends in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, E

    2001-05-01

    The terms trend and cerebral palsy are defined emphazing the non-diagnostic nature of the cerebral palsy label. Criteria necessary for valid estimation of trends include constant methods of estimating population based numerators and denominators over a number of years, which render them hard to obtain, particularly in developing countries. Trends in cerebral palsy are an important source of aetiological hypotheses for congenital cerebral palsy, provide corroborative evidence for existing hypotheses and may direct strategies to prevent post neonatally acquired cerebral palsy. In developed countries the overall frequency of congenital cerebral palsy has changed little during the last decades. However this masks a dramatic increase in the frequency in the infants born most preterm, a decline in those born moderately preterm and little change in those born at term, but the severity of impairments of those born very preterm is decreasing while for those born at term severity in increasing. These changes may be the result of the increasing ability of perinatal care to rescue very vulnerable infants. There is less agreement in trends of post neonatally acquired cerebral palsy which are more sensitive to social well being.

  18. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  19. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  20. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  1. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  2. Trends in ICT 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Paul van; Rust, Christa

    2003-01-01

    The study "Trends in ICT 2003" surveyed Dutch managers about important IT aspects. Results of the study are presented in brief. Topics treated are security, privacy, e-commerce, use of intranet, monitoring of employee WWW use, who makes IT decisions, implementation of contingency plans, the cause of

  3. [Development trend of nanomedicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since 2000, and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles.

  4. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  5. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  6. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance...... of the new millennium in order to indicate how practice has evolved....

  7. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  8. Analysis of the Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Inácio Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the light of the National System of Entrepreneurship – NSE theory, through the implementation of the Global Entrepreneurship Index methodology – GEI. The study indicates that Brazil has low quality average institutional interaction. However, social context is the main bottleneck in the national entrepreneurial ecosystem. Differences between the performance quality of the institutional framework and social factors promote entrepreneurship low socioeconomic impact. The results of the article show that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem presents low internationalization of companies, innovation in pro- ducts and processes, formation of human capital and high-growth enterprises. The results of the article provide insights for decision makers on the factors that determine the opening of new businesses.

  9. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  10. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  11. Aspectual Verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the semantics and the syntax of aspectual verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Some of these verbs select a+Infinitive in the European variety whereas the same verbs select that structure and Gerund in the Brazilian variety. We show that this discrepancy can be explained in semantic and syntactic grounds due to the different nature of the semantic ‘input’ (stative or eventive, the availability of tense constructions and the functional structure of the embedded domain. Another group of aspectual verbs do not differ in their syntactic structure in the two varieties as their structure (de+Infinitive is the same, although syntactically different from a+ Infinitive, but they do differ in their semantics and also in the selection of different verbs.

  12. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  13. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriela Andrade; Pimenta, Fabrícia Pires; Santos, Fátima Rejane Wink dos; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Hirata Júnior, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2008-08-01

    The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 microg/ml) and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 microg/ml) were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 microg/ml) to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74%) showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  15. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  16. The sequences of a Brazilian political sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By analytically reconstituting how the ideas of Oliveira Vianna were received in research by Victor Nunes Leal, Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz, and Maria Sylvia de Carvalho Franco, the article discusses the formation, from the 1920s to the 1970s, of a watershed in Brazilian political sociology oriented towards the investigation of conflict between the private and public orders in the specific configuration of political domination in Brazil.

  17. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  18. Brazilian public controllership institutions theory versus practice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzart, Janilson Antonio da Silva; Marcelino, Carolina Venturini; Rocha, Joseilton Silveira da

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a General Controllership (CGU) in the executive branch of the Brazilian federal government in 2003 brought in its wake the creation or transformation of a variety of institutions in public controllership at the state level. We have assumed that this development resulted from the needs of public managers for institutions that can not only monitor the actions taken by the public administration but also provide information useful to government managers, but this a...

  19. Segmentation in the brazilian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Fernando; Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  20. Bioactive Constituents of Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Trusheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis, among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source. Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.

  1. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  2. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-01-01

    The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individ...

  3. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  4. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the analysis of human resource management practices for Brazilian companies. The country-specific context and organizational behavior peculiarities of Brazil define the companies’ approach for HRM practices. The example of “CCR Group” is considered as a case study example. Analysis from company structure, culture specific context, current situation of human resource management not only in this company, but also in Brazil, in order to give the recommendation about how to ...

  5. Wireless Tech Trends 2010. Trend: smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-02-01

    THE LANDSCAPE: Physician use of handhelds is by no means a new concept. But as the devices--particularly the RIM BlackBerry, Apple iPhone and Google Android--become more sophisticated and more applications become available, the game is changing, quickly. And with so many hospitals upgrading their infrastructures to offer ubiquitous wireless coverage, clinicians are using smartphones in the hospital setting to access online tools such as drug references, and communicate with colleagues. For ClOs, it's a no-brainer--physicians and nurses are already carrying these devices, so why not capitalize on the trend by enabling users to access clinical information and link to patient records. A number of organizations have adopted this thinking and are on the road to enabling EMR access via mobile devices. And while there are certainly sticking points, it's an area that many say is poised for significant growth in the next few years. Many innovative organizations are looking to provide access to electronic records and other clinical data through smartphones. Plans are already being formulated to leverage the devices to facilitate patient handoff and sign-out, as well as to link charge capture with quality measures. Cutting-edge organizations are looking to create actionable information for clinicians through software that can analyze data, track patients'progress, and send out alerts when conditions worsen.

  6. Resistance Stories of African-Brazilian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of the orixás [African-Brazilian deities] of the black culture and tell their personal histories using those experiences. This intervention was an attempt at invoking different subjective experiences, and made it possible to empower the women who took part in the research, contributing for the rescue of the individual and collective memory of this group.

  7. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  8. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  9. Match analysis on no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu

    OpenAIRE

    Simola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Gi and no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu are fast growing sports. The aim of this thesis is to conclude a match analysis on no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Match analysis is used to identify the most used techniques in no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu. There is no sport analysis done for either gi or no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu, therefore the match analysis and its results can be utilized later as a base for sport analysis. The goal of this study is to find out the match duration, the type of match ending, the...

  10. Youth prolongation and identity: study of the processes of transition to adulthood in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nascimento Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between youth prolongation in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters and the identity construction processes of these individuals. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 young men and women aged 25 to 29 years, half of them from Madrid/Spain and the other half from Fortaleza/Brazil. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, the speeches were organized with the Atlas-ti program through a semantic content analysis. We assume that the postponement of the thresholds of transition to adulthood leads to new experiences, discourses and meanings of "being young", creating a new ideal-typical model of "prolonged youth" and turning it into a possibility of identification for a significant group of young people. In Spain, the youth prolongation is a much more pronounced and evident phenomenon than in Brazil. However, the movement towards a youth prolongation, especially concerning the "feeling younger for longer" is also a trend among young Brazilians.

  11. Brazilian Cinema: A Comparative Study between Fundraising Through Mechanisms of Public Incentive versus the Selling Revenue on the Brazilian Box Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.

  12. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008. The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM. The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country’s labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes and indirectly (losses in educational attainment. Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  13. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Marislei; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2015-05-01

    There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey) from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008). The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country's labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes) and indirectly (losses in educational attainment). Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  14. Brazilian Abstracts Presented at the American Urological Association Annual Meetings: Contribution, Publication Rates, and Comparison with Oncology Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Arap

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Scientific research originating from Brazil appears to be rising in several medical fields. Research results are often presented at scientific meetings before publication in peer-reviewed journals. We investigated the publication rate of Brazilian studies presented in American Urological Association (AUA meetings and compared with the rate of publication of Brazilian oncological studies presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO meetings. Materials and Methods a hand search of 12,454 abstracts presented at aua meetings 2001-2007 was conducted. abstracts for which at least two-thirds of institutions were from brazil were considered as brazilian. final publication was searched in pubmed and lilacs databases. oncological abstracts were also hand searched in the asco meetings proceedings in the same years. Results There was no significant temporal trend in the proportion of AUA studies originating from Brazil along those 7 years. A total of 195 abstracts (1.57% were from Brazil. One hundred (51.3% abstracts were published in full, and the estimated 5-year publication rate was 48.2%. There was a progressive increase in publication rates for studies categorized as video, poster, and podium presentations. Considering abstracts presented in years 2001-2005, urologic publication rate was significantly higher than for abstracts presented at the ASCO meeting. Conclusions Our results suggest that the Brazilian contribution to AUA meetings is at a plateau and that the Brazilian literature contribution is greater in urology than in oncology. Efforts must be invested towards raising this plateau and understanding qualitative aspects of the urology scientific output from Brazil.

  15. Secular trends in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudvoye, Julie; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2017-06-01

    Human adult height has been increasing world-wide for a century and a half. The rate of increase depends on time and place of measurement. Final height appears to have reached a plateau in Northern European countries but it is still increasing in southern European countries as well as Japan. While mean birth length has not changed recently in industrialized countries, the secular trend finally observed in adult height mostly originates during the first 2 years of life. Secular trend in growth is a marker of public health and provides insights into the interaction between growth and environment. It has been shown to be affected by income, social status, infections and nutrition. While genetic factors cannot explain such rapid changes in average population height, epigenetic factors could be the link between growth and environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Electricity market modeling trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventosa, Mariano E-mail: mariano.ventosa@iit.upco.es; Baillo, Alvaro; Ramos, Andres; Rivier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The trend towards competition in the electricity sector has led to efforts by the research community to develop decision and analysis support models adapted to the new market context. This paper focuses on electricity generation market modeling. Its aim is to help to identify, classify and characterize the somewhat confusing diversity of approaches that can be found in the technical literature on the subject. The paper presents a survey of the most relevant publications regarding electricity market modeling, identifying three major trends: optimization models, equilibrium models and simulation models. It introduces a classification according to their most relevant attributes. Finally, it identifies the most suitable approaches for conducting various types of planning studies or market analysis in this new context.

  17. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  18. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  19. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Discrimination between deterministic trend and stochastic trend processes

    OpenAIRE

    Caiado, Jorge; Crato, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Most of economic and financial time series have a nonstationary behavior. There are different types of nonstationary processes, such as those with stochastic trend and those with deterministic trend. In practice, it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the two processes. In this paper, we compare random walk and determinist trend processes using sample autocorrelation, sample partial autocorrelation and periodogram based metrics.

  1. Sex Differences in Diabetes Mellitus Mortality Trends in Brazil, 1980-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thainá Alves Malhão

    Full Text Available To investigate the hypothesis that the change from the female predominance of diabetes mellitus to a standard of equality or even male preponderance can already be observed in Brazilian mortality statistics.Data on deaths for which diabetes mellitus was listed as the underlying cause were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the years 1980 to 2012. The mortality data were also analyzed according to the multiple causes of death approach from 2001 to 2012. The population data came from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The mortality rates were standardized to the world population. We used a log-linear joinpoint regression to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR.From 1980 to 2012, we found a marked increment in the diabetes ASMR among Brazilian men and a less sharp increase in the rate among women, with the latter period (2003-2012 showing a slight decrease among women, though it was not statistically significant.The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus in Brazil has changed from a pattern of higher mortality among women compared to men to equality or even male predominance.

  2. Sex Differences in Diabetes Mellitus Mortality Trends in Brazil, 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhão, Thainá Alves; Brito, Alexandre Dos Santos; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Cabral, Cristiane da Silva; Camargo, Thais Medina Coeli Rochel de; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the change from the female predominance of diabetes mellitus to a standard of equality or even male preponderance can already be observed in Brazilian mortality statistics. Data on deaths for which diabetes mellitus was listed as the underlying cause were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the years 1980 to 2012. The mortality data were also analyzed according to the multiple causes of death approach from 2001 to 2012. The population data came from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The mortality rates were standardized to the world population. We used a log-linear joinpoint regression to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR). From 1980 to 2012, we found a marked increment in the diabetes ASMR among Brazilian men and a less sharp increase in the rate among women, with the latter period (2003-2012) showing a slight decrease among women, though it was not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus in Brazil has changed from a pattern of higher mortality among women compared to men to equality or even male predominance.

  3. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  4. TREND MECHANISMS IN CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch.......Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch....

  5. High School and Youth Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Nationwide Trends Prevention and Treatment Lessons from Prevention Research Substance Abuse in the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (653KB) Cite this ...

  6. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (pStudent's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year-flood estimated by stationary model when considering a planning horizon

  7. Watching Clone: Brazilian soap operas and Muslimness in Kyrgyzstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBrien, J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004 Clone, a Brazilian soap opera that featured Moroccans and Brazilians as main characters, broadcast throughout post-Soviet Central Asia. The program rose to tremendous popularity in the Kyrgyzstani town of BazaarKorgon partly due to the romanticism of its imagery. The town's residents said

  8. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  9. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  10. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  11. DEA investment strategy in the Brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Da Costa, Jr; Marcus Lima; Edgar Lanzer; Ana Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period investment strategy using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in the Brazilian stock market. Results show that the returns based on the DEA strategy were superior to the returns of a Brazilian stock index in most of the 22 quarters analyzed, presenting a significant Jensen's alpha.

  12. Factors Influencing Consonant Acquisition in Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; de Oliveira, Camila Rosa; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to provide valid and reliable data on the acquisition of consonant sounds in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Method: The sample comprised 733 typically developing monolingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (ages 3;0-8;11 [years;months]). The presence of surface speech error patterns, the revised percentage consonants…

  13. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  14. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  16. Cintia Moscovich's Brazilian View on Jewish Literary Themes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the work of Cintia Moscovich, author of four books, and one of the very few Brazilian writers dealing with Jewish subjects. Her writings concentrate on the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, where Jewish immigration began 100 years ago. Unlike Jewish immigrants' literature in Yiddish or in ...

  17. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  18. Molecular analysis of homocystinuria in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marianna P R; Galdieri, Luciano C; Pereira, Vanessa G; Vergani, Naja; da Rocha, José Cláudio C; Micheletti, Cecília; Martins, Ana Maria; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Almeida, Vânia D

    2005-12-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the most common cause of homocystinuria. However, no data are available concerning the molecular basis of this disease in Brazilian populations. We studied 14 Brazilian patients from 11 unrelated families using a combined screening approach, involving restriction analysis, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) scanning, and sequencing. All patients presented homocysteine levels higher than 200 mumol/l before the beginning of treatment. The most common CBS gene mutations, p.G307S (c.919G > A) and p.I278T (c.833T > C), were evaluated and the allele c.919A was not found. One allele with the c.844 ins68 (4.5%) in the CBS gene was found. Three families (6 patients) presented the allele c.833 C (13.6%), without the insertion in the heterozygous state. SSCP scanning and sequencing showed 3 alleles p.T191M (13.64%) in 2 families. One allele with a novel mutation was found in exon 4 (c.168T > A) of the CBS gene (4.5%). We also analyzed c.677C > T and c.1298A > C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the 2756A > G polymorphism in the methionine synthase (MTR) gene. The frequencies of mutated alleles were: 50% c.677T and 18.2% c.1298C for MTHFR, and 27.3% c.2756G for MTR. In spite of the high level of racial mixing in the country, Brazilian homocystinuric patients did not present a high prevalence of the most common mutations described in the literature.

  19. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  20. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  1. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma P. Cotrim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases’ 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3, in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in

  2. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  3. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  4. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  5. Maria Bandeira, an elusive Brazilian botanist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filgueiras Tarciso S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria do Carmo Vaughan Bandeira (1902-1992 is a little-known Brazilian botanist who worked for about ten years at the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She made approximately 800 botanical collections, including mosses (her special interest but also lichens, fungi and occasionally angiosperms. She studied at La Sorbonne in Paris, corresponded with leading botanists in different fields of botanical research in Europe and the USA, and represented the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden in many instances. At age 29 she abandoned a promising research career and entered a convent in Rio where she lived for 60 years as a cloistered nun.

  6. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao/SE (Brazil); Melo, A.P.; Gazano, V.S.O.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: dnsouza@fisca.ufs.br

    2006-07-01

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO{sub 3}), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  7. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  8. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  9. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  10. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Research trends in public policy: an assessmentof the National School Food Program (PNAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, Angelita Pinto; Bertolini, Geysler Rogis Flor

    2015-11-01

    The scope of the article is to evaluate the research trends of the Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE), by analyzing the papers published in journals on the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) website in the period from 2008 to 2013. It involved bibliographical research by means of qualitative analysis to detect the most relevant issues addressed and discussed by the program. Ten scientific articles related to the area were selected after reading the abstracts and research topics of the articles and by a search for the following key words: public policy, family farming, school food. Studies related to the PNAE and its impacts were also considered, due to the connection with the activities carried out in Brazilian public policy. The paper presents the issues analyzed and discussed most on the subject during the period under consideration. The conclusion reached is that the main research trends are characterized by the study of strategies for food and nutrition safety, analyzing the composition and acceptance of foods offered to students by an analysis of production, better living conditions and local development of rural producers.

  12. Trends of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Raquel Ferreira; Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011, in all five Brazilian macroregions and age groups (10-14 and 15-19 years), correlating it with the human development index (HDI). Descriptive epidemiological study, with cross-sectional design, performed by searching the database of the National Health System (Datasus), using information from the Information System (Sinasc). There was a decrease in the percentage of live births (LB) from teenage mothers (10-19 years) in Brazil (23.5 % in 2000 to 19.2 % in 2011). This reduction was observed in all Brazilian macroregions in the group of mothers aged 15 to 19 years. The number of LB increased by 5.0% among mothers aged 10-14 years (increase in the North and Northeast and decline in the other macroregions). The proportion of LB shows an inversely proportional trend to HDI score, with the Southeast having the highest HDI and the lowest proportion of LB to teenage mothers in the country. Brazil shows a decline in the percentage of LB to adolescent mothers, tending to be inversely related to HDI score. It is important to empower strategies to address the problem, so that teenage pregnancy is seen as a personal decision rather than the result of a lack of policies targeting adolescent health.

  13. Consistent declining trends in stroke mortality in Brazil: mission accomplished?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria M. A. Passos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stroke mortality rates are declining in Brazil, but diferences among regions need to be better investigated. The age-adjusted stroke mortality trends among adults (30-69 years-old from Brazilian regions were studied between 1996 and 2011. Method Data were analyzed after: 1 reallocation of deaths with non-registered sex or age; 2 redistribution of garbage codes and 3 underreporting correction. A linear regression model with autoregressive errors and a state space model were fitted to the data, aiming the estimation of annual trends at every point in time. Results Although there were high values, a steady decrease of rates was observed. The decreasing trends among all regions were statistically significant, with higher values of decline among the Northeast and Northern regions, where rates were the highest. Conclusion Standardized methodology use is mandatory for correct interpretation of mortality estimates. Although declining, rates are still extremely high and efforts must be made towards prevention of stroke incidence, reduction of case-fatality rates and prevention of sequelae.

  14. Brazilian policy of universal access to AIDS treatment: sustainability challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu B; Simão, Mariangela

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian AIDS Programme success is recognized worldwide, due to its integrated approach of prevention, respect for human rights and to free of charge universal access to state of the art antiretrovirals. As of 2006, 180,000 people living with AIDS are on HAART with 17 drugs available, receiving medical and laboratory care through the public health system. Costs for ART drugs reached US$ 400 million in 2006 and will increase steeply if the current trends are maintained: uptake of approximately 20,000 new patients/year and the need for more expensive, patent-protected second and third line drugs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the programme, budgetary pressures, the need for more intense preventive efforts, for boosting local production of new drugs, for more investment in research and development and the issue of voluntary and compulsory licensing. There are many hurdles in pursuing long-term sustainability, which depends on country driven initiatives and international collaboration and participation. We conclude that the Brazilian experience demonstrated the capability of a developing country to treat people with equity, independently of race, gender or economic power and that this equality "seed" has already spread to other countries. Internally this experience must be used to tackle other endemic diseases, such as leprosy, malaria, dengue and leishmania. The Brazilian political will has been proven but, once again, there will be the need for concerted action by civil society, researchers, health professionals, people living with HIV/AIDS and the government to convince the world that health needs should not be treated as commercial issues, and that progress in research and development must be shared throughout the world if we expect to survive as a civilization.

  15. The publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2003 urological brazilian meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Resende Sousa Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the publication rate of orally-presented abstracts from the 2003 Urological Brazilian Meeting, as well as the factors determining this publication rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The publication rate of the 313 orally-presented abstracts at the 2003 Urological Brazilian Meeting was evaluated by scanning the Lilacs, Scielo and Medline databases. The time between presentation and publication, the state and country of the abstract, the research methodology (cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective case series, prospective case series or clinical trial, whether drugs were utilized and the topic of the study were all characterized. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the abstracts were published after a median time of 14 months (range: 1 to 51 months. There were high publication rates for cross-sectional abstracts (75%, drug utilization studies (51.3%, clinical trials (50% and prospective case series' (48.1%. However, there was only a moderate statistical trend towards a higher publication rate in the prospective case series (p=0.07, while the retrospective case series' showed statistically lower publication rates than the other groups (33.7%, p=0.04. Abstracts on laparoscopic surgery had the highest publication rate (61.9%, p=0.03 compared to others topics. In 57% of the unpublished abstracts, there was no interest in or attempt to publish, and rejection was responsible for the lack of publication of only 4% of the abstracts. CONCLUSION: The publication rate of the orally-presented abstracts from the 2003 Urological Brazilian Meeting was comparable to that of international congresses. The subsequent publication of presented abstracts and the selection of prospective studies with stronger evidence should be encouraged and may improve the scientific quality of the meeting.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  17. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  18. Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games

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    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    Full Text Available Abstract For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark, the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.

  19. Genetic profile of Brazilian patients with dystrophinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, P A D; Machado-Costa, M C; Manzoli, G N; Ferreira, L S; Rodrigues, M C S; Bueno, L S M; Saute, J A M; Pinto Vairo, F; Matte, U S; Siebert, M; Cossio, S L; Macedo, G S; Winckler, P B; Becker, M M; Magalhães, L V B; Gonçalves, M V M; Marrone, C D; Nucci, A; França, M C

    2017-08-01

    Different types of mutations in the DMD gene underlie Duchenne muscular dystrophies (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD). Large deletions and duplications are the most frequent causative genetic alterations worldwide, but little is known about DMD/BMD genetic profile in Brazil. Hence, we recruited patients with DMD and BMD from 8 neuromuscular reference centers along the country, and performed a comprehensive molecular investigation that included Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Next generation sequencing (NGS) analyses. We evaluated 199 patients from 177 unrelated families: 166 with DMD, 32 with BMD and 1 1.5 years old asymptomatic patient with persistent hiperCKemia. Overall, large deletions (58.2%) followed by nonsense mutations (12.4%) and large duplications (11.3%) were the most frequent variants in Brazilian families. Large deletions were less frequent in BMD than in DMD (44.8% vs 60.8%). We identified 19 new DMD variants. Nonsense mutations were significantly more frequent in patients from northeastern region than from southern/southeastern regions of Brazil (27.7% vs 8.5%, P profile of Brazilian patients with DMD/BMD is similar to previously reported cohorts, but it is not uniform across the country. This information is important to plan rational clinical care for patients in face of the new coming mutation-specific therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  1. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  2. The citation pattern of Brazilian economists

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    João Ricardo Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of international citations by Brazilian economists in papers published in the top domestic journals in 1994 and 2004. Brazilian research in economics has become more open to international influence and widespread geographically; researchers more specialized and technically oriented and the research topics more diversified. However, Brazil is plagued by editorial favoritism, reflected in the negative and significant impact of references to the works authored by domestic journals editors on international citations. We also find that longer technical papers written on topics other than the economic history of Brazil are more likely to cite foreign literature.Este artigo estuda os determinantes das citações internacionais dos economistas brasileiros em artigos publicados nas principais revistas domésticas de economia nos anos 1994 e 2004. A pesquisa de economia no Brasil se tornou mais aberta à influencia internacional e mais espalhada geograficamente; os pesquisadores mais especializados e tecnicamente orientados e os tópicos de pesquisa mais diversificados. Entretanto, a pesquisa continua sendo prejudicada pelo favoritismo editorial, refletido no impacto negativo e significante das referências dos autores aos trabalhos dos editores das revistas domésticas sobre as citacoes internacionais. Constatamos que artigos técnicos mais longos sobre tópicos que não sejam sobre história econômica do Brasil têm maior chance de citar a literatura internacional.

  3. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  4. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  5. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

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    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  7. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

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    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  8. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  9. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  10. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  11. Produtividade do trabalho e mudança estrutural nas indústrias brasileiras extrativa e de transformação, 1970-2001 Work productivity and structural change in Brazilian mining and manufacturing industries

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    Frederico Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using an indicator of labor productivity, this paper aims to assess the contribution of structural changes in the Brazilian manufacturing and mining industries to productivity growth, during the 1970-2001 period. The conclusion is that: (i there is no evidence to sustain that the Brazilian industry has definitely reversed the productivity growth rates slowdown trend; (ii there is no clear evidence of a positive influence of the structural bonus; and (iii job creation seems to be concentrated in low productivity growth sectors.

  12. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

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    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119 Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  13. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

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    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  14. The teaching of biodiversity: trends and challenges in pedagogical experiences

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    Yonier Alexander Orozco Marín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is recognized that education plays a fundamental role in training citizens aware of biodiversity and its conservation issues. Biodiversity, as an integrating and polysemic concept, raises challenges for its approach in the classroom by teachers and researchers. This paper aimed to characterize and reflect on the trends and challenges of biodiversity teaching in the Brazilian context, identifying approaches given to the concept, methodological approach, didactic resources and difficulties pointed out both in research and reports of pedagogical experiences where teaching this concept was explicitly addressed to school’s audience. Twenty research papers about experiences developed at different educational levels were analyzed. It was found that the scope of biological-ecological explanation is privileged on sociocultural elements of the concept. Active methodologies related to the approach of problems of local biodiversity, project construction and school research are the pedagogical approaches that guide these practices. The main resources used correspond to the natural resources and the context, contemporary and dynamic. Teaching the concept still raises challenges about its place in the curriculum, the textbook, and teacher’s training processes. This paper aimed to characterize and reflect on the trends and challenges of biodiversity teaching in the Brazilian context, identifying approaches given to the concept, methodological approach, didactic resources and difficulties pointed out both in research and reports of pedagogical experiences where teaching this concept was explicitly addressed to school’s audience. Twenty research papers about experiences developed at different educational levels were analyzed. It was found that the scope of biological-ecological explanation is privileged on sociocultural elements of the concept. Active methodologies related to the approach of problems of local biodiversity, project construction

  15. Trends in contemporary mathematics

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    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a wide spectrum of hot topics and current trends in mathematics, including noncommutative algebra via deformation theory,  optimal transportation, nonlinear potential theory, kinetic theory and gas dynamics, geometric numerical integration, finite simple groups of small essential dimension, optimal control problems, extended Dynkin diagrams, spin glasses, aspherical closed manifolds, Boltzmann systems, birational geometry of projective varieties and directed graphs, nonlinear diffusion, geometric constructions of extremal metrics on complex manifolds, and Pell’s equation in polynomials. The book comprises a selection of contributions by leading international mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative dating back to 2004 at which the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics are presented.

  16. Philippine population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Philippine population trends and prospects. The population growth rate, which has been 2% in this century, is declining in most regions of the Philippines. The 1980 census showed a decline in the proportion of the population under 15 uears old. The size of the working-age population and the aged rose slightly. The median age in 1980 was 18.6 years as opposed to 16.9 years in 1970. Men still outnumber women in the Philippines. Urbanization has increased by 10% from 1948 to 1980, a relatively sluggish urban growth rate. In 1960, the total fertility rate was 6.5; this declined to 5.2 in 1975. The regions that are most exposed to modernization have the lowest fertility. Philippine surveys show that urban population (especially metro Manilans), the college educated, and those married to white collar workers have the smallest family size. Age at marriage also influences fertility. Mortality has declined continuously during the 20th century, and especially from 1968-1980. The 1980 census shows a higher population growth rate than expected. This makes replacement level fertility unlikely by the end of the century. Projections demonstrate that the population size of the country will be at least 71 million and perhaps as much as 80 million by the end of the century. These population figures highlight the following development issues: 1) an increasing number of jobs for the growing numbers of people in the working ages, 15-64; 2) lower productivity due to large numbers of young inexperienced workers; 3) larger numbers of retired people in relation to workers; 4) an imbalance in educational opportunities and health care between rural and urban areas; 5) the inability of the family planning program to reach high fertility sub-groups; 6) the need for rural development programs; and 7) the increasing interrelationship between demographic and development trends.

  17. TRENDS IN ROMANIAN TOURISM

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    Pirjol Florentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying

  18. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23479648

  19. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region.

  20. Influence of Brazilian vegetable oils on mechanical resistence of hair fiber

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    Maria Valéria Velasco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Associating the global trend of incorporating active compounds and plants in cosmetic formulations and the vast Brazilian biodiversity, the present work aimed to study the incorporation of Brazilian vegetable oils in hair conditioner formulations, evaluating the mechanical resistance of hair fibers. The following oils were incorporated into base formulations at 5.0 % (w/w: babassu, buriti, andiroba and pequi. The formulations were applied to samples of Caucasian hair, followed by several washing steps, then the evaluation of mechanical strength. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in mechanical resistance between samples treated with oils and the control between the first and seventh wash cycles. This fact can be explained by the possible low penetration of oils into the cortex, a region responsible for the mechanical properties of the hair fiber, since the grease composition disfavors its diffusion. The common effects of vegetable oils on the cuticle, such as filling in cracks or cavities, lubrication, and increased protein hydrophobicity cannot be excluded. The oils tested in this work were not able to raise or protect hair tresses. However, additional studies are required in order to establish the effects of oil treatments, particularly in damaged hair.

  1. Identification and Classification of Stakeholders in a Brazilian Professional Soccer Club

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    João Paulo Lara de Siqueira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas an initial step in the management of stakeholders is the identification and classification of these actors, this study sought to answer the research question: how managers of Brazilian professional soccer clubs identify and classify their stakeholders? The theoretical framework used was the Stakeholder Theory, developed by Freeman (1984 and other researchers. The method used was proposed by Almeida et al. (2000, which assesses the saliency through the concepts power, legitimacy and urgency, that were proposed in the study of Mitchell et al. (1997. There were two propositions concerning the context of Brazilian soccer clubs: first, that the urgency perceived by managers in the demands of a stakeholder is high when his legitimacy is high and other one is that the most salient stakeholders for the managers are those with high degrees of legitimacy. Stakeholders were surveyed as perceived by the managers of Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras. Three types of stakeholders were classified as demanding (sponsors, partners and the partner for the construction of the new stadium and three as dependents (members, athletes of professional soccer team and the media. Other stakeholders identified were classified as irrelevant, including the fans and and the organized groups of fans. It can be said that in the specific case of these managers of this particular football club, the trend was the acceptance of both propositions. 

  2. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. [Citation patterns in Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sílvia Costa; Santos, Tiago S; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic references of scientific articles are the source for calculating impact indexes frequently used for the assignment of funding to research projects. Different citation patterns may result in measurement bias of these impact indexes. To analyze citation patterns of Brazilian and Portuguese biomedical journals regarding the geographic origin of the sources cited. As part of the v+biomed project, a convenience sample of 11 biomedical journals, 4 Portuguese and 7 Brazilian, was gathered including the following subject categories: General and Internal Medicine, Public Health, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Surgery. All the references from all the articles published in all the issues (except supplements) in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. The type of source cited and its geographic origin were analyzed. A total of 102 issues from the 11 journals, containing 1430 articles, with a total of 32782 references were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the number of authors, pages or references between articles from Brazilian and Portuguese journals. Brazilian journals presented higher prevalence of English language and cited significantly more journals from their own country (30.1%) comparing to Portuguese journals (5.4%). Additionally, a lower citation rate to journals from the other country analyzed was evident in Brazilian (0.1%) when compared to Portuguese (3.2%) journals, as well as a higher self-citation of Brazilian journals (Brazil - 5.6%, Portugal - 2.1%). A different citation pattern between Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals was found, consisting of a higher citation rate from Brazilian to other Brazilian journals and to themselves. This differential in citation patterns may have implications on impact indexes determination which warrant further investigation.

  4. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  5. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

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    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  6. The Effect of Brazilian convergence to IFRS on earnings managment by listed Brazilian nonfinancial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina Pelucio Grecco

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates whether the changes in Brazilian accounting practices due to the convergence to international standards brought a reduction in earnings management by listed nonfinancial firms, causing an improvement in the quality of accounting information. We used the Jones model, as modified by Kothari, Leone & Wasley (2005), to measure earnings management by means of discretionary accruals using a sample of 361 companies between 2005 and 2011. The results indicate there was a change...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  8. Health needs: an analysis of Brazilian scientific literature from 1990 to 2004

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    Célia Maria Sivalli Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes that the health services' responses to health needs were affected by the regulation of the Brazilian public health system. The study objective is to identify the health-service trends found in scientific publications. Among the 73 publications selected from the LILACS on-line database, 66 (90.4% did not mention the concept of health needs. Those that did had a reflective stance toward the subject. Health needs as defined in those articles were similar for all individuals, not considering them as members of a social class, a circumstance that defines health-needs characteristics. The results of this study are worrisome because health care delivery has been emphasizing sickness and reinforcing classification practices, rather than enabling emancipating praxis.

  9. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

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    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  10. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

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    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  11. Association study between the Taq1A (rs1800497 polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample

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    Quirino Cordeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder with recurrent relapse and functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The Taq1A polymorphism (located in the gene cluster NTAD is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs1800497 polymorphism was shown to be associated with DRD2 gene expression. Therefore the present work aims to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and such polymorphism. The compared distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 235 patients and 834 controls. Genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a trend of allelic association between the Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497 with schizophrenia in the studied sample. However no statistically differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed by gender or schizophrenia subtypes.

  12. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

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    Érico Arruda

    2014-05-01

    There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  13. Trends in croatian hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of the world. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study of trends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. The purpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one of the most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paper aims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering a review of the recent trends of demand a...

  14. Prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

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    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents and identify higher-risk subgroups. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Searches were performed using four databases (LILACS, MEDLINE /PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, specialized websites and the references cited in retrieved articles. The search was done in English and Portuguese and there was no limit on the year of publication (up to June 2011. From the search, 59 studies met all the inclusion criteria: to involve Brazilian adolescents aged 10-19 years; to assess the prevalence of alcohol and/or tobacco use; to use questionnaires or structured interviews to measure the variables of interest; and to be a school or population-based study that used methodological procedures to ensure representativeness of the target population (i.e. random sampling. RESULTS: The prevalence of current alcohol use (at the time of the investigation or in the previous month ranged from 23.0% to 67.7%. The mean prevalence was 34.9% (reflecting the central trend of the estimates found in the studies. The prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 2.4% to 22.0%, and the mean prevalence was 9.3%. A large proportion of the studies estimated prevalences of frequent alcohol use (66.7% and heavy alcohol use (36.8% of more than 10%. However, most studies found prevalences of frequent and heavy tobacco use of less than 10%. The Brazilian literature has highlighted that environmental factors (religiosity, working conditions, and substance use among family and friends and psychosocial factors (such as conflicts with parents and feelings of negativeness and loneliness are associated with the tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco among adolescents has reached alarming prevalences in various localities in Brazil. Since unhealthy behavior tends to continue from adolescence into adulthood

  15. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

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    Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz

    Full Text Available The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census. The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746, CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272 and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343, CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables, and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables. We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the

  16. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  17. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

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    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  18. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  19. Technological Capabilities of Brazilian Shipbuilding Suppliers

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    Marcos Primo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological capabilities (TC play a key role in the competitiveness of firms in industrial sectors. Suppliers in emerging economies often acquire technological capabilities by operating and mastering technologies developed by others and then leveraging this learning to develop indigenous technologies. By reviewing research on firm specific technological capabilities, the development of global value chains and industrial clusters in emerging markets we discuss local suppliers’ insertion and upgrading in the supply chains of new large industrial enterprises. Using the Brazilian shipbuilding industry as context, we investigate and develop propositions related to the ability of local suppliers to develop technological capabilities that permit eventual insertion into the local supply chain. This research has applications for managers and policy makers from other emerging market countries seeking to increase local sourcing through development of local suppliers.

  20. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

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    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  1. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises.

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    Letícia P D Mortoza

    Full Text Available Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL, that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.

  2. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

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    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  3. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  4. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  5. Critical journalism: the progressive” Brazilian bloggers case

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    Liziane Soares Guazina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding what comprises the professional identity of a well-known group of experienced Brazilian journalists who, at the same time, express their political opinion in independent blogs and define themselves as “progressive” or “dirty”. Our objective is to understand how these bloggers define and practice journalism in their blogs and how they view their work in a democratic context. Through various interviews, we mapped out their main journalistic values and described their professional identity as blogger journalists who advocate critical journalism, in other words, opinionated journalism. The results showed that these journalists consider their blogs to be a place for a wide range of opinions against traditional media, and that their main job as online journalists is to be vigilant in relation to political powers, including the media which is seen as an important and relevant political actor in Brazil.

  6. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

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    Ferreira Leila da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  7. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

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    Marcelle Chauvet

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.Este artigo utiliza vários métodos para datar e analisar ciclos de negócios e de crescimento no Brasil. Em particular, um modelo de mudanças de Markov é aplicado a dados de produção trimestrais e anuais. As probabilidades suavizadas dos estado markovianos são utilizadas como regras de previsão para definir as diferentes fases de flutuações cíclicas na produção real brasileira. Os resultados são comparados com diferentes regras não-paramétricas. Todos os métodos implementados geram uma cronologia similar e revelam assimetrias nas diferentes fases dos ciclos de negócio e crescimento do Brasil, nos quais os estados de baixo crescimento e recessão são de curta duração e mais

  8. Representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse

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    Fernando Resende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  9. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

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    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.

  10. [Nursing history research groups: a Brazilian reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra; Borenstein, Miriam Susskind; Carvalho, Maria Aline Lima; Ferreira, Aline Coelho

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the activities of Nursing History research groups in Brazil and their relationships with the nursing undergraduate and graduate courses. This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative documental study was performed from July 2008 to March 2010. We identified 34 research groups that had Nursing History as the focus of at least one of the lines of research. Results showed that the groups have produced a great amount of bibliographical material, research lines and broad participation of undergraduate and graduate students. It was also found that there is a communication network among groups working within the same line of research. In conclusion, there is a need to increase interdisciplinarity and also strengthen some lines of research in order to support knowledge of the history of Brazilian nursing.

  11. Small Nominals in Brazilian Portuguese Copular Constructions

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    Patrícia Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is copular clauses in Brazilian Portuguese like Mulher(es é complicado, in which the predicate exhibits an unmarked form for gender and number (masculine singular, despite the presence of the feminine and/or plural form of the noun in subject position. We reject the analyses that propose that (i there is a hidden infinitive clause in the subject position, (ii the agreement is an instance of semantic agreement, and (iii the DP subject is in A-bar position, and argue that the subject is a Small Nominal (they are not projected as full DPs which lacks index features that trigger external agreement (Pereltsvaig 2006.

  12. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  13. Development of a Brazilian maize core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo R. Coimbra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for developing a Brazilian maize core collection. For an initial survey of the active collection, passport information, as well as characterization and evaluation of accessions, were taken into consideration, these then being divided according to geographic region and kernel-type. Multiple sampling methods were evaluated. The strategy of constant sampling generated extensive alterations in extract accession frequency. The multivariate strategy with dispersion graphs and principal components associated with the Tocher method was considered efficient for identifying the most divergent genotypes. The multivariate strategy generated greater alterations in the variance of traits. The average number of traits revealed few modifications with the various sampling strategies used. Therefore, the active collection could be considered as possessing a satisfactory amount of information for most of its accessions. Moreover, the multivariate strategy generated modifications in the variance of the traits, independent of sampling intensity.

  14. DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initiative is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI molecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea turtles that occur in Brazil were generated. These presented widely divergent haplotypes. All observed values were on the same range as those already described for other animal groups: the overall mean distance was 8.2%, the mean distance between families (Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae 11.7%, the mean intraspecific divergence 0.34%, and the mean distance within Cheloniidae 6.4%, this being 19-fold higher than the mean divergence observed within species. We obtained species-specific COI barcode tags that can be used for identifying each of the marine turtle species studied.

  15. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  16. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p449 The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  17. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  18. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  19. Trends in environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.E. [Arthur D. Little of Canada Limited, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Changes wrought by environmental regulations in the way companies produce, develop, and deliver their products and services were discussed. Some `tell-tale` signs of a vacuum of industry leadership in environmental affairs were identified. These included: lack of a `visible` corporate environmental policy, role confusion, limited action in response to plans, process myopia, poorly utilized data, hidden accomplishments, and an adversarial relationship with the regulatory bodies. Key trends in environmental management, and the necessary attributes for effective environmental management expected of the next generation of industry leaders were briefly described, including (1) the incorporation of environmental plans into the core of the business process, and into corporate strategy; (2) the formation of business-led, line-driven, rather than staff driven plans; and (3) increased measurement and broad dissemination of environmental successes, and their incorporation into the company`s strategic leverage. The overwhelming importance of commitment at the highest level, and the value of a business-oriented approach over a functional approach for effective environmental management were stressed.

  20. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  1. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  2. Depression and Its Correlates Among Brazilian Immigrants in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar-Neto, Felippe; Louzada, Andressa C Sposato; de Moura, Ricardo Faé; Calixto, Fernando Morelli; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-07-31

    The goal of this paper is to assess the frequency of depression symptoms among Brazilian immigrants living in Massachusetts, the second largest Brazilian immigrant population in the United States, and to identify correlates of depression. A convenience sample of Brazilian immigrants aged 18 or older residing in Massachusetts was used. Data were collected from December 2013 to March 2014, in the Consulate General of Brazil in Boston and in three religious events, using a structure questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depression symptoms were observed in 35.3% of the respondents, with equal distribution by sex. Correlates of depression were low income, being single, poor English proficiency, and poor self-perception of health. These results suggest a need for community outreach, sensitization, and counseling, in Portuguese and adapted to the culture of Brazilian immigrants.

  3. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about...

  4. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes...

  5. Managing expatriates: analyzing the experience of an internationalized Brazilian Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernardo Meyer; Victor Meyer Jr; Kamila Vieira daSilva; Larissa Mallmann Fernandes Almeida Brandão

    2016-01-01

    .... Few studies focus on corporations from developing countries. The purpose of this study was to examine, in the cultural dimension, how expatriates were managed by a Brazilian multinational corporation...

  6. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Dendrobatid frogs have undergone an extensive systematic reorganization based on recent molecular findings. The present work describes karyotypes of the Brazilian species Adelphobates castaneoticus, A. quinquevittatus, Ameerega picta, A. galactonotus and Dendrobates tinctorius which were compared to ...

  7. Factors influencing students' performance in a Brazilian dental school

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erica Tatiane da Silva; Maria de Fátima Nunes; Maria Goretti Queiroz; Cláudio R. Leles

    2010-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in...

  8. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  9. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, João Gabriel Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods...

  10. Locative inversion and agreement syntax in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Ornelas de Avelar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the Minimalist Program framework (CHOMSKY 2000, 2001, this paper suggests that, in Brazilian Portuguese, sentences with a locative prepositional phrase in preverbal position can be characterized as instances of locative inversion in which prepositional constituents occupy the grammatical subject position. It will be proposed that particularities involving the patterns of locative inversion in Brazilian Portuguese derive from properties of the subject-verb agreement in this language.

  11. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    OpenAIRE

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira,Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta de; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melano...

  12. NOTES ON A BRAZILIAN LITERATURE COURSE FOR FOREIGNERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amalia Alves da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article are some reflections on the creation of the course on Brazilian Literature for Foreigners and the conduction of the classes as a freelance teacher in a languages school in São Paulo from May to June 2015. This is a case study and an attempt to contribute to the newly established field of research on teaching Brazilian Literature for speakers of other languages in Brazil.

  13. Clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology: where we are

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement writing standards]. METHODS: The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation, and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. RESULTS: The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (10.50 compared with the Brazilian Group (0.45. The likelihood citation was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (20/20 - 100% compared with the Brazilian Group (8/20 - 40%. The subgroup analysis of the language influence in Brazilian articles showed that the citation counts were statistically significantly higher in the papers published in English (P<0.04. Of 37 possible CONSORT items, the mean for the Foreign Group was 20.55 and for the Brazilian Group was 13.65 (P<0.003. CONCLUSION: The number of citations and the quality of reporting of clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.

  14. [Brazilian guidelines for the manegement of intracerebral hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio M; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Valiente, Raul; Friedrich, Maurício; Pedreira, Bruno; Rodrigues, Bruno Castelo Branco; Liberato, Bernardo; Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez de

    2009-09-01

    Among the stroke subtypes, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the worst prognosis and still lacks a specific treatment. The present manuscript contains the Brazilian guidelines for the management of ICH. It was elaborated by the executive committee of the Brazilian Cerebrovascular Diseases Society and was based on a broad review of articles about the theme. The text aims to provide a rational for the management of patients with an acute ICH, with the diagnostic and therapeutic resources that are available in Brazil.

  15. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  16. The Determinants of Brazilian Pulp exports from 1980 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha,Carlos José Caetano; Adriana E. SanJuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes an econometric analysis of the determinants of BrazilÂ’s pulp exports. The time period from 1980 to 2001 is considered for estimating a supply equation of pulp exports. Exogenous variables considered were: price of Brazilian exported pulp, production cost of Brazilian pulp, productive capacity, exchange rate between dollar and domestic currency and lagged pulp exports. It was observed that BrazilÂ’s pulp exports have responded little to price fluctuation; however, these expor...

  17. PRODEEM - the Brazilian programme for rural electrification using photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco A.; Lima, Jorge H.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: marcoag@cepel.br, jlima@cepel.br

    2002-07-01

    This work describes several technical and managerial aspects of the Brazilian PRODEEM Program, which comprises installation of thousands of PV systems for several applications in Brazilian outback. The equipment were acquired through international bidding and CEPEL was specially concerned about the its quality and lifespan, as well as about the correct sizing of the systems. The purpose of this work is to present a history and the technical experience obtained by CEPEL after several years of involvement in PRODEEM activities. (author)

  18. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,João Gabriel Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in...

  19. Selected Trends of the Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Požár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution paid particular attention to trends of the cybercrime in future period dedicated to combating negative phenomena in the context of cyberspace. The structure of article concern of definition of cybercrime, its legal classification especially choosing trends of cybercrime in future period.

  20. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  1. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  2. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  3. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  4. IV Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - an update on allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Eulalia; Sarinho, Emanuel S C; Cruz, Alvaro A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Tamashiro, Edwin; Kuschnir, Fábio; Castro, Fábio F M; Romano, Fabrizio R; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Mello, João F de; Silva, Luciana R; Rizzo, Maria Cândida; Miyake, Mônica A M; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Rubini, Norma de Paula M; Mion, Olavo; Camargos, Paulo A; Roithmann, Renato; Godinho, Ricardo N; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue N; Sih, Tania; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Solé, Dirceu

    2017-11-02

    The guidelines on allergic rhinitis aim to update knowledge about the disease and care for affected patients. The initiative called "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma", initially published in 2001 and updated in 2008 and 2010, has been very successful in disseminating information and evidence, as well as providing a classification of severity and proposing a systemized treatment protocol. In order to include the participation of other medical professionals in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, it is important to develop algorithms that accurately indicate what should and can be done regionally. To update the III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - 2012, with the creation of an algorithm for allergic rhinitis management. We invited 24 experts nominated by the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology, Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics to update the 2012 document. The update of the last Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis incorporated and adapted the relevant information published in all "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma" Initiative documents to the Brazilian scenario, bringing new concepts such as local allergic rhinitis, new drugs and treatment evaluation methods. A flowchart for allergic rhinitis treatment has been proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  6. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  8. Time trend of the male proportion at birth in Brazil, 1979-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gerusa; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari; Koifman, Sergio

    2009-08-01

    Several studies suggest that exposure to environmental endocrine disrupters can reduce the number of male births, and therefore, the male proportion at birth (also denominated birth ratio or sex ratio at birth) can be used as a sentinel health indicator. This work aimed to analyze the trend of male births in Brazil, according to their distribution by states and capitals. An ecological descriptive time series was carried out using polynomial regression, showing a declining trend for male proportion at birth in Brazil (1979-1994), followed by an upward trend until 2004. A decline on the proportion of male births was observed in Brazil between 1979 and 1993, followed by a subsequent rise of this ratio between 1995 and 2004, wherein the mean proportion of male births in Brazil rose from 51.05 to 51.18, representing a relative increase of 0.25%. The states of São Paulo (Southwest region) and Acre (Western Amazon), as well as some capitals-Cuiabá (Western Region), Palmas (Amazon) and Rio Branco (Amazon)-showed increasing trends, which suggests the influence of socio-demographic changes. In contrast, a declining trend in the State of Ceará State (Northeast region), with a 0.35% yearly decrease was observed. As a whole, these results suggest the influence of different environmental factors (demographic changes, public health services distribution, and population exposure to endocrine disruptor substances) influencing the time trend of birth ratio in the Brazilian population during the last decades.

  9. Evaluating the Brazilian zero tolerance drinking and driving law: Time series analyses of traffic-related mortality in three major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Fernando Madalena; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Fantoni, Rosely

    2017-05-19

    A zero tolerance alcohol restriction law was adopted in Brazil in 2008. In order to assess the effectiveness of this intervention, the present study compares specific mortality in 2 time series: 1980-2007 and 2008-2013. Data on mortality and population were gathered from official Brazilian Ministry of Health information systems. Segmented regression analyses were carried out separately for 3 major Brazilian capitals: Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. In 2 cities (Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro) there were no significant changes in mortality rate trends in 2 periods, 1980 to 2007 and 2008 to 2013, where the observed rates did not differ significantly from predicted rates. In São Paulo, a decreasing trend until 2007 unexpectedly assumed higher levels after implementation of the law. There is no evidence of reduced traffic-related mortality in the 3 major Brazilian capitals 5.5 years after the zero tolerance drinking and driving law was adopted.

  10. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê; Chala, Luciano Fernandes; Bauab, Selma di Pace; Schaefer, Marcela Brisighelli; Dos Santos, Radiá Pereira; Maranhão, Norma Medicis de Albuquerque; Kefalas, Ana Lucia; Kalaf, José Michel; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Amorim, Heverton Leal Ernesto; de Camargo Junior, Helio Sebastião Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer.

  11. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê; Chala, Luciano Fernandes; Bauab, Selma di Pace; Schaefer, Marcela Brisighelli; dos Santos, Radiá Pereira; Maranhão, Norma Medicis de Albuquerque; Kefalas, Ana Lucia; Kalaf, José Michel; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Amorim, Heverton Leal Ernesto; de Camargo Junior, Helio Sebastião Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. Materials and methods We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Recommendations Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer. PMID:28894332

  12. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  13. International Collaboration in Brazilian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creso, Sá; Grieco, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the approach Brazil has taken to promote the internationalization of higher education over the last decade. Three key areas are identified: human resources development, institution building, and international partnerships. Our analyses of initiatives in these areas demonstrate that Brazil does not follow global trends such as…

  14. Trends at a Glance | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  17. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  18. Analysis of rainfall in the Brazilian semiarid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Nivaldo; Vide, Javier; Nery, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian semiarid sub region is located in the Northeast and a small part of the territory of the Southeast region of Brazil. The study area lies between latitudes 3º to 18º S and between longitudes 35° to 46° W. According to the Köppen classification, semi-arid climate BSh and BSk is dominated, and the mean annual temperatures is between 26 and 28 ºC. In total nine units are incorporated in the federation, eight Northeast and a small portion of the southeast region. The land area is 982,563.3 km² with 22,598,318 inhabitants residents, nearly 12% of the national population, divided into 1,133 municipalities. The sub region has population density of 23.06 inhabitants per km2. Northeast Brazil is characterized by precipitation variability and irregularity in its spatiotemporal distribution, which make it to be under a severe water shortage. This study is aimed to analyze the rainfall variability through anomalies for El Niño and La Niña years (severe, moderate and weak), calculation the values of the Concentration Index, and numbers of irregular rainy days. The first part is concerning in analyzing the consistency and standardization of rainfall, using R-Package CLIMATOL. The work was achieved using daily rainfall data, during the period 1970-2012, based on the 104 series long enough rainfall observatories in the Brazilian semiarid region. Study of daily rainfall events, may contribute in improving land use and regional economic development, based on the water, the source of life of living beings. Results show rainfall anomalies, especially in the strong El Niño years, such as 1983 and 1992, a large variability appears in precipitation semiarid region, especially in the northern part. This study also shows a sever precipitation variability between years. The semiarid area has years of drought and years with rainfall above the climatological average normal. The stronger are the events, the more erratic rainfall, ie intense El Niño events cause intense

  19. [Efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Sampaio, Luciano Menezes Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system and their productivity trends from 2006 to 2011. The authors used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with slack and the Malmquist index with slack. Inputs included spending on hospital services and health professionals in the system. The output was the number of kidney transplants performed in each State. The data showed a significant discrepancy between States in the number of kidney transplants. The transplant system's inefficiency may result from inadequate management, failure to comply with national guidelines, inactive hospital transplant committees, and overburdened hospital staff. Institutional changes promoted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (procedures improvement and standardization) failed to increase productivity in most States during this period.

  20. Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Felipe S; Brito, Daniel; Solé, Mirco

    2014-12-01

    The number of papers on biology of amphibians has increased in the recent years. A detailed overview of the publications on amphibians can be very useful in assessing the status of our knowledge about this taxonomic group. Due to the large number of articles published, we aimed to assess the scientific contribution of herpetological researches carried out between the years 2001 and 2010 on Brazilian amphibians, considering the diversity patterns, the threats and the research topics that have been published most often. We applied scientometric attention indexes in the reviewed studies from seven scientific databases. To examine the relationship between the numbers of species recorded locally and regionally at different spatial scales, we used an additive partitioning of diversity in three hierarchical levels (i.e., states, geographic regions and biomes). We evaluated 892 articles and 914 species, which showed that 65 % of the total diversity of Brazilian amphibian species was represented by the beta diversity among the biomes. We identified many differences in the allocation of research efforts for taxonomic groups, threats categories, geographic regions, and research topics, highlighting the main research trends conducted and the priority themes for investigation of further papers on Brazilian amphibians.

  1. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

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    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p705 The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  2. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  3. Brazilian caregiver version of the Apathy Scale

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    Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães

    Full Text Available Abstract No Brazilian version of a specific scale for evaluating apathy in dementia is available. Objectives: To introduce a translated version of the Apathy Scale (AS for use with caregivers. Methods: The instrument was formally translated and then administered to the caregivers of a small sample of dementia patients, in order to assess scale comprehensibility and make final adjustments. The scale was subsequently administered to the caregivers of a second, independent sample of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. The content validity of the scale was tested by correlating the AS scores with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI - apathy sub-score and Disability Assessment in Dementia (DAD total scores. Results: The first sample consisted of eleven subjects with dementia, most of whom had AD. The second sample comprised twenty patients with probable or possible AD (10 with mild dementia, a mean age of 84.1±5.8 years, and 2.2±1.6 years of schooling. The AS scores correlated with both NPI-apathy sub-score (r=0.756, p=0.001 and DAD total scores (r=-0.793, p=0.0005. Conclusions: The final version had good comprehensibility and correlated strongly with standardized apathy and functional activities of daily living measures.

  4. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

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    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  5. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  6. Uncited articles in Brazilian public health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Barbosa, Milena Maria de Araújo Lima; Oliveira, Karoline de; Quinta, Fernanda Paranhos; Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan

    2017-12-04

    Here, we describe the percentage of non-citation in Brazilian public health journals, a field that, until now, had not been investigated nationally or internationally. We analyzed articles, published between 2008 and 2012, of eight public health journals indexed in the scopus database. The percentage of non-citation differs between journals (from 5.7% to 58.1%). We identified four statistically distinct groups: História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos (58% uncited articles); Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva, Interface, and Saúde e Sociedade (32% to 37%); Ciência & Saúde Coletiva and Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia (16% to 17%); and Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública (6%). The non-citation in the first three years post-publication also varies according to journal. Four journals have shown a clear decline of non-citation: Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, and Physis. Another three (Revista de Saúde Pública, Saúde e Sociedade, and Interface) presented an oscillation in non-citation, but the rates of 2008 and 2012 are similar, with different magnitudes. In turn, the journal História, Ciência, Saúde - Manguinhos maintains high rates of non-citation. Multidisciplinary journals attract more citation, but a comprehensive citation model still needs to be formulated and tested.

  7. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

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    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  8. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

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    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  9. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

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    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  10. Brazilian Resorts: an overall performance evaluation

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    Antonio Carlos Bonfato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article is about resort’s operations in Brazil. The main goal was to identify the financial key performance indicators, so that it could contribute to a better comprehension about how the resorts area acts in Brazil. To achieve this goal, this study took researches which generated numbers and indicators that could establish a comparison between 2013 and 2014. The main sources were token from all resorts from the Associação Brasileira de Resorts - Resorts Brasil, as well as an interview with a renowned area professional. Other sources were token by the most important resorts books. There are actually 49 resorts which are part of the Brazilian Resorts Association-ABR/Resorts Brasil. This institution allowed the access to all its database, in which the associated resorts give numerical informations about its own performance. The resorts studied in this article were divided and studied in four big groups. The results showed that the national resorts market keeps increasing its statistics and improving its internal management processes and sales distribution. Revenues increased 6.34% in the main analysed indicator during the years of 2013 and 2014. It was also observed that beach and all inclusive resorts tend to have better results.

  11. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  12. Antigenotoxicity of Depsidones Isolated from Brazilian Lichens

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    Zaira da Rosa Guterres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although phenolic compounds produced by lichens have been widely investigated in antitumor assays, only a small number have been evaluated for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This study evaluated protocetraric, hypostictic, psoromic, and salazinic acids for their potential genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity against somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. These compounds were isolated from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum, Pseudoparmelia sphaerosphora, Usnea jamaicensis, and Parmotrema cetratum, respectively, collected from the Brazilian Cerrado biome. The compounds were evaluated at 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mmol L–1 using the SMART test, employing standard and high-bioactivation crosses of Drosophila melanogaster. Doxorubicin (DXR was the positive control. Psoromic and salazinic acids proved toxic at 6.0 mM. None of the compounds evaluated exhibited mutagenicity, but each of them significantly reduced genetic damage caused by DXR, proving antigenotoxic when tested on somatic cells of D. melanogaster. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i1.897

  13. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  14. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

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    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  15. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  16. III Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines on tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Marcus Barreto; Melo, Fernando Augusto Fiuza de; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; Cardoso, Ninarosa Calzavara; Pinheiro, Valeria Goes Ferreira; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Machado Junior, Almério; Lemos, Antonio Carlos Moreira; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Durovni, Betina; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Lima, Dinalva; Capone, Domenico; Barreira, Draurio; Matos, Eliana Dias; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; David, Fernando Cezar; Marsico, Giovanni; Afiune, Jorge Barros; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; Jamal, Leda Fátima; Telles, Maria Alice da Silva; Hirata, Mário Hiroyuki; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Cailleaux-Cesar, Michelle; Palaci, Moises; Morrone, Nelson; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Dietze, Reynaldo; Miranda, Silvana Spíndola de; Cavalcante, Solange Cesar; Nogueira, Susie Andries; Nonato, Tatiana Senna Galvão; Martire, Terezinha; Galesi, Vera Maria Nader; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle

    2009-10-01

    New scientific articles about tuberculosis (TB) are published daily worldwide. However, it is difficult for health care workers, overloaded with work, to stay abreast of the latest research findings and to discern which information can and should be used in their daily practice on assisting TB patients. The purpose of the III Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA) Guidelines on TB is to critically review the most recent national and international scientific information on TB, presenting an updated text with the most current and useful tools against TB to health care workers in our country. The III BTA Guidelines on TB have been developed by the BTA Committee on TB and the TB Work Group, based on the text of the II BTA Guidelines on TB (2004). We reviewed the following databases: LILACS (SciELO) and PubMed (Medline). The level of evidence of the cited articles was determined, and 24 recommendations on TB have been evaluated, discussed by all of the members of the BTA Committee on TB and of the TB Work Group, and highlighted. The first version of the present Guidelines was posted on the BTA website and was available for public consultation for three weeks. Comments and critiques were evaluated. The level of scientific evidence of each reference was evaluated before its acceptance for use in the final text.

  17. Food in African Brazilian Candomblé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of food in the rituals of African Brazilian Candomblé, as well as in its cosmovision (world view. A brief description of Candomblé’s historical trajectory is provided in order to show how food offerings became part of its rituals and how specific ingredients became symbolically significant in this belief system. According to the theories applied, it is possible that food has at least two functions in Candomblé: to materialize principles and also to work as a ritual language. To show the role of food in Candomblé the state of Bahia was taken as a case study – firstly because Candomblé started there and secondly because, as this article shows, the sacred foods of Candomblé are also consumed in everyday life, outside of religious situations, but just as importantly constituting a part of Bahian cultural identity. The dishes that feature in the ritualised meals and at the same time in Bahians’ everyday eating are described at the conclusion of the article, with a mention of their ingredients and to whom they are offered. The research sources included publications by Candomblé believers and scholars of religion, as well as cooks and journalists specialising in Bahian cuisine.

  18. Visual sonority in Brazilian Sign Language literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Mafra Klamt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The idea of sonority in sign languages was treated by Perlmutter (1992 as perceptibility, a property of a segment that uses movement rather than one in which the hands stay in the same position. Sandler (1993 states that the visual salience of movement in sign languages plays a role similar to sonority in spoken languages. For Brentari (1998, perceptually, a sign is visible from considerable distances, and measurement of its visual sonority is based on the joints involved in its production. This work focuses on visual sonority in literature in Brazilian Sign Language and considers the relevance of manual and non-manual elements, rhythm, symmetry, the scale of signs, and the effect of video on this concept. Two signed stories “The King’s Parrot” and “Little Ping Pong Ball” were analysed, highlighting specific signs in which the use of joints, non-manual features, and other resources are influenced by the size of the performance space and the distance of the audience from the signing. Three types of ‘sonority’ were observed: in the movement of the whole body on the stage, in the size of arms and trunk movement, and in the hands. In addition to the joints, non-manual features, rhythm and symmetry play an important role in visual sonority and influence the viewer’s experience.

  19. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

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    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  20. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  1. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

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    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  2. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses.

  3. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  4. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  5. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Which Trend is your Friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Ari; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    , that these trend indicators are closely related. In fact, they are equivalent representations in their most general forms. They also capture many other types of filters, such as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter, the Kalman filter, and all other linear filters. We show how these filters can be represented through......Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically...... “trend signature plots,” demonstrating their dependence on past prices and returns by horizon....

  10. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. [Citing of national articles: the (de)valuation of Brazilian journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Silveira, Tiago Santos; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is a preference for foreign periodicals over Brazilian one. We evaluated all references of articles published in the years 2011 and 2007 in the journals Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva and the Journal of the Brazilian College of Surgeons, verifying the quantity of papers from Brazilian and foreign publications. We analyzed a total of 7,343 references arranged in 348 articles in those three journals; of these, 856 (11.65%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three magazines, nor between the two periods. One hundred and eleven (31.9%) articles did not cite any Brazilian journal article and 36 (10.34%) cited Brazilian articles more than foreign ones. There is need for the Brazilian researcher to appreciate more the Brazilian journals, increasing citation from Brazil, without a scientific xenophobia.

  12. BETWEEN GOOD AND BAD SAVAGE: FICTION AND ALTERITY IN THE BRAZILIAN CINEMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Gonçalves Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in an analysis of the indians image on the brazilian, achieved through the study of how the indian character is built and disseminated through the brazilian fiction films.

  13. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  14. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  15. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  16. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  17. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  18. Biodiversity conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; Brescovit, Antonio D; de Carvalho, Claudio J B; Silva, Dasniel Paiva; Rezende, Daniella T; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Barbosa, João Paulo Peixoto Pena; Stehmann, João Renato; Ascher, John S; de Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira; De Marco, Paulo; Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; Ferro, Viviane Gianluppi; Santos, Adalberto J

    2017-08-22

    Although Brazil is a megadiverse country and thus a conservation priority, no study has yet quantified conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas (PAs) using extensive empirical data. Here, we evaluate the degree of biodiversity protection and knowledge within all the Brazilian PAs through a gap analysis of vertebrate, arthropod and angiosperm occurrences and phylogenetic data. Our results show that the knowledge on biodiversity in most Brazilian PAs remain scant as 71% of PAs have less than 0.01 species records per km(2). Almost 55% of Brazilian species and about 40% of evolutionary lineages are not found in PAs, while most species have less than 30% of their geographic distribution within PAs. Moreover, the current PA network fails to protect the majority of endemic species. Most importantly, these results are similar for all taxonomic groups analysed here. The methods and results of our countrywide assessment are suggested to help design further inventories in order to map and secure the key biodiversity of the Brazilian PAs. In addition, our study illustrates the most common biodiversity knowledge shortfalls in the tropics.

  19. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  20. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  1. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  2. The scientific production of Brazilian neurologists: 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrini, Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    The Brazilian scientific production saw more than a four-fold increase from the 1990s onwards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of scientific production by Brazilian clinical neuroscientists over the last 10 years. A search in the PubMed identified 295 clinical neuroscientists and their publications. Brazilian production corresponded to 2.37% of the papers published by the 20 indexed periodicals that regularly publish clinical neuroscience research. If only the first and last two years are compared, there was a real growth of 75.1%. More than 40% of the Brazilian papers were published in Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. When only those periodicals with impact factor higher than one are considered, the percentage falls to 0.86% in the whole 10-year period, but attains 1.23% in 2004. Epilepsy and infectious diseases were the sub-areas with the highest scientific production.

  3. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A. A.; Negri, G.; Salatino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  4. Brazilian physicians hold national strike against medical insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System has two different forms of access, public and private. The purpose of the public health system is to provide universal, complete access, free of charge, for the entire population. The private sector is composed by people who have private insurance. Nowadays, about 43 million Brazilians, or 26.3% of the population, have private health insurance. The main motivations of the physicians for the strike were the low payment for medical services and the constant interference of the private health insurance companies in medical autonomy. For this reason, Brazilian physicians held a 24-hour strike against the Medical Insurance Companies that did not accept to negotiate new fees in almost all Brazilian states. At least 120,000 physicians from all specialties stopped elective activities during that day, only providing urgent or emergency care. It is estimated that the strike affected 25 to 35 million Brazilians, about 76% of the total number of medical insurance users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  6. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  7. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little…

  8. Investigating Responses to Compliments by Brazilian Portuguese Speaking EFL Learners: A Contrastive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Zanella, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study on politeness strategies of Brazilian Portuguese speakers and American English speakers regarding their responses to compliments. The aim of this research is to gain an insight into the politeness characteristics of Brazilian Portuguese speakers by analyzing how Brazilian students react when receiving compliments. It…

  9. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  10. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Trends in building automation; Trends in der Gebaeudeautomation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2000-07-01

    This article reviews the three main trends in building automation found by the author at the Light and Building trade fair in Frankfurt in 2000. The fair, which took place for the first time in 2000, attracted 1800 exhibitors from 46 countries and featured products from the air-conditioning, building automation, lighting and electrical installations areas. Integrated planning and implementation is contrasted with the structure of the exhibition, which still reflects trade association structures instead of technical integration of different systems. A further trend - that of standardisation of building automation systems is discussed and illustrated with examples such as EIB, LON and BACNet. Latest developments in the professional association scene are looked at and marketing and practice are reviewed using examples from various companies active in this area. The third trend looked at is that of building automation via Internet, which is becoming attractive for the management of properties distributed over larger areas.

  12. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  13. Adaptation of the Sense of Community Index for Brazilian Children

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    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sense of community is an important construct for assessing the individual’s relationship with his/her community context. This study aims to adapt the Sense of Community Index for Brazilian Children and verify its psychometric properties in this sample. The participants are 1,736 Brazilian children between 8 and 13 years old (53.3% girls. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution (Positive bond with community and Community neighbors’ relationships, with 47.9% of explained variance. Scale reliability was adequate (Cronbach’s α = .78 and confirmatory factor analysis presented good fit indices (CFA > .95 and RMSEA < .05. Multigroup analysis indicated that the items have the same meanings regarding sex and age, and that the latent factors means are comparable regarding sex, but not for age. The proposed model of the instrument is adequate and can be used in future studies with Brazilian children.

  14. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

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    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  15. Systematic risk variations (beta convertible debenture brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Drumond Pinto Coelho Antonino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of issuing convertible debentures on the systematic risk of Brazilian companies. Some applied researches in the U.S. capital market (STEIN, 1992; LEWIS et al, 2002; RAI, 2005 indicate that convertible debentures may be used as an alternative financing source when adverse selection problem makes stock issuing unattractive financing source. The analysis of Brazilian companies that issued convertible debentures recorded in the period from 1998 to 2006 and that presented liquidity on the market indicated that variation in beta, on average, is positive. These results are coherent with the signaling hypothesis and with the absence of convertible debenture issuing in 2005 and 2006 on the Brazilian market. They also may be related to the precarious financial situation of issuing companies, observed by the analysis of some financial indicators in year of issue and in two pre- e post-issuing years.

  16. Chemical composition of cold pressed Brazilian grape seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape seed oil (GSO is an important by-product of the wine-making industry which has received attention as an alternative source of vegetable oils; its chemical compounds can be influenced by agricultural practices and industrial processing. Knowledge of the composition of Brazilian GSO is scarce; thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical characteristics, as well as the antioxidant activity of these oils. GSO samples were obtained from Brazilian markets and showed significantly high amounts of phenolic, γ-tocotrienol and phytosterols as well as, the presence of several volatile compounds. Based on these results, is possible to show that oils exhibited good antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be inferred that Brazilian GSO had a considerable content of phytochemical compounds with biological activity, which allows its association with other vegetable oils.

  17. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

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    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  18. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

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    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  19. 2 nd Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Luquetti, Alejandro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Coura, José Rodrigues; Torres, Rosália Morais; Melo, José Renan da Cunha; Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Oliveira, Wilson de; Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Pinto, Fabiane Scalabrini; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Rassi, Anis; Fragata, Abílio Augusto; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Correia, Dalmo; Jansen, Ana Maria; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Rassi, Anis; Campos, Dayse Elisabeth; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Santos, Silvana Eloi; Chiari, Egler; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Moreira, Eliane Furtado; Marques, Divina Seila de Oliveira; Silva, Eliane Lages; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; Cardoso, Alessandra Viana; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Costa, Veruska Maia da; Vivaldini, Simone Monzani; Oliveira, Suelene Mamede; Valente, Vera da Costa; Lima, Mayara Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. It has considerable psychological, social, and economic impacts. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence. The consensus is based on the articulation and strategic contribution of renowned Brazilian experts with knowledge and experience on various aspects of the disease. It is the result of a close collaboration between the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health. It is hoped that this document will strengthen the development of integrated actions against Chagas disease in the country, focusing on epidemiology, management, comprehensive care (including families and communities), communication, information, education, and research .

  20. Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) is broadly used in research and clinical settings. The author aimed to translate and investigate the content, criteria, and construct validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for Brazilian children. The study involved translators, experts, and 3,124 Brazilian children from several states of Brazil. Results confirmed language clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2. Appropriate indices of the confirmatory factorial validity (root mean square error of approximation = .06; comparative fit index = .88; Tucker-Lewis index = .83; normed fit index = .09; goodness-of-fit index = .98; adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .95), test-retest (values from .83 to .91) and inter- and intrarater reliability were found. Concurrent validity between TGMD-2 and Movement Assessment Battery for Children was weak. The TGMD-2 is a validity and reliability instrument for Brazilian children.

  1. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

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    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  2. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  3. Forensic Accounting: Bibliometric Analysis in Brazilian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Lopes Salles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper used a bibliometric research to compare and draw an overview of scientific production on forensic Accounting area, published in Brazilian journals in the period between 2005 and 2014 regarding the number of publications, characteristics of the authors, published topics, methodologies and its subclasses and and journals that publish in the area. It was collected and analyzed 48 articles the information as variation of year publication, subjects treated by, authors and their characteristics, Qualis classification, methodology, methodological nature applied, description of the empirical method and journals that have published articles in the area. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. As a result it was found that the main subjects considered are related to the "work of the expert accountant", "expert opinion" and expertise within the context of judicial proceedings. Regarding the authors the vast majority produce only one article in the area over the 10 years examined, and these authors, 64,58% were male. The Qualis extract of the articles is located between C and B1, indicating that the publications fail to achieve high standards of academic quality. On the methodology it was found that 91.67% are empirical research, of these 78% ranked in quantitative or qualitative and 83% are publications opting for descriptive techniques. Regarding the journals, it was found that 50% have only one publication on "forensic accounting", indicating that it is not repeated exposure, as the number of publications ranging from two to five in the other 50% of journals. It is concluded that scientific research in forensic accounting area are still relatively embryonic, lacking certain softening related to the subjects, number of publications and quality of intellectual production.

  4. The Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ulisses Barres; Bodmann, Benno; Giommi, Paolo; Brandt, Carlos H.

    Astrophysics and Space Science are becoming increasingly characterised by what is now known as “big data”, the bottlenecks for progress partly shifting from data acquisition to “data mining”. Truth is that the amount and rate of data accumulation in many fields already surpasses the local capabilities for its processing and exploitation, and the efficient conversion of scientific data into knowledge is everywhere a challenge. The result is that, to a large extent, isolated data archives risk being progressively likened to “data graveyards”, where the information stored is not reused for scientific work. Responsible and efficient use of these large data-sets means democratising access and extracting the most science possible from it, which in turn signifies improving data accessibility and integration. Improving data processing capabilities is another important issue specific to researchers and computer scientists of each field. The project presented here wishes to exploit the enormous potential opened up by information technology at our age to advance a model for a science data center in astronomy which aims to expand data accessibility and integration to the largest possible extent and with the greatest efficiency for scientific and educational use. Greater access to data means more people producing and benefiting from information, whereas larger integration of related data from different origins means a greater research potential and increased scientific impact. The project of the BSDC is preoccupied, primarily, with providing tools and solutions for the Brazilian astronomical community. It nevertheless capitalizes on extensive international experience, and is developed in full cooperation with the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), from the Italian Space Agency, granting it an essential ingredient of internationalisation. The BSDC is Virtual Observatory-complient and part of the “Open Universe”, a global initiative built under the auspices of the

  5. Copy Number Profiling of Brazilian Astrocytomas

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    Lucas Tadeu Bidinotto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Copy number alterations (CNA are one of the driving mechanisms of glioma tumorigenesis, and are currently used as important biomarkers in the routine setting. Therefore, we performed CNA profiling of 65 astrocytomas of distinct malignant grades (WHO grade I–IV of Brazilian origin, using array-CGH and microsatellite instability analysis (MSI, and investigated their correlation with TERT and IDH1 mutational status and clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, in silico analysis using the Oncomine database was performed to validate our findings and extend the findings to gene expression level. We found that the number of genomic alterations increases in accordance with glioma grade. In glioblastomas (GBM, the most common alterations were gene amplifications (PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, and MET and deletions (CDKN2A and PTEN. Log-rank analysis correlated EGFR amplification and/or chr7 gain with better survival of the patients. MSI was observed in 11% of GBMs. A total of 69% of GBMs presented TERT mutation, whereas IDH1 mutation was most frequent in diffuse (85.7% and anaplastic (100% astrocytomas. The combination of 1p19q deletion and TERT and IDH1 mutational status separated tumor groups that showed distinct age of diagnosis and outcome. In silico validation pointed to less explored genes that may be worthy of future investigation, such as CDK2, DMRTA1, and MTAP. Herein, using an extensive integrated analysis, we indicated potentially important genes, not extensively studied in gliomas, that could be further explored to assess their biological and clinical impact in astrocytomas.

  6. I RBH - First Brazilian Hypertension Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Malachias, Marcus V Bolívar; Gomes, Marco Mota; Moreno Júnior, Heitor; Barbosa, Eduardo Costa Duarte; Póvoa, Rui Manoel Dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of cardiovascular disease in the country.

  7. I RBH - First Brazilian Hypertension Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Brandão Veiga Jardim

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. Objective: To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP control, and adherence to treatment. Methods: National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis < 1 year. Evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The parameters that will be evaluated include anthropometric data, lifestyle habits, BP levels, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. Results: The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of

  8. INNOVATION PROCESS IN OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Floriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the innovation process used by the open capital Brazilian companies and establish a ranking of the potentially innovative ones. For this, a questionnaire was sent to 484 companies with shares traded in Bovespa, receiving a response from 22. The innovation process is based on the model of Barrett and Sexton (2006. A summary of the results is presented below. (i Organizational Capabilities – 95.5% answered that they have incentives for innovation activities and 68.2% reported having procedures for all services. The leadership has a facilitator role encouraging the initiative (86.4% and promotes the maintenance of the group relationship (72.7%. Value risk taking, even through failures and prioritize the learning and experimenting new ideas. (ii Background of the innovation – reveals aspects of the capacity (internal or (external. Of the respondents, 59.1% developed internal activities of continuing P & D. Training to innovate is present in a continuous or occasional basis in 81.8% of the companies. The respondents characterize the economic environment as dynamic and the majority purchased software and equipments. In only 12 opportunities was a reference to obtaining patents as innovation protection measure. (iii Focus of innovation – the majority of the companies mentioned process or product innovation. Rewards are offered when the objectives are met and it is brought to attention when this does not occur. (iv Highlighted performance – the innovations achieved the expectations and created effects. The relevant benefits noticed were: improvement in quality of goods and services, increase of market share, increase of goods and services, and increase of productive capacity.

  9. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  10. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  11. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  12. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Mondaini Calvão

    Full Text Available Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970-2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v, yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population.

  13. [Horus: technological innovation in pharmaceutical assistance within the Brazilian unified health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Nascimento Jr, José Miguel do

    2012-12-01

    To analyze results of the Horus Information System, comparing elements of this system with some international experiences. Horus is a technological innovation introduced in 2009 in the Pharmaceutical management information system of the Sistema Único de Saúde (Brazilian Unified Health System). In 2011, local managers and health professionals of 1,247 municipalities (16 states) that adhered to Horus answered questionnaires on pharmaceutical assistance in primary care and about the Horus system. This is a descriptive and exploratory study, developed with the use of quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Multivariate tools were used for data collection and interpretative support of the statistical inference and thematic analysis. The main changes identified after the implementation of this system were: improvement on technical and scientific quality control of Pharmaceutical Assistance, improvement on the supply of medications and health care; training of human resources and knowledge management; improvement on the relationship health managers/users; development in the administrative management and greater inter-state management; and improvement on the technological infrastructure. In terms of health information systems, these categories are consistent with programs and obstacles observed in international experiences. The biggest gap identified was the fact that Horus was not included in a national policy of health information systems, which is in a process of consolidation in Brazil. The national database of actions and services within the Pharmaceutical Assistance will enable the collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding integrated pharmaceutical assistance in the Brazilian context. The Horus System is a technological innovation that enables the management of the Pharmaceutical Assistance. The national base will enable the definition and agreement on national indicators of Pharmaceutical Assistance, aiming to produce evidence of

  14. Socially unequal improvements in dental caries levels in Brazilian adolescents between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Angelo G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Although there are numerous reports on socioeconomic inequalities in dental caries, few studies have focused on whether improvements in dental status have been accompanied by changes in socioeconomic inequalities in caries. The objective of this study was to assess whether declines in caries between 2003 and 2010 were associated with reductions in inequalities in dental caries in adolescents. Data on dental caries in adolescents aged 15-19 were used from the Brazilian National Oral Health surveys conducted in 2003 (n = 16 833) and 2010 (n = 5445). The dependent variables were Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and the percentage caries free. Household income and educational level were independent variables. Differences between surveys for DMFT and caries free were calculated, and measurement of inequality was performed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Both DMFT and percentage caries free showed significant differences in absolute (SII) and relative (RII) inequalities between the two surveys for both education and income. The SII for DMFT rose from 0.54 to 2.01 and from 1.44 to 3.67 for income and education, respectively. For caries free, these values were 3.64-19.40 and 5.06-22.93. Regarding to RII, a similar trend has been found. Despite the overall reduction in DMFT and an increase in caries free, there were increases in both income and education-related inequalities in caries in Brazilian adolescents. The findings on caries differ from those for other health conditions in Brazil, where there have been reductions in inequalities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  16. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  17. Spinopelvic parameters evaluation in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B

    2015-07-01

    The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.

  18. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. High frequency of Fredrickson's phenotypes IV and IIb in Brazilians infected by human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2005-06-01

    apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.02 levels were inversely correlated with the time of protease inhibitor therapy while total cholesterol levels had a trend to correlate with antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.09. Conclusion The highly varied and prevalent types of dyslipidemia found in Brazilian HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapies indicate the urgent need for their early diagnosis, the identification of the risk factors for CHD and, when needed, the prompt intervention on their lifestyle and/or with drug treatment.

  20. [Abortion and fetal non-viability: the Brazilian debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2005-01-01

    The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery.

  1. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  2. The normative aspects of the brazilian public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bernardino Araújo

    2016-12-01

    In Romania, the indebtedness level represented 39.6% of the GDP in 2014, in Brazil 57.19%. The Treaty of Maastricht in 1992, stipulated the limit of 60% of the GDP for the Euro Zone countries. Nevertheless the debt represented 91.9% of the GDP, especially due to Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and France. The Brazilian fiscal responsibility law has been developed from the experience of the tax laws of the United States and New Zealand . It is a reinterpretation of the applicable rules the Brazilian public debt compared with the limits set for the countries of the eurozone.

  3. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  4. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Antropologia; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coimbra, M.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Elmore, D. [Purdue Univ., IN (United States). Purdue Rare Isotopes Measurement Lab.

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by {sup 14} C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  5. The Raven and its flight to the Brazilian sing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Cristian Pereira dos Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poe’s The raven has received several translations since it was first published in 1845, with many translators having already ventured into trying to understand its plot, which centers around a raven and its simple, albeit cold and terrifying, reply to a lonely bereaved lover, in an effort to transpose it into other languages and cultures. Now this enigmatic bird has come to visit the Brazilian deaf culture. This article discusses some strategies used in my translation of the poem into LIBRAS (Brazilian Sign Language

  6. The complex network of the Brazilian Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima e Silva, D.; Medeiros Soares, M.; Henriques, M. V. C.; Schivani Alves, M. T.; de Aguiar, S. G.; de Carvalho, T. P.; Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.

    2004-02-01

    We study the Brazilian Popular Music in a network perspective. We call the Brazilian Popular Music Network, BPMN, the graph where the vertices are the song writers and the links are determined by the existence of at least a common singer. The linking degree distribution of such graph shows power law and exponential regions. The exponent of the power law is compatible with the values obtained by the evolving network algorithms seen in the literature. The average path length of the BPMN is similar to the correspondent random graph, its clustering coefficient, however, is significantly larger. These results indicate that the BPMN forms a small-world network.

  7. Modelling Sustainable International Tourism Demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Divino, Jose Angelo; McAleer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Pará (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil’s North region. Th...

  8. Genetic trend for lactation persistency in Gyr cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pires Monteiro da Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistency can be defined as the degree to which production is maintained after peak yield is reached. In Gyr cattle, persistency is an obstacle in milk production and profitability. So, persistency is an important trait that must be evaluated with total milk production in Brazilian Gyr cattle. The objective of this study was to calculate genetic tendency for persistency, accumulated 305-day milk yield and partial milk yields in first 100, 200 and 300 days in milk of Brazilian Gyr cows using breeding values predicted (EBV by random regression models. Data was obtained from ABCZ and included 15052 first lactations from cows with calving year ranged from 1980 to 2006. Fixed effects was contemporary group (milking herd, year and season of milk control and the days in milk were modeled using Legendre polynomials of order 4 for additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and a heterogeneous residual variance structure using four classes. To estimate breeding values for 305-day milk yield, the daily EBV were added. To calculate the EBVs for partial periods was made the sum of EBVs daily in the first 100 days (P100, between 100 and 200 days (P200 and between 200 and 300 days (P300 in lactation. Persistency was obtained by the sum of the deviations of EBVs predicted between 30 and 270 days of production in relation to EBV predicted for peak production. The EBV for peak production was calculated using the average EBVs between days 30 and 60 of lactation. The regression for genetic trend lactation persistency, milk yield accumulated 305-day milk yield and for partial production was calculated by PROC REG of the SAS statistical package, using year of birth as independent variable. Genetic trend for persistency was positive, with a linear regression coefficient of 0.75 kg/year. For EBV305, the annual gain was 19.26 kg of milk/year. For partial productions, annual gains were positive, in 6.30, 7.07 and 5.62 kg per year, respectively, for P

  9. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  10. TRENDS IN CROATIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of theworld. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study oftrends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. Thepurpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one ofthe most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paperaims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering areview of the recent trends of demand and the directions of hotel industrydevelopment. The importance of hotel industry on both micro and macro, i.e.global level is increasing. Besides a series of theoretical representations andconclusions, this paper brings some concrete data and examples frompractice in hotel management.

  11. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  12. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  13. Emerging trends in ICT security

    CERN Document Server

    Akhgar, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Emerging Trends in ICT Security, an edited volume, discusses the foundations and theoretical aspects of ICT security; covers trends, analytics, assessments and frameworks necessary for performance analysis and evaluation; and gives you the state-of-the-art knowledge needed for successful deployment of security solutions in many environments. Application scenarios provide you with an insider's look at security solutions deployed in real-life scenarios, including but limited to smart devices, biometrics, social media, big data security, and crowd sourcing. Provides a multidisciplinary approach

  14. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Letícia; Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  15. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  16. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  17. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  18. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  19. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  20. Varre-Sai: The Recent Brazilian Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucolotto, M. E.; Antonello, L. L.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Munayco, P.; dos Santos, E.; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2012-12-01

    Varre-Sai, the most recent Brazilian meteorite fall, on June 19th, 2010 at Varre-Sai, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (20°51'41″S; 41°44'.80″W). At least eight masses (total ~3.5 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour with a few dark shock veins. Five thin polished and etched sections were prepared from a slice weighing 35 g on deposit at the National Museum/UFRJ. It consists mostly of chondrules ranging in size from 0.35 to ~2.2 mm, and chondrule fragments enclosed in a crystalline matrix. The matrix consists of tiny isolated subhedral and anhedral crystals and opaque minerals that are intergrown with broken chondrules. The chondritic texture is poorly defined with chondrule textures that vary from non-porphyritic to porphyritic ones. The essential minerals are olivine (Fa25±0.2) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fa21.66±0.2Wo1.4). Accessory minerals are plagioclase, apatite, Fe-Ni metal phases, troilite, chromite and magnetite. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis confirms that the mineral phases are olivine, pyroxene, troilite and kamacite/taenite. Chemical data indicate that Varre-Sai is a member of the low iron L chondrite group. The observed texture and mineral phases led us to classify Varre-Sai as an equilibrated petrologic type 5. The shock features of the minerals (undulatory extinction, planar structure and numerous cracks), as well as plagioclase partial or totally transformed to maskelynite, suggest a shock stage S4. Also, some post-impact metamorphic processes could be inferred from the meta-sulfide conjoint grains that show complex mixtures of kamacite-taenite-tetrataenite and troilite. The occurrence of veins crosscutting the studied sections indicates that Varre-Sai was affected by a late fracturing event. Sealing of these fractures must have been a fast process, as shown by troilite globule textures pointing towards rapid solidification. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature

  1. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  2. Current trends in malarial chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Current trends in malarial chemotherapy. Emmanuel C. Ibezim* and Uche Odo. Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Accepted 21 August, 2006. Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. The sexual stage of the plasmodium is carried by ...

  3. Current Trends in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revue des Langues Vivantes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Examines the effects of Chomsky's theories of linguistics and language acquisition on language teaching methodology, specifically on the use of the audio-lingual method. Current trends in methodology move in two basic directions: 1) towards relaxation of the tighter restrictions of the audio-lingual method, and 2) towards development of techniques…

  4. Recent Trends in Karst Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends related to the karst processes and the evolution of karst landscapes are discussed. The hydrochemical processes responsible for the origin of karst are expanded on to illustrate the present scope of karst studies. These geomorphological studies are combined with concepts and techniques from hydraulics, chemistry, and mathematics. (JN)

  5. Quality Improvement Practices and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens J.; Hartz, Ove; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    The following article, "Quality Improvement Practices and Trends in Denmark," is the first in a series of papers arranged for and co-authored by Dr. Rick L. Edgeman. Rick is a member of QE's Editorial Board and is on sabbatical from Colorado State University. During the year, Rick and his family...

  6. Trends in Public Library Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    Review of trends in public library buildings covers cycles in building activity; financial support; site selection; expansion, remodeling, or conversion of existing buildings; size of buildings; and such architectural concerns as flexible space, lighting, power, accommodation of computer systems, heat and ventilation, fire protection, security,…

  7. Optical Computing-Research Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  8. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  9. Trends in Turkish Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice; Sahin, Abdullah; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends in the subject areas, methods, data collection tools, data analysis methods, and sample types used in recent studies on Turkish education, published in journals from 2000-2011. A total of 558 articles from 44 journals were selected from databases by the purposive sampling method and examined using…

  10. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  11. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical. Sciences) is based on 18 papers presented at the Ninth Symposium on Modern Trends in. Inorganic Chemistry (MTIC-IX) held during 12–14 December 2001 at the Indian. Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata. We have also ...

  12. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  13. Forest resource trends in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson

    1994-01-01

    Even though forests occupy only 12% of the land area of Illinois, they play a valuable role in the health of the state's environment and that of its citizens. Many of these benefits have been reviewed in Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends (Iverson et al. 1989), and summarized in...

  14. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  15. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new pro...

  16. Trends in Surgical Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of acute and chronic wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades. Unfortunately, improvement in clinical practice has not followed suit, although new trends and developments have improved the outcome of wound treatment in many ways. This review focuses...... on promising clinical development in major wound problems in general and on postoperative infections in particular Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  18. Modern trends in hypercomplex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kähler, Uwe; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the session "Quaternionic and Clifford Analysis" at the 10th ISAAC Congress held in Macau in August 2015. The covered topics represent the state-of-the-art as well as new trends in hypercomplex analysis and its applications.

  19. EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THE NEW HOPE PROJECT WAS AN EFFORT TO TRAIN THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. AN ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT TRENDS WAS MADE OF THOSE GROUPS WHO HAD COMPLETED THEIR TRAINING IN SELECTED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SUCH AS CUSTODIAN, NURSE AIDE, WAITRESS, SALES, AND SERVICE STATION. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SERVICE STATION AND CUSTODIAN TRAINEES,…

  20. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were