WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian lnls synchrotron

  1. Multiple imaging radiography at LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelohonnicke@yahoo.com.br; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba(Brazil); Antunes, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Safatle, A.M.V.; Barros, P.S.M. [Laboratorio de Oftalmologia Experimental e Comparativa, Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morelhao, S.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-01-11

    An analyzer-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup has been mounted at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for multiple imaging radiography (MIR) purposes. The algorithm employed for treating the MIR data collected at LNLS is described, and its reliability in extracting the distinct types of contrast that can be obtained with MIR is demonstrated by analyzing a test sample (thin polyamide wire). As a practical application, the possibility of studying ophthalmic tissues, corneal sequestra in this case, via MIR is investigated.

  2. XDS: a flexible beamline for X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy at the Brazilian synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F A; Saleta, M E; Pagliuca, R J S; Eleotério, M A; Reis, R D; Fonseca Júnior, J; Meyer, B; Bittar, E M; Souza-Neto, N M; Granado, E

    2016-11-01

    The majority of the beamlines at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (LNLS) use radiation produced in the storage-ring bending magnets and are therefore currently limited in the flux that can be used in the harder part of the X-ray spectrum (above ∼10 keV). A 4 T superconducting multipolar wiggler (SCW) was recently installed at LNLS in order to improve the photon flux above 10 keV and fulfill the demands set by the materials science community. A new multi-purpose beamline was then installed at the LNLS using the SCW as a photon source. The XDS is a flexible beamline operating in the energy range between 5 and 30 keV, designed to perform experiments using absorption, diffraction and scattering techniques. Most of the work performed at the XDS beamline concentrates on X-ray absorption spectroscopy at energies above 18 keV and high-resolution diffraction experiments. More recently, new setups and photon-hungry experiments such as total X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction under high pressures, resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy, among others, have started to become routine at XDS. Here, the XDS beamline characteristics, performance and a few new experimental possibilities are described.

  3. Polymers irradiation with synchrotron light: ionic desorption and photodegradation of the poly(3-methylthiophene); Irradiacao de polimeros com luz sincrotron: dessorcao ionica e fotodegradacao do poli(3-metiltiofeno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, G.V.; Rocco, M.L.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br; Weibel, D.E. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial - INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Roman, L.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Micaroni, L. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-01

    Photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) and photodegradation studies have been performed in poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMeT) using synchrotron radiation at the sulphur 1s-, 2s- and 2p-edges as well as at the carbon 1s-edge. Both studies were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS), using the SXS and TGM beam lines, respectively. The PSID studies point out to selective bond breaking through measurements of the relative ion yields of S{sup +} and S{sup 2+}. The photodegradation studies also show a preferential break of the C-S bond and loss of sulphur from the polymeric material. (author)

  4. X-ray powder diffraction beamline at D10B of LNLS: application to the Ba2FeReO6 double perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabio Furlan; Granado, Eduardo; Carvalho, Wilson; Kycia, Stefan W; Bruno, Daniele; Droppa, Roosevelt

    2006-01-01

    A new beamline, fully dedicated to X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) measurements, has been installed after the exit port B of the bending magnet D10 at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) and commissioned. The technical characteristics of the beamline are described and some performance indicators are listed, such as the incoming photon flux and the angular/energy resolutions obtainable under typical experimental conditions. The results of a Rietveld refinement for a standard sample of Y2O3 using high-resolution data are shown. The refined parameters match those found in the literature, within experimental error. High-resolution XPD measurements on Ba2FeReO6 demonstrate a slight departure from the ideal cubic double-perovskite structure at low temperatures, not detected by previous powder diffraction experiments. The onset of the structural transition coincides with the ferrimagnetic ordering temperature, Tc approximately equal to 315 K. Subtle structural features, such as those reported here for Ba2FeReO6, as well as the determination and/or refinement of complex crystal structures in polycrystalline samples are ideal candidate problems to be investigated on this beamline.

  5. LNLS: light source, beamlines, end stations and scientific instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentin, Flavio Cesar [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The LNLS is operational since 1997 and has a second-generation light source with a 1,37GeV electron storage ring and 2,08 keV critical energy. Besides the storage ring there are various beamlines installed mainly in magnetic dipoles, however were opened three beamlines based in insertion devices, wiggler and undulator. The LNLS is now operating with 16 beamlines which are open to the external user community: 9 of them are dedicated to structural studies and the other 7 to spectroscopic techniques. The beamlines devoted to structural studies involve X-ray diffraction (XRD1, XRD2, XPD and XDS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS1 and SAXS2), protein crystallography (MX1 and MX2) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The beamlines dedicated to spectroscopic studies are X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS1, XAFS2 and DXAS), soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS), spherical grating monochromator (SGM), plane grating monochromator (PGM) and toroidal grating monochromator (TGM). Two more beamlines are expected to begin their operation in 2012: X-ray tomography and infrared spectroscopy. Each beamline has its own characteristics in terms of photon energy range, flux, resolution and beam size, but many of the optical elements and instrumentation are common to various beamlines and the main are mirrors, monochromators (crystal and diffraction grating), slits and filters. For X-ray and VUV spectroscopy, several experimental techniques can be explored including XAS, XMCD, XMLD, XPS, AES, UPS, XEOL, reflectivity and PePiCo. For that, these beamlines share different end stations and instrumentation that can be easily installed and commissioned for attend a specific experiment. (author)

  6. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  7. Upgrades to the XRD1 beamline optics and endstation at the LNLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, H.; Fontoura, A.; Neuenschwander, R. T.; Diaz, B.; Rodella, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    XRD1 was the first X-ray diffraction beamline to be built at the LNLS and after approximately 12 years of operation it was substantially updated to improve beam stability, increase the reliability of the monochromator movement as well as provide an experimental hutch that would meet the demands of users. The improvements included the construction of an independent concrete slab below the mirror and monochromator to minimize the vibrations originating from the floor. In addition, the installation of new monochromator mechanisms as well as the replacement of the two Si(111) crystals were performed in order to attain higher precision, stability and reproducibility during operation. Moreover, the diffractometer was replaced by a 3-circle heavy duty diffractometer from Newport to collect XRD patterns primarily in capillary geometry. A robotic arm was installed for fast and automated replacement of samples as well as to secure a cryojet or a hot air blower in front of the sample during measurements. In addition, a housing equipped with 24 Mythen detectors was installed at the beamline allowing for extremely fast data acquisition. Another upgrade was the integration of motors and control systems from PXI National Instruments and Galil controllers with Phytron. These systems are crucial for the next upgrade that is underway at the beamline: enabling remote access for users to collect their measurements without the need to travel to the LNLS.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization of healthy and fluorotic human dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaço, M. V.; Barroso, R. C.; Porto, I. M.; Gerlach, R. F.; Costa, F. N.; Braz, D.; Droppa, R.; de Sousa, F. B.

    2012-10-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basic physical-chemistry reactions of demineralization and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory—LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed both in powder samples and polished surfaces. The powder samples were analyzed to obtain the characterization of a typical healthy enamel pattern. The polished surfaces were analyzed in specific areas that have been identified as fluorotic ones. X-ray diffraction data were obtained for all samples and these data were compared with the control samples and also with the literature data.

  9. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  10. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  11. Determination of Cu/Zn and Fe in human serum of patients with sickle cell anemia using radiation synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, C.G.L. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, S.M.F. [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, 20.211-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20.559-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we analyzed serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). We studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 suffering from SCA and sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Moreover, there are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. The concentrations of Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger, 120% and 20%, respectively, when compared with the CG. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples from patients suffering from SCA than from the CG. Therefore, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) were analyzed by SRTXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to determine the concentrations of the P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index for diagnosis of SCA.

  12. Real time structural studies of nano structured materials and polymer blends at the SAXS beamline of the LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torriani, Iris L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin] [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Plivelic, Tomas S.; Kellermann, Guinther [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Full text: Instrumentation recently developed at the SAXS beamline of the LNLS has made possible the study of several interesting experiments with real-time data collection. A WAXS-SAXS chamber which allows the simultaneous recording of wide and small angle scattering, has been an ideal instrument for the study of polymer samples during temperature -controlled experiments. In this instrument, temperature can be varied from -4 to 95 deg C and has been used with specific sample holders for the study of the crystallization of amorphous metallic ribbons by Joule heating. Sealed sample holders for liquids operated under controlled temperature have been used successfully in the study of complex fluid systems, for in situ measurements of structural phase transitions. The sample temperature can be varied between -6 and 90 deg C or between room temperature and 170 deg C. A very small volume of sample is necessary and the scattering patterns are registered with very low background and excellent reproducibility. A newly developed high temperature chamber for simultaneous recording of WAXS and SAXS spectra during thermal treatment, operates from room temperature up to 1000 deg C in vacuum, and has proved to be very successful in the study of nucleation and growth of nano crystals in glassy matrices as well as crystallization of polymer blends. Several examples of these applications will be presented. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  14. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: jcorsini@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Laboratory Instrumentation/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  15. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  16. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos, E-mail: prof.robinho@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares; Teixeira, Paulo Cesar; Benites, Vinicius Melo, E-mail: paulo.c.teixeira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  17. Avaliação de multielementos em amostras de sangue humano usando SR-TXRF Evaluation of multielements in human blood samples using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Graciele V. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Gammacell 220 Exce irradiator, and the second was irradiated with doses of from 2 to 100 cGy, using gamma radiation in a Theraton 780 C irradiator. After irradiation, all samples were lyophilized to remove the water and then submitted to standard chemical digestion by adding nitric acid. All the measurements were carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS in Campinas. While no positive association was found for variations in calcium, the variations in potassium were positively associated with the radiation dose for all analyzed samples. On the other hand, iron levels decreased for whole blood and plasma and zinc levels decreased only in whole blood as the dose increased.

  18. Synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in the study of KDP phase transition induced by electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the application of the X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS to study KDP phase transition induced by electric field is discussed. A Huber three-axis (omega, phi, 2theta diffractometer mounted on a table which rotates around the incident beam allows to measure Renninger scans (RS at the XRD station of LNLS using the adequate polarization for the experiments. Prior results indicated (080 as the best choice for the KDP primary reflection and the (440( 40 four-beam case for the secondary. Two Bragg-surface diffraction (BSD reflections, where the secondary beam is propagated parallel to the sample surface, are involved in this multiple diffraction case. A RS interval of 3.3° around phi = 0° position was measured while the electric field was increased up to 6 kV/cm. At this value, a phase transition was observed and the secondary peaks became narrower and changed their RS position indicating possible occurrence of a metastable ferroelectric phase.

  19. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and biological applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Lopes; I Lima; G R Pereira; C A Perez

    2011-02-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to study bone sites of human and animal samples with and without bone disorders.

  20. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  1. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  2. Analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns from fluorotic enamel samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson, E-mail: anapaulagalmeida@gmail.co [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Porto, Isabel M., E-mail: belporto@ig.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Gerlach, Raquel F., E-mail: rfgerlach@forp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Droppa Junior, Roosevelt, E-mail: rdroppa@lnls.b [Associacao Brasileira de Tecnologia de Luz Sincrotron (ABTLuS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basics physical-chemistry reactions of demineralisation and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The hexagonal symmetry seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using technique Synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to determine the crystal structure and crystallinity of on fluoroapatite (FAp) crystal present in fluoritic enamel. All the scattering profile measurements was carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. (author)

  3. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  4. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  5. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  6. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Santos, C.A.N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Pereira, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos, Corrosao e Soldagem

    2013-08-15

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  7. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  8. RF Gymnastics in Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2005-01-01

    The RF systems installed in synchrotrons can be used to change the longitudinal beam characteristics. "RF gymnastics" designates manipulations of the RF parameters aimed at providing such non-trivial changes. Some keep the number of bunches constant while changing bunch length, energy spread, emittance or distance between bunches. Others are used to change the number of bunches. After recalling the basics of longitudinal beam dynamics in a hadron synchrotron, this paper deals with the most commonly used gymnastics. Their principle is described as well as their performance and limitations.

  9. RF gymnastics in synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2011-01-01

    The RF systems installed in synchrotrons can be used to change the longitudinal beam characteristics. 'RF gymnastics' designates manipulations of the RF parameters aimed at providing such non-trivial changes. Some keep the number of bunches constant while changing bunch length, energy spread, emittance, or distance between bunches. Others are used to change the number of bunches. After recalling the basics of longitudinal beam dynamics in a hadron synchrotron, this paper deals with the most commonly used gymnastics. Their principle is described as well as their performance and limitations.

  10. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Gupta, Sayan; Zhan, Chenyang; Chance, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  11. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: marinkov@bnl.gov; Gupta, Sayan [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhan, Chenyang [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Chance, Mark R. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering from Self-organized Soft Nanostructures in Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, J. O.

    2009-04-01

    In the general context of self-organization of nanoparticles (in our case clay particles), and transitions in such structures, we study interconnected universal complex physical phenomena such as: (i) spontaneous gravitationally induced phase separation and nematic self-organization in systems of anisotropic clay nanoparticles in aqueous suspension, including studies of isotropic to nematic transitions [1,2] (ii) transitions from biaxial to uniaxial nematics by application of external magnetic field to self-organized systems of the same anisotropic (diamagnetic) clay nanoparticle systems [3,4] (iii) guided self-organization into chainlike structures of the same anisotropic clay nanoparticles in oil suspension when subjected to external electrical fields (electrorheological structures of polarized nanoparticles), and the stability of, and transitions of, such structures, when subjected to external mechanical stress [5,6] The experimental techniques used by us include synchrotron X-ray scattering, neutron scattering, rheometry. microscopy and magnetic resonance. We have demonstrated that clays may be used as good model systems for studies of universal physical phenomena and transitions in self-organized nanostructured soft and complex matter. Self-organization and related transitions in clay systems in particular, may have practical relevance for nano-patterning, properties of nanocomposites, and macroscopically anisotropic gels, among many other applications [7]. The synchrotron experiments have been performed at LNLS-Brazil, PLS- Korea, BNL-USA and ESRF-France. Acknowledgments: Collaborators, postdocs and students at NTNU-Norway, UiO-Norway, IFE-Norway, BNL-USA, LNLS-Brazil, UFPE-Brazil, UnB-Brazil, Univ. Amsterdam-Netherlands, Univ.Paris 7-France and other places. This research has been supported by the Research Council of Norway (RCN), through the NANOMAT, SUP and FRINAT Programs. References 1. J.O. Fossum, E. Gudding, D.d.M. Fonseca, Y. Meheust, E. DiMasi, T

  13. Synchrotrons for Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, Marco G.

    Since 1990, when the world's first hospital-based proton therapy center opened in Loma Linda, California, interest in dedicated proton and carbon ion therapy facilities has been growing steadily. Today, many proton therapy centers are in operation, but the number of centers offering carbon ion therapy is still very low. This difference reflects the fact that protons are well accepted by the medical community, whereas radiotherapy with carbon ions is still experimental. Furthermore, accelerators for carbon ions are larger, more complicated and more expensive than those for protons only. This article describes the accelerator performance required for hadrontherapy and how this is realized, with particular emphasis on carbon ion synchrotrons.

  14. Application of X-ray synchrotron microscopy instrumentation in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, F. M. [Medical Science Program, Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil); Pereira, G. R. [Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granjeiro, J. M. [Molecular and Cell Biology Dept., Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Calasans-Maia, M. D. [Oral Surgery Dept., Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rossi, A. M. [Biomaterials Laboratory, Brazilian Center of Physics Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perez, C. A. [Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes, R. T.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging technique has been used as a significant tool in order to investigate minerals contents in some kinds of materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elemental distribution of calcium and zinc in bone substitute materials (nano-hydroxyapatite spheres) and cortical bones through X-Ray Micro-fluorescence analysis with the increment of Synchrotron Radiation in order to evaluate the characteristics of the newly formed bone and its interface, the preexisting bone and biomaterials by the arrangement of collagen fibers and its birefringence. The elemental mapping was carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil working at D09-XRF beam line. Based on this study, the results suggest that hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are biocompatible, promote osteo-conduction and favored bone repair. (authors)

  15. Survival of gas phase amino acids and nucleobases in space radiation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pilling, S.; Andrade, D. P. P.; de Castilho, R. B.; Cavasso-Filho, R L; Lago, A. F.; de Coutinho, L. H.; de Souza, G. G. B.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; de Brito, A. Naves

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental studies on the photoionization and photodissociation processes (photodestruction) of gaseous amino acids and nucleobases in interstellar and interplanetary radiation conditions analogs. The measurements have been undertaken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray photons. The experimental set up basically consists of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer kept under high vacuum conditions. Mass spectra were ob...

  16. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  17. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  18. Spin echo in synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Alexander W.; Courant, Ernest D.

    2007-01-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency Δνspin of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time τ between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference-overlap effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference-overlap effect occurs when Δνspin is too small, or when τ is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings overlap each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive interference patterns depending on the exact value of τ. Typically, the beam’s energy spread is large and this interference-overlap effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time τ after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when τ is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving an analysis

  19. Spin Echo in Synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC; Courant, Ernest D.; /Brookhaven

    2006-12-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time {tau} between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference effect occurs when {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} is too small, or when {tau} is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings interfere with each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive patterns depending on the exact value of {tau}. Typically, the beam's energy spread is large and this interference effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time {tau} after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when {tau} is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving

  20. Towards synchrotron-based nanocharacterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuet, Pierre; Arnaud, Lucile; Biquard, Xavier; Cloetens, Peter; Doyen, Lise; Gergaud, Patrice; Lamontagne, Patrick; Lavayssière, Maylis; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Renault, Olivier; Rieutord, François; Susini, Jean; Ulrich, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The advent of 3rd generation synchrotron sources coupled with high efficiency x-ray focusing optics opened new nanocharacterization possibilities. This paper is an overview of synchrotron-based techniques that may be of interest for nanotechnology researchers. Although not exhaustive, it includes a general background of synchrotron principle and main x-ray interactions before addressing nanoimaging possibilities. Three-dimensional (3D) hard x-ray multimodal tomography is now doable that allows producing 3D morphological, chemical and crystalline images with a sub-100 nm resolution. Although the resolution is still limited with respect to electron imaging, it presents attractive features like depth resolution and non-destructive exam. Besides imaging, diffraction also allows strain determination within microstructures and is illustrated here on 100 nm copper lines. Surface analysis is illustrated through X-ray Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (XPEEM).

  1. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  2. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs. (LEW)

  3. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs.

  4. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  5. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  6. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  7. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  8. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Longo, Renata; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico D.; Castelli, Edoardo

    2002-05-01

    A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.

  9. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  10. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  11. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  12. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  13. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  14. Synchrotron radiation absorber for high density loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anashin, V. V.; Kuzminych, V. S.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Zholents, A. A.

    1991-10-01

    A design of a special synchrotron radiation absorber for the storage ring VEPP-4M is presented. The density of the synchrotron radiation power on the absorber surface is up to 500 W/mm 2. The absorber is made from a beryllium plate, brazed inside to the copper vacuum chamber, which is intensively water-cooled from outside.

  15. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  16. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  17. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  18. Experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Ken; Arakida, Yoshio; Dixit, Tanuja; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Eiji; Otsuka, Kazunori; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Torikai, Kota; Wake, Masayoshi

    2007-02-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron.

  19. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  20. Solenoid and Synchrotron radiation effects in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Tomás, R; Angal-Kalinin, D

    2010-01-01

    The emission of Synchrotron Radiation in the CLIC BDS is one of the major limitations of the machine performance. An extensive revision of this phenomenon is presented with special emphasis on the Interaction point (IP) solenoid.

  1. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  3. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  4. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking.

  5. Project in determination of crystal structure of nitrogen fixation proteins from azospirilum brasiliense and herbaspirilum seropedicae by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Valma M.; Leggs, Luciana A.; Delboni, Luis F.; Chubatsu, LedaS.; Souza, Emanuel M.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Yates, Geoffrey M.; Pedrosa, Fabio O. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Biological nitrogen fixation is essential for maintaining the nitrogen cycle on earth and of high importance for Brazilian agriculture. The nitrogenase enzyme system, which provides the biochemical machinery for nitrogen fixation, consists of two component metalloproteins, the molybdenumiron (Mo Fe) protein and the iron (Fe) protein. Nitrogen fixation is a very energy-intensive process, requiring around 16 moles of ATP for each mol of N{sub 2} fixed (reduced). As a consequence, synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is tighty regulated at two levels: general and specific. The general level regulation is mediated by the ntr (nitrogen regulation) system. Two gene products are involved: the ntrB gene product (NtrB) is responsible for the activation of the ntrC gene product (NtrC) by phosphorylating a conserved Asp54, which activates the expression of the nifA gene. The nif specific control system is mediated by the NifA protein, which binds to a DNA specific sequence (UAS, Upstream Activator Sequence) and activates nif promoter transcriptions by RNA polymerase-{sup {alpha}54}, following ATP hydrolysis. The aim of this project is to solve the crystal structure of dinitrogenase reductase (iron protein) and dinitrogenase (molybdenum-iron protein) from Azospirilim brasiliense and the regulatory proteins NifA from Herbaspirillum seropedicae and NtrC Azospirillum brasiliense. The three dimensional structure of the proteins involved in this project will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. To this end, the data collection will probably be done at the LNLS facilities which will be available in the near future. (author)

  6. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  7. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  8. Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.

  9. Precision Calibration of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, A A; Maslova, M V

    2003-01-01

    The technique of calibration of synchrotron radiation precision detectors on a tungsten source based on similarity (close similarity) of character of spectral distributions of synchrotron and thermal radiations is given. The characteristics of various commonly used lamps, used as "standard" ones, are given. The errors of measurements are analyzed. The detectors are intended for absolute measurements of the number of electrons in a ring-shaped bunch.

  10. Modulation of synchrotron radiation by acoustic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Kocharyan, L A; Mirzoyan, V K

    1986-01-01

    By means of a quartz single crystal excited by piezoelectric oscillations, the modulation of synchrotron radiation reflected from the quartz planes (1011) is realized for frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 15 kHz when the Bragg condition is satisfied. The wavelength of synchrotron radiation ranged from 0.3 to 12A. The patterns of modulated beams taken from oscillograph and analyzer screens are shown.

  11. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  12. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  13. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  14. Spatial Coherence of Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, S; Coisson, R

    2003-10-30

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) has been widely used since the 80's as a tool for many applications of UV, soft X rays and hard X rays in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The evolution of SR sources towards higher brightness has led to the design of low-emittance electron storage rings (emittance is the product of beam size and divergence), and the development of special source magnetic structures, as undulators. This means that more and more photons are available on a narrow bandwidth and on a small collimated beam; in other words there is the possibility of getting a high power in a coherent beam. In most applications, a monochromator is used, and the temporal coherence of the light is given by the monochromator bandwidth. With smaller and smaller sources, even without the use of collimators, the spatial coherence of the light has become appreciable, first in the UV and soft X ray range, and then also with hard X rays. This has made possible new or improved experiments in interferometry, microscopy, holography, correlation spectroscopy, etc. In view of these recent possibilities and applications, it is useful to review some basic concepts about spatial coherence of SR, and its measurement and applications. In particular we show how the spatial coherence properties of the radiation in the far field can be calculated with simple operations from the single-electron amplitude and the electron beam angular and position spreads. The gaussian approximation will be studied in detail for a discussion of the properties of the far field mutual coherence and the estimate of the coherence widths, and the comparison with the VanCittert-Zernike limit.

  15. Single electrode electrochemical detection in hybrid poly(dimethylsiloxane)/glass multichannel micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ney Henrique; Almeida, Andre Luis de Jesus de; Piazzeta, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Gobbia, Angelo Luiz [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Microfabricacao; Jesus, Dosil Pereira de [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia em Bioanalitica (INCTBio), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Deblire, Ariane; Silva, Jose Alberto Fracassi da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The fabrication process of a novel multichannel {mu}TAS based on PDMS and glass materials and with fully-integrated electrodes for amperometric detection has been described. Using the facilities of the Microfabrication Lab. (LMF) at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), soft-lithography, lift-off and O{sub 2} plasma surface activation sealing techniques were employed for rapid proto typing of cost effective PDMS/glass microchips. Fast calibration procedures were possible for the electro oxidation of hydroquinone, thiocyanate, and acetaminophen using Au and Cu electrodes. (author)

  16. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  17. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.

    1998-07-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

  18. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  19. Paraxial Green's functions in Synchrotron Radiation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, G; Schneidmiller, E; Yurkov, M; Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle Synchrotron Radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always granted and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating Synchrotron Radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point sourc...

  20. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  1. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-03-29

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit

  3. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter L [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office Basic Energy Sciences; Rhyne, James J [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  4. Compact synchrotron light source of the HSRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Takayama, T; Hori, T

    1998-05-01

    A 700 MeV synchrotron radiation source optimized in order to be incorporated in the university laboratory is under commissioning at Hiroshima University. The storage ring is of a racetrack type with two long straight sections for installing undulators. The bending field is as strong as 2.7 T, produced by normal-conducting magnet technology, and delivers synchrotron radiation with a critical wavelength of 1.42 nm. The strong magnetic field also enables a low-energy injection scheme to be employed owing to the fast radiation damping. A 150 MeV microtron has been adopted as the injector.

  5. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation of a charged particle in a constant uniform magnetic field and in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field is studied in the frame of the relativistic quantum theory. First, to this end exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found. Using such solutions, all characteristics of one photon spontaneous irradiation, such as its intensity and angular distribution and polarization were calculated and analyzed. It is shown that usual spectrum of the synchrotron radiation is essentially affected by the presence of the solenoid (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). We believe that this deformation may be observed by spectroscopic methods of measurement. It is shown that

  6. Update on synchrotron radiation TXRF: New results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, S.; Pianetta, P.; Ghosh, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.] [and others

    1998-12-31

    Synchrotron-based total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) has been developed as a leading technique for measuring wafer cleanliness. It holds advantages over other techniques in that it is non-destructive and allows mapping of the surface. The highest sensitivity observed thus far is 3 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} ({approx} 3fg) for 1,000 second count time. Several applications of SR-TXRF are presented which take advantage of the energy tunability of the synchrotron source or the mapping capability.

  7. Laboratory source of synchrotron radiation: TROLL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevsky, S. I.; Vernyi, A. E.; Panasjuk, V. S.; Khromchenko, V. B.

    1987-11-01

    A laboratory synchrotron radiation (SR) source TROLL-2 is described. Its main parameters are as follows: the energy of the accelerated particles = 24 MeV; the orbit radius = 20 mm; the SR pulse half-width = 2 ms, the maximum spectral radiant power (at λ = 350 nm) = 1.2×10 6 W/m.

  8. Optimization on Synchrotron Radiation Lattice of BEPCⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi-Peng; GAO Jie; GUO Zhi-Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Electron and Positron Collider H (BEPCⅡ) is a double ring electron-positron collider, which can also be used as a synchrotron radiation (SR) light source. Since the BEPCⅡ will start commissioning with SR mode in November 2006, it is essential to have a satisfying SR lattice.

  9. Wellcome Trust backs Rutherford to host synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Leder, N

    1999-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust has stated its preference for the site of the new Anglo-French synchrotron to be at RAL in Oxfordshire. But the statement coincides with an announcement from the UK government that a decision on the location of 'Diamond' will be delayed to allow two new reports on the canditate sites to be commissioned (1/2 page).

  10. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  11. Polymer research and synchrotron radiation perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portale, Giuseppe; Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Bras, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The developments in synchrotron radiation based polymer research have been profound over the last two decades. Not only have many more beamlines suitable for soft condensed matter research become available since the pioneering days but also the technical developments with respect to X-ray beam quali

  12. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Ph; Dumas, P; Schilcher, T; Nadji, A; Luedeke, A; Hubert, N; Cassinari, L; Boege, M; Denard, J-C; Stingelin, L; Nadolski, L; Garvey, T; Albert, S; Gough, Ch; Quack, M; Wambach, J; Dehler, M; Filhol, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors.

  13. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  14. Dipole magnet of synchrotron source for national synchrotron centre of Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Muratov, V I; Peev, F A

    2001-01-01

    The paper contains the revised design of a dipole magnet for a synchrotron radiation source.Usage of such a magnet allows to reach the energy of electrons in a ring up to 1.2 GeV.In paper the result of simulation of a magnet for all modes of operations of a source are shown.The proposed variant of the dipole magnet considerably raises parameters of the synchrotron radiation source.

  15. Remote Synchrotron Light Instrumentation Using Optical Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, S.; Yin, Y.

    2009-05-04

    By coupling the emitted synchrotron light into an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit the signal at substantial distances from the light port, without the need to use expensive beamlines. This would be especially beneficial in all those cases when the synchrotron is situated in areas not easily access because of their location, or due to high radiation levels. Furthermore, the fiber output can be easily switched, or even shared, between different diagnostic instruments. We present the latest results on the coupling and dispersion measurements performed at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. In several cases, coupling synchrotron light into optical fibers can substantially facilitate the use of beam diagnostic instrumentation that measures longitudinal beam properties by detecting synchrotron radiation. It has been discussed in with some detail, how fiberoptics can bring the light at relatively large distances from the accelerator, where a variety of devices can be used to measure beam properties and parameters. Light carried on a fiber can be easily switched between instruments so that each one of them has 100% of the photons available, rather than just a fraction, when simultaneous measurements are not indispensable. From a more general point of view, once synchrotron light is coupled into the fiber, the vast array of techniques and optoelectronic devices, developed by the telecommunication industry becomes available. In this paper we present the results of our experiments at the Advanced Light Source, where we tried to assess the challenges and limitations of the coupling process and determine what level of efficiency one can typically expect to achieve.

  16. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  17. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Levorato, Mario; Frota, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtai...

  18. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  19. Synchrotron masers and fast radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), with a typical duration of 1 ms and 1 Jy flux density at GHz frequencies, have brightness temperatures exceeding 1e33 K, requiring a coherent emission process. This can be achieved by bunching particles in volumes smaller than the typical wavelength, but this may be challenging. Alternatively, we can have maser emission. Under certain conditions, the synchrotron stimulated emission process can be more important than true absorption, and a synchrotron maser can be created. This occurs when the emitting electrons have a very narrow distribution of pitch angles and energies. This process overcomes the difficulties of having extremely dense bunches of particles and relaxes the light crossing time limits, since there is no simple relation between the actual size of the source and the observed variability timescale.

  20. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  1. Synchrotron masers and fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, G.

    2017-02-01

    Fast radio bursts, with a typical duration of 1 ms and 1 Jy flux density at gigahertz frequencies, have brightness temperatures exceeding 1033 K, requiring a coherent emission process. This can be achieved by bunching particles in volumes smaller than the typical wavelength, but this may be challenging. Maser emission is a possibility. Under certain conditions, the synchrotron-stimulated emission process can be more important than true absorption, and a synchrotron maser can be created. This occurs when the emitting electrons have a very narrow distribution of pitch angles and energies. This process overcomes the difficulties of having extremely dense bunches of particles and relaxes the light-crossing time limits, since there is no simple relation between the actual size of the source and the observed variability time-scale.

  2. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  3. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  4. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  5. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    OpenAIRE

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a...

  6. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  7. Theory of the Alternating-Gradient Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, E. D.; Snyder, H. S.

    2000-04-01

    The equations of motion of the particles in a synchrotron in which the field gradient indexn=-(r/B) ∂B/∂rvaries along the equilibrium orbit are examined on the basis of the linear approximation. It is shown that if n alternates rapidly between large positive and large negative values, the stability of both radial and vertical oscillations can be greatly increased compared to conventional accelerators in which n is azimuthally constant and must lie between 0 and 1. Thus aperture requirements are reduced. For practical designs, the improvement is limited by the effects of constructional errors; these lead to resonance excitation of oscillations and consequent instability if 2νx or 2νz or νx+νz is integral, where νx and νz are the frequencies of horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations, measured in units of the frequency of revolution. The mechanism of phase stability is essentially the same as in a conventional synchrotron, but the radial amplitude of synchrotron oscillations is reduced substantially. Furthermore, at a "transition energy" E1≈νxMc2 the stable and unstable equilibrium phases exchange roles, necessitating a jump in the phase of the radiofrequency accelerating voltage. Calculations indicate that the manner in which this jump is performed is not very critical.

  8. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  9. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  10. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TURN EXTRACTION FROM THE PROTON SYNCHROTRON TO THE SUPER PROTON SYNCHROTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Within CERN's accelerator complex, the extraction from the Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron has been done using the so-called ``Continuous Transfer" (CT) method since the 1970's. A new technique, known as Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), has now been implemented and is in full operation. This report examines a holistic performance analysis of the novel technique in multiple aspects of the accelerator complex, as well as a direct comparison with its predecessor, CT, from the implementation of MTE in 2010 until the end of 2015.

  11. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  12. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-10-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  13. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  14. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  15. Improvements of the TROLL-2 synchrotron and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevsky, S. I.; Vernyi, A. E.; Panasyuk, V. S.; Khromchenko, V. B.

    1991-10-01

    Information on radical improvements of the TROLL-2 synchrotron, a specialized pulsed synchrotron radiation source, is presented in this article. Two new variants for particle injection from a solid electromagnet to a ring one, as a specialized continuous synchrotron radiation source are considered. Particle pre-acceleration from thermal velocities to injection energy herewith may take place both in the synchronous and in the isochrone regime.

  16. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  17. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-07-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP. Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naïve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  18. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  19. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.

    1996-07-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented.

  20. Multi turn beam extraction from synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos

    2017-01-24

    This disclosure relates to apparatuses and methods for the extraction of particle beams while maintaining the energy levels and precision of the particles and the particle beam. Apparatuses and methods for extracting a charged particle beam from a central orbit in a synchrotron are provided, in which a particle beam is deflected from the central orbit. Parts of the deflected particle beam passes through a stripping foil placed in at least parts of the deflected path such that the particles that pass through the foil are stripped of at least one electron. The electron stripped particles and the non-stripped particles may be separated magnetically.

  1. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R.J. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  2. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  3. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  4. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  5. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  6. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  7. Analytical fits to the synchrotron functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mourad Fouka; Saad Ouichaoui

    2013-01-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function,F(x),and its complementary function,G(x),are performed and presented.The corresponding relative errors are less than 0.26% and 0.035% for F(x) and G(x),respectively.To this end we have,first,fitted the modified Bessel functions,K5/3(x) and K2/3(x).For all the fitted functions,the general fit expression is the same,and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large values of x for each function.It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large values of x.Simple formulae are suggested in this paper,depending on adjustable parameters.The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for synchrotron radiation,both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  8. ANKA - Service-oriented synchrotron radiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayan, Ruben Albert; Birkel, Ingrid; Buth, Gernot [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, ANKA Project Group, Karlsruhe (DE)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    ANKA is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility under construction at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. ANKA is based on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring injected from a 500 MeV booster synchrotron and a 50 MeV racetrack microtron. Nominal circulating electron current will be 400 mA. The facility is scheduled to become operational in fall 2000. ANKA will deliver photons predominantly in the hard X-ray range but it will also feature both XUV and infrared beamlines. So far, all beamlines will use bending magnets as sources, while provision is made to install appropriate insertion devices later on. ANKA has a novel mission which is characterised by giving preference to providing service to customers while maintaining a significant fraction of research work. ANKA will offer full service in X-ray lithography, mainly for micro- and nanofabrication, and in analysing and investigating non-destructively various structural, mechanical, chemical, electronic, magnetic, and molecular properties of samples and components. (author)

  9. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  10. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P J; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A T; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity of the beam ...

  11. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  12. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  13. Magnetic Field Structure from Synchrotron Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R

    2006-01-01

    Total magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, as observed through their total synchrotron emission, are strongest (up to \\simeq 30\\mu G) in the spiral arms. The degree of radio polarization is low; the field in the arms must be mostly turbulent or tangled. Polarized synchrotron emission shows that the resolved regular fields are generally strongest in the interarm regions (up to \\simeq 15\\mu G), sometimes forming 'magnetic arms' parallel to the optical arms. The field structure is spiral in almost every galaxy, even in flocculent and bright irregular types which lack spiral arms. The observed large-scale patterns of Faraday rotation in several massive spiral galaxies reveal coherent regular fields, as predicted by dynamo models. However, in most galaxies observed so far no simple patterns of Faraday rotation could be found. Either many dynamo modes are superimposed and cannot be resolved by present-day telescopes, or most of the apparently regular field is in fact anisotropic random, with frequent reversals, due ...

  14. Analytical Fits to the Synchrotron Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Fouka, M

    2013-01-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function, $F(x)$, and its complementary function, $G(x)$, are performed and presented. The corresponding relative errors are less than $0.26\\%$ and $0.035\\%$ for $F(x) $ and $G(x)$, respectively. To this aim we have, first, fitted the modified Bessel functions, $K_{5/3}(x)$ and $K_{2/3}(x)$. For all the fitted functions, the general fit expression is the same, and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large $x$-values for each function. It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large $x$-values. Simple formulae are suggested in this paper, depending on adjustable parameters. The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for the synchrotron radiation, both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  15. Enhanced analysis of biomaterials by synchrotron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, K. [Cranfield Postgraduate Medical School, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.d.rogers@cranfield.ac.uk; Etok, S. [Cranfield Postgraduate Medical School, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Broadhurst, A. [Cranfield Postgraduate Medical School, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Scott, R. [Biomet-Europe, Dorcan Way, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN3 5HY (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    There is an increasing body of evidence that prosthetic implants based upon titanium alloys attain improved performance when coated with calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP). Such coatings appear to promote osteointegration and bone in-growth. Plasma spraying is the most frequently employed route to coating fabrication. Detailed chemical and structural characterisation of these coatings is essential for (i) coating technology development (ii) ensuring consistent material quality and (iii) assessing coating performance. The work presented here employed combined conventional powder diffraction and glancing angle synchrotron diffraction to examine the in vitro performance of apatite coatings formed by plasma spraying. Coatings were exposed to simulated body fluid and foetal calf serum, and changes to the coating chemistry and structure determined. A new analysis method, synchrotron depth profiling tomography, has been applied to obtain structural features through the coating depth. The dissolution and re-precipitation behaviour of the coatings was found to be significantly different for each media. For the first time, it has been possible to identify and quantify the formation of a nanocrystalline, carbonated HAP phase. It has been possible to simultaneously model all coating phases apparent within the X-ray diffraction data and thus quantify changes to film composition. DPT has also revealed subtle changes in coating features with depth and these may have a significant impact on coating dissolution. The findings are discussed in the context of kinematic models for the coating behaviour and implications for the performance of such coatings in vivo.

  16. Physics design of SSRF synchrotron radiation security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems,which will be solved in physics design.The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices.Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation,the arrangements of photon absorbers,diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively.In addition.SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited.Hence.beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold.The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components.In this paper,beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold,radiation power,radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated.From the calculation results,the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward.By commissioning,it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.

  17. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  18. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  19. Comments on Landau damping due to synchrotron frequency spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    An inductive/space-charge impedance shifts the synchrotron frequency downwards above/below transition, but it is often said that the coherent synchrotron frequency of the bunch is not shifted in the rigid-dipole mode. On the other hand, the incoherent synchrotron frequency due to the sinusoidal rf always spreads in the downward direction. This spread will therefore not be able to cover the coherent synchrotron frequency, implying that there will not be any Landau damping no matter how large the frequency spread is. By studying the dispersion relation, it is shown that the above argument is incorrect, and there will be Landau damping if there is sufficient frequency spread. The main reason is that the coherent frequency of the rigid-dipole mode will no longer remain unshifted in the presence of a synchrotron frequency spread.

  20. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  1. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  2. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Paquin, R.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  3. Real-time animation of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, Tsumoru E-mail: shintake@spring8.or.jp

    2003-07-11

    New mathematical method has been developed to compute radiation field from a moving charge in free space. It is not based on the retarded potential or its derivation [R.Y. Tsien, Picture of dynamic electric fields, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1972]. It solves conformal mapping of electric field lines based on the following two facts: (1) once a wave is emitted from a particle, it propagates as a spherical wave. The wavelet (a part of the wave-front) runs with speed of the light, and does not change its direction, (2) the initial direction of the wavelet is determined by the Lorentz transformation between the electron-rest-frame to the laboratory frame, which gives the light aberration effect. 2D radiation simulator has been developed based on this method, which simulates synchrotron, undulator and dipole radiation in time domain [T. Shintake, Simulation of field lines generated by a moving charge, private note 1984 March 19 at KEK, not published].

  4. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called `depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. I...

  5. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  6. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  7. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  8. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, E.D.

    1979-08-01

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe/sub 2/ system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe/sub 2/ lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) and XeF* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ and C/sup 2/ Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF/sub 2/. When the polarization of the CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems.

  9. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  10. X-ray microfluorescence analysis of pigments in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage of an Egyptian mummy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, C. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mendonca de Souza, S.M.F. [National Museum, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ENSP, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brancaglion, A. [National Museum, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    This work characterized the elemental composition of the pigments used in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage fragments of an Egyptian mummy, using {mu}XRF with Synchrotron Radiation. This female mummy (n.158) is considered one of the most important pieces of the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) because of its unconventional embalming with legs and arms swathed separately. The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The elements found in the samples were: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Hg and Pb.

  11. X-ray microfluorescence analysis of pigments in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage of an Egyptian mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; de Souza, S. M. F. Mendonça; Brancaglion, A.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-10-01

    This work characterized the elemental composition of the pigments used in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage fragments of an Egyptian mummy, using μXRF with Synchrotron Radiation. This female mummy (n.158) is considered one of the most important pieces of the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) because of its unconventional embalming with legs and arms swathed separately. The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The elements found in the samples were: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Hg and Pb.

  12. Evaluation of trace elements contents in healthy and seborrhoeic skin samples by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace elements content in seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) skin lesions as well in normal skin and compare them. These data was acquired by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF). It focused elements with atomic number greater than 14. This stage of research was supported by LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, from the same patient, has involved 5 males and females with ages varying from 34 to 80 years old. The results have shown the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in healthy skin. The comparison with lesion contents has revealed significant differences in contents of Fe, K, Cr, and Zn. (author)

  13. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  14. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  15. Limitations on plasma acceleration due to synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Barletta, W A; Bonifacio, R; De Salvo, L

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we consider the effect of synchrotron radiation losses due to the betatron motion of the electron beam in its self-induced magnetic field in a plasma accelerator taking into account the charge neutralization factor. The most favorable case is where the plasma density is smaller than the beam density. The contrary regime is strongly disfavored by the synchrotron radiation loss for beams with characteristics for TeV energies. In both cases we find that upon increasing the plasma density the synchrotron losses kill the acceleration process, so that there are limitations on the maximum allowable plasma density.

  16. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  17. A novel gas-filled detector for synchrotron radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsis, Menyhert [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: kocsis@esrf.fr; Boesecke, P. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Carbone, D. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Herve, C. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Becker, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Diawara, Y. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Durst, R. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Khazins, D. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); He, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Medved, S. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Sedov, V. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Thorson, T. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Wachter, G. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    We describe in this paper the performance under synchrotron radiation of a sealed gaseous detector, Vantec-1, operating at high pressure and less prone to discharges. It is consequently operating at high gain (>10{sup 5}) at high local counting rates up to 10{sup 6} cps/mm{sup 2}. To achieve these characteristics, a thin resistive layer is used on a glass plate between the mesh and the readout anode. The performance achieved with this detector is suited for applications in X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation. This detector has shown high reliability over time under harsh synchrotron radiation environment and robustness in manufacturing environment.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on LAMPF II synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.K. (comp.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered at the workshop include: considerations for a staged approach to synchrotron construction; consideration of energy and cost for a kaon and/or antiproton factory; changing the transition energy in the main ring for the Fermilab antiproton beam; a lattice with 50% undispersed straight sections; bunch width considerations in a stretcher ring; a self-consistent longitudinal distribution; rapid-cycling tuned rf cavity for synchrotron use; considerations on a high-shunt impedance tunable RF cavity; rotating condensers; low extraction from the stretcher ring; an antiproton source for LAMPF II; synchrotron magnet circuit; power supply and ring magnet options; and notes for a kaon factory design. (GHT)

  19. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  20. Multiple energy synchrotron biomedical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, B.; Martinson, M.; Samadi, N.; Belev, G.; Karanfil, C.; Qi, P.; Chapman, D.

    2016-12-01

    A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The imaging system is made up of a cylindrically bent Laue single silicon (5,1,1) crystal monochromator, scanning and positioning stages for the subjects, flat panel (area) detector, and a data acquisition and control system. Depending on the crystal’s bent radius, reflection type, and the horizontal beam width of the filtered synchrotron radiation (20-50 keV) used, the size and spectral energy range of the focused beam prepared varied. For example, with a bent radius of 95 cm, a (1,1,1) type reflection and a 50 mm wide beam, a 0.5 mm wide focused beam of spectral energy range 27 keV-43 keV was obtained. This spectral energy range covers the K-edges of iodine (33.17 keV), xenon (34.56 keV), cesium (35.99 keV), and barium (37.44 keV) some of these elements are used as biomedical and clinical contrast agents. Using the developed imaging system, a test subject composed of iodine, xenon, cesium, and barium along with water and bone were imaged and their projected concentrations successfully extracted. The estimated dose rate to test subjects imaged at a ring current of 200 mA is 8.7 mGy s-1, corresponding to a cumulative dose of 1.3 Gy and a dose of 26.1 mGy per image. Potential biomedical applications of the imaging system will include projection imaging that requires any of the extracted elements as a contrast agent and multi-contrast K-edge imaging.

  1. Clash over demand for more synchrotron sources in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    1998-01-01

    French synchrotron staff accused the science minister, Claude Allegre, of misleading the National Assembly over the need to replace LURE, Paris. Allegre believes all big science facilities should be European with national facilities the exception (1 page).

  2. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. M. Du; J. M. Bai; Z. H. Xie; T. F. Yi; Y. B. Xu; R. Xue; X. H. Wang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the fundamental plane, while near-Eddington sources such as FSRQs have not been explicitly studied. The extracted physical properties of synchrotron jet of FSRQs have been shown to be scale invariant using our sample. The results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations of Heinz & Sunyaev (2003). Therefore, the jet synchrotron is shown to be scale independent, regardless of the accretion modes. Results in this article thus lend support to the scale invariant model of the jet synchrotron throughout the mass scale of black hole systems.

  3. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  4. The use of slow-cycling synchrotrons in injection systems

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    The PS improvement programme is concerned with increasing the potential of the PS for high energy physics. It involves developing the performance of the proton synchrotron itself and providing major items of experimental equipment to be used on the machine.

  5. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K. Singal

    2011-12-01

    We show that a partial coherence due to antenna mechanism can be inherently present in any compact synchrotron source, which resolves many long-standing problems in the spectra and variability of compact extragalactic radio sources.

  6. Synchrotron radiation for direct analysis of metalloproteins on electrophoresis gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Metalloproteomics requires analytical techniques able to assess and quantify the inorganic species in metalloproteins. The most widely used methods are hyphenated techniques, based on the coupling of a high resolution chromatographic method with a high sensitivity method for metal analysis in solution. An alternative approach is the use of methods for solid sample analysis, combining metalloprotein separation by gel electrophoresis and direct analysis of the gels. Direct methods are based on beam analysis, such as lasers, ion beams or synchrotron radiation beams. The aim of this review article is to present the main features of synchrotron radiation based methods and their applications for metalloprotein analysis directly on electrophoresis gels. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence has been successfully employed for sensitive metal identification, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for metal local structure speciation in proteins. Synchrotron based methods will be compared to ion beam and mass spectrometry for direct analysis of metalloproteins in electrophoresis gels.

  7. Daresbury senses victory in battle for UK synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientists campaigning for the future synchrotron source, Diamond, to be sited at Daresbury rather than RAL, believe they have won their case following a meeting between the Office of Science & Technology and the director of the Welcome Trust (1 pg).

  8. Staff accuse bosses of secrecy over British synchrotron plans

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientific staff at Daresbury who have worked on the Diamond project for many years, believe senior management has kept them in the dark over discussions about the possible siting of the synchrotron at RAL (1 page).

  9. Open Cell Conducting Foams for High Synchrotron Radiation Beam Liners

    CERN Document Server

    Petracca, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The possible use of open-cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerator beam liners is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  10. Synchronization of Synchrotrons for bunch-to-bucket Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Thibault; Damerau, Heiko; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    To reach high particle energies with synchrotrons, a chain of several accelerators is required, as the ratio of extraction and injection energy is in the range of 10 to 20 per synchrotron. Hence the beam must be transfered from one accelerator to the next one. This document deals with the bunch-to-bucket transfer method to inject particle bunches composing the beam from a source synchrotron to a target synchrotron. After we highlight the theoretical concept of the bunch-to-bucket transfer, we determine physical limitations due to the beam dynamics and the adiabatic aspect of the particle bunches. A summary of the currently performed bunch-to-bucket transfer scenarios between the accelerators at CERN is given and set in relation with the mentioned theoretical concepts.

  11. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  12. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  13. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  14. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  15. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  16. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  17. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  18. The RF Cycle of the PIMMS Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the rf cycle of the synchrotron of the Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) hosted at CERN. The cycle comprises the adiabatic trapping, the acceleration and the rf gymnastics, both for protons and fully stripped carbon ions. The injection energy is 20 MeV for protons and 7 MeV/u for carbon. The maximum extraction energies are 250 MeV for protons and 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. The reserved time is less than 1 s, with a maximum magnetic field ramp of less than 3 T/s. The simulations show that the beam stays inside the aperture of the machine, and that there are no longitudinal losses. At the end of the cycle the beam is ready for extraction with a Dp/p of 0.4 %. The peak rf voltage is 3 kV and the frequency range is from 0.49 to 2.85 MHz.

  19. TOWARDS FAST-PULSED SUPERCONDUCTING SYNCHROTRON MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORITZ,G.; MUEHLE,C.; ANERELLA,M.; GHOSH,A.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.; AGAPOV,N.; KHODZHIBAGIYAN,H.; KOVALENKO,A.; HASSENZAHL,W.V.; WILSON,M.N.

    2001-06-18

    The concept for the new GSI accelerator facilities is based on a large synchrotron designed for operation at BR=200 Tm and with the short cycle-time of about one second to achieve high average beam intensities. Superconducting magnets may reduce considerably investment and operating costs in comparison with conventional magnets. A R and D program was initiated to develop these magnets for a maximum field of 2-4 Tesla and a ramp rate of 4 T/s. In collaboration with JINR (Dubna), the window-frame type Nuclotron dipole, which has been operated with 4 T/s at a maximum field of 2 Tesla, shall be developed to reduce heat losses and to improve the magnetic field quality. Another collaboration with BNL (Brookhaven) was established to develop the one-layer-coil cos{theta}-type RHIC arc dipole designed for operation at 3.5 Tesla with a rather slow ramp-rate of 0.07 T/s towards the design ramp-rate of 4 T/s. The design concepts for both R and D programs are reported.

  20. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  1. A Remote and Virtual Synchrotron Beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Alp, E.; Sturhahn, W.

    2012-12-01

    National facilities offer one-of-a-kind opportunities to apply state-of-the-art experimental techniques to the pressing scientific problems of today. Yet, few students are able to experience research projects at national facilities due to limited accessibility caused in part by limited involvement in the local academic institution, constrained working areas at the experimental stations, and/or travel costs. We present a virtual and remote beam-line for Earth science studies using nuclear resonant and inelastic x-ray scattering methods at Sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Off-site students have the capability of controlling their measurements via secure internet connections and webcams. Students can access a 'view only mode' for ease of interaction and safety-control. More experienced users have exclusive control of the experiment and can remotely change variables within the experimental setup. Students may also access the virtual aspects these experiments by simulating certain conditions with our newly developed software. We evaluate such a tool by giving "before" and "after" assignments to students at different levels. These levels include high-school students from the Pasadena and greater Los Angeles area school districts, undergraduate students from Caltech's SURF/MURF program, and graduate students at Caltech. We specifically target underrepresented groups. Our results thus far show that the capabilities offered by our remote and virtual beamline show improved knowledge and understanding of applying experimental-based studies at the synchrotron to solve problems in the Earth sciences.

  2. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  3. Study of complex molecules of biological interest with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, K.C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bolognesi, P., E-mail: paola.bolognesi@cnr.it [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); Feyer, V. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Research Center Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plekan, O. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Avaldi, L. [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Synchrotron radiation and synchrotron based spectroscopic techniques have found important applications in the study of isolated molecular species of biological interest. In this paper, some examples of spectroscopic and dynamic studies of amino acids and small peptides, nucleobases and pharmaceuticals are reviewed. Opportunities offered by the advent of new radiation sources combined with novel methods for the production of beams of these molecules are also discussed.

  4. Synchrotron radiation from a curved plasma channel laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Hafizi, B; Chen, Y -H; Johnson, L A; Penano, J R; Helle, M H; Mamonau, A A

    2016-01-01

    A laser pulse guided in a curved plasma channel can excite wakefields that steer electrons along an arched trajectory. As the electrons are accelerated along the curved channel, they emit synchrotron radiation. We present simple analytical models and simulations examining laser pulse guiding, wakefield generation, electron steering, and synchrotron emission in curved plasma channels. For experimentally realizable parameters, a ~2 GeV electron emits 0.1 photons per cm with an average photon energy of multiple keV.

  5. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined.

  6. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  7. Luso-Brazilian antiscorbutic herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Machline, Vera Cecília; Professor, Graduate Program in History of Science, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Not only Iberian physicians such as João Curvo Semmedo and Francisco Suárez de Rivera participated in the 17th and 18th-century endeavor of seeking cures for scurvy. Besides those Luso-Hispanic iatrochemists, at least three Portuguese-born surgeons who resided in the Brazilian colony also took part in this crusade. As detailed here Luis Gomes Ferreyra, Jozé Antonio Mendes and João Cardoso de Miranda – each in his own way – advocated that the herb popularly called mastruço in Portuguese (Ameri...

  8. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  9. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  10. Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    marching toward a multipolar world,” he said in 2009, “and South Amer- ica will be one of those poles.”59 The imperative of asserting Brazilian...countries like Chile, Colombia, and Peru . More pressing still is the issue of Venezuela, which under President Hugo Chávez has staked its own claim to...helicopters to Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador, and used a SIVAM surveillance aircraft to help Peru resolve a hostage crisis in 2003. As part of an

  11. Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavasso Filho, R.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Box 6165, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil)]. E-mail: arnaldo@lnls.br

    2005-06-15

    We report on an important advance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray TGM beamline at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS). This beamline provides photons in the energy range 12-330 eV using three gratings. It is well known that TGMs deliver relatively high flux at these energies but harmonic contamination can be a serious problem. Of special interest for the users is the range between 12 and 21 eV covered by one of the gratings for studies of outer and inner valence ionization processes in gases as well as solids. Here, we report a solution to the harmonic contamination problems based on a noble gas phase filter combined with thin metal foil barriers.

  12. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  13. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  14. Pushing the Frontiers of Science with Synchrotron Radiation: BESAC Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgeneau, Robert J.

    1998-04-01

    During 1997 a panel empowered by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and chaired by the speaker carried out a comprehensive review of the four DOE synchrotron sources, the ALS, APS, NSLS and SSRL^1.(Report of Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science, November 1997) We also reviewed the science and technology, past and present, carried out at these facilities. This included the areas of materials research, surface science, polymers and other forms of soft condensed matter, atomic, optical, and molecular physics and chemistry, molecular environmental science, the geosciences and structural biology. We also considered more cursorily ongoing and proposed research on fourth generation sources. The most straightforward and most important conclusion of this study is that over the past 20 years in the United States synchrotron radiation research has evolved from an esoteric endeavor practiced by a small number of scientists primarily from the fields of solid state physics and surface science to a mainstream activity which provides essential information in all of the above fields. The user community at U.S. synchrotron facilities continues to grow exponentially, having reached more than 4000 on-site users annually in FY97. The research carried out at the four DOE synchrotron sources is both very broad and often exceptionally deep. We will review the results of this study with emphasis on the current science and anticipated future research carried out at modern synchrotron sources.

  15. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  16. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  17. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  18. Vacuum chambers full of ideas for the Swedish synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group has contributed to the development of vacuum chambers for the MAX IV synchrotron, which has just been officially opened in Sweden.   A section of the new 3 GeV MAX IV synchrotron at the time of installation. In the centre of the magnets you can see the vacuum chamber developed in collaboration with CERN. (Photo: Marek Grabski, MAX IV Vacuum group) On 21 June, the King and the Prime Minister of Sweden officially opened MAX IV, a brand-new synchrotron in Lund, Sweden. The summer solstice, the longest day of the year, was deliberately chosen for the ceremony: MAX IV, a cutting-edge synchrotron, will deliver the brightest X-rays ever produced to more than 2000 users. Some 1500 kilometres away, a team at CERN followed the opening ceremony with a touch of pride. The Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group in the Technology department (TE-VSC) participated in the construction of this new synchrotron. Its contribution lies at the very hea...

  19. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  20. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  2. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  3. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  4. DEVELOPMENTS IN SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY AT THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOWD,B.A.

    1999-07-23

    Last year, the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) became dedicated solely to X-Ray Computed Microtomography (XCMT). This is a third-generation instrument capable of producing tomographic volumes of 1-2 micron resolution over a 2-3mm field of view. Recent enhancements will be discussed. These have focused on two issues: the desire for real-time data acquisition and processing and the need for highly monochromatic beam (.1 % energy bandpass). The latter will permit k-edge subtraction studies and will provide improved image contrast from below the Cr (6 keV) up to the Cs (36 keV) k-edge. A range of applications that benefit from these improvements will be discussed as well. These two goals are somewhat counterproductive, however; higher monochromaticity yields a lower flux forcing longer data acquisition times. To balance the two, a more efficient scintillator for X-ray conversion is being developed. Some testing of a prototype scintillator has been performed; preliminary results will be presented here. In the meantime, data reconstruction times have been reduced, and the entire tomographic acquisition, reconstruction and volume rendering process streamlined to make efficient use of synchrotron beam time. A Fast Filtered Back Transform (FFBT) reconstruction program recently developed helped to reduce the time to reconstruct a volume of 150 x 150 x 250 pixels{sup 3} (over 5 million voxels) from the raw camera data to 1.5 minutes on a dual R10,000 CPU. With these improvements, one can now obtain a ''quick look'' of a small tomographic volume ({approximately}10{sup 6}voxels) in just over 15 minutes from the start of data acquisition.

  5. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  6. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  7. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  8. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  9. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  10. RF-knockout Extraction System for the CNAO Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Carmignani, Nicola; Serio, Mario; Balbinot, Giovanni; Bressi, Erminia; Caldara, Michele; Pullia, Marco; Bosser, Jacques; Venchi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) is a centre in Italy for the treatment of patients affected by tumours with proton and carbon ions beams accelerated in a synchrotron. The synchrotron extraction method is based on the use of a betatron core. This work aims to verify, through a theoretical study and a simulation, the possibility of using the RF-knockout extraction method exploiting the existing hardware. A simulation program has been written to simulate the extraction system of the synchrotron with the purpose to define the parameters of the radio frequency. Two types of radio frequencies have been compared in order to obtain a constant spill with the minimum ripple: a carrier wave with a frequency and amplitude modulation, and a gaussian narrow band noise modulated in amplitude. Results of the simulation and considerations on the kicker characteristics are presented

  11. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  12. Applications of synchrotron radiation techniques to materials science 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S.M. [ed.] [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stock, S.R. [ed.] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Perry, D.L. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Terminello, L.J. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As more synchrotron facilities are constructed and go online both in the US and in other countries, even more applications of synchrotron radiation will be realized. Both basic and applied research possibilities are manifold, including studies of materials mentioned below and those that are yet to be discovered. Also, the combination of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques with ever increasing high-resolution microscopy allows researchers to study very small domains of materials in an attempt to understand their chemical and electronic properties. This is especially important in the areas of composites and other related materials involving material bonding interfaces. The topics covered in this symposium include surfaces, interfaces, electronic materials, metal oxides, solar cells, thin films, carbides, polymers, alloys, nanoparticles, and graphitic materials. Results reported at this symposium relate recent advances in X-ray absorption and scattering, imaging, tomography, microscopy, and topography methods.

  13. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  14. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Larkin, Kieran G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required.

  15. Synchrotron X-ray induced solution precipitation of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Hwu, Y; Tsai, W L

    2003-01-01

    By irradiating a solution in electroless Ni deposition using synchrotron X-rays, Ni composite was found to nucleate homogeneously and eventually precipitate in the form of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles precipitated is rather uniform (100-300 nm depending on the applied temperature). By the addition of an organic acid, well-dispersed nanoparticles could be effectively deposited on glass substrate. The hydrated electrons (e sub a sub q sup -), products of radiolysis of water molecules by synchrotron X-rays, may be responsible for the effective reduction of the metal ions, resulting in homogeneous nucleation and nanoparticle formation. Our results suggest that synchrotron X-ray can be used to induce solution precipitation of nanoparticles and therefore lead to a new method of producing nanostructured particles and coating.

  16. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  17. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with r...

  18. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  19. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  20. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  1. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  2. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  3. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  4. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  5. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  6. Design of a compact synchrotron for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harbi, N A

    2003-01-01

    An optimal design of a low energy (300 MeV) proton synchrotron for medical applications is addressed. The machine has the following properties: (1) The transition energy is higher than the targets final proton beam energy of 300 MeV; (2) the betatron tunes are chosen such that the machine is free of systematic resonances; (3) the machine can accommodate both slow and fast extraction systems; and (4) the machine can provide rapid cycling operations depending on the rf cavity voltage. Applications of this low energy synchrotron are discussed. (10 refs).

  7. Observation of wide rf induced synchrotron sideband depolarizing resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, M. A.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Courant, E. D.; Crandell, D. A.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Kaufman, W. A.; Krisch, A. D.; Lorenzon, W.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Wong, V. K.; Caussyn, D. D.; Chu, C. M.; Ellison, T. J. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Ohmori, C.; Minty, M. G.; Russell, A. D.

    1997-04-01

    In a recent experiment with a stored 104.1 MeV vertically polarized proton beam at the IUCF Cooler Ring, we depolarized the beam using an rf solenoid with a magnetic field of about 1.3\\cdot10-3T\\cdotm. We observed the two expected rf depolarizing resonances centered around the protons' 1.5 MHz circulation frequency as in previous experiments. Near each of these resonances, we also found synchrotron sidebands which are caused by the proton's energy oscillations. The strengths and widths of the synchrotron resonances were quite different for the sidebands above and below the circulation frequency.

  8. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  9. Synchrotron radiation as a light source in confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Oord, C.J.R.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Levine, Y.K. (University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)); Myring, W.J.; Jones, G.R.; Munro, I.H. (Daresbury Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of a confocal scanning microscope that was designed to utilize a synchrotron as light source are presented. The usable spectral range is from 200 nm up to 700 nm. Using 325-nm laser light, it is shown that the lateral resolution is about 125 nm, and the axial resolution better than 250 nm. After transport of the microscope from Utrecht to the Daresbury Synchrotron Source, 200-nm excitation can be applied, and the lateral resolution will drop to below 100 nm.

  10. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of

  12. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  13. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  14. Characterizing THz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at Femtosecond Linear Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xu-Ling; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LU YU; LUO Feng; LU Shan-Liang; YU Tie-Min; DAI Zhi-Min

    2009-01-01

    The generation and observation of coherent THz synchrotron radiation from femtosecond electron bunches in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics femtosecond accelerator device is reported.We describe the experiment setup and present the first result of THz radiation properties such as power and spectrum.

  15. Cored Rutherford cables for the GSI fast ramping synchrotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.N.; Ghosh, A.K.; Haken, ten B.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Kaugerts, J.; Moritz, G.; Muehle, C.; Ouden, den A.; Soika, R.; Wanderer, P.; Wessel, W.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 200 T/spl middot/m and 100 T/spl middot/m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss a

  16. Design of slow extraction system for therapy synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the optimized design of the lattice for therapy synchrotron and considering the requirement of radiation therapy,the third order resonant extraction is adopted.Using the momentum-amplitude selection method,the extraction system is designed and optimized.An extraction efficiency of more than 97%and a momentum spread less than 0.11%are obtained.

  17. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  18. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  19. A new method of depth profile determination by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, K.; Midy, P.; Brissaud, I.; Chevallierr, P.

    1992-08-01

    We propose a new method of depth profile determination using X-ray fluorescence analysis induced by synchrotron radiation. We show that uncertainties introduced in the solution of the system can be overcome using a calculation techniques based on a singular value decomposition of the matrix. This method may also apply to many other problems dealing with poorly conditioned systems.

  20. Surface Reactions Studied by Synchrotron Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrbek, J.

    1998-11-03

    The goal of this article is to illustrate the use of synchrotron radiation for investigating surface chemical reactions by photoelectron spectroscopy. A brief introduction and background information is followed by examples of layer resolved spectroscopy, oxidation and sulfidation of metallic, semiconducting and oxide surfaces.

  1. Polarized galactic synchrotron and dust emission and their correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Steve K

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the level of polarized dust and synchrotron emission using the WMAP9 and Planck data. The primary goal of this study is to inform the assessment of foreground contamination in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements below $\\ell\\sim200$ from 23 to 353 GHz. We compute angular power spectra as a function of sky cut based on the Planck 353 GHz polarization maps. Our primary findings are the following. (1) There is a spatial correlation between the dust emission as measured by Planck at 353 GHz and the synchrotron emission as measured by WMAP at 23 GHz with $\\rho\\approx0.4$ or greater for $\\ell<20$ and $f_{\\mathrm{sky}}\\geq0.5$, dropping to $\\rho\\approx0.2$ for $30<\\ell<200$. (2) A simple foreground model with dust, synchrotron, and their correlation fits well to all possible cross spectra formed with the WMAP and Planck 353 GHz data given the current uncertainties. (3) In the 50$\\%$ cleanest region of the polarized dust map, the ratio of synchrotron to dust amplitudes...

  2. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  3. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Grischa R; Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M; Bond, Charles S; Buckle, Ashley M; Androulakis, Steve

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  4. The national synchrotron ray of hope or ring of fire?

    CERN Document Server

    Hollis, T

    2002-01-01

    While most agree the synchrotron will be a boost for Australian science, the author reports on concerns about the cost of building and operating the project Biotech industry representatives want to know how that $100 million will be used and want to see the government's justification for pouring more than a third of its total technology budget for 2001/2 into the synchrotron. They, and the opposition, also want to know where the private money will come from to make up the balance or whether the state will ultimately have to pitch in the rest itself. Indeed, an Auditor-General's report released last week warned of the need for comprehensive financial risk management of the facility. The National Synchrotron, to be built at Monash University, will be a hollow ring of about 60 metres diameter and initially housing nine beamlines, each capable of performing independent experiments simultaneously. According to Dr Richard Garrett, director of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (http://www.ansto.gov.au/natf...

  5. Science minister puts French synchrotron back on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The new French minister of Science has said that he would pursue plans to build a synchrotron in France, reversing the decision of his predecessor. He is still intending to participate in the British project Diamond though (1/2 page).

  6. Spatially Varying X-ray Synchrotron Emission in SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K; Petre, R; Dyer, Kristy; Reynolds, Stephen P; Borkowski, Kazik; Petre, Rob

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of both galactic and extragalactic supernova remnants show non-thermal (non-plerionic) emission in the X-ray band. New synchrotron models, realized as SRESC and SRCUT in XSPEC 11, which use the radio spectral index and flux as inputs and include the full single-particle emissivity, have demonstrated that synchrotron emission is capable of producing the spectra of dominantly non-thermal supernova remnants with interesting consequences for residual thermal abundances and acceleration of particles. In addition, these models deliver a much better-constrained separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, whereas combining an unconstrained powerlaw with modern thermal models can produce a range of acceptable fits. While synchrotron emission can be approximated by a powerlaw over small ranges of energy, the synchrotron spectrum is in fact steepening over the X-ray band. Having demonstrated that the integrated spectrum of SN 1006, a remnant dominated by non-thermal emission, is well desc...

  7. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  8. Practical application of noise diffusion in U-70 synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. V.; Lebedev, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper briefly outlines the physical substantiation and the engineering implementation of technological systems in the U-70 synchrotron based on controllable noise diffusion of the beam. They include two systems of stochastic slow beam extraction (for high and intermediate energy) and the system of longitudinal noise RF gymnastics designated for flattening the bunch distribution over the azimuth.

  9. Moessbauer optics of synchrotron radiation at an isotope interface

    CERN Document Server

    Belyakov, V A

    2000-01-01

    Coherent inelastic Moessbauer scattering (CIMS) of synchrotron radiation (SR) at an isotope interface (plane interface between two regions differing only in the concentration of the Moessbauer isotope) is investigated theoretically. Main attention is paid to the CIMS component resulting from SR quanta absorption by Moessbauer nuclei accompanied by creation or annihilation of the phonons in sample and following recoilless reemission of Moessbauer quanta.

  10. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  11. Applying Frequency Map Analysis to the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yaw-Ren E; Le Blanc, Gregory Scott

    2005-01-01

    The technique of frequency map analysis has been applied to study the transverse dynamic aperture of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring. The results have been used to set the strengths of sextupoles to optimise the dynamic aperture. The effects of the allowed harmonics in the quadrupoles and dipole edge effects are discussed.

  12. Reminder of the edge effect in Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H

    1998-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation in the LHC will be rather soft and weak, compared to high energy electron machines. Still it is expected to generate non negligible heating and photon-induced gas desorption. A summary of standard formulas and numbers for the LHC have been collected in this note, including a very rough discussion of the spectrum shift expected by the edge effect.

  13. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  14. Beam model for non-planar orbits in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1984-03-26

    A framework has been developed for a beam model in the case of synchrotron orbits not confined to a plane. An appropriate moving reference system for the analysis of beam stability has been introduced. As examples of strong perturbations to median plane symmetry, two geometries for the overpass for the Tevatron collider are considered.

  15. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Monochromator on a synchrotron undulator source for liquid surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Freund, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    a monochromator made of a beryllium mosaic crystal using the (002) reflection in Laue geometry placed in undulator beams of DORIS III at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor and of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. An analysis of the diffraction properties in terms of mosaic spread, heat load...

  17. Refraction-contrast bone imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koichi; Sekine, Norio; Sato, Hitoshi; Shikano, Naoto [Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Ami (Japan); Shimao, Daisuke [Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Ami (Japan). Graduate School of Health Sciences; Shiwaku, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan). Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Hyodo, Kazuyuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Org., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Material Structure Sciences; Oka, Hiroshi [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The X-ray refraction-contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation with some X-ray energies is successfully performed at B120B2 of SPring-8. The refraction-contrast images of bone samples such as human dried proximal phalanx, wrist, upper cervical vertebrae and sella turcica and as mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray are always better in image contrast and resolution than those of the absorption-contrast images using the synchrotron X-ray and/or the conventional X-ray tube. There is much likeness in the image contrast and resolution of trabeculae bone in the human dried proximal phalanx between X-ray energy of 30 keV at sample-to-film distance of 1 m and those of 40, 50 keV at those of 4,5 m, respectively. High-energy refraction-contrast imaging with suitable sample-to-film distance could reduce the exposure dose in human imaging. In the refraction-contrast imaging of human wrist, upper cervcal vertebrae, sella turcica and mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray, we can obtain better image contrast and resolution to correctly extract morphological information for diagnosis corresponding to each of the clinical field than those of the absorption-contrast images. (author)

  18. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  19. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  20. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  1. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  2. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  3. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  4. Efficiency of Synchrotron Radiation from Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is widely considered to be the origin of the pulsed non-thermal emissions from rotation-powered pulsars in optical and X-ray bands. In this paper, we study the synchrotron radiation emitted by the created electron and positron pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere to constrain the energy conversion efficiency from the Poynting flux to the particle energy flux. We model two pair creation processes, two-photon collision, which efficiently works in young γ-ray pulsars (≲106 year), and magnetic pair creation, which is the dominant process to supply pairs in old pulsars (≳106 year). Using the analytical model, we derive the maximum synchrotron luminosity as a function of the energy conversion efficiency. From the comparison with observations, we find that the energy conversion efficiency to the accelerated particles should be an order of unity in the magnetosphere, even though we make a number of the optimistic assumptions to enlarge the synchrotron luminosity. In order to explain the luminosity of the non-thermal X-ray/optical emission from pulsars with low spin-down luminosity L sd ≲ 1034 erg s‑1, non-dipole magnetic field components should be dominant at the emission region. For the γ-ray pulsars with L sd ≲ 1035 erg s‑1, observed γ-ray to X-ray and optical flux ratios are much higher than the flux ratio between curvature and the synchrotron radiations. We discuss some possibilities such as the coexistence of multiple accelerators in the magnetosphere as suggested from the recent numerical simulation results. The obtained maximum luminosity would be useful to select observational targets in X-ray and optical bands.

  5. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  6. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  7. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  8. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  9. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions, III. Methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; Santos, A C F; Boechat-Roberty, H M

    2006-01-01

    The presence of methyl alcohol or methanol (CH$_3$OH) in several astrophysical environments has been characterized by its high abundance that depends on both the production rate and the destruction rate. In the present work, the photoionization and photodissociation processes of methanol have been experimentally studied, employing soft X-ray photons (100-310 eV) from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, about 11-16% of CH$_3$OH survive the soft X-rays photons. This behavior, together with an efficient formation pathways, may be associated with the high column densi...

  10. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions II: Acetic acid

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; Boechat-Roberty, H M

    2006-01-01

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH), a glycine (NH$_2$CH$_2$COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH$_3$COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH$_3$CO$^+$, COOH$^+$ and CH$_3^+$ ions are the mai...

  11. Elemental distribution images in prostate samples by X-ray fluorescence microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.R. [Non-destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding Laboratory, PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rocha, H.S. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Physics Institute-Stated University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    An X-ray transmission microtomography (CT) system combined with an X-ray fluorescence microtomography (XRF{mu}CT) system was implemented in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in order to determine the elemental distribution in prostate samples aiming at establishing a correlation between the concentration of some elements and the characteristics and pathology of the tissues. The CT images were reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm and the XRF{mu}CT images were reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm with absorption corrections. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we evaluated prostate tissues by microtomography imaging techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elemental distribution of iron, copper and zinc was obtained in each sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The great advantage of this technique is the visualization in three-dimension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elemental distribution visualization was obtained without damaging the material.

  12. New sensor and non-contact geometrical survey for the vibrating wire technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Renan [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.leao@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cernicchiaro, Geraldo [Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Terenzi Neuenschwander, Regis; Citadini, James Francisco; Droher Rodrigues, Antônio Ricardo [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    The tolerances for the alignment of the magnets in the girders of the next machine of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Sirius, are as small as 40 µm for translations and 0.2 mrad for rotations. Therefore, a novel approach to the well-known vibrating wire technique has been developed and tested for the precise fiducialization of magnets. The alignment bench consists of four commercial linear stages, a stretched wire, a commercial lock-in amplifier working with phase-locked loop (PLL), a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a vibration sensor for the wire. This novel sensor has been designed for a larger linear region of operation. For the mechanical metrology step of the fiducialization of quadrupoles an innovative technique, using the vision system of the CMM, is presented. While the work with pitch and yaw orientations is still ongoing with promising partial results, the system already presents an uncertainty level below 10 µm for translational alignment.

  13. Survival of gas phase amino acids and nucleobases in space radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Andrade, D. P. P.; de Castilho, R. B.; Cavasso-Filho, R. L.; Lago, A. F.; Coutinho, L. H.; de Souza, G. G. B.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; de Brito, A. Naves

    2008-10-01

    We present experimental studies on the photoionization and photodissociation processes (photodestruction) of gaseous amino acids and nucleobases in interstellar and interpla-netary radiation analogs conditions. The measurements have been undertaken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray photons. The experimental set up basically consists of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer kept under high vacuum conditions. Mass spectra were obtained using a photoelectron photoion coincidence technique. We have shown that the amino acids are effectively more destroyed (up to 70 80%) by the stellar radiation than the nucleobases, mainly in the VUV. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have the same survival capability and seem to be ubiquitous in the ISM, it is not unreasonable to predict that nucleobases could survive in the interstellar medium and/or in comets, even as a stable cation.

  14. Survival of gas phase amino acids and nucleobases in space radiation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; de Castilho, R B; Cavasso-Filho, R L; Lago, A F; Coutinho, L H; de Souza, G G B; Boechat-Roberty, H M; de Brito, A Naves

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental studies on the photoionization and photodissociation processes (photodestruction) of gaseous amino acids and nucleobases in interstellar and interplanetary radiation conditions analogs. The measurements have been undertaken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray photons. The experimental set up basically consists of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer kept under high vacuum conditions. Mass spectra were obtained using photoelectron photoion coincidence technique. We have shown that the amino acids are effectively more destroyed (up to 70-80%) by the stellar radiation than the nucleobases, mainly in the VUV. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have the same survival capability and seem to be ubiquitous in the ISM, it is not unreasonable to predict that nucleobases could survive in the interstellar medium and/or in comets, even as a stable cation.

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  16. Communication: Protonation process of formic acid from the ionization and fragmentation of dimers induced by synchrotron radiation in the valence region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Manuela S.; Medina, Aline; Sousa, Josenilton N.; Mendes, Luiz A. V.; Marinho, Ricardo R. T.; Prudente, Frederico V.

    2016-04-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of monomers of organic molecules have been extensively studied in the gas phase using mass spectroscopy. In the spectra of these molecules it is possible to identify the presence of protonated cations, which have a mass-to-charge ratio one unit larger than the parent ion. In this work, we investigate this protonation process as a result of dimers photofragmentation. Experimental photoionization and photofragmentation results of doubly deuterated formic acid (DCOOD) in the gas phase by photons in the vacuum ultraviolet region are presented. The experiment was performed by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer installed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory and spectra for different pressure values in the experimental chamber were obtained. The coupled cluster approach with single and double substitutions was employed to assist the experimental analysis. Results indicate that protonated formic acid ions are originated from dimer dissociation, and the threshold photoionization of (DCOOD)ṡD+ is also determined.

  17. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  18. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  19. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  20. Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

    2005-01-01

    The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the

  1. Self-consciousness Scale: a Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M A; Gomes, W B

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a Brazilian version of the Self-consciousness Scale to university students. Factorial structure, subscale intercorrelations, and normative data obtained with 182 subjects are reported. These results suggest that the proposed model of self-consciousness is applicable in the Brazilian culture, although some significant sex differences were found for two of the scales. Reliability tests and the factorial validity of the scale showed that this version still needs refinement to be used as a reliable research tool.

  2. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  3. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  4. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  5. Experience with interactive control software at the CERN proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, B E

    1973-01-01

    The computer system includes, in addition to the central computer, a Varian 620 used for real-time function generation and two Imlac PDS1 display mini-computers used as operator consoles. The configuration is being expanded to include 3 PDP-11/45's and links with various other online computers associated with the synchrotron, and the present survey of interactive control software in use with the old configuration was carried out as part of the planning of this expansion. This paper describes the various means of computer access available to the synchrotron operators and development engineers, and outlines the associated software. One of the more flexible pieces of software, an on-line syntax handler, is discussed in more detail. (3 refs).

  6. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy: Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  7. A vacuum ultraviolet filtering monochromator for synchrotron-based spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and implementation of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator for use in filtering stray and scattered light from the principal monochromator output of the Stainless Steel Seya VUV synchrotron beam line at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. We demonstrate a reduction of three orders of magnitude of stray and scattered light over the wavelength range 1400-2000 Å with minimal loss of light intensity, allowing for over six orders of magnitude of dynamic range in light detection. We suggest that a similar filtering scheme can be utilized in any variety of spectroscopic applications where a large dynamic range and low amount of background signal are of import, such as in transmittance experiments with very high optical density.

  8. Diffuse scattering measurements with synchrotron radiation: Instrumentation and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, E.; Georgopoulos, P.

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of diffuse scattering from single crystalline specimens in the reflection mode has generally been acknowledged as a very powerful means of obtaining structural information on local atomic arrangements in disordered alloys, intermetallics and ceramics. However, owing to the low intensities encountered and the large number of measurements required for such an analysis, experiments have been extremely time consuming and few have been attempted. Synchrotron radiation makes it possible to conduct such experiments in a matter of hours and much higher quality data can be obtained than in the laboratory. This paper describes the experimental procedures and methods applied to a study of Al-Cu age hardening alloys conducted at the Cornell Synchrotron Source (CHESS). (orig.).

  9. Anticlastic curvature measurements on unribbed crystal optics for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, J.P.; Dolin, Y.; Georgopoulos, P. (DND-CAT Synchrotron Research Center, APS/ANL Sector 5, Building 400, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Kushnir, V.I. (APS/XFD, Bldg. 362, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Various methods have been proposed for measuring the distortion in perfect crystals using double-crystal methods. The majority of these methods rely on making comparisons between double-crystal rocking curve measurements under the spatial extent of an extended x-ray beam. Unless the beam is large and parallel (such as at a synchrotron bending magnet), these methods are not easily scalable to large crystals (e.g., crystal focusing elements for synchrotron beamlines) due to the mechanical inaccuracies inherent in moving the various optical components. We present a method based on a scanning source which simplifies the problems in scaling double-crystal methods to large optics. In addition, results using this method are presented on a ribless sagittal focusing Si(111) crystal demonstrating that the anticlastic deviation can be made to be less than [plus minus]1 s of arc over a 1-cm-long section parallel to the sagittal axis.

  10. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebryakov, D. A., E-mail: dmserebr@gmail.com; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau–Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  11. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau-Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  12. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    CERN Document Server

    Serebryakov, D A; Kostyukov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau-Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  13. Synchrotron radiation of self-collimating relativistic MHD jets

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, Oliver; Meliani, Zakaria; Vaidya, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000^2 Schwarzschild radii allowing to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of 8 and is collimated to 1 degree. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet, emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive VLBI radio and (sub-) mm diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra and Faraday rotation measure (RM), directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate...

  14. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J; Baker, Annabelle R; Thompson, Stephen P; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G; Yang, Sihai; Tang, Chiu C

    2017-02-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world's first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation.

  15. Diffuse Synchrotron Emission from Galactic Cosmic Ray Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron diffuse radiation (SDR) emission is one of the major Galactic components, in the 100 MHz up to 100 GHz frequency range. Its spectrum and sky map provide valuable measure of the galactic cosmic ray electrons (GCRE) in the relevant energy range, as well as of the strength and structure of the Galactic magnetic fields (GMF), both regular and random ones. This emission is an astrophysical sky foreground for the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and the extragalactic microwave measurements, and it needs to be modelled as better as possible. In this regard, in order to get an accurate description of the SDR in the Galaxy, we use - for the first time in this context - 3-dimensional GCRE models obtained by running the DRAGON code. This allows us to account for a realistic spiral arm pattern of the source distribution, demanded to get a self-consistent treatment of all relevant energy losses influencing the final synchrotron spectrum.

  16. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  17. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  18. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A.; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J.; Baker, Annabelle R.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G.; Tang, Chiu C.

    2017-01-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world’s first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation. PMID:28190992

  19. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  20. Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.

  1. Study on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Excited by Synchrotron Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jia Guo; Wu-er Gan; Guo-bin Zhang; Qing-de Su

    2008-01-01

    A novel analysis approach using atomic fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation is presented. A system for synchrotron radiation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry is developed, and experimental conditions such as flow rate, analyte acidity, concentration of pre-reducing and hydrogenation system are optimized. The proposed method is successfully applied to get an excitation spectrum of arsenic. Seven of ten primary spectral lines, four of which have never been reported by means of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, agree well with the existing reports. The other three are proposed for the first time. Excitation potentials and possible transitions are investigated. Especially for the prominent line at 234.99 nm, the mechanism of generation is discussed and a model of energy transition processes is proposed.

  2. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefl y introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented.

  3. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Hahn, A; Hurh, P; Lorman, E; Lundberg, C; Meyer, T; Miller, D; Pordes, S; Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measur...

  4. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, H Y N; McKinney, W R

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  5. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  6. CCD sensors in synchrotron X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, M. G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I. S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Westbrook, E. M.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    1988-04-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron X-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ˜ 1 CCD electron/X-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of > 10 6 X-rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 × 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode X-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at a rate of ˜ 1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ˜ 2 min. In electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), the CCD was used in a parallel detection mode which is similar to the mode array detectors are used in dispersive EXAFS. With a beam current corresponding to 3 × 10 9 electron/s on the detector, a series of 64 spectra were recorded on the CCD in a continuous sequence without interruption due to readout. The frame-to-frame pixel signal fluctuations had σ = 0.4% from which DQE = 0.4 was obtained, where the detector conversion efficiency was 2.6 CCD electrons/X-ray photon. These multiple frame series also showed the time-resolved modulation of the electron microscope optics by stray magnetic fields.

  7. A Pulsed Synchrotron for Muon Acceleration at a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, D J; Berg, J S; Palmer, R B

    2003-01-01

    A 4600 Hz pulsed synchrotron is considered as a means of accelerating cool muons with superconducting RF cavities from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are held to less than a megawatt by the low machine duty cycle plus 100 micron thick grain oriented silicon steel laminations and 250 micron diameter copper wires. Combined function magnets with 20 T/m gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  8. Synchrotron Radiation Lithography and MEMS Technique at NSRL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two beamlines and stations for soft X-ray lithography and hard X-ray lithography at NSRL are presented. Synchrotron radiation lithography (SRL) and mask techniques are developed, and the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques are also investigated at NSRL. In this paper, some results based on SRL and MEMS techniques are reported, and sub-micron and high aspect ratio microstructures are given. Some micro-devices, such as microreactors are fabricated at NSRL.

  9. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  10. Synchrotron Radiation micro-XRD analysis of thin cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    Molas Pous, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    The object is the identification of the micro-crystalline precipitates appearing in historical painting layers produced during the production and also due to the reactivity of the various compounds. For this reason different procedures of preparation of the samples (polishing over glass a substratum or micro-tomming of the samples previously embodied in resin. Each has specific instrumental setups which will be developed in two experiments in the Alba Synchrotron, one in BL04-MSPD beamline (n...

  11. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Benson, Stephen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  12. The European 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Middelkoop, Willem Cornelis

    1977-01-01

    On 19th February 1971, CERN decided to build a super proton synchrotron at a cost of 1150*10/sup 6/ Swiss francs. The design target of 400 GeV with a beam intensity of 10/sup 13/ protons/pulse was reached on the 4th of November 1976 within the original budget, allowing for inflation. The technical aspects of the SPS are reviewed, together with operating experience since May 1976. (2 refs).

  13. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki Hatsui; Heinz Graafsma

    2015-01-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivit...

  14. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  15. Elemental changes in hemolymph and urine of Rhodnius prolixus induced by in-vivo exposure to mercury: A study using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantuano, Andrea; Pickler, Arissa; Barroso, Regina C.; de Almeida, André P.; Braz, Delson; Cardoso, Simone C.; Gonzalez, Marcelo S.; Figueiredo, Marcela B.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates were extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Some environmental conditions including pollution produce chronic and acute effects on different animal's organs and systems. In this work, we investigated changes in the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn in Rhodnius prolixus as insect model. The elements were quantified using urine and hemolymph samples collected on different days after feeding the insects with blood containing HgCl2. The synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The observation reveals that the calcium level was higher in the hemolymph than in urine. On the other hand, the urine collected from insects treated with HgCl2 showed higher level of Cl than hemolymph samples. Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations decrease drastically in urine samples collected after 2 days of HgCl2 treatment. The regulation of triatomines excretion was discussed pointing out the importance of trace elements.

  16. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  17. Methods for lipid nanostructure investigation at neutron and synchrotron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    A lipid membrane is a main component of biological membranes. Contemporary bionanotechnologies use phospholipids and ceramides as basic components of drugs and cosmetic preparations. Phospholipids-based nanoparticles are used as drug carriers. Effective development of bionanotechnologies in Russia calls for creation of physical methods to diagnose the particle nanostructure which would be promising for application in pharmacology. Radiation with wavelengths of 1-10 Å is an adequate instrument for detecting the nanostructure of lipid bi- and monolayers. The review deals with methods that apply neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation for studying nanostructures of lipid membranes, phospholipid nanoparticles, and phospholipid monolayers on a water surface by techniques of diffraction, small-angle scattering, and reflectometry. The importance of the mutually complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for solving urgent problems of membrane biophysics, microbiology, dermapharmacology, and bionanotechnologies is demonstrated by particular examples of studies of phospholipid membranes and ceramide-based membranes. The efficiency of development and application of new methods for solving urgent problems of biophysics is shown. The review is written on the basis of results obtained over the period of 1999-2010 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of Neutron Physics in collaboration with the Pharmaceutical Departments of universities of France (Paris-Sud, Chatenay Malabry) and Germany (Martin Luther University, Halle). The experiments were performed at various European and Russian neutron and synchrotron sources.

  18. Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, Mathieu; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Berrie, Barbara; Nevin, Austin; Jamme, Frédéric; Bertrand, Loïc

    2011-03-01

    UV-visible luminescence techniques are fre-quently used for the study of cultural heritage materials, despite their limitations for identification and discrimination in the case of complex heterogeneous materials. In contrast to tabletop setups, two methods based on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-UV-visible emission generated at a bending magnet of a synchrotron source are described. The main advantages of the source are the extended wavelength range attained, the continuous tunability of the source, and its brightness, leading to a submicrometer lateral resolution. Raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging were implemented and tested at the DISCO beamline (synchrotron SOLEIL, France). Investigative measurements were performed on a sample from a varnished musical instrument and a paint sample containing the pigment zinc white (ZnO) in order to illustrate some of the challenges analyzing heterogeneous cultural heritage cross-section samples with the novel imaging approach. The data sets obtained proved useful for mapping organic materials at the submicrometer scale and visualizing heterogeneities of the semiconductor pigment material. We propose and discuss the combined use of raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging in an integrated analytical methodology. Synchrotron UV luminescence appears as a novel tool for identification of craftsmen's and artists' materials and techniques and to assess the condition of artifacts, from the precise identification and localization of luminescent materials.

  19. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  1. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  2. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  3. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  4. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  5. Brazilian Review of Finance 2012 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online; a printed version is maintained, in part, thanks to a grant from CNPq/CAPES. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The journal is indexed by EconLit, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Gale and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 18 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 30% for papers submitted in 2010, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for all articles published in 2011 was 266. The worst case was 462 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 432. The worst case was 599 days. The average number of hits per article as of January 2012 was 1,249. Sixty-four individuals served as reviewers in 2011.

  6. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  7. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  8. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  9. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  10. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  11. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  12. Use of a Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Microprobe for Elemental Analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. M.

    1980-04-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases being as low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples.

  13. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  14. Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Meteorites in Thin Section: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Xirouchakis, D.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction is the pre-eminent technique for mineral identification and structure determination, but is difficult to apply to grains in thin section, the standard meteorite preparation. Bright focused X-ray beams from synchrotrons have been used extensively in mineralogy and have been applied to extraterrestrial particles. The intensity and small spot size achievable in synchrotron X-ray beams makes them useful for study of materials in thin sections. Here, we describe Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (SXRD) in thin section as done at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and cite examples of its value for studies of meteorites in thin section.

  15. Discussing the processes constraining the Jovian synchrotron radio emission's features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.

    2008-03-01

    Our recent analysis and understanding of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission with a radiation-belt model is presented. In this work, the electron population is determined by solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation and considering different physical processes. The results of the modeling are first compared to in situ particle data, brightness distributions, radio spectrum, and beaming curves to verify the simulated particle distributions. The dynamics of high-energy electrons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere and their related radio emission are then examined. The results demonstrate that the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron emission's brightness distribution along the magnetic equator. Simulations show that moons and dust both control the transport toward the planet by significantly reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate, near the equator and inside 1.8 Jovian radii, the innermost region of the magnetosphere. Due to interactions with dust and synchrotron mechanism, radiation-belt electrons are moved along field lines, between Metis (1.79 Jovian radii) and Amalthea (2.54 Jovian radii), toward high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce measurable secondary radio emissions. Among all the phenomena acting in the inner magnetosphere, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the primary moderator for the radiation's intensity at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the characteristics of the total radio flux with longitude. The sweeping effect amplifies the 10-h modulation of the beaming curve's amplitude while energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to phenomena adjusting it to the right level. Interactions with dust do not significantly constrain radio spectrum features. Resonances near Amalthea and Thebe are responsible for the Jovian radio spectrum's particular slope.

  16. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  17. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  18. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  19. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  20. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  1. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  3. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  4. Space Charge Effects and Limitations in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Wasef, R; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Hernalsteens, C; Huschauer, A; Schmidt, F; Franchetti, G

    2013-01-01

    Space charge produces a large incoherent tune-spread which, in presence of betatronic resonances, could lead to beam losses and emittance growth. In the CERN Proton Synchrotron, at the current injection kinetic energy (1.4 GeV) and even at the future kinetic energy (2 GeV), space charge is one of the main limitations for high brightness beams and especially for the future High- Luminosity LHC beams. Several detailed studies and measurements have been carried out to improve the understanding of space charge limitations to determine the maximum acceptable tune spread and identify the most important resonances causing losses and emittance growth.

  5. Scaling behavior of circular colliders dominated by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The scaling formulas in this paper — many of which involve approximation — apply primarily to electron colliders like CEPC or FCC-ee. The more abstract “radiation dominated” phrase in the title is intended to encourage use of the formulas — though admittedly less precisely — to proton colliders like SPPC, for which synchrotron radiation begins to dominate the design in spite of the large proton mass. Optimizing a facility having an electron-positron Higgs factory, followed decades later by a p, p collider in the same tunnel, is a formidable task. The CEPC design study constitutes an initial “constrained parameter” collider design. Here the constrained parameters include tunnel circumference, cell lengths, phase advance per cell, etc. This approach is valuable, if the constrained parameters are self-consistent and close to optimal. Jumping directly to detailed design makes it possible to develop reliable, objective cost estimates on a rapid time scale. A scaling law formulation is intended to contribute to a “ground-up” stage in the design of future circular colliders. In this more abstract approach, scaling formulas can be used to investigate ways in which the design can be better optimized. Equally important, by solving the lattice matching equations in closed form, as contrasted with running computer programs such as MAD, one can obtain better intuition concerning the fundamental parametric dependencies. The ground-up approach is made especially appropriate by the seemingly impossible task of simultaneous optimization of tunnel circumference for both electrons and protons. The fact that both colliders will be radiation dominated actually simplifies the simultaneous optimization task. All GeV scale electron accelerators are “synchrotron radiation dominated”, meaning that all beam distributions evolve within a fraction of a second to an equilibrium state in which “heating” due to radiation fluctuations is canceled by the “cooling” in

  6. Calculation of the characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Maslova, M V; Maltsev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Subroutines for calculating the spectral and angular characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation are developed. Corresponding calculations are carried out for a number of proton and electron accelerators. The results obtained enable methods to be developed for beam diagnostics as well as highly sensitive detectors of infrared radiation for remote contactless nondestructive diagnostics and for investigating bunches and high-speed processes in ring-type (CERN /SEPS-LHC) and linear (GSI bunch target) accelerators, and also the thermal fields in nuclear power plants.

  7. Beam Diagnostics for the J-PARC Main Ring Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toyama, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Naoki; Kishiro, Junichi; Lee, Seishu; Miura, Takako; Muto, Suguru; Toyokawa, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Beam diagnostics: beam intensity monitors (DCCT, SCT, FCT, WCM), beam position monitors (ESM), beam loss monitors (proportional chamber, air ion chamber), beam profile monitors (secondary electron emission, gas-sheet) have been designed, tested, and will be installed for the Main Ring synchrotron of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This paper describes the basic design principle and specification of each monitor, with a stress on how to cope with high power beam (average circulation current of ~12 A) and low beam loss operation (less than 1 W/m except a collimator region). Some results of preliminary performance test using present beams and a radiation source will be reported.

  8. Beam loss monitors comparison at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S S; Effinger, E; Gil-Flores, J; Wienands, U

    2011-01-01

    CERN is planning the renovation and upgrade of the beam loss detection system for the Proton Synchrotron (PS). Improved performance in speed–to be able to monitor beam loss on a bunch-by-bunch basis–and in longterm stability–to reduce or avoid the need for periodic calibration–are aimed for. To select the most suitable technology, different detectors were benchmarked in the machine with respect to the same beam loss. The characteristics of the different detectors, the results of the measurement campaign and their suitability as future monitors for the PS are presented.

  9. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/ are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines.

  10. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  11. Emittance Adapter for a Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /Frascati

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of reaching very small horizontal and vertical emittances inside an undulator in a storage ring, by means of a local exchange of the apparent horizontal and vertical emittances, performed with a combination of skew quadrupoles and one solenoid in a dedicated insertion line in the storage ring. The insertion leaves the ring parameters and its optical properties unaffected. This scheme could greatly relax the emittance requirements for a diffraction limited synchrotron light source. The lattice derivation and design is described.

  12. In situ ALD experiments with synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    In this contribution, we describe some features of atomic layer deposition (ALD) investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelemission spectroscopy (SR-PES). In particular, we show how the surface sensitivity of SR-PES combined with the in situ nature of our investigations can point out interactions between the substrate and ALD precursors. We observed changes on all substrates investigated, included Si, GaAs, Ru and their surface oxides. These interactions are extremely important during the first ALD cycles and induce modifications in the substrate, which might lead to its functionality enhancement.

  13. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations.

  14. Synchrotron signature of a relativistic blast wave with decaying microturbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M

    2012-01-01

    Microphysics of weakly magnetized relativistic collisionless shock waves, corroborated by recent high performance numerical simulations, indicate the presence of a microturbulent layer of large magnetic field strength behind the shock front, which must decay beyond some hundreds of skin depths. The present paper discusses the dynamics of such microturbulence, borrowing from these same numerical simulations, and calculates the synchrotron signature of a powerlaw of shock accelerated particles. The decaying microturbulent layer is found to leave distinct signatures in the spectro-temporal evolution of the spectrum $F_\

  15. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Manglunki, Django; Burnet, Jean-Paul; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  16. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler,Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  17. Automated tuning of the advanced photon source booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.V.

    1997-08-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 223 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of beam position monitor (BPM) reading, transfer line corrector magnets, magnet ramp timing, and empirically determined response functions, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their performance.

  18. Radio data and synchrotron emission in consistent cosmic ray models

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Torsten; Lineros, Roberto A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the propagation of electrons in phenomenological two-zone diffusion models compatible with cosmic-ray nuclear data and compute the diffuse synchrotron emission resulting from their interaction with galactic magnetic fields. We find models in agreement not only with cosmic ray data but also with radio surveys at essentially all frequencies. Requiring such a globally consistent description strongly disfavors both a very large (L>15 kpc) and small (L<1 kpc) effective size of the diffusive halo. This has profound implications for, e.g., indirect dark matter searches.

  19. Producing Terahertz Conherent Synchrotron Radiation Based On Hefei Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    De-Rong, Xu; Yan, Shao

    2014-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an ac sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the ac sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. We calculate the radiation spectral distribution from the wavy bunch in Hefei Light Source(HLS). If we reduce electron energy to 400MeV, it can produce extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation(CSR) at 0.115THz.

  20. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  1. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...

  2. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  3. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  4. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  5. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  6. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  7. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  8. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  9. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  10. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  11. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  12. Brazilian Agribusiness Facing African Food Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Abbade, Eduardo Botti; UNIFRA; Dewes, Homero; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) / Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian agriculture has achieved high production levels in recent years. In contrast, agricultural production in Africa is low, but it shows great potential. This paper discusses the agricultural profiles of the main regions of Africa as well as the agribusiness partnership established between Africa and Brazil. This research is based on descriptive analysis of data collected in official agencies, such as FAO, the World Bank, the United Nations, and the Africa–Brazil Institute. This study p...

  13. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  14. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand...

  15. Use of statistical procedures in Brazilian and international dental journals

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Pereira,Antônio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive survey was performed in order to assess the statistical content and quality of Brazilian and international dental journals, and compare their evolution throughout the last decades. The authors identified the reporting and accuracy of statistical techniques in 1000 papers published from 1970 to 2000 in seven dental journals: three Brazilian (Brazilian Dental Journal, Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo and Revista de Odontologia da UNESP) and four international jo...

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  17. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  18. On intrinsic nonlinear particle motion in compact synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung Ryun

    Due to the low energy and small curvature characteristics of compact synchrotrons, there can be unexpected features that were not present or negligible in high energy accelerators. Nonlinear kinetics, fringe field effect, and space charge effect are those features which become important for low energy and small curvature accelerators. Nonlinear kinematics can limit the dynamics aperture for compact machine even if it consists of all linear elements. The contribution of the nonlinear kinematics on nonlinear optics parameters are first derived. As the dipole bending radius become smaller, the dipole fringe field effect become stronger. Calculation of the Lie map generator and corresponding mapping equation of dipole fringe field is presented. It is found that the higher order nonlinear potential is inverse proportional to powers of fringe field extent and correction to focusing and low order nonlinear potential is proportional to powers of fringe field extent. The fringe field also found to cause large closed orbit deviation for compact synchrotrons. The 2:1 and 4:1 space charge resonances are known to cause beam loss, emittance growth and halo formation for low energy high intensity beams. By numerical simulations, we observe a higher order 6:2 space charge resonance, which can successfully be understood by the concatenation of 2:1 and 4:1 resonances via canonical perturbation. We also develop an explicit symplectic tracking method for compact electrostatic storage rings and explore the feasibility of electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements.

  19. Scaling Behavior of Circular Colliders Dominated by Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The quite low Higgs particle mass makes it natural for the next high energy facility to be a circular e+e- Higgs factory and, after that, a next-generation p,p collider in the same tunnel. Surveying the luminosity-limiting phenomena of synchrotron radiation power loss, beam-beam interaction limitations, and beamstrahlung, scaling laws are established that fix all parameters of the Higgs factory, as functions of assumed radius $r$, and RF power $P$. at least to a first approximation. Historically the accelerator formalisms of electron and hadron rings have been distinguished largely by the importance of synchrotron radiation for electrons, and its unimportance for protons. While electron beams equilibrate within seconds, proton beam distributions have survived largely intact for extended periods. For future hadron colliders, this distinction will no longer be valid. This will have a large impact on the design of the future FCC-pp proton collider whose parameters can be extrapolated using formulas previously ap...

  20. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  1. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  2. Design and Performance of the Upgraded LHC Synchrotron Light Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, A; Roncarolo, F; Trad, G

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with two synchrotron radiation systems, one per beam, used to measure the transverse bunch distributions. The light emitted by a superconducting undulator and/or by a dipole magnet (depending on beam energy) is intercepted by an extraction mirror in vacuum and sent through a viewport to the imaging Beam Synchrotron Radiation Telescope (BSRT). The first version of the telescope, used from 2009 to mid 2012, was based on spherical focusing mirrors in order to minimize chromatic aberrations. However, this required a very complicated delay line in order to switch the focus between the two different light sources as a function of beam energy. A new system based on optical lenses was designed and installed in mid 2012 in order to simplify the optical line and thus reduce misalignment and focusing errors. The first results with LHC beam using this new system showed a significant reduction in the correction factor required to match the emittance as measured by wire scanners. This contribution discu...

  3. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  4. Magnetic Reconnection with Strong Synchrotron Cooling in Pulsar Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2012-10-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this current sheet inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. In this presentation, a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment is developed. It is shown that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via an hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. The basic parameters of these current layers --- temperature, density, and layer thickness --- are estimated in terms of the upstream magnetic field. It is argued that, after accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission mechanisms can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and VHE (˜ 100 GeV) radiation, respectively. The motions of the secondary plasmoids may contribute to the pulsar's radio emission.

  5. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P

    1999-09-02

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 {mu}m and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity.

  6. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K. [eds.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  7. Dark Matter and Synchrotron Emission from Galactic Center Radio Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2011-11-10

    The inner degrees of the Galactic center contain a large population of filamentary structures observed at radio frequencies. These so-called non-thermal radio filaments (NRFs) trace magnetic field lines and have attracted significant interest due to their hard (S_v ~ -0.1 +/- 0.4) synchrotron emission spectra. The origin of these filaments remains poorly understood. We show that the electrons and positrons created through the annihilations of a relatively light (~5-10 GeV) dark matter particle with the cross section predicted for a simple thermal relic can provide a compelling match to the intensity, spectral shape, and flux variation of the NRFs. Furthermore, the characteristics of the dark matter particle necessary to explain the synchrotron emission from the NRFs is consistent with those required to explain the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the Galactic center by the Fermi-LAT, as well as the direct detection signals observed by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA.

  8. Measurement of Beam Loss at the Australian Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Kastriotou, M; Boland, MJ; Jackson, PD; Rasool, RP; Schmidt, J; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented requirements that new machines are setting on their diagnostic systems is leading to the development of new generation of devices with large dynamic range, sensitivity and time resolution. Beam loss detection is particularly challenging due to the large extension of new facilities that need to be covered with localized detector. Candidates to mitigate this problem consist of systems in which the sensitive part of the radiation detectors can be extended over long distance of beam lines. In this document we study the feasibility of a BLM system based on optical fiber as an active detector for an electron storage ring. The Australian Synchrotron (AS) comprises a 216m ring that stores electrons up to 3GeV. The Accelerator has recently claimed the world record ultra low transverse emittance (below pm rad) and its surroundings are rich in synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the AS provides beam conditions very similar to those expected in the CLIC/ILC damping rings. A qualitative benchmark of beam l...

  9. Electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pertica, A

    2013-01-01

    The build up of electron clouds inside a particle accelerator vacuum chamber can produce strong transverse and longitudinal beam instabilities which in turn can lead to high levels of beam loss often requiring the accelerator to be run below its design specification. To study the behaviour of electron clouds at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron, a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) based electron cloud detector has been developed. The detector is based on the Retarding Field Analyser (RFA) design and consists of a retarding grid, which allows energy analysis of the electron signal, and a MCP assembly placed in front of the collector plate. The MCP assembly provides a current gain over the range 300 to 25K, thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range of the measurements. This paper presents the first electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron. These results are compared against signals from a beam position monitor and a fast beam loss monitor installed at the same location.

  10. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  11. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  12. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  13. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A., E-mail: alexandre.giuliani@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamme, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Rouam, V.; Wien, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laprevote, O. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, ICSN-CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Chimie-Toxicologie Analytique et cellulaire, IFR 71, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Refregiers, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  14. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  15. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the Cosmic-Web

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shea D. Brown

    2011-12-01

    Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the `synchrotron cosmic-web’. I present the observational prospects and challenges for detecting this faint emission with upcoming SKA pathfinders.

  16. Fatigue Micromechanism Characterization in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0002 Fatigue micromechanism characterization in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed...SUBTITLE Fatigue micromechanism characterization in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed tomography 5a. CONTRACT...particularly within the aerospace sector due to their high specific stiffness and strength. CFRPs are widely identified as being very fatigue resistant, but

  17. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-04-21

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films.

  18. Using Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation as a Probe into Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Jovian decimetric emission is caused by the combined emission of synchrotron radiation originating from the relativistic electrons trapped in Jupiter's 'Van Allen radiation belts' and thermal emission from the planet's atmosphere. Synchrotron radiation characteristics and variations (which provides insight into the physical properties of Jupiter's inner radiation belts) will be amplified and discussed.

  19. Synchrotron and simulations techniques applied to problems in materials science: catalysts and Azul Maya pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, Russell R; Perez De la Rosa, Myriam; Meitzner, George; Siadati, Mohammed; Berhault, Gilles; Mehta, Apurva; Pople, John; Fuentes, Sergio; Alonzo-Nuñez, Gabriel; Polette, Lori A

    2005-03-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past 20 years owing to the increasing availability of high-flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. In this article the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as 'surface compounds' is reviewed. One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS(2-x)C(x) that are widely used petroleum catalysts, used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as 'sulfide-supported carbides' in their catalytically active states. The second class of 'surface compounds' are the 'Maya blue' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic 'surface complexes' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described here.

  20. Summer-time blues French researchers, angry and upset over last week's synchrotron decision, deserve a full explanation

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Allegre needs to produce a detailed description of the calculations he used to make his decision to support the British synchrotron project. French researchers had been hoping to build their own synchrotron 'Soleil' on French territory (4 paragraphs)

  1. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  2. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  3. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  4. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  5. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma P. Cotrim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases’ 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3, in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in

  6. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  7. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  8. FROST: an ASIC for digital mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, A. E-mail: bergamaschi@ts.infn.it; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Castelli, E

    2003-09-01

    The FRONTier RADiography (FRONTRAD) collaboration is developing a digital system for mammography at the Elettra Synchrotron Light Source in Trieste. The system is based on a silicon microstrip detector array. The ASIC FROST (FRONTRAD Read Out sySTem) was developed as a collaboration between INFN Trieste and Aurelia Microelettronica and is designed to operate in single photon counting mode. FROST provides low-noise and high-gain performances and is able to work at incident photon rates higher than 100 kHz with almost 100% efficiency. The ASIC has been tested and the first images of mammographic test objects will be shown. The acquisition time per breast image should be of about 10 s.

  9. Photolysis of rac-leucine with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meinert, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Søren V; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Nahon, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Amino acids that pass the RNA machinery in living organisms occur in L-configuration. The question on the evolutionary origin of this biomolecular asymmetry remains unanswered to this day. Amino acids were detected in artificially produced interstellar ices, and L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids were identified in CM-type meteorites. This hints at a possible interstellar/circumstellar origin of the amino acids themselves as well as their stereochemical asymmetry. Based upon the current knowledge about the occurrence of circularly-polarized electromagnetic radiation in interstellar environments, we subjected rac-leucine to far-UV circularly-polarized synchrotron radiation. Asymmetric photolysis was followed by an analysis in an enantioselective GC/MS system. Here, we report on an advanced photolysis rate of more than 99% for leucine. The results indicate that high photolysis rates can occur under the chosen conditions, favoring enantioselective photolysis. In 2014, the obtained results will be reexamined by cometary mission Rosetta.

  10. Synchrotron refractive-index microradiography of human liver cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yongpeng; ZHANG Guilin; LI Yan; HWU Yeukuang; TSAI Wenli; JE Jung Ho; Margaritondo G.; YUAN Dong

    2005-01-01

    Three human liver tissue samples (~5 mm × 40 mm × 20 mm) were excised from a cancer patient's liver during surgery. The microradiology analysis was performed with a non-standard approach on a synchrotron. High-resolution refractive-index edge-enhanced microradiographs that cover a larger volume of the liver tissue sample were obtained. The cancer tissue and normal tissue could be clearly identified and distinguished based on their different textures. Furthermore, new blood vessel hyperplasia was found near the cancer area. Blood vessels with a diameter smaller than 20 μm could be identified. These findings were fully consistent with the histopathological examination of the same area. Microradiographs of the newly formed blood vessels at different angles were also obtained. This result shows that it is possible to further develop this approach into a technique of microradiographic imaging for clinic diagnosis of liver cancer at the early stage.

  11. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle $\\alpha \\sim 1/\\gamma$. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  12. Bounding Isotropic Lorentz Violation Using Synchrotron Losses at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Some deviations from special relativity--especially isotropic effects--are most efficiently constrained using particles with velocities very close to 1. While there are extremely tight bounds on some of the relevant parameters coming from astrophysical observations, many of these rely on our having an accurate understanding of the dynamics of high-energy sources. It is desirable to have reliable laboratory constraints on these same parameters. The fastest-moving particles in a laboratory were electrons and positrons at LEP. The energetics of the LEP beams were extremely well understood, and measurements of the synchrotron emission rate indicates that that any isotropic deviation of the speed of light from 1 must be smaller than 1.2 x 10^(-15).

  13. Bounding isotropic Lorentz violation using synchrotron losses at LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-11-01

    Some deviations from special relativity—especially isotropic effects—are most efficiently constrained using particles with velocities very close to 1. While there are extremely tight bounds on some of the relevant parameters coming from astrophysical observations, many of these rely on our having an accurate understanding of the dynamics of these high-energy sources. It is desirable to have reliable laboratory constraints on these same parameters. The fastest-moving particles in a laboratory were electrons and positrons at LEP. The energetics of the LEP beams were extremely well understood, and measurements of the synchrotron emission rate indicate that the isotropic Lorentz violation coefficient |κ˜tr-(4)/(3)c00| must be smaller than 5×10-15.

  14. Physical Analysis of the Jovian Synchrotron Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Thorne, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of our recent investigation of the Jovian synchrotron emission based on a particle transport code. The features of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves are correlated to the different phenomena driven the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. The adiabatic invariant theory was used for performing this analysis work. The theoretical approach first enabled us to describe the electron radiation belts by modeling the interactions between high-energy trapped particles and plasmas, neutrals, moons, dust and magnetic field. Then radio observations were used to discuss the computed particle distributions in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The simulated brightness mappings were compared with VLA observations made at two wavelengths (20 and 6 cm). The beaming curve comparisons at 13-cm wavelength were performed for different epochs in order to evaluate the dependence of the model to the geometric factor De. The computed radio spectra were discussed with measurements made in the [0.5-20] GHz radio band. The simulation results match the different remote observations very well and thus allowed us to study the phenomenology of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission. The analysis of the Jovian synchrotron emission demonstrates that during the inward particle transport, local losses associated with the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron radiation along the magnetic equator. Close to the planet, trapped electrons suffer from the interactions with dust and magnetic field, resulting in the transport of particles toward the high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce the measurable secondary radio emissions. The simulations show that the moon sweeping effect controls both the transport toward the planet and at high latitudes by reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate the regions out of the equator. Among the

  15. NanoESCA, a new nanospectroscopy tool with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, Marten; Wiemann, Carsten; Krug, Ingo; Schneider, Claus Michael [PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Escher, Matthias; Weber, Nils; Merkel, Michael [Focus GmbH, Huenstetten (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology and nanoscience are developing more and more to smaller length scales. We face the need for the characterization of surface electronic and magnetic states in these reduced dimensions with a new energy-filtered photoelectron emission microscope (PEEM), which we have recently installed at the ELETTRA synchrotron facility (Italy). The instrument features a novel electrostatic lens system with 30 kV extraction voltage, enabling spatially resolved photoelectron imaging with a lateral resolution smaller than 100 nm and combines it with a double-hemispherical energy filter, a single-event counting detector unit and a liquid helium cooled sample manipulator with five degrees of freedom. A second operation mode provides the mapping of the angular distribution (k-space microscopy) of the photoelectrons. We discuss the capabilities and the performance of the instrument with respect to its lateral and energy resolution, sensitivity and signal-to-noise-ratio.

  16. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irick, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.

  17. Automated Tuning of the Advanced Photon Source Booster Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S. G.; Carwardine, J. A.; Milton, S. V.

    1997-05-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 250 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. Ramped-magnet tracking errors can also lead to losses during the acceleration cycle. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of empirically determined response functions, transfer line corrector magnets, and beam position monitor readings, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. An automated version of this correction technique has been implemented using the feedback-based program sddscontrollaw. Further automation is used to adjust and minimize tracking errors between the five main ramped power supplies. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their! performance.

  18. New Pulsed Orbit Bump Magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Lackey, James; John, Carson; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Makarov, Alexander; Prebys, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac’s negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New, 0.28T pulsed window frame dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a high saturation flux density Ni-Zn ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel. The presented magnetic design includes two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations with eddy currents and ferrite nonlinear effects.

  19. New Developments of a Laser Ion Source for Ion Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrashev, S; Konukov, K; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Camut, O; Chamings, J A; Kugler, H; Scrivens, R; Charushin, A; Makarov, K; Satov, Yu; Smakovskii, Yu

    2004-01-01

    Laser Ion Sources (LIS) are well suited to filling synchrotron rings with highly charged ions of almost any element in a single turn injection mode. We report the first measurements of the LIS output parameters for Pb27+ ions generated by the new 100 J/1 Hz Master Oscillator - Power Amplifier CO2-laser system. A new LIS has been designed, built and tested at CERN, as an ion source for ITEP-TWAC accelerator/accumulator facility, and as a possible future source for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain. The use of the LIS based on 100 J/1 Hz CO2-laser together with the new ion LINAC, as injector for ITEP-TWAC project, is discussed..

  20. CERN Proton Synchrotron Complex High-Level Controls Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Deghaye, S; Garcia Quintas, D; Gourber-Pace, M; Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pasinelli, S; Peryt, M; Roderick, C; Roux, E; Sobczak, M; Steerenberg, R; Wozniak, J; Zaharieva, Z

    2009-01-01

    After a detailed study of the Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex requirements by experts of CERN controls & operation groups, a proposal to develop a new system, called Injector Controls Architecture (InCA), was presented to and accepted by the management late 2007. Aiming at the homogenisation of the control systems across CERN accelerators, InCA is based on components developed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but also new components required to fulfil operation needs. In 2008, the project was in its elaboration phase and we successfully validated its architecture and critical use-cases during several machine development sessions. After description of the architecture put in place and the components used, this paper describes the planning approach taken combining iterative development phases with deployment in operation for validation sessions.

  1. Unexpectedly wide rf-induced synchrotron sideband depolarizing resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. M.; Ellison, T. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; von Przewoski, B.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Bychkov, M. A.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Crandell, D. A.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Kaufman, W. A.; Krisch, A. D.; Lorenzon, W.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Wong, V. K.; Ohmori, C.; Minty, M. G.; Martin, P. S.; Russell, A. D.; Sivers, D. W.

    1998-10-01

    Using an rf solenoid magnet, we studied the depolarization of a stored 104.1 MeV vertically polarized proton beam. The two primary rf depolarizing resonances were properly centered around the protons' circulation frequency fc, at fc(3-νs) and fc(νs-1), where νs is the spin tune; moreover, each resonance was roughly consistent with the expected width of about 720 Hz. Each primary rf resonance had two synchrotron sideband resonances at the expected frequencies. The two νs-1 sidebands were deep dips while the two 3-νs sidebands were very shallow; this was not expected. Moreover, all four sideband resonances were unexpectedly wider than the two primary resonances.

  2. Novel synchrotron based techniques for characterization of energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Nielsen, S.F.; Olsen, U.L.; Schmidt, S. (Risoe DTU, Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)); Wright, J. (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble Cedex (France))

    2008-10-15

    Two synchrotron techniques are reviewed, both based on the use of high energy x-rays, and both applicable to in situ studies of bulk materials. Firstly, 3DXRD microscopy, which enables 3D characterization of the position, morphology, phase, elastic strain and crystallographic orientation of the individual embedded grains in polycrystalline specimens. In favourable cases, hundreds of grains can be studied simultaneously during processing. Secondly, plastic strain tomography: a unique method for determining the plastic strain field within materials during processing the potential applications of these techniques for basic and applied studies of four types of energy materials are discussed: polymer composites for wind turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, hydrogen storage materials and superconducting tapes. Furthermore, progress on new detectors aiming at improving the spatial and temporal resolution of such measurements is described. (au)

  3. Commissioning of a compact synchrotron radiation source at Hiroshima University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Andreyashkin, M.; Goto, K. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    A 700 MeV synchrotron radiation source is under commissioning at Hiroshima University. The ring is of a racetrack type with two undulators, linear and helical ones, at the long straight sections. The bending field, produced by normal conducting magnet, is as strong as 2.7 Tesla, which generates as high radiation power as compatible with the one from usual 1.6 GeV ring. 14 beam-ports from the bending sections together with two from the undulators are prepared. The injector is a 150 MeV racetrack microtron, which is used also for other purposes than the beam injection into the storage ring. As of March 1998, the stored current is typically 100 mA at start and the beam lifetime is three hours. We expect the beam lifetime will be extended to be eight hours after degassing operation for another few months. (author)

  4. Modelling and control of neutron and synchrotron beamline positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nneji, S. O.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Moat, R. J.; James, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of residual stress using neutron or synchrotron diffraction relies on the accurate alignment of the sample in relation to the gauge volume of the instrument. Automatic sample alignment can be achieved using kinematic models of the positioning system provided the relevant kinematic parameters are known, or can be determined, to a suitable accuracy. In this paper, the use of techniques from robotic calibration theory to generate kinematic models of both off-the-shelf and custom-built positioning systems is demonstrated. The approach is illustrated using a positioning system in use on the ENGIN-X instrument at the UK's ISIS pulsed neutron source comprising a traditional XYZΩ table augmented with a triple axis manipulator. Accuracies better than 100 microns were achieved for this compound system. Discussed here in terms of sample positioning systems these methods are entirely applicable to other moving instrument components such as beam shaping jaws and detectors.

  5. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  6. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  7. Modelling and control of neutron and synchrotron beamline positioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nneji, S.O., E-mail: Stephen.nneji@open.ac.uk [The Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Science and Technology Facility Council , Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX110QX Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Zhang, S.Y.; Kabra, S. [Science and Technology Facility Council , Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX110QX Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Moat, R.J.; James, J.A. [The Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-21

    Measurement of residual stress using neutron or synchrotron diffraction relies on the accurate alignment of the sample in relation to the gauge volume of the instrument. Automatic sample alignment can be achieved using kinematic models of the positioning system provided the relevant kinematic parameters are known, or can be determined, to a suitable accuracy. In this paper, the use of techniques from robotic calibration theory to generate kinematic models of both off-the-shelf and custom-built positioning systems is demonstrated. The approach is illustrated using a positioning system in use on the ENGIN-X instrument at the UK's ISIS pulsed neutron source comprising a traditional XYZΩ table augmented with a triple axis manipulator. Accuracies better than 100 microns were achieved for this compound system. Discussed here in terms of sample positioning systems these methods are entirely applicable to other moving instrument components such as beam shaping jaws and detectors.

  8. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himpsel, F. J.; Cook, P. L.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Boukahil, Idris; Qiao, R.; Yang, W.; Pemmaraju, S. C.; Prendergast, D.; Kronawitter, C. X.; Kibria, M. G.; Mi, Zetian; Vayssieres, L.

    2015-09-01

    X-rays from synchrotron radiation enable incisive spectroscopic techniques which speed up the discovery of new materials for photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry. A particularly useful method is X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which probes empty electronic states. XAS is element- and bond-specific, with the additional capability of determining the bond orientation. Close feedback from density functional calculations makes it possible to discover and exploit systematic trends in the electronic properties. Case studies are presented, such as solar cells that combine an absorber with an electron donor and an acceptor in one molecular complex and nanowire arrays serving as photoanodes for water splitting. In addition to the energy levels the lifetimes of the charge carriers play an essential role in device performance. A new generation of laser-like X-ray sources will make it possible to follow the fate of excited charge carriers traveling across a molecular complex or through a device structure in real time.

  9. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  10. X-ray magnetic diffraction of ferromagnets with synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2002-01-01

    X-ray magnetic diffraction experiment of ferromagnets that utilizes elliptically polarized synchrotron radiation is presented. First we have reviewed shortly historical backgrounds and theoretical aspects of the experiment. We have presented how the magnetic form factors are measured and are separated into the spin-moment component and the orbital-moment component in this experiment. Peculiar features of the polarization factor of this experiment have been explained. We have introduced two examples of the experiment. One is the measurement of the spin-magnetic form factor of SmAl sub 2 with white X-rays from a bending magnet at the Photon Factory. The other is the measurement of the orbital-magnetic form factor of Holmium Iron Garnets with monochromatic X-rays from an undulator at the SPring-8. Finally we summarize the article and show some future prospects of this experiment. (author)

  11. Investigation of Diamonds defects with Synchrotron Radiation Faculty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuWanli; TIANYulian

    2001-01-01

    Infrared absorption measurements showed that the samples belong to type Ia variety of diamond and contained varying concentrations of A and B froms of nitrogen aggregates as well as platelets.The synchrotron radiation was employed to study the structure of these specimens.Growth bands are observed near the center of the crystals situated within(001)and (010) planes in high crystalline quality diamonds and the growth bads parallel to (100)and (010) cyrstalline plane.In the imperfect cystals low-angle boundaries are observed and the angles were determined to be larger than 2.5 degrees,The perfection of diamond crystals has no obvious relationship with the concentration of nitrogen.

  12. The RF Cycle of the PIMMS Medical Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M; Knaus, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of the RF cycle of the medical synchrotron of the PIMMS (Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study) hosted at CERN. The cycle comprises adiabatic trapping, acceleration and RF gymnastics, for either protons or fully stripped carbon ions. The injection energy is 20 MeV for protons and 7 MeV/u for carbon. Maximum extraction energies are 250 MeV for protons and 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. The cycle duration is less than 1 s, with a maximum magnetic field ramp below 3 T/s. The simulations show that the beam stays inside the aperture of the machine, and that, theoretically, there are no longitudinal losses. At the end of the cycle, the beam is ready for extraction with a Dp/p = 0.4 %. The peak RF voltage is 3 kV and the frequency ranges from 0.4 to 3 MHz.

  13. High density THz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tammaro, S; Roy, P; Lampin, J -F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2014-01-01

    Frequency combs (FC) have radically changed the landscape of frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy investigations extending tremendously the achievable resolution while increasing signal to noise ratio. Initially developed in the visible and near-IR spectral regions, the use of FC has been expanded to mid-IR, extreme ultra-violet and X-ray. Significant effort is presently dedicated to the generation of FC at THz frequencies. One solution based on converting a stabilized optical frequency comb using a photoconductive terahertz emitter, remains hampered by the low available THz power. Another approach is based on active mode locked THz quantum-cascade-lasers providing intense FC over a relatively limited spectral extension. Alternatively, here we show that dense powerful THz FC is generated over one decade of frequency by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this mode, the entire ring behaves in a similar fashion to a THz resonator wherein electron bunches emit powerful THz pulses quasi-synch...

  14. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  15. A tracking code for injection and acceleration studies in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Symon, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    CAPTURE-SPC is a Monte-Carlo-based tracking program that simulates the injection and acceleration processes in proton synchrotrons. The time evolution of a distribution of charged particles is implemented by a symplectic, second-order-accurate integration algorithm. The recurrence relations follow a time-stepping leap--frog method. The time-step can be varied optionally to reduce computer time. Space-charge forces are calculated by binning the phase-projected particle distribution. The statistical fluctuations introduced by the binning process are reduced by presmoothing the data by the cloud-in-cell method and by filtering. Both the bin size and amount of filtering can be varied during the acceleration cycle so that the bunch fine structure is retained while the short wavelength noise is attenuated. The initial coordinates of each macro particle together with its time of injection are retained throughout the calculations. This information is useful in determining low-loss injection schemes.

  16. Vavilov-Cherenkov and Synchrotron Radiation Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, G. N

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation observed by Cherenkov in 1934 was created by Tamm, Frank and Ginsburg who associated the observed blue light with the uniform charge motion of a charge at a velocity greater than the velocity of light in the medium. On the other hand, Vavilov, Cherenkov's teacher, attributed the observed blue light to the deceleration of electrons. This has given rise to the appearance of papers in which the radiation of a charge uniformly moving in a finite space interval was related to the Bremsstrahlung arising at the end points of the motion interval. This monograph is intended for students of the third year and higher, for postgraduates, for professional scientists (both experimentalists and theoreticians) dealing with Vavilov-Cherenkov and synchrotron radiation. An acquaintance with the three volumes of the Landau and Lifshitz course (Quantum Mechanics, Classical Field Theory and Macroscopic Electrodynamics) is sufficient for understanding the text.

  17. Application of silicon carbide to synchrotron-radiation mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Hursman, T.L.; Williams, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Damage to conventional mirror materials exposed to the harsh synchrotron radiation (SR) environment has prompted the SR user community to search for more suitable materials. Next-generation insertion devices, with their attendant flux increases, will make the problem of mirror design even more difficult. A parallel effort in searching for better materials has been underway within the laser community for several years. The technology for dealing with high thermal loads is highly developed among laser manufacturers. Performance requirements for laser heat exchangers are remarkably similar to SR mirror requirements. We report on the application of laser heat exchanger technology to the solution of typical SR mirror design problems. The superior performance of silicon carbide for laser applications is illustrated by various material trades studies, and its superior performance for SR applications is illustrated by means of model calculations.

  18. Dynamics of synchrotron VUV-induced intracluster reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, J.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) using the tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation available at the National Synchrotron Light Source is being exploited to study photoionization-induced reactions in small van der Waals mixed complexes. The information gained includes the observation and classification of reaction paths, the measurement of onsets, and the determination of relative yields of competing reactions. Additional information is obtained by comparison of the properties of different reacting systems. Special attention is given to finding unexpected features, and most of the reactions investigated to date display such features. However, understanding these reactions demands dynamical information, in addition to what is provided by PIMS. Therefore the program has been expanded to include the measurement of kinetic energy release distributions.

  19. Modeling Longitudinal Oscillations of Bunched Beams in Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Klingbeil, Harald; Mehler, Monika; Zipfel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal oscillations of bunched beams in synchrotrons have been analyzed by accelerator physicists for decades, and a closed theory is well-known [1]. The first modes of oscillation are the coherent dipole mode, quadrupole mode, and sextupole mode. Of course, these modes of oscillation are included in the general theory, but for developing RF control systems, it is useful to work with simplified models. Therefore, several specific models are analyzed in the paper at hand. They are useful for the design of closed-loop control systems in order to reach an optimum performance with respect to damping the different modes of oscillation. This is shown by the comparison of measurement and simulation results for a specific closed-loop control system.

  20. CORED RUTHERFORD CABLES FOR THE GSI FAST RAMPING SYNCHROTRON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILSON,M.N.; GHOSH,A.K.; TEN HAKEN,B.; HASSENZAHL,W.V.; KAUGERTS,J.; MORITZ,G.; MUEHLE,C.; DEN OUDEN,A.; SOIKA,R.; WANDERER,P.; WESSEL,W.A.J.

    2002-08-04

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 200T-m and 100T.m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of s c loss and field distortion. This paper discusses the 200T.m ring, which will use Cos0 magnets based on the RHIC dipole design. We discuss the reasons for choosing Rutherford cable with a resistive core and report loss measurements carried out on cable samples. These measurements are compared with theoretical calculations using measured values of inter-strand resistance. Reasonably good agreement is found, but there are indications of non-uniformity in the adjacent resistance R,. Using these measured parameters, losses and temperature rise are calculated for a RHIC dipole in the operating cycle of the accelerator. A novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling is described.

  1. Theoretical foundations of synchrotron and storage ring RF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klingbeil, Harald; Lens, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This course-tested text is an ideal starting point for engineers and physicists entering the field of particle accelerators. The fundamentals are comprehensively introduced, derivations of essential results are provided, and a consistent notation style used throughout the book allows readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field, providing a solid theoretical basis for further studies.   Emphasis is placed on the essential features of the longitudinal motion of charged particle beams, together with the corresponding RF generation and power amplification devices for synchrotron and storage ring systems. In particular, electrical engineering aspects such as closed-loop control of system components are discussed.   The book also offers a valuable resource for graduate students in physics, electronics engineering, or mathematics looking for an introductory and self-contained text on accelerator physics.

  2. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki Hatsui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  3. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsui, Takaki; Graafsma, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  4. Evaluation of RBC aggregation using synchrotron X-ray speckles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kwon-Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2010-11-01

    When a coherent beam illuminates spatially-disordered particles, speckles are usually generated by the inference of the scattered light waves. The speckle has been known to contain the information of the objects under near-field condition. In this study, we hypothesized that the speckle patterns of the red blood cells are related to the aggregation shape and the size of RBCs in the medium. The speckle patterns of RBCs in static condition were investigated by transmitting the monochromatic synchrotron X-ray beam to the sample with varying hematocrit(10-80 %) and medium type(phosphate buffered saline, autologous plasma and 0.75 % polyvinylpyrrolidone 360 in phosphate buffered saline). The temporal variation of speckle patterns after sudden removal of shear rate was observed by stopping the blood flow in a tube. The size of aggregated RBCs is closely correlated with the characteristic features of the speckle patterns.

  5. Rietveld refinement of a natural cobaltian mansfieldite from synchrotron data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pratesi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A structural refinement of a natural sample of a Co-bearing mansfieldite, AlAsO4·2H2O [aluminium orthoarsenate(V dihydrate], has been performed based on synchrotron powder diffraction data, with 5% of the octahedral Al sites replaced by Co. Mansfieldite is the aluminium analogue and an isotype of the mineral scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O, with which it forms a solid solution. The framework structure is based on AsO4 tetrahedra sharing their vertices with AlO4(H2O2 octahedra. Three of the four H atoms belonging to the two water molecules in cis positions take part in O—H...O hydrogen bonding.

  6. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  7. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe.

  8. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  9. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  10. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  11. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  12. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  13. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  14. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  16. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  17. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  18. Acquisition of powder diffraction data with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.E.; Toby, B.H.; Eddy, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    During the past year, a dedicated triple-axis powder diffractometer has been in routine operation at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source as a user-oriented facility. The diffractometer is designed to allow easy interchange between energy-dispersive and monochromatic beam experiments. In the latter mode of operation, high resolution data have been collected for a variety of samples with the use of the crystal-analyzer technique, and in several cases these data sets have been used successfully for structure solution and Rietveld refinement. Several aspects of data acquisition at a synchrotron beam-line are described, and some of the different types of scattering geometry which have been used are discussed. Simple expressions are given for the instrumental resolution function expressed as the angular variation of peak widths for each of these. The peak shapes observed for a reference sample of Si on the present triple-axis instrument are well-described by the convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions, and the angular dependence of the Gaussian component is in excellent agreement with the corresponding calculated instrumental function. One of the most important considerations for each type of experiment is the necessary compromise between intensity and resolution over a wide range of scattering angles, and some of the available options will be discussed. In particular, the use of Ge(440) and LiF(400) analyzer crystals gives a focussing minimum at relatively high angles (2 THETA approx. = 50/sup 0/ at 1.54A), a highly desirable feature for Rietveld analysis of complex structures. Absolute intensities from reference samples of Si and CeO/sub 2/ are calculated for these and several other scattering configurations involving both flat-plate and capillary geometry to illustrate this compromise. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Synchrotron radiation: a tool for chemical sciences investigation; Le rayonnement synchrotron au service des problematiques de la chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage-Simkin, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    After recalling briefly the principles of synchrotron radiation production and its remarkable properties, the main investigation techniques used by the chemical science community is described and illustrated by recent examples of applications: X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and diffusion, electron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy. All these techniques have seen an enhancement of their ultimate performances in terms of acquisition rate and resolution (time, spatial, and energy domains) thanks to the sources optimization and the progress in instrumentation. The experimental possibilities offered by the most recent European sources are listed, with the emphasis on SOLEIL and ESRF, together with a brief survey of the future opportunities provided by the so-called fourth generation sources. (author)

  20. 50 GeV proton synchrotron for JAERI/KEK Joint project

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a design of a 50 GeV proton synchrotron for a JAERI-KEK Joint (JKJ) project which has been proposed by High Energy Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The site of the proposed accelerators is JAERI Tokai site. The JKJ project includes particle physics, nuclear physics, material science, life science and nuclear technology, using a new proton accelerator complex. The high beam power allows the production of a variety of intense secondary beams. The accelerator complex consists of the linac, 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron. The 3 GeV synchrotron is a rapid cycling synchrotron with the repetition rate of 25 Hz and provides a 1 MW beam for the spallation neutron source and muon facility. At the 50 GeV synchrotron, nuclear and particle physics experiments using anti- protons, kaons, hyperons and primary proton beam are planned. The long-baseline neutrino oscillation from JKJ to Super Kamiokande is also planned. The 50 GeV synchrotron will pr...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  2. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  5. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-01-19

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and <50% reported maintaining urate-lowering therapy indefinitely for patients without tophi. Among residents and PR, the residency stage was the main predictor of concordance with the ACR guidelines, with PR achieving the greatest rates. Reported practices were commonly concordant with the 2012 ACR gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  6. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  7. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  8. The citation pattern of Brazilian economists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of international citations by Brazilian economists in papers published in the top domestic journals in 1994 and 2004. Brazilian research in economics has become more open to international influence and widespread geographically; researchers more specialized and technically oriented and the research topics more diversified. However, Brazil is plagued by editorial favoritism, reflected in the negative and significant impact of references to the works authored by domestic journals editors on international citations. We also find that longer technical papers written on topics other than the economic history of Brazil are more likely to cite foreign literature.Este artigo estuda os determinantes das citações internacionais dos economistas brasileiros em artigos publicados nas principais revistas domésticas de economia nos anos 1994 e 2004. A pesquisa de economia no Brasil se tornou mais aberta à influencia internacional e mais espalhada geograficamente; os pesquisadores mais especializados e tecnicamente orientados e os tópicos de pesquisa mais diversificados. Entretanto, a pesquisa continua sendo prejudicada pelo favoritismo editorial, refletido no impacto negativo e significante das referências dos autores aos trabalhos dos editores das revistas domésticas sobre as citacoes internacionais. Constatamos que artigos técnicos mais longos sobre tópicos que não sejam sobre história econômica do Brasil têm maior chance de citar a literatura internacional.

  9. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  10. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  11. Bidding Strategies in Brazilian Treasury Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Caputo Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Most empirical work in treasury auctions use aggregate auction results to examine bidding behavior. We investigate the strategies of bidders in Brazilian treasury auctions using both aggregate and bidder level data and find that more detailed information allows great improvements in the understanding of bidding behavior in treasury auctions. Classifying bidders according to characteristics regarding their institutional category and their nationality, we find evidence of distinct bidding behavior across types of bidders. Moreover, in line with previous evidence in auctions of Japanese government securities, we find that foreign bidders seem to obtain higher profits than those of national institutions. These results suggest that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of testes of bidding behavior that do not take differences in bidder’s characteristics into account and (or that assume that treasury securities are pure common-value goods. We find that Brazilian auctions are relatively illiquid as higher competition yields lower bidders’ discounts. Contrary to theoretical predictions of both common- and private-value auctions, we also find that bidders obtain lower profits in auctions with higher dispersion in bidders’ valuations.

  12. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  13. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  14. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles.

  15. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  16. Elemental changes in hemolymph and urine of Rhodnius prolixus induced by in-vivo exposure to mercury: A study using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Andrea, E-mail: mantuanoandrea@gmail.com [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pickler, Arissa; Barroso, Regina C. [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Almeida, Andre P. de; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, Simone C. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gonzalez, Marcelo S. [Department of General Biology, Fluminense Federal University (Brazil); Figueiredo, Marcela B.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates were extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Some environmental conditions including pollution produce chronic and acute effects on different animal's organs and systems. In this work, we investigated changes in the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn in Rhodnius prolixus as insect model. The elements were quantified using urine and hemolymph samples collected on different days after feeding the insects with blood containing HgCl{sub 2}. The synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The observation reveals that the calcium level was higher in the hemolymph than in urine. On the other hand, the urine collected from insects treated with HgCl{sub 2} showed higher level of Cl than hemolymph samples. Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations decrease drastically in urine samples collected after 2 days of HgCl{sub 2} treatment. The regulation of triatomines excretion was discussed pointing out the importance of trace elements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in Rhodnius prolixus were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In triatomines these elements have not been previously described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cl, Ca, Zn levels were lower than control in hemolymph after 5 days of HgCl{sub 2} fed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cl, Ca, Zn levels were higher than control in urine after 2 days of HgCl{sub 2} fed.

  17. Evaluation of growth tree rings of Tipuana Tipu as biomonitoring of environmental pollution by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The bioindicators, plants or animals capable to present qualitative and/or quantitative answers, when exposed to pollutant substances. Trees record and incorporate in their log, developed year after year, the impressions of the environment, becoming possible the study of the different environmental changes, including contamination, that have occurred over the life of these trees. The selected species, Tipuana Tipu, of the Leguminosae family, is native of Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant. It is one of the most common trees in the urban landscaping in Sao Paulo city. The present project has as main objective the determination of the content of potentially toxic elements in samples of growth the tree rings of Tipuana Tipu, previously dated, collected in strategically locations of Sao Paulo, using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. Samples were also collected in the Piracicaba (SP), local of little access and small flow traffic. The SR-TXRF analysis was carried out in the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, located in Campinas city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In this paper the highest value for Pb was 123.54 μg.g{sup -1} considered as threshold value was observed for the period 1998 to 2000 for University of Sao Paulo, Butanta site. For the same period excessive level was also observed for samples collected in Piracicaba city. In Sao Paulo city, sample collected in the campus of University of Sao Paulo (Butanta), showed the highest toxicity, with concentration above the tolerable limit for Ti, Cr and Cu. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb exceeding the toxicity limits. (author)

  18. Jet Quenching in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions by QCD Synchrotron-like Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E V

    2003-01-01

    We consider synchrotron-like radiation in QCD by generalizing Schwinger's treatment of quantum synchrotron radiation in QED to the case of a constant chromomagnetic field. We suggest a novel mechanism for {\\em jet quenching} in heavy ion collisions, whereby high-$p_t$ partons get depleted through strong (classical) color fields. The latters are encountered in the color glass condensate or in the form of expanding shells of exploding sphalerons. Unlike bremsstrahlung radiation through multiple soft rescattering, synchrotron radiation converts a jet into a wide shower of soft gluons. We estimate the energy loss through this mechanism and suggest that it contributes significantly to the unexpectedly strong jet quenching observed at RHIC.

  19. Polycapillary X-ray lens for the secondary focusing Beijing synchrotron radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-De; Lin Xiao-Yan; Liu Shi-Gang; He Jin-Long; Guo Fei; Sun Tian-Xi; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    According to intensity distribution of the synchrotron radiation source focused by a toroidal mirror at the Beijing synchrotron radiation biological macromolecule station,theoretical modeling of the Beijing synchrotron radiation source is developed for capillary optics.Using this theoretical modeling,the influences of the configuration curve of the polycapillary X-ray lens on transmission efficiency and working distance are analyzed.The experimental results of the transmission efficiency and working distance at the biological macromolecule station are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  20. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  1. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  2. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  3. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F., E-mail: bffaria@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  4. Historical evolution of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Reis, Vitor Manoel da Silva

    2012-02-01

    In this special edition in celebration of the centennial of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, the authors take a retrospective look at printed Brazilian dermatology from the very beginning onward, showing evidence of descriptive dermatology with rich discussions, illustrations and advertisements of medications much used at the time, such as bismuth for the treatment of syphilis, before the discovery of penicillin. This retrospective covers up to the current days, when publications in the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology have reached the modern era in electronics, science and layout as well.

  5. Brazilian vodkas have undetectable levels of ethyl carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy V. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While in Europe vodka is mainly derived from potatoes or cereals, a large proportion of Brazilian vodka is likely obtained from sugarcane, which contains ethyl carbamate (EC precursors. EC, in addition to several other contaminants and congeners, were investigated in 32 samples of Brazilian vodka. All samples complied with the Brazilian regulations for congeners and contaminants, having EC content below 0.01 mg/L (detection limit. These results are probably related to the processing of vodka, in particular the use of extractive and rectifying stainless steel distillation columns, which allow the production of high strength spirits with low levels of congeners and contaminants.

  6. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  7. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  8. Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, Oliver Joachim Georg

    2011-11-09

    In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic

  9. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  10. Design and Optimisation Strategies of Nonlinear Dynamics for Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the most recent achievements in the control of nonlinear dynamics in electron synchrotron light sources, with special attention to diffraction limited storage rings. Guidelines for the design and optimization of the magnetic lattice are reviewed and discussed.

  11. Radio Synchrotron Fluctuation Statistics as a Probe of Magnetized Interstellar Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, C A; Lazarian, A; Gaensler, B M; McClure-Griffiths, N M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how observations of synchrotron intensity fluctuations can be used to probe the sonic and Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers of interstellar turbulence, based on mock observations performed on simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the structure function slope, and a diagnostic of anisotropy that we call the integrated quadrupole ratio modulus, both depend on the Alfv\\'enic Mach number. However, these statistics also depend on the orientation of the mean magnetic field in the synchrotron emitting region relative to our line of sight, and this creates a degeneracy that cannot be broken by observations of synchrotron intensity alone. We conclude that the polarization of synchrotron emission could be analyzed to break this degeneracy, and suggest that this will be possible with the Square Kilometre Array.

  12. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  13. Report of the workshop on transferring X-ray Lithography Synchrotron (XLS) technology to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on plans to develop an x-ray synchrotron for use in lithography. The primary concern of the present paper is technology transfer from national laboratories to private industry. (JDH)

  14. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements.

  15. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  16. The X-ray synchrotron emission of RCW 86 and the implications for its age

    CERN Document Server

    Vink, J; Van der Heyden, K J; Bykov, A; Bamba, A; Yamazaki, R; Vink, Jacco; Bleeker, Johan; Heyden, Kurt van der; Bykov, Andrei; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2006-01-01

    We report here X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of the northeastern shell of the supernova remnant RCW 86 with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Along this part of the shell the dominant X-ray radiation mechanism changes from thermal to synchrotron emission. We argue that both the presence of X-ray synchrotron radiation and the width of the synchrotron emitting region suggest a locally higher shock velocity of V_s = 2700 km/s and a magnetic field of B = 24+/-5 microGauss. Moreover, we also show that a simple power law cosmic ray electron spectrum with an exponential cut-off cannot explain the broad band synchrotron emission. Instead a concave electron spectrum is needed, as predicted by non-linear shock acceleration models. Finally, we show that the derived shock velocity strengthens the case that RCW 86 is the remnant of SN 185.

  17. Sub-nanosecond, time-resolved, broadband infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, R; Reitze, D H; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2001-01-01

    A facility for sub-nanosecond time-resolved (pump-probe) infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. A mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser produces 2 ps duration, tunable near-IR pump pulses synchronized to probe pulses from a synchrotron storage ring. The facility is unique on account of the broadband infrared from the synchrotron, which allows the entire spectral range from 2 cm-1 (0.25 meV) to 20,000 cm-1 (2.5 eV) to be probed. A temporal resolution of 200 ps, limited by the infrared synchrotron-pulse duration, is achieved. A maximum time delay of 170 ns is available without gating the infrared detector. To illustrate the performance of the facility, a measurement of electron-hole recombination dynamics for an HgCdTe semiconductor film in the far- and mid infrared range is presented.

  18. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  19. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  20. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...