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Sample records for brazilian lnls synchrotron

  1. LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory Activity Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This activity report highlight the activities as follows: atomic local order of hafnium and silicon in dielectric films; development of bio absorbent for arsenite; insights into enzyme-substrate interaction; investigation of metastable phases in zirconia-ceria nano-ceramics by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction; lattice distortion effects on magneto-structural phase transition of Mn As; mechanism of orbital ordering in transition-metal oxides; organic molecules in star-forming regions; spatially ordered In P dots grown on compositionally modulated In Ga P layers; structural insights into {beta}-Xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei, and surface random alloys studied by synchrotron based photoelectron diffraction.

  2. Synchrotron radiation XRF imaging techniques at the Brazil-LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established method for quantitative multi-elemental bulk analysis. The use of a synchrotron radiation source allows constructing effective x-ray microprobes for study trace elements in small (nanogram) samples or their distributions with high spatial resolution. Since its operation, the XRF fluorescence beamline of the LNLS has offered to the user community several hard x-ray microprobes configurations to develop microscopic x-ray fluorescence analysis. The initially developed setup consisted of a fine conical monocapillary that allows condensing the polychromatic synchrotron beam down to an area of 20 microns in diameter. Novel strategies are now routinely in use or being installed at several synchrotron laboratories that require determining the 3D compositional structure of minor and trace elements in specific samples. These experimental setups take advantages of the high penetration depth of the x-rays (several orders of magnitude higher than the microbeam size). These alternative (microanalytical) methods are called x-ray fluorescence microtomography and confocal micro-XRF. This lecture intends to give a general description of all above configurations, showing their advantages/disadvantages and also pretends to show some specific applications carried out at the XRF Fluorescence beamline of the LNLS. (author)

  3. Synchrotron radiation XRF imaging techniques at the Brazil-LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Carlos A., E-mail: perez@lnls.br [X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Group, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established method for quantitative multi-elemental bulk analysis. The use of a synchrotron radiation source allows constructing effective x-ray microprobes for study trace elements in small (nanogram) samples or their distributions with high spatial resolution. Since its operation, the XRF fluorescence beamline of the LNLS has offered to the user community several hard x-ray microprobes configurations to develop microscopic x-ray fluorescence analysis. The initially developed setup consisted of a fine conical monocapillary that allows condensing the polychromatic synchrotron beam down to an area of 20 microns in diameter. Novel strategies are now routinely in use or being installed at several synchrotron laboratories that require determining the 3D compositional structure of minor and trace elements in specific samples. These experimental setups take advantages of the high penetration depth of the x-rays (several orders of magnitude higher than the microbeam size). These alternative (microanalytical) methods are called x-ray fluorescence microtomography and confocal micro-XRF. This lecture intends to give a general description of all above configurations, showing their advantages/disadvantages and also pretends to show some specific applications carried out at the XRF Fluorescence beamline of the LNLS. (author)

  4. Multiple imaging radiography at LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelohonnicke@yahoo.com.br; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba(Brazil); Antunes, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Safatle, A.M.V.; Barros, P.S.M. [Laboratorio de Oftalmologia Experimental e Comparativa, Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morelhao, S.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-01-11

    An analyzer-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup has been mounted at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for multiple imaging radiography (MIR) purposes. The algorithm employed for treating the MIR data collected at LNLS is described, and its reliability in extracting the distinct types of contrast that can be obtained with MIR is demonstrated by analyzing a test sample (thin polyamide wire). As a practical application, the possibility of studying ophthalmic tissues, corneal sequestra in this case, via MIR is investigated.

  5. 3D elemental distribution images by XRF{mu}CT at LNLS-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, G.R.; Rocha, H.S.; Calza, C. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, UERJ (Brazil); Perez, C.A. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    An X-ray Transmission Microtomography (CT) system combined with an X-ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRF{mu}CT) system was implemented in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The main objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution in biological samples (breast, prostate and lung samples) in order to verify the concentration of some elements correlated with characteristics and pathology of each tissue observed by the transmission CT. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence beamline (D09B-XRF) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The sample was placed on a high precision goniometer and translation stages that allow its rotation as well as translation perpendicular to the beam. The fluorescence photons were collected with an energy dispersive HPGe detector placed at 90{sup o} to the incident beam, while transmitted photons were detected with a fast Na(Tl) scintillation counter placed behind the sample on the beam direction. The CT images were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm and the XRF{mu}CT were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. The 3D images were reconstructed using the 3D-DOCTOR software.

  6. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). - Highlights: • Concentrations of trace elements were measured and compared in four skin lesions. • The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels. • This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research

  7. XRF fluorescence beamline at the LNLS: Current scientific activities and instrumentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Carlos A., E-mail: perez@lnls.br [X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Group, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text: Among the large variety of analyzing methods for the quantitative determination of trace elements, multi-element methods are of special interest. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is well suited for this purpose. The XRF method can enter in the field of trace element analysis if some modifications of the classic XRF are introduced, mainly related to the primary excitation, i.e., the use of monochromatic radiation, excitation mass reduction by using x-ray microbeams or grazing-incident/exit excitation conditions and polarized radiation. Synchrotron radiation sources meet very well the above requirements thus making the XRF analysis with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) the most sensitive multielement method for bulk analysis in small amount of sample. In this work the main instrumental arrangements, available at the LNLS XRF Fluorescence beamline for developing micro-analytical method to study the lateral and depth profiles of elemental traces in several sample matrices, will be shown. Also some selected (recently) applications will be given to illustrate these features. (author)

  8. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  9. Energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at LNLS: investigation on strongly correlated metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar, Julio C.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo,; Piamonteze, Cınthia; Tamura, Edilson; Garcia, Flavio; Carvalho, Edson J.; Neueschwander, Régis T.; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Hélio; Caneiro, Alberto; Massa, Nestor E.; Jesus Martinez-Lope, Maria; Antonio Alonso, Jose; Itié, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline mainly dedicated to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and material science under extreme conditions has been implemented in a bending-magnet port at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. Here the beamline technical characteristics are described, including the most important aspects of the mechanics, optical elements and detection set-up. The beamline performance is then illustrated through two case studies on strongly co...

  10. Analysis of mineral water from Brazil using total reflection X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) has become a competitive technique for the determination of trace elements in samples that the concentrations are lower than 100 ng ml-1. In this work, thirty-seven mineral waters commonly available in supermarkets of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by SRTXRF. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for calibration of the system. Mineral water samples of 10 μl were added to Perspex sample carrier, dried under infrared lamp and analyzed for 200 s measuring time. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation

  11. Ecdysis period of Rhodnius prolixus head investigated using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, G; Nogueira, L P; Braz, D; Almeida, A P; Gonzalez, M S; Azambuja, P; Colaço, M V; Barroso, R C

    2016-06-01

    Microtomography using synchrotron sources is a useful tool in biological imaging research since the phase coherence of synchrotron beams can be exploited to obtain images with high contrast resolution. This work is part of a series of works using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography in the study of Rhodnius prolixus head, the insect vector of Chagas' disease, responsible for about 12,000 deaths per year. The control of insect vector is the most efficient method to prevent this disease and studies have shown that the use of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, disrupted chitin synthesis during larval development and it's an alternative method against insect pests. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of treatments with triflumuron in the ecdysis period (the moulting of the R. prolixus cuticle) using the new imaging beamline IMX at LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory). Nymphs of R. prolixus were taken from the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. Doses of 0.05mg of triflumuron were applied directly to the abdomen on half of the insects immediately after feeding. The insects were sacrificed 25days after feeding (intermoulting period) and fixed with glutaraldehyde. The results obtained using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography in R. prolixus showed amazing images of the effects of triflumuron on insects in the ecdysis period, and the formation of the new cuticle on those which were not treated with triflumuron. Both formation and malformation of this insect's cuticle have never been seen before with this technique. PMID:27184550

  12. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  13. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  14. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization of healthy and fluorotic human dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaço, M. V.; Barroso, R. C.; Porto, I. M.; Gerlach, R. F.; Costa, F. N.; Braz, D.; Droppa, R.; de Sousa, F. B.

    2012-10-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basic physical-chemistry reactions of demineralization and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory—LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed both in powder samples and polished surfaces. The powder samples were analyzed to obtain the characterization of a typical healthy enamel pattern. The polished surfaces were analyzed in specific areas that have been identified as fluorotic ones. X-ray diffraction data were obtained for all samples and these data were compared with the control samples and also with the literature data.

  15. Design, Construction and Commissioning of a NEG Coated Wiggler Vacuum Chamber for the LNLS Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Marcelo J; Silva, Milton B; de Oliveira Ferraz, Reginaldo

    2005-01-01

    We present the design of the vacuum chamber for the LNLS 2 T Hybrid Wiggler. The chamber is a 3 m long, 1.2 mm thick 316 SS tube, which was mechanically pressed into an elliptical shape from an originally round tube. In order to provide the necessary mechanical tolerances, the rather flexible tube is welded to lateral supports that run the complete length of the chamber. Special care has been given to the mechanical and magnetic characterization of the chamber and the inner surface of the chamber was NEG-coated at the ESRF. We present the installation procedure as well the vacuum conditioning charge evolution.

  16. Upgrades to the XRD1 beamline optics and endstation at the LNLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, H.; Fontoura, A.; Neuenschwander, R. T.; Diaz, B.; Rodella, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    XRD1 was the first X-ray diffraction beamline to be built at the LNLS and after approximately 12 years of operation it was substantially updated to improve beam stability, increase the reliability of the monochromator movement as well as provide an experimental hutch that would meet the demands of users. The improvements included the construction of an independent concrete slab below the mirror and monochromator to minimize the vibrations originating from the floor. In addition, the installation of new monochromator mechanisms as well as the replacement of the two Si(111) crystals were performed in order to attain higher precision, stability and reproducibility during operation. Moreover, the diffractometer was replaced by a 3-circle heavy duty diffractometer from Newport to collect XRD patterns primarily in capillary geometry. A robotic arm was installed for fast and automated replacement of samples as well as to secure a cryojet or a hot air blower in front of the sample during measurements. In addition, a housing equipped with 24 Mythen detectors was installed at the beamline allowing for extremely fast data acquisition. Another upgrade was the integration of motors and control systems from PXI National Instruments and Galil controllers with Phytron. These systems are crucial for the next upgrade that is underway at the beamline: enabling remote access for users to collect their measurements without the need to travel to the LNLS.

  17. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  18. Determination of Cu/Zn and Fe in human serum of patients with sickle cell anemia using radiation synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, C.G.L. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, S.M.F. [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, 20.211-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20.559-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we analyzed serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). We studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 suffering from SCA and sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Moreover, there are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. The concentrations of Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger, 120% and 20%, respectively, when compared with the CG. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples from patients suffering from SCA than from the CG. Therefore, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) were analyzed by SRTXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to determine the concentrations of the P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index for diagnosis of SCA.

  19. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  1. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  2. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos, E-mail: prof.robinho@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares; Teixeira, Paulo Cesar; Benites, Vinicius Melo, E-mail: paulo.c.teixeira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  7. Avaliação de multielementos em amostras de sangue humano usando SR-TXRF Evaluation of multielements in human blood samples using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Graciele V. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Gammacell 220 Exce irradiator, and the second was irradiated with doses of from 2 to 100 cGy, using gamma radiation in a Theraton 780 C irradiator. After irradiation, all samples were lyophilized to remove the water and then submitted to standard chemical digestion by adding nitric acid. All the measurements were carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS in Campinas. While no positive association was found for variations in calcium, the variations in potassium were positively associated with the radiation dose for all analyzed samples. On the other hand, iron levels decreased for whole blood and plasma and zinc levels decreased only in whole blood as the dose increased.

  8. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  9. Investigations of intrinsic strain and structural ordering in a-Si:H using synchrotron radiation diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerting, M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Britton, D.T. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)]. E-mail: dtb@science.uct.ac.za; Minani, E. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kigali Institute of Education, Kigali (Rwanda); Ntsoane, T.P. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, PO Box 72, Faure, 7131 (South Africa); Topic, M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Thovhogi, T. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Osiele, O.M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Akure (Nigeria); Knoesen, D. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Harindintwari, S. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Furlan, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2006-04-20

    The residual strain in a-Si:H layers has been determined directly using synchrotron radiation diffraction, at LNLS in Brazil, by two different methodologies. Using a method previously presented using laboratory X-ray sources, the height and length of side of the Si-Si{sub 4} tetrahedron are determined from variations in the diffraction angle of the first two amorphous peaks. In a more extensive calculation, the spatially dependent pair correlation function is calculated, allowing the separation of strain resulting from changes in the bond length and the bond angle. Two different layers, deposited by HW-CVD on glass substrates at growth temperatures of 300 and 500 deg. C, have been studied to investigate the effect of growth temperature on residual stress.

  10. Synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in the study of KDP phase transition induced by electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the application of the X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS to study KDP phase transition induced by electric field is discussed. A Huber three-axis (omega, phi, 2theta diffractometer mounted on a table which rotates around the incident beam allows to measure Renninger scans (RS at the XRD station of LNLS using the adequate polarization for the experiments. Prior results indicated (080 as the best choice for the KDP primary reflection and the (440( 40 four-beam case for the secondary. Two Bragg-surface diffraction (BSD reflections, where the secondary beam is propagated parallel to the sample surface, are involved in this multiple diffraction case. A RS interval of 3.3° around phi = 0° position was measured while the electric field was increased up to 6 kV/cm. At this value, a phase transition was observed and the secondary peaks became narrower and changed their RS position indicating possible occurrence of a metastable ferroelectric phase.

  11. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and biological applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Lopes; I Lima; G R Pereira; C A Perez

    2011-02-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to study bone sites of human and animal samples with and without bone disorders.

  13. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  14. Analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns from fluorotic enamel samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson, E-mail: anapaulagalmeida@gmail.co [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Porto, Isabel M., E-mail: belporto@ig.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Gerlach, Raquel F., E-mail: rfgerlach@forp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Droppa Junior, Roosevelt, E-mail: rdroppa@lnls.b [Associacao Brasileira de Tecnologia de Luz Sincrotron (ABTLuS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basics physical-chemistry reactions of demineralisation and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The hexagonal symmetry seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using technique Synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to determine the crystal structure and crystallinity of on fluoroapatite (FAp) crystal present in fluoritic enamel. All the scattering profile measurements was carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. (author)

  15. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  16. Synchrotron radiation: science & applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Miguel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This general talk is devoted to briefly introduce the main uses and applications of synchrotron radiation. An initial introduction will be dedicated to describe a synchrotron as a Large Facility devoted to produce photons that will be used to carry out excellent science. The five outstanding main characteristics of synchrotron radiation are: i) High brilliance and collimation ii) Wavelength tunability iii) Beamsize tunability iv) Defined polarization v) Time structure vi)...

  17. Comparative Survival Analysis of Deinococcus Radiodurans and the Haloarchaea Natrialba Magadii and Haloferax Volcanii, Exposed to Vacuum Ultraviolet Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Corton, Eduardo; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2011-01-01

    The haloarchaea Natrialba magadii and Haloferax volcanii, as well as the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, were exposed to vacuum-UV (V-UV) radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Cell monolayers (containing 105 - 106 cells per sample) were prepared over polycarbonate filters and irradiated under high vacuum (10-5 Pa) with polychromatic synchrotron radiation. N. magadii was remarkably resistant to high vacuum with a survival fraction of ((3.77 \\pm ...

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  19. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  20. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Santos, C.A.N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Pereira, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos, Corrosao e Soldagem

    2013-08-15

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  1. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  2. RF gymnastics in synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2011-01-01

    The RF systems installed in synchrotrons can be used to change the longitudinal beam characteristics. 'RF gymnastics' designates manipulations of the RF parameters aimed at providing such non-trivial changes. Some keep the number of bunches constant while changing bunch length, energy spread, emittance, or distance between bunches. Others are used to change the number of bunches. After recalling the basics of longitudinal beam dynamics in a hadron synchrotron, this paper deals with the most commonly used gymnastics. Their principle is described as well as their performance and limitations.

  3. RF Gymnastics in Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2005-01-01

    The RF systems installed in synchrotrons can be used to change the longitudinal beam characteristics. "RF gymnastics" designates manipulations of the RF parameters aimed at providing such non-trivial changes. Some keep the number of bunches constant while changing bunch length, energy spread, emittance or distance between bunches. Others are used to change the number of bunches. After recalling the basics of longitudinal beam dynamics in a hadron synchrotron, this paper deals with the most commonly used gymnastics. Their principle is described as well as their performance and limitations.

  4. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Gupta, Sayan; Zhan, Chenyang; Chance, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  5. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: marinkov@bnl.gov; Gupta, Sayan [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhan, Chenyang [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Chance, Mark R. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  6. Engineering application of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiation which is generated when the circular motion of fast electrons is carried out in vacuum has been studied as the source of X-ray and ultraviolet ray for physical property research, but recently attention has been paid to its industrial application. In this report, from the viewpoint of how to utilize the properties of synchrotron radiation to electronic industries, the recent trend of research is explained. Synchrotron radiation is the electromagnetic waves radiated in the tangential direction to their track when the electrons at the velocity close to light velocity carry out acceleration motion. The synchrotron radiation generator is an electron storage ring. Synchrotron radiation is the beam having good parallelism, concentrating in the orbit plane of electrons, and is led to respective experimental devices with beam lines. Synchrotron radiation lithography has become the start of its industrial application. The process technology being excited by synchrotron radiation, the evaluation of materials using synchrotron radiation, small synchrotron radiation generators and the new sources of light are reported. Synchrotron radiation is the important technological field developed by the joint work of physics and engineering in the latter half of 20th century, following semiconductors, lasers and superconductivity. (K.I.)

  7. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering from Self-organized Soft Nanostructures in Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, J. O.

    2009-04-01

    In the general context of self-organization of nanoparticles (in our case clay particles), and transitions in such structures, we study interconnected universal complex physical phenomena such as: (i) spontaneous gravitationally induced phase separation and nematic self-organization in systems of anisotropic clay nanoparticles in aqueous suspension, including studies of isotropic to nematic transitions [1,2] (ii) transitions from biaxial to uniaxial nematics by application of external magnetic field to self-organized systems of the same anisotropic (diamagnetic) clay nanoparticle systems [3,4] (iii) guided self-organization into chainlike structures of the same anisotropic clay nanoparticles in oil suspension when subjected to external electrical fields (electrorheological structures of polarized nanoparticles), and the stability of, and transitions of, such structures, when subjected to external mechanical stress [5,6] The experimental techniques used by us include synchrotron X-ray scattering, neutron scattering, rheometry. microscopy and magnetic resonance. We have demonstrated that clays may be used as good model systems for studies of universal physical phenomena and transitions in self-organized nanostructured soft and complex matter. Self-organization and related transitions in clay systems in particular, may have practical relevance for nano-patterning, properties of nanocomposites, and macroscopically anisotropic gels, among many other applications [7]. The synchrotron experiments have been performed at LNLS-Brazil, PLS- Korea, BNL-USA and ESRF-France. Acknowledgments: Collaborators, postdocs and students at NTNU-Norway, UiO-Norway, IFE-Norway, BNL-USA, LNLS-Brazil, UFPE-Brazil, UnB-Brazil, Univ. Amsterdam-Netherlands, Univ.Paris 7-France and other places. This research has been supported by the Research Council of Norway (RCN), through the NANOMAT, SUP and FRINAT Programs. References 1. J.O. Fossum, E. Gudding, D.d.M. Fonseca, Y. Meheust, E. DiMasi, T

  8. Selective surface functionalization of polystyrene induced by synchrotron or UV radiation in the presence of oxygen or acrylic acid vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient surface functionalization of Polystyrene (PS) thin films by electromagnetic radiation in combination with a reactive gaseous atmosphere was obtained. Monochromatic synchrotron (SR) or polychromatic UV radiation were used as excitation sources. When SR was used, O2 was introduced after irradiation into the UHV chamber. UV irradiation was carried out keeping a constant flow of O2 or acrylic acid (AA) vapors during the photolysis. FTIR-ATR and XPS-NEXAFS spectra were obtained at the UFRGS and the LNLS, Campinas respectively. PS films were functionalized by monochromatic SR and then expose to O2 at specific transitions such us C 1s →σ*C-C excitation. It was found a high rate of COO, C=O and C-O groups at the surface (> 70%). UV-assisted treatment in the presence of AA vapors showed that an efficient polymerization process took place, such as, it was observed in previous AA low pressure RF plasma treatments. UV-assisted functionalization has the advantage of lower costs and simple set-up compared to plasma treatments. (author)

  9. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  10. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  11. Synchrotron radiation source Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of the synchrotron radiation in VUV range with a critical wavelength of 61 A. In this paper we discuss the synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 and report some results of its present performance. Besides, results of beam lifetime studies are also reported. (author)

  12. Induction synchrotron and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An RF synchrotron has been the indispensable device for nuclear physics and high energy physics experiments so far. Instead of this conventional accelerator, an induction synchrotron has been proposed and its demonstration is going to be done in the near future. The induction synchrotron is capable of accelerating a super-bunch of 1 μs long. A new generation of proton driver or hadron collider accommodating super-bunches, which claims to increase their luminosity ten times larger, is under consideration. Key devices to realize the novel induction synchrotron are a pulse modulator and induction accelerating cavity being operated at 1 MHz rep-rate. The concept and characteristics of the induction synchrotron are presented including the outline of R and D works. (author)

  13. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  14. Monochromator for synchrotron light with temperature controlled by electrical current on silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusatis, Cesar; Souza, Paulo E.N. [Universidade Federal do Parana (LORXI/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao; Franco, Margareth Kobayaski; Kakuno, Edson [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincroton (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gobbi, Angelo; Carvalho Junior, Wilson de [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (CPqD), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. doped silicon crystal was used simultaneously as a monochromator, sensor and actuator in such way that its temperature could be controlled. Ohmic contacts allowed resistance measurements on a perfect silicon crystal, which were correlated to its temperature. Using the ohmic contacts, an electrical current caused Joule heating on the monochromator that was used to control its temperature. A simple stand-alone electronic box controlled the system. The device was built and tested with white beam synchrotron light on the double crystal monochromator of the XRD line of LNLS, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas. The first crystal of a double crystal monochromator determines the energy that is delivered to a synchrotron experimental station and its temperature instability is a major source of energy and intensity instability. If the (333) silicon monochromator is at theta Bragg near 45 degree the variation of the diffraction angle is around one second of arc per degree Kelvin. It may take several minutes for the first crystal temperature to stabilize at the beginning of the station operation when the crystal and its environment are cold. With water refrigeration, the average overall temperature of the crystal may be constant, but the temperature of the surface changes with and without the white beam. The time used to wait for stabilization of the beam energy/intensity is lost unless the temperature of the crystal surface is kept constant. One solution for keeping the temperature of the monochromator and its environment constant or nearly constant is Joule heating it with a controlled small electrical current flowing on the surface of a doped perfect crystal. When the white beam is on, this small amount of extra power will be more concentrated at the beam footpath because the resistance is lower in this region due to the higher temperature. In addition, if the crystal itself is used to detect the temperature variation by measuring the electrical

  15. Spin Echo in Synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC; Courant, Ernest D.; /Brookhaven

    2006-12-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time {tau} between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference effect occurs when {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} is too small, or when {tau} is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings interfere with each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive patterns depending on the exact value of {tau}. Typically, the beam's energy spread is large and this interference effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time {tau} after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when {tau} is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving

  16. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  17. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  19. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  20. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  1. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  2. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Synchrotron radiation in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review on the several experimental techniques (XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, IRRS, etc...) which, utilizing of synchrotron radiation can be applied in glass structural studies, is presented. The major part of these techniques can be also used for studies of other materials such as polymers, metals, etc... (L.C.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  6. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  7. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  8. Multipole correction in large synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of correcting dynamic nonlinearities due to the multipole content of a synchrotron such as the Superconducting Super Collider is discussed. The method uses lumped multipole elements placed at the center (C) of the accelerator half-cells as well as elements near the focusing (F) and defocusing (D) quads. In a first approximation, the corrector strengths follow Simpson's Rule. Correction of second-order sextupole nonlinearities may also be obtained with the F, C, and D octupoles. Correction of nonlinearities by about three orders of magnitude are obtained, and simple solutions to a fundamental problem in synchrotrons are demonstrated. Applications to the CERN Large Hadron Collider and lower energy machines, as well as extensions for quadrupole correction, are also discussed

  9. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  10. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  11. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  12. Proposals for synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since it was first applied in the 1960's synchrotron radiation from an accelerating electron beam has been gaining popularity as a powerful tool for research and development in a wide variety of fields of science and technology. By now there are some 20 facilities operating either parasitically or dedicatedly for synchrotron radiation research in different parts of the world. In addition there are another 20 facilities either in construction or in various stages of proposal and design. The experiences gained from the operating facilities and the recent development of insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators as radiation sources led to a new set of requirements on the design of synchrotron radiation storage rings for optimum utility. The surprisingly uniform applicability and unanimous acceptance of these criteria give assurance that they are indeed valid criteria derived form mature considerations and experiences. Instead of describing the design of each of these new facilities it is, thus, more effective to discuss these desirable design features and indicate how they are incorporated in the design using machines listed as examples. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation is often used to measure the dimensions of an electron beam. The transverse size is obtained from an image of the beam cross section formed by means of the emitted synchrotron radiation. Because of the small natural opening angle the resolution is limited by diffraction. The angular spread of the particles in the beam can be measured by observing the radiation directly. Here, the resolution is limited by the natural opening angle of the emitted light. Measuring both beam cross section and angular spread gives the emittance of the beam. However, in most cases only one of these two parameters is observed and the other deduced from the known particle beam optics at the source of the radiation. Usually one observes radiation emitted in long bending magnets. However, short magnets and undulators are also useful sources for these measurements. For practical reasons the beam diagnostics is carried out using visible or ultraviolet light. This part of the spectrum is usually far below the critical frequency, and corresponding approximations can be applied. Synchrotron radiation is an extremely useful tool for diagnostics in electron (or positron) rings. In some cases it has also served in proton rings using special magnets. (author)

  14. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Longo, Renata; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico D.; Castelli, Edoardo

    2002-05-01

    A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.

  15. Study of a new approach to diagnose breast cancer based on synchrotron radiation scattering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths. This scenario is, among other factors, due to inherent limitations of the current clinical methods of diagnosis based on x-ray absorption. Meanwhile, recent researches have shown that the scattered radiation can provide information about the structures that compose a biological tissue, like breast tissue. Then, the information provided by x-ray scattering techniques can be used to identify breast cancer. In this work, we developed a classification model based on discriminant analysis of scattering profiles of 106 human breast samples histopathologically classified as normal tissue, benign and malignant lesion, at wide (WAXS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) regions. WAXS and SAXS experiments were carried out at the D12A-XRD1 and D02-SAXS2 beam lines in the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas. For WAXS experiment, was used an x-ray beam energy of 11keV allowing to record the momentum transfer interval of 0.7nm{sup -1}{<=}(q=4{pi}.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}){<=}70.5nm{sup -1} on the NaI(Tl) detector. While for SAXS experiment was used an x-ray wavelength of 1.488 Angstrom, a two-dimensional detector and several sample-detector distances, allowing to get the range of 0.07nm{sup -1}{<=}q{<=}4.20nm{sup -1}. The scattering profiles at both regions, for each sample were used to build the diagnosis model based on discriminant analysis. From WAXS data, differences related to position and intensity of the peaks of the molecular structures were found, when compared normal and pathological breast tissues. While for SAXS these differences were observed in supramolecular structures. The diagnostic model combining the information at WAXS and SAXS yield two linear functions which, allow to correlate changes at molecular scale with those at supramolecular level as well as, to classify correctly all samples analyzed in this study[1

  16. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  17. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  18. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  19. Research on feedback system of synchrotron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a very complex problem to use feedback control system in synchrotron accelerator. Some scientists design feedback control system to make high energy beam stable in synchrotron accelerator, but it is very rare to see theoretically analysis feedback system in synchrotron accelerator by using new concept of control model. One new feedback control model is a fresh idea to discuss the feedback system more deeply. A topic about feedback control system discussed here will be useful for synchrotron accelerator design and operation. It is an good idea for some scientists and technician to continue study. (authors)

  20. Selective surface functionalization of polystyrene induced by synchrotron or UV radiation in the presence of oxygen or acrylic acid vapors; Funcionalizacao superficial seletiva de poliestireno induzida por radiacao sincrotron ou ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Felipe; Kuhn, Sidiney; Weibel, Daniel E., E-mail: felipekessler@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil) Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Efficient surface functionalization of Polystyrene (PS) thin films by electromagnetic radiation in combination with a reactive gaseous atmosphere was obtained. Monochromatic synchrotron (SR) or polychromatic UV radiation were used as excitation sources. When SR was used, O{sub 2} was introduced after irradiation into the UHV chamber. UV irradiation was carried out keeping a constant flow of O{sub 2} or acrylic acid (AA) vapors during the photolysis. FTIR-ATR and XPS-NEXAFS spectra were obtained at the UFRGS and the LNLS, Campinas respectively. PS films were functionalized by monochromatic SR and then expose to O{sub 2} at specific transitions such us C 1s {yields}{sigma}{sup *}{sub C-C} excitation. It was found a high rate of COO, C=O and C-O groups at the surface (> 70%). UV-assisted treatment in the presence of AA vapors showed that an efficient polymerization process took place, such as, it was observed in previous AA low pressure RF plasma treatments. UV-assisted functionalization has the advantage of lower costs and simple set-up compared to plasma treatments. (author)

  1. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  2. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  3. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  4. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  5. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  6. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  7. Synchrotron radiation - Applications in the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, W. A.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    Synchrotron-radiation sources and their characteristics are overviewed along with recent synchrotron-based research on earth materials and future earth-science applications utilizing the next generation of synchrotron-radiation sources presently under construction. Focus is placed on X-ray scattering studies of earth materials (crystalline and noncrystalline) under ambient conditions, diffraction studies of earth materials at high pressures and/or temperatures, spectroscopic studies, primarily X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence studies of compositional variations in earth materials. It is noted that other synchrotron-based methods, such as X-ray tomography and topography may become important in characterizing earth materials, while soft X-ray/vacuum ultraviolet radiation from synchrotron sources can be applied to problems involving the structural environments of low-atomic-number elements and the characterization of surface reactions of minerals with liquids and gases.

  8. Workshop on detectors for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2000-11-22

    Forefront experiments in many scientific areas for which synchrotron sources provide sufficient flux are nonetheless hindered because detectors cannot collect data fast enough, do not cover sufficiently solid angle, or do no have adequate resolution. Overall, the synchrotron facilities, each of which represents collective investments from funding agencies and user institutions ranging from many hundreds of millions to more than a billion dollars, are effectively significantly underutilized. While this chronic and growing problem plagues facilities around the world, it is particularly acute in the United States, where detector research often has to ride on the coat tails of explicitly science-oriented projects. As a first step toward moving out of this predicament, scientists from the U.S. synchrotron facilities held a national workshop in Washington, DC, on October 30-31, 2000. The Workshop on Detectors for Synchrotron Research aimed to create a national ''roadmap'' for development of synchrotron-radiation detectors.

  9. Effects, causing intensification of synchrotron radiaiton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of intensification of synchrotron radiation beams in optical and ultraviolet spectrum range by shift of generation range of the output synchrotron radiation beams from circle sections of electron orbit to the magnetic field of gaps, separating sections of the accelerator electromagnets is discussed. The degree of manifestation of the considered effects in synchrotrons for 0.6 and 7.5 GeV energy is evaluated. The results of their experimental investigati.on in the optical beam of the 0.6 GeV synchrotron radiation are given. The results obtained show that beam intensity in the gap centre between the magnet sections increases 3.2 times. The structure of beam intensity distribution improves simultaneously and vertical direction of radiation increases approximately 2 times. A conclusion is made on applicability of the described method for beam intensification of synchrotron radiation

  10. Protein Data Bank Depositions from Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results () show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources

  11. Carbyne formation by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaito, C; Hanamoto, K; Sasaki, M; Kimura, S; Nakada, Tatsuya; Saitô, Y; Koike, C; Nakayama, Y

    2001-01-01

    Thin carbon films prepared by vacuum evaporation using the arc method were mounted on a standard electron microscope copper grid. They were irradiated by white synchrotron radiation (SR) beam by the use of cylindrical and toroidal mirrors. The irradiated film was examined using a high-resolution electron microscope. alpha and alpha+beta mixture carbyne crystals were grown in round and the elongated shapes. The round crystals were composed of 5-10 nm crystallites of a carbyne form. The elongated crystal grew into a single crystal 100 nm in size. The c-axes of both grown crystals were oblique to the film. The growth of the carbynes was discussed as being the result of nucleation due to graphite microcrystallites formed by SR beam irradiation.

  12. Multielemental analysis in cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that trace elements have important ejects in the life processes. Some of these elements are toxic for the human even at a very low level of intake. It is known that tobacco plant easily absorbs the heavy metals from the soil, especially Cd and Ni, accumulating them in its leaves. Part of these metals are transferred from tobacco to human body where they will be accumulated and damage some organs, mainly kidneys and liver. In this way, cigarettes are responsible for the death of millions of people in the world, about one death every eight seconds. The aim of this work was to determine the elemental concentrations of ten different elements in tobacco of Brazilian cigarettes used Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation method. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, rubidium and strontium. Among these elements, calcium, potassium and iron presented the highest concentrations. There was a wide range in the elemental concentrations in the tobacco, due various factors, such as agricultural practices, soil characteristics, climatic conditions and plant varieties. Our results are in good concern with the results reported by the scientific literature

  13. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  14. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  15. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  16. Experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Ken; Arakida, Yoshio; Dixit, Tanuja; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Eiji; Otsuka, Kazunori; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Torikai, Kota; Wake, Masayoshi

    2007-02-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron.

  17. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  18. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  19. Single electrode electrochemical detection in hybrid poly(dimethylsiloxane)/glass multichannel micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ney Henrique; Almeida, Andre Luis de Jesus de; Piazzeta, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Gobbia, Angelo Luiz [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Microfabricacao; Jesus, Dosil Pereira de [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia em Bioanalitica (INCTBio), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Deblire, Ariane; Silva, Jose Alberto Fracassi da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The fabrication process of a novel multichannel {mu}TAS based on PDMS and glass materials and with fully-integrated electrodes for amperometric detection has been described. Using the facilities of the Microfabrication Lab. (LMF) at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), soft-lithography, lift-off and O{sub 2} plasma surface activation sealing techniques were employed for rapid proto typing of cost effective PDMS/glass microchips. Fast calibration procedures were possible for the electro oxidation of hydroquinone, thiocyanate, and acetaminophen using Au and Cu electrodes. (author)

  20. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  1. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed.

  2. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  3. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.)

  4. Time resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Lobo, R.P.S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source]|[Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Physics Dept.; Hirschmugl, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; LaVeigne, J.; Reitze, D.H.; Tanner, D.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Physics Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Electron synchrotron storage rings, such as the VUV ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), produce short pulses of infrared (IR) radiation suitable for investigating the time-dependent phenomena in a variety of interesting experimental systems. In contrast to other pulses sources of IR, the synchrotron produces a continuum spectral output over the entire IR (and beyond), though at power levels typically below those obtained from laser systems. The infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) source is therefore well-suited as a probe using standard FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Here the authors describe the pump-probe spectroscopy facility being established at the NSLS and demonstrate the technique by measuring the photocarrier decay in a semiconductor.

  5. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  6. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  8. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  9. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  10. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking.

  11. Research Team for Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team has accomplished the largestin-history scientific facility and platform for multidisciplinary research in China, the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), which is one of the leading third generation intermediate-energy synchrotron radiation light sources in the world. On the basis of ten years' R&D of key technologies and timely optimization of the overall design, the team fulfilled the

  12. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  13. Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.

  14. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  15. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  16. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  17. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  18. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  19. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  20. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  1. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  2. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  3. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. Paraxial Green's functions in Synchrotron Radiation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, G; Schneidmiller, E; Yurkov, M; Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle Synchrotron Radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always granted and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating Synchrotron Radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point sourc...

  5. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  6. New extreme synchrotron BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the BeppoSAX observations of four 'extreme' BL Lacs, selected to have high synchrotron peak frequencies. All have been detected also in the PDS band. For 1ES 0120+340, PKS 0548-322 and H 2356-309 the spectrum is well fitted by a convex broken power-law, thus locating the synchrotron peak around 1-4 keV. 1ES 1426+428 presents a flat energy spectral index (αx=0.92) up to ∼100 keV, thus constraining the synchrotron peak to lie near or above that value. For their extreme properties, all sources could be strong TeV emitters

  7. Synchrotron environmental laboratory (SUL) at Anka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research facility dedicated to environmental/geochemical research, the Synchrotron Environmental Laboratory (SUL), is planned to be installed and operated at ANKA. ANKA is the new synchrotron facility at the Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe, Germany. ANKA is now in commissioning and planning operations for the fall of 2000. As the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at FZK conducts a vigorous synchrotron-based research programme, INE was instrumental in the original impetus for installing such a facility at ANKA. These research activities at INE concentrate on actinide speciation in nuclear waste forms, geological media and geochemical model systems. In order for INE to direct their synchrotron research activities to ANKA, equipment and licensing required for performing experiments on actinide-containing samples is required. One great advantage of performing experiments on actinide-containing samples at ANKA is that the INE radiological laboratories lie in the near vicinity of the facility. This will minimise transport hazards and costs and allow experiments to be performed on samples whose characteristics may change with time. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities below the exemption level, according to German regulations, will be possible at ANKA at the start of operations. Licensing for work on higher levels of activity will be applied for in the future. The decades of experience in radiological work at FZK will facilitate development of procedure and equipment as prerequisites to licensing. A consortium of synchrotron radiation-user groups with environmental research interests has specified their requirements and needs for this facility. This scientific case serves as the foundation for the SUL design and is the basis for an application for federal funding. The SUL design reflects the heterogeneity and complexity of challenges facing researchers in the environmental/geochemical sciences. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS

  8. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domashevskaya, E. P., E-mail: ftt@phys.vsu.ru; Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu. [Voronezh State University, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  9. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter L [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office Basic Energy Sciences; Rhyne, James J [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  10. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.)

  11. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  12. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  13. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Ph; Dumas, P; Schilcher, T; Nadji, A; Luedeke, A; Hubert, N; Cassinari, L; Boege, M; Denard, J-C; Stingelin, L; Nadolski, L; Garvey, T; Albert, S; Gough, Ch; Quack, M; Wambach, J; Dehler, M; Filhol, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors.

  14. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  15. The profile of the electron beam in the PTB synchrotron, and its influence on radiometric measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is described to determine the beam profile in an electron synchrotron; the measured results are compared with calculated values. Moreover, the influence of synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations on synchrotron radiation measurements is discussed, and a method is given to correct this. (orig.)

  16. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  17. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  19. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  20. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  1. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  2. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  3. Synchrotron masers and fast radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), with a typical duration of 1 ms and 1 Jy flux density at GHz frequencies, have brightness temperatures exceeding 1e33 K, requiring a coherent emission process. This can be achieved by bunching particles in volumes smaller than the typical wavelength, but this may be challenging. Alternatively, we can have maser emission. Under certain conditions, the synchrotron stimulated emission process can be more important than true absorption, and a synchrotron maser can be created. This occurs when the emitting electrons have a very narrow distribution of pitch angles and energies. This process overcomes the difficulties of having extremely dense bunches of particles and relaxes the light crossing time limits, since there is no simple relation between the actual size of the source and the observed variability timescale.

  4. Indus synchrotron source: A national facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2 respectively. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV and soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1990 and Indus-2, designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA and is currently operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA. Indus-1 has five operational beamlines while Indus-2 has six beamlines installed and operational. Several materials research related problems have been investigated using the reflectivity and photo-electron spectroscopy beamlines at Indus-1 and also the beamlines at Indus-2. Here we will report the current status of both these sources and discuss a few of our studies carried out using these beamlines.

  5. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  6. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures

  7. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  8. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  9. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation for Laminar Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, B S S R V E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of shear in the flow of charged particle equilibria that are unstable to the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) instability. Shear may act to quench this instability because it acts to limit the size of the region with a fixed phase relation between emitters. The results are important for the understanding of astrophysical sources of coherent radiation where shear in the flow is likely.

  10. Synchrotron radiation of a relativistic magneton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordovitsyn, V.A.; Torres, R.

    1986-11-01

    The classical theory of synchrotron radiation of an electrically neutral relativistic particle with a large intrinsic magnetic moment is considered (g-factor much greater than unit). The spectral-angular composition and polarization of the radiation are studied. The magneton radiation self-polarization time is calculated. It is shown that identical results follow from the Ternov-Bagrov-Khapaev quantum theory constructed on the basis of the Dirac-Pauli equation for a neutron.

  11. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    OpenAIRE

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a...

  12. A novel approach to synchrotron radiation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G; Goldblatt, A; Mazzoni, S; Roncarolo, F

    2014-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to continuously monitor the transverse properties of the beams. Unfortunately the machine and beam parameters are such that the useful radiation emitted inside a separation dipole, chosen as source, is diffraction limited heavily affecting the accuracy of the measurement. In order to deconvolve the diffraction effects from the acquired beam images and in order to design an alternative monitor based on a double slit interferometer an extensive study of the synchrotron light source and of the optical propagation has been made. This study is based on simulations combining together several existing tools: SRW for the source, ZEMAX for the transport and MATLAB for the “glue” and analysis of the results. The resulting tool is very powerful and can be easily adapted to other synchrotron radiation problems. In this paper the simulation package and the way it is used will be described as well as the results obtained for the LHC and SPS.

  13. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  14. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  15. 50 Years of synchrotrons Adams' Memorial lecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, J D; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago Frank Goward of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment Group at Malvern converted a small American betatron to make the worldÕs first synchrotron. At the same time Marcus Oliphant was planning to build at Birmingham a large proton machine with a ring magnet and variable magnetic field. Ideas for this had come to him during night-shifts tending the electromagnetic separators at Oak Ridge during the war. Some seven years later, in 1953, a group gathered together in Geneva to build the PS. A major contributor to the design work which had made this possible was John Adams. An account of some of the achievements in these eventful years will be presented. CERN has built nine synchrotrons/colliders and two temporary test rings. Eight machines are still running. The review will start with the PS, the first proton synchrotron based on the alternating gradient principle invented in 1952 at BNL. The design work of the PS team, under the enlightened leadership of J.B. Adams, and the construction of the...

  16. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TURN EXTRACTION FROM THE PROTON SYNCHROTRON TO THE SUPER PROTON SYNCHROTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Within CERN's accelerator complex, the extraction from the Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron has been done using the so-called ``Continuous Transfer" (CT) method since the 1970's. A new technique, known as Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), has now been implemented and is in full operation. This report examines a holistic performance analysis of the novel technique in multiple aspects of the accelerator complex, as well as a direct comparison with its predecessor, CT, from the implementation of MTE in 2010 until the end of 2015.

  18. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure

  19. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  20. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  1. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  2. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  3. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  4. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  5. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  7. The 10 to 20 GeV Cornell Electron Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard R

    1967-01-01

    The National Science Foundation awarded a contract to Cornell University on April 4, 1965 for the construction of a 10 Gev electron synchrotron. The synchrotron itself has now been built and preliminary tests have been made at low energy. The present report is largely a revision and up-dating of CS DC-26 which was written two years ago when the construction of the synchrotron was authorized.

  8. Impact of synchrotron radiation on macromolecular crystallography: a personal view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article, largely based on personal experiences of the authors, reviews the early history of the application of synchrotron radiation to structural biology, and particularly protein crystallography, to show the tremendous impact that this experimental innovation has had on these disciplines. The introduction of synchrotron radiation sources almost four decades ago has led to a revolutionary change in the way that diffraction data from macromolecular crystals are being collected. Here a brief history of the development of methodologies that took advantage of the availability of synchrotron sources are presented, and some personal experiences with the utilization of synchrotrons in the early days are recalled

  9. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  10. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse, Inc., 7844 Vervain Ct., Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Macrander, A. T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08536 (United States); Baronova, E. O. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); George, K. M.; Kotick, J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  11. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background

  12. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.

    2015-10-01

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal's local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  13. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.

    1996-07-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented.

  14. Handbook on synchrotron radiation, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Volume 2 of this series concentrates on the use of synchrotron radiation which covers that region of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from about 10eV to 3keV in photon energy and is essentially the region where the radiation is strongly absorbed by atmospheric gases. It therefore has to make extensive use of a high vacuum to transport the radiation to the workstation where the presence of hard X-rays can cause extensive damage to both the optics and the targets used in the experimental rigs. The topics chosen for this volume have been limited to the disciplines of physics and chemi

  15. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R.J. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  16. Matching to gantries for medical synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of tumours by hadron-therapy is greatly improved if the patient can be irradiated from different directions. This task is performed by a gantry, i.e. a section of beam line that can be rotated around the patient. The gantry optics have to be designed in such a way that the beam at the patient is independent of the rotation angle. The various matching techniques are briefly reviewed in the light of the current development in medical synchrotrons towards active scanning, which requires a small, high-precision beam spot at the patient. In particular, beam delivery systems with rotators are discussed.

  17. Biological effects of synchrotron radiation on crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐掌雄; 董保中; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity of germinating seeds of barley,winter wheat and spring one to synchrotron ultraviolet radiation is barley>winter wheat and spring one.But when dry seeds of the three crops are irradiated by 3.5-22keV X-rays,the sequence of their sensitivity to radiation can be changed.for irradiation of 0.6-3keV ultra soft X-rays,0.40-0.90 of the seedlings of the first generation appear mutation of striped chlorophyll defect.This biological effect has never been found for irradiation of other rays.

  18. Synchrotron Lightcurves of blazars in a time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blazars emit non-thermal radiation in all frequency bands from radio to \\gamma-rays. Additionally, they often exhibit rapid flaring events at all frequencies with doubling time scale of the TeV and X-ray flux on the order of minutes, and such rapid flaring events are hard to explain theoretically. We explore the effect of the synchrotron-self Compton cooling, which is inherently time-dependent, leading to a rapid cooling of the electrons. Having discussed intensively the resulting effects of this cooling scenario on the spectral energy distribution of blazars in previous papers, the effects of the time-dependent approach on the synchrotron lightcurve are investigated here. Taking into account the retardation due to the finite size of the source and the source geometry, we show that the time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) cooling still has profound effects on the lightcurve compared to the usual linear (synchrotron and external Compton) cooling terms. This is most obvious if the SSC cooling takes lon...

  19. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  20. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  1. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  2. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  3. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  4. Physics design of SSRF synchrotron radiation security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems,which will be solved in physics design.The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices.Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation,the arrangements of photon absorbers,diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively.In addition.SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited.Hence.beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold.The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components.In this paper,beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold,radiation power,radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated.From the calculation results,the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward.By commissioning,it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.

  5. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  6. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P J; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A T; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity of the beam ...

  7. Synchrotron Facilities and Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclav, Vylet; /Duke U.; Liu, James; /SLAC

    2007-12-21

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle travels along a curved trajectory. Initially encountered as a nuisance around orbits of high energy synchrotron accelerators, it gradually became an indispensable research tool in many applications: crystallography, X-ray lithography, micromechanics, structural biology, microprobe X-ray experiments, etc. So-called first generation SR sources were exploiting SR in parasitic mode at electron accelerators built to study particle collisions. The second generation of SR sources was the first facilities solely devoted to SR production. They were optimized to achieve stable high currents in the accelerator ring to achieve substantially higher photon flux and to provide a large number of SR beam lines for users. Third generation sources were further optimized for increased brilliance, i.e. with photons densely packed into a beam of very small cross-sectional area and minimal angular divergence (see the Appendix for more detailed definitions of flux, brightness and brilliance) and makes extensive use of the insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators. Free Electron Lasers (FELs), the fourth generation SR sources, open new research possibilities by offering extremely short pulses of extremely bright and coherent radiation. The number of SR sources around the world now probably exceeds 100. These facilities vary greatly in size, energy of the electron (or positron) beams, range of photon energies and other characteristics of the photon beams produced. In what follows we will concentrate on describing some common aspects of SR facilities, their operation modes and specific radiation protection aspects.

  8. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  9. X-ray microfluorescence analysis of pigments in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage of an Egyptian mummy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, C. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mendonca de Souza, S.M.F. [National Museum, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ENSP, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brancaglion, A. [National Museum, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    This work characterized the elemental composition of the pigments used in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage fragments of an Egyptian mummy, using {mu}XRF with Synchrotron Radiation. This female mummy (n.158) is considered one of the most important pieces of the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) because of its unconventional embalming with legs and arms swathed separately. The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The elements found in the samples were: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Hg and Pb.

  10. X-ray microfluorescence analysis of pigments in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage of an Egyptian mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; de Souza, S. M. F. Mendonça; Brancaglion, A.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-10-01

    This work characterized the elemental composition of the pigments used in decorative paintings from the sarcophagus cartonnage fragments of an Egyptian mummy, using μXRF with Synchrotron Radiation. This female mummy (n.158) is considered one of the most important pieces of the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) because of its unconventional embalming with legs and arms swathed separately. The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The elements found in the samples were: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Hg and Pb.

  11. Multi-coincidence measurements in gas-phase amino acid alanine after valence level ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first chiral amino acids having distinct enantiomeric structures is the alanine. Therefore the study of such molecules is important for developing our understanding of this class of molecule. In this work, we report coincidence measurements between photoelectron and photoion, and total ion yield (TIY) measurements after valence level ionization of D,L-alanine in gas phase. The experiments were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) at the Toroidal Grating Monochromator beamline (D0-5A TGM) in the 12-35 eV energy range. The end-station of the beamline is composed by a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer specially build for the photoelectron-photoion-photoion (PEPIPICO) measurements. The TIY have been compared with valence photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation reported in the literature and have been discussed in a comparative form. The results will be presented during the conference

  12. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  13. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  14. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  15. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  16. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus. Now, most important for SRL is to promote the future project of High-brilliance Light Source, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. The Super SOR will be one of the most brilliant light sources in vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regimes. In order to continue extensive efforts on research and developments (R and D) of the light source and beamlines, the SRL Experimental Building has been built at Kashiwa Campus, which acts as the Super SOR Project Office of the University of Tokyo. On the other hand, the SRL has a branch laboratory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba. The branch laboratory maintains an undulator called Revolver, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B); they are installed in the Photon Factory (PF) and fully opened to outside users. The in-house staffs not only serve the outside users with technical support and advices, but also carry out their own research works on advanced solid state spectroscopy as well as instrumentation. In the fiscal year of 2000, the operation time of the beamlines wag more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was more than 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied. The study of the behavior of electrons in a synchrotron radiation source is indispensable as a part of accelerator physics for developing electron accelerators. The SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the Super SOR light source. This report contains the activities of the SRL

  17. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  18. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  19. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called `depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. I...

  20. Synchrotron radiation techniques. Extension to magnetism research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed techniques using synchrotron radiation for the study of magnetism are reviewed. These techniques are based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and they exhibit significant advantages in element specificity. This is very important since the most attractive magnetic materials contain many magnetic elements, and those with small magnetic moments often play an essential role in the magnetic properties. Circularly polarized X-rays emitted from bending magnets or helical undulators allow us to perform magnetic circular dichroism measurements to reveal microscopic magnetic properties of various kinds of magnetic materials. X-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is discussed in detail. This technique provides unique information on orbital magnetic moments as well as spin magnetic moments, which are useful for the study of magnetic anisotropy. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry (XRMR) techniques are also described. (author)

  1. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  2. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  3. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  4. Discussion on spin-flip synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bordovitsyn, V A; Myagkii, A N

    1998-01-01

    Quantum spin-flip transitions are of great importance in the synchrotron radiation theory. For better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon, it is necessary to except the effects connected with the electric charge radiation from observation. This fact explains the suggested choice of the spin-flip radiation model in the form of radiation of the electric neutral Dirac-Pauli particle moving in the homogeneous magnetic field. It is known that in this case, the total radiation in the quantum theory is conditioned by spin-flip transitions. The idea is that spin-flip radiation is represented as a nonstationary process connected with spin precession. We shall shown how to construct a solution of the classical equation of the spin precession in the BMT theory having the exact solution of the Dirac-Pauli equation.Thus, one will find the connection of the quantum spin-flip transitions with classical spin precession.

  5. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  6. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  7. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  8. Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force

  9. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, E.D.

    1979-08-01

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe/sub 2/ system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe/sub 2/ lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) and XeF* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ and C/sup 2/ Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF/sub 2/. When the polarization of the CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems.

  10. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe2 system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe2 lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B2Σ+) and XeF* (B2Σ+ and C2 Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF2. When the polarization of the CN* (B2Σ+) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems

  11. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  12. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  13. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  14. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  15. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  16. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  17. Operation of INDUS-1, India's first synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INDUS-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of Synchrotron Radiation in Visible Ultra Violet (VUV) range with a critical wavelength of 61 A deg. The ring was commissioned in June 1999. Since then it is in regular operation. This Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) facility consists of a 20 MeV injector microtron, a 450 MeV booster synchrotron and a storage ring. In this paper operation aspects of INDUS-1 SRS facility will be presented. (author)

  18. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  19. Development of pulsed power modulator for induction synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Koseki, K

    2006-01-01

    A pulsed power modulator for the POP experiment of an induction synchrotron has been developed. Various difficulties in the development of the modulator, such as enormous power dissipation at a MOSFET, the resonant ringing in the output waveform, the isolation from the ground potential, and the incorrect action of a gate driving circuit, have been discussed and solved. The developed power modulator is installed into the existing accelerator, KEK 12GeV proton synchrotron. The POP experiment of the induction synchrotron has been successfully conducted. A single RF bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring was accelerated to the flat-top energy of 8 GeV.

  20. Limitations on plasma acceleration due to synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Barletta, W A; Bonifacio, R; De Salvo, L

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we consider the effect of synchrotron radiation losses due to the betatron motion of the electron beam in its self-induced magnetic field in a plasma accelerator taking into account the charge neutralization factor. The most favorable case is where the plasma density is smaller than the beam density. The contrary regime is strongly disfavored by the synchrotron radiation loss for beams with characteristics for TeV energies. In both cases we find that upon increasing the plasma density the synchrotron losses kill the acceleration process, so that there are limitations on the maximum allowable plasma density.

  1. Visualization of angiogenic vessels by synchrotron radiation microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of synchrotron radiation microangiography for evaluating angiogenic vessels in regenerative therapy is illustrated. In a rabbit model of microvascular myocardial ischemia, angiogenic vessels in the heart were well visualized. In a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia, vessel-regenerative therapy with fibroblast growth factor 4-gene incorporated to gelatin hydrogel well ameliorated muscle necrosis. Synchrotron radiation microangiography confirmed significant blood flow increase to adenosine administration in these treated rabbits (vascular responsiveness), but not in the control. Thus, synchrotron radiation microangiography is shown to be useful for the depiction, quantification and evaluation of angiogenic vessels in reproductive therapy. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on LAMPF II synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.K. (comp.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered at the workshop include: considerations for a staged approach to synchrotron construction; consideration of energy and cost for a kaon and/or antiproton factory; changing the transition energy in the main ring for the Fermilab antiproton beam; a lattice with 50% undispersed straight sections; bunch width considerations in a stretcher ring; a self-consistent longitudinal distribution; rapid-cycling tuned rf cavity for synchrotron use; considerations on a high-shunt impedance tunable RF cavity; rotating condensers; low extraction from the stretcher ring; an antiproton source for LAMPF II; synchrotron magnet circuit; power supply and ring magnet options; and notes for a kaon factory design. (GHT)

  3. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  4. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  5. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  6. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  7. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  8. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus in the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the High-brilliance Light Source project, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. In May of 2001, the project has met with a dramatic progress. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture organized the Advisory Board and started to discuss the future synchrotron radiation facilities in EUV and SX regime in Japan. Based on extensive discussion, they proposed the new facility consisting of a 1.8 GeV storage ring of 3rd generation type. The University of Tokyo approved to construct the proposed facility in the Kashiwa campus. The plan is supported not only by researchers in academic institutions but also bio- and chemical-industries. We strongly hope the plan will be realized in near future. On the other hand, SRL maintains a branch laboratory in the Photon Factory (PF) High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba with a Revolver undulator, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B), which are and fully opened to the outside users. In the fiscal year of 2001, the operation time of the beamlines was more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was about 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport, magnetic and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron microscopy. The accelerator group of SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the new light source project. This report contains the activities of the staff members of SRL and users of the three beamlines in FY2001. The status of

  9. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  10. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  11. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  12. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  13. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. M. Du; J. M. Bai; Z. H. Xie; T. F. Yi; Y. B. Xu; R. Xue; X. H. Wang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the fundamental plane, while near-Eddington sources such as FSRQs have not been explicitly studied. The extracted physical properties of synchrotron jet of FSRQs have been shown to be scale invariant using our sample. The results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations of Heinz & Sunyaev (2003). Therefore, the jet synchrotron is shown to be scale independent, regardless of the accretion modes. Results in this article thus lend support to the scale invariant model of the jet synchrotron throughout the mass scale of black hole systems.

  14. The use of slow-cycling synchrotrons in injection systems

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    The PS improvement programme is concerned with increasing the potential of the PS for high energy physics. It involves developing the performance of the proton synchrotron itself and providing major items of experimental equipment to be used on the machine.

  15. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  17. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K. Singal

    2011-12-01

    We show that a partial coherence due to antenna mechanism can be inherently present in any compact synchrotron source, which resolves many long-standing problems in the spectra and variability of compact extragalactic radio sources.

  18. Grazing incidence synchrotron radiation optics: correlation of performance with metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image distortions produced by a cylinder mirror at the National Synchrotron Light Source are compared with performance predictions based on measurements of surface slope errors in the millimeter spatial period regime made with an optical surface profiler

  19. Synchrotron radiation for direct analysis of metalloproteins on electrophoresis gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Metalloproteomics requires analytical techniques able to assess and quantify the inorganic species in metalloproteins. The most widely used methods are hyphenated techniques, based on the coupling of a high resolution chromatographic method with a high sensitivity method for metal analysis in solution. An alternative approach is the use of methods for solid sample analysis, combining metalloprotein separation by gel electrophoresis and direct analysis of the gels. Direct methods are based on beam analysis, such as lasers, ion beams or synchrotron radiation beams. The aim of this review article is to present the main features of synchrotron radiation based methods and their applications for metalloprotein analysis directly on electrophoresis gels. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence has been successfully employed for sensitive metal identification, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for metal local structure speciation in proteins. Synchrotron based methods will be compared to ion beam and mass spectrometry for direct analysis of metalloproteins in electrophoresis gels.

  20. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  1. Plans for use of synchrotron radiation from the Tristan rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the first success of storing electrons at PF in 1982, some preliminary experiments using synchrotron radiation were started. Since then the rumber of experiments and associated experiences using synchrotron x-radiation has grown so much taht requirements for the beam characteristics of synchrotron x-radiation are now much clearer. Following are some of the requirements: high intensity in the current energy region, higher brightness, more photons in the higher energy region, and sometimes a larger beam size. In order to meet some of these requirements the Tristan rings, the Accumulation and the Main Ring seem to be very suitable in the higher energy region so that plans for use of those rings are under way as a joint project between the Photon Factory and the users' community. The following material has been collected for discussion on the above mentioned use of synchrotron radiation. Further details will be published as proceedings of the planned meetings. (author)

  2. Synchrotron speciation data for zero-valent iron nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set encompasses a complete analysis of synchrotron speciation data for 5 iron nanoparticle samples (P1, P2, P3, S1, S2, and metallic iron) to include...

  3. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  4. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  5. Hearthfire reference concept No. 3. A rapid cycling synchrotron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a reference design for an accelerator system for heavy ion fusion based on a rapid cycling synchrotron and storage rings. The system irradiates one fusion target per second with 1 MJ, 100 TW (peak) pulses of 20 GeV Xe+8. The major components are a 550 MV linac, eight 60 Hz synchrotrons, four matching rings, 16 storage rings, and 24 final beam lines and lenses

  6. Radio frequency system for the booster synchrotron and INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiation facility at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), consists of two storage rings of 450 MeV(INDUS-1) and 2.0 GeV(INDUS-2). In the first phase the storage ring INDUS-1 is being constructed along with a 20 MeV injector microtron and a 700 MeV booster synchrotron. Present paper describes the RF systems for the booster and the storage ring INDUS-1. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Synchrotron radiation from a curved plasma channel laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Hafizi, B; Chen, Y -H; Johnson, L A; Penano, J R; Helle, M H; Mamonau, A A

    2016-01-01

    A laser pulse guided in a curved plasma channel can excite wakefields that steer electrons along an arched trajectory. As the electrons are accelerated along the curved channel, they emit synchrotron radiation. We present simple analytical models and simulations examining laser pulse guiding, wakefield generation, electron steering, and synchrotron emission in curved plasma channels. For experimentally realizable parameters, a ~2 GeV electron emits 0.1 photons per cm with an average photon energy of multiple keV.

  8. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  9. Femtosecond x-ray pulses from a synchrotron

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenlein, R. W.; Chong, H. H. W.; Glover, T. E.; Heimann, P. A.; Shank, C. V.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    An important frontier in ultrafast science is the application of femtosecond x-ray pulses to the study of structural dynamics in condensed matter. We show that femtosecond laser pulses can be used to generate high-brightness, tunable, femtosecond x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. Performance of existing and proposed femtosecond x-ray beamlines at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron are discussed.

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  11. Recent Developments in Synchrotron Mössbauer Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, L.; Bottyán, L.; Major, M.; Nagy, D. L.; Spiering, H.; Szilágyi, E.; Tanczikó, F.

    2002-12-01

    Synchrotron Mössbauer Reflectometry (SMR), the grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and methodological aspects of SMR are briefly reviewed. Off-specular SMR provides information from the lateral structure of multilayers. In anti-ferromagneticly coupled systems the size of magnetic domains can be measured.

  12. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction me...

  13. Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-01-01

    We test a new technique of studying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence suggested by Lazarian \\& Pogosyan, using synthetic synchrotron polarization observations. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed the polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of wavelengths along a single line of sight. We adopt a ratio $\\eta$ of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the line-of-sight mean magnetic field to depict the level of turbulence. When this ratio is either large ($\\eta\\gg1$), which characterizes a turbulent field dominated region, or small ($\\eta\\lesssim0.2$), which characterizes a mean field dominated region, we obtain the polarization variance $\\left\\propto\\lambda^{-2}$ and $\\left\\propto\\lambda^{-2-2m}$, respectively. At small $\\eta$, i.e., the mean field dominated region, we successfully recover the turbulent spectral index by the polarization variance. We find that our si...

  14. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  15. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  16. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  17. TOWARDS FAST-PULSED SUPERCONDUCTING SYNCHROTRON MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORITZ,G.; MUEHLE,C.; ANERELLA,M.; GHOSH,A.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.; AGAPOV,N.; KHODZHIBAGIYAN,H.; KOVALENKO,A.; HASSENZAHL,W.V.; WILSON,M.N.

    2001-06-18

    The concept for the new GSI accelerator facilities is based on a large synchrotron designed for operation at BR=200 Tm and with the short cycle-time of about one second to achieve high average beam intensities. Superconducting magnets may reduce considerably investment and operating costs in comparison with conventional magnets. A R and D program was initiated to develop these magnets for a maximum field of 2-4 Tesla and a ramp rate of 4 T/s. In collaboration with JINR (Dubna), the window-frame type Nuclotron dipole, which has been operated with 4 T/s at a maximum field of 2 Tesla, shall be developed to reduce heat losses and to improve the magnetic field quality. Another collaboration with BNL (Brookhaven) was established to develop the one-layer-coil cos{theta}-type RHIC arc dipole designed for operation at 3.5 Tesla with a rather slow ramp-rate of 0.07 T/s towards the design ramp-rate of 4 T/s. The design concepts for both R and D programs are reported.

  18. Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-07-01

    We test a new technique for studying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence suggested by Lazarian & Pogosyan, using synthetic observations of synchrotron polarization. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of the wavelength along a single line of sight. We adopt the ratio η of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the line-of-sight mean magnetic field to depict the level of turbulence. When this ratio is large (η \\gg 1), which characterizes a region dominated by turbulent field, or small (η ≲ 0.2), which characterizes a region dominated by the mean field, we obtain the polarization variance \\propto {λ }-2 or \\propto {λ }-2-2m, respectively. At small η, i.e., in the region dominated by the mean field, we successfully recover the turbulent spectral index from the polarization variance. We find that our simulations agree well with the theoretical prediction of Lazarian & Pogosyan. With existing and upcoming data cubes from the Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy (LOFAR) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), this new technique can be applied to study the magnetic turbulence in the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  19. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  20. Synchrotron Radiation Studies of Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Daniel; Terry, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    In the case of environmental contaminants, the mobility of elements changes depending on oxidation state. Remediation techniques often focus on changing the oxidation state in order to immobilize, by forming an insoluble species, or removing by binding a soluble species to an insoluble material. In order to accomplish this immobilization one has to understand all the possible reactions that can change the oxidation state. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the oxidation state and local atomic structure of environmental contaminants under aqueous conditions is x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Synchrotron radiation was used to excite the absorption edges of As, Tc, and Pu, in order to characterize their oxidation states and structures under environmentally relevant conditions. Granular activated carbon treated with iron has shown promise for the removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water, where XAS measurements have determined that the arsenic bound to iron oxide as AsO4^3-. Pertechnetate (TcO4^-) was found to be reduced to TcO2 in a reaction with amorphous iron sulfide (FeS). Bio-reduction of plutonium has also been studied using bacteria that may be found in nuclear waste repositories resulting in an end product of Pu(III).

  1. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  2. METROLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern third generation storage rings, require state-of-the-art grazing incidence x-ray optics, in order to monochromate the Synchrotrons Radiation (SR) source photons, and focus them into the experimental stations. Slope error tolerances in the order of 0.5 microRad RMS, and surface roughness well below 5 angstrom RMS, are frequently specified for mirrors and gratings exceeding 300 mm in length. Non-contact scanning instruments were developed, in order to characterize SR optical surfaces, of spherical and aspherical shape. Among these, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a double pencil slope measuring interferometer, has proved to be particularly reliable, and was adopted by several SR optics metrology laboratories. The ELETTRA soft x-rays and optics metrology laboratory, has operated an LTP since 1992. We review the basic operating principles of this instrument, and some major instrumental and environmental improvements, that were developed in order to detect slope errors lower than 1 microRad RMS on optical surfaces up to one metre in length. A comparison among measurements made on the same reference flat, by different interferometers (most of them were LTPs) can give some helpful indications in order to optimize the quality of measurement

  3. METROLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OPTICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOSTERO,G.

    1999-05-25

    Modern third generation storage rings, require state-of-the-art grazing incidence x-ray optics, in order to monochromate the Synchrotrons Radiation (SR) source photons, and focus them into the experimental stations. Slope error tolerances in the order of 0.5 {micro}Rad RMS, and surface roughness well below 5 {angstrom} RMS, are frequently specified for mirrors and gratings exceeding 300 mm in length. Non-contact scanning instruments were developed, in order to characterize SR optical surfaces, of spherical and aspherical shape. Among these, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a double pencil slope measuring interferometer, has proved to be particularly reliable, and was adopted by several SR optics metrology laboratories. The ELETTRA soft x-rays and optics metrology laboratory, has operated an LTP since 1992. We review the basic operating principles of this instrument, and some major instrumental and environmental improvements, that were developed in order to detect slope errors lower than 1 {micro}Rad RMS on optical surfaces up to one metre in length. A comparison among measurements made on the same reference flat, by different interferometers (most of them were LTPs) can give some helpful indications in order to optimize the quality of measurement.

  4. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  5. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  6. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  7. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  8. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei

  9. 1994 activity report: Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSRL facility delivered 89% of the scheduled user beam to 25 experimental stations during 6.5 months of user running. Users from private industry were involved in 31% of these experiments. The SPEAR accelerator ran very well with no major component failures and an unscheduled down time of only 2.9%. In addition to this increased reliability, there was a significant improvement in the stability of the beam. The enhancements to the SPEAR orbit as part of a concerted three-year program were particularly noticeable to users. The standard deviation of beam movement (both planes) in the last part of the run was 80 microns, major progress toward the ultimate goal of 50-micron stability. This was a significant improvement from the previous year when the movement was 400 microns in the horizontal and 200 microns in the vertical. A new accelerator Personal Protection System (PPS), built with full redundancy and providing protection from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards, was installed in 1994. It is not possible to describe in this summary all of the scientific experimentation which was performed during the run. However, the flavor of current research projects and the many significant accomplishments can be realized by the following highlights: A multinational collaboration performed several experiments involving x-ray scattering from nuclear resonances; Studies related to nuclear waste remediation by groups from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratories continued in 1994; Diffraction data sets for a number of important protein crystals were obtained; During the past two years a collaboration consisting of groups from Hewlett Packard, Intel, Fisons Instruments and SSRL has been exploring the utility of synchrotron radiation for total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXRF); and High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments have continued to generate exciting new results from highly correlated and magnetic materials

  10. Multipositional internal target at the Yerevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main characteristics of the inner targets of three gamma-ray beams from the Erevan synchrotron are given. The accelerated electron beam is dumped on the targets by the orbit local disturbance method. Oscillograms of the beam stretching with time during extraction are given for different target operation. Some drawbacks of the design of the operating targets are pointed out, the main being the large period of time (about 3 hours) required to replace the target radiator. The comparative analysis of other known target designs is presented. The investigation was aimed at the development of a new target design that may ensure the possibility of an operative radiator replacement without breaking the accelerator vacuum with minimum effort and time. The problem has been solved by the modification of the present target design. An additional electromotor has been installed on the target chamber; the shaft pf the electromotor passes through the vacuum seal inside the chamber. The shaft has a gear at the end and it can be engaged with a gear at the main rod end of the target. 8 various radiators may be placed simulltaniously on the gear. The accuracy of installing each radiator in the radial direction is +-0.2 mm, and the accuracy of fixing if in rotation is +-0.3 degree. The replacement of the radiator takes not more than 3 min. The target may be used as an inner or an outer target in experiments in interactions of various materials with a particle beam. The relay control system for the multi-position target is described

  11. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  12. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  13. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  14. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  15. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  16. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  17. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  18. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  19. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  20. Industrial Use of Synchrotron Radiation:. Love at Second Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Josef; Warner, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) has become one of the most valuable tools for many areas of basic and applied research. In some cases, techniques have been developed that rely completely on the specific properties of synchrotron radiation; in many other cases, using synchrotron radiation has opened completely new and exciting opportunities for conventional techniques. In this chapter, the challenges, problems, and advantages of the industrial use of synchrotron radiation will be highlighted, in an admittedly subjective way, based on the experience of the authors at various synchrotron radiation facilities. "Typical" examples of industrial use of SR will be discussed for all areas of industrial activities, i.e., production, quality control and control of regulatory requirements, and research and development. Emphasis will be put on examples from R&D as this is the most intensively used area. Because this field is much too broad for a complete review here, examples will focus on applications from just three major sectors: biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and automotive and mining. Environmental research is a fourth area that will be partly covered in the section on regulatory requirements.

  1. Vacuum chambers full of ideas for the Swedish synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group has contributed to the development of vacuum chambers for the MAX IV synchrotron, which has just been officially opened in Sweden.   A section of the new 3 GeV MAX IV synchrotron at the time of installation. In the centre of the magnets you can see the vacuum chamber developed in collaboration with CERN. (Photo: Marek Grabski, MAX IV Vacuum group) On 21 June, the King and the Prime Minister of Sweden officially opened MAX IV, a brand-new synchrotron in Lund, Sweden. The summer solstice, the longest day of the year, was deliberately chosen for the ceremony: MAX IV, a cutting-edge synchrotron, will deliver the brightest X-rays ever produced to more than 2000 users. Some 1500 kilometres away, a team at CERN followed the opening ceremony with a touch of pride. The Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group in the Technology department (TE-VSC) participated in the construction of this new synchrotron. Its contribution lies at the very hea...

  2. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  3. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed 88SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles.

  4. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  5. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  7. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  8. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  9. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  10. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  11. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  12. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  13. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with r...

  14. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Larkin, Kieran G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required.

  15. The challenges of third-generation synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third-generation synchrotron light sources are specifically designed to operate with long insertion devices that produce very high brightness beams of synchrotron radiation. There are many such facilities now under construction, or in the design stage, all over the world. After a brief review of the main properties of the low emittance storage rings that form the heart of these facilities, we will discuss the particular challenges that accompany their design. These include: the effects of the strong sextupoles required for chromatic correction of the low emittance lattices; impact of machine imperfections on the dynamic aperture; the effects of the linear and nonlinear magnetic fields of the undulators; impedance consequences of long, narrow, undulator vacuum vessels; injection; and beam lifetime. As examples, we take the Advanced Light Source, currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, USA, and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility under construction in Grenoble, France. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Larkin, Kieran G

    2016-08-21

    Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required. PMID:27436750

  17. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  18. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images

  19. Applications of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to extraterrestrial materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Smith, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) is a valuable technique for trace element analyses of extraterrestrial materials permitting minimum detection limits less than 1 ppM for 20 micrometer spots. SXRF measurements have been performed on iron meteorites and micrometeorites using white synchrotron radiation and an energy dispersive x-ray detector at the National Synchrotron Light Source (X-26C), Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY). Partitioning of Cu between troilite (FeS) and metal in the nine iron meteorites studied suggests sub-solidus re-equilibration in these objects. A technique has been developed for determining self-absorption corrections for filtered, continuum excitation of small specimens, such as stratospheric particles and refractory inclusions in meteorites.

  20. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  1. Evidence for Synchrotron Bubbles from GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Ishwara-Chandra, C H; Rao, A P

    2002-01-01

    We present GMRT observations of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 at 1.28 GHz for 8 days from 2001 June 18 to July 1. We have seen several isolated radio flares of varying magnitudes (20 - 50 mJy) and durations (6 - 35 min) and we model them as due to adiabatically expanding synchrotron emitting clouds (synchrotron bubbles) ejected from the accretion disk. By applying this model, we provide a new method to estimate the electron power-law index p, hence the spectral index, from single frequency radio observations. This method does not require correction for the optical depth time delay effects which may be important in the case of optically thick radio emission. Using our estimated value of p and simultaneous multiwavelength data from literature, we have calculated the time of ejection of the synchrotron plasma and the time delays at different observed frequencies. Our estimates are in good agreement with the observed time delays.

  2. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  3. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures

  4. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  5. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray induced solution precipitation of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Hwu, Y; Tsai, W L

    2003-01-01

    By irradiating a solution in electroless Ni deposition using synchrotron X-rays, Ni composite was found to nucleate homogeneously and eventually precipitate in the form of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles precipitated is rather uniform (100-300 nm depending on the applied temperature). By the addition of an organic acid, well-dispersed nanoparticles could be effectively deposited on glass substrate. The hydrated electrons (e sub a sub q sup -), products of radiolysis of water molecules by synchrotron X-rays, may be responsible for the effective reduction of the metal ions, resulting in homogeneous nucleation and nanoparticle formation. Our results suggest that synchrotron X-ray can be used to induce solution precipitation of nanoparticles and therefore lead to a new method of producing nanostructured particles and coating.

  7. RF-knockout Extraction System for the CNAO Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Carmignani, Nicola; Serio, Mario; Balbinot, Giovanni; Bressi, Erminia; Caldara, Michele; Pullia, Marco; Bosser, Jacques; Venchi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) is a centre in Italy for the treatment of patients affected by tumours with proton and carbon ions beams accelerated in a synchrotron. The synchrotron extraction method is based on the use of a betatron core. This work aims to verify, through a theoretical study and a simulation, the possibility of using the RF-knockout extraction method exploiting the existing hardware. A simulation program has been written to simulate the extraction system of the synchrotron with the purpose to define the parameters of the radio frequency. Two types of radio frequencies have been compared in order to obtain a constant spill with the minimum ripple: a carrier wave with a frequency and amplitude modulation, and a gaussian narrow band noise modulated in amplitude. Results of the simulation and considerations on the kicker characteristics are presented

  8. Space charge tracking code for a synchrotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, M.B.; Tajima, T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hiramoto, K. [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1997-06-01

    An algorithm has been developed to compute particle tracking, including self-consistent space charge effects for synchrotron accelerators. In low-energy synchrotrons space charge plays a central role in enhancing emittance of the beam. The space charge effects are modeled by mutually interacting (through the Coulombic force) N cylindrical particles (2-{1/2}-dimensional dynamics) whose axis is in the direction of the equilibrium particle flow. On the other hand, their interaction with synchrotron lattice magnets is treated with the thin-lens approximation and in a fully 3-dimensional way. Since the existing method to treat space charge fully self-consistently involved 3-D space charge effect computation, the present method allows far more realistic physical parameters and runs in far shorter time (about 1/20). Some examples on space charge induced instabilities are presented.

  9. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  10. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  11. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron light emission and the classical relativistic electromagnetic theory describing it are reviewed. The electron optics of storage rings are considered in some detail, beginning with the ideal electron orbit and the distribution which electrons take around it. This is folded with the process of synchrotron light emission itself to define the effective photon source. The predictions of classical relativistic theory are compared with experiment, and one finds agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Further refinements, such as wiggler magnets and free electron lasers are also considered

  12. Synchrotron radiation sources INDUS-1 and INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiation sources, INDUS-1 and INDUS-2 are electron storage rings of 450 MeV and 2 GeV beam energies respectively. INDUS-1 is designed to produce VUV radiation whereas INDUS-2 will be mainly used to produce x-rays. INDUS-1 is presently undergoing commissioning whereas INDUS-2 is under construction. Both these rings have a common injector system comprising of a microtron and a synchrotron. Basic design features of these sources and their injector system are discussed in this paper. The radiation beamlines to be set up on these sources are also described. (author)

  13. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  14. Project X with Rapid Cycling and Dual Storage Superconducting Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarz, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of neutrino oscillations and rare meson decays are main physics goals of Project X. The successful physics outcome relies on the feasibility of high-intensity neutrino and meson (K+ and \\mu) beams. In order to meet this goal we propose accelerator system dominated by the synchrotrons (Option A) as a technologically easier and significantly more cost-effective alternative to the accelerator system dominated by the linear accelerators (Option B). The synchrotron-based accelerator system and its main components are outlined and the expected proton beam power for the neutrino and meson beams production is presented and discussed.

  15. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: intensity considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity. 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. X-ray intensity interferometer for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to measure the transverse coherence of an x-ray beam, for the first time, by Hanbury Brown intensity interferometry. Our approach is to use an intensity interferometer adapted to the soft x-ray region. The X1 or X13 soft x-ray undulator at the National Synchrotron Light Source will supply the partially coherent x-rays. We are developing this technique to characterize the coherence properties of x-ray beams from high brilliance insertion devices at third-generation synchrotron light facilities such as the Advanced Photon Source

  17. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  18. Synchrotron radiation as a light source in confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Oord, C.J.R.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Levine, Y.K. (University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)); Myring, W.J.; Jones, G.R.; Munro, I.H. (Daresbury Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of a confocal scanning microscope that was designed to utilize a synchrotron as light source are presented. The usable spectral range is from 200 nm up to 700 nm. Using 325-nm laser light, it is shown that the lateral resolution is about 125 nm, and the axial resolution better than 250 nm. After transport of the microscope from Utrecht to the Daresbury Synchrotron Source, 200-nm excitation can be applied, and the lateral resolution will drop to below 100 nm.

  19. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  20. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  1. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of

  3. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions II: Acetic acid

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; Boechat-Roberty, H M

    2006-01-01

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH), a glycine (NH$_2$CH$_2$COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH$_3$COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH$_3$CO$^+$, COOH$^+$ and CH$_3^+$ ions are the mai...

  4. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions, III. Methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; Santos, A C F; Boechat-Roberty, H M

    2006-01-01

    The presence of methyl alcohol or methanol (CH$_3$OH) in several astrophysical environments has been characterized by its high abundance that depends on both the production rate and the destruction rate. In the present work, the photoionization and photodissociation processes of methanol have been experimentally studied, employing soft X-ray photons (100-310 eV) from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, about 11-16% of CH$_3$OH survive the soft X-rays photons. This behavior, together with an efficient formation pathways, may be associated with the high column densi...

  5. Laboratory simulation of interplanetary ultraviolet radiation (broad spectrum) and its effects on Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Gláucio; Pilling, Sérgio; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2010-08-01

    The radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was exposed to a simulated interplanetary UV radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Bacterial samples were irradiated on different substrates to investigate the influence of surface relief on cell survival. The effects of cell multi-layers were also investigated. The ratio of viable microorganisms remained virtually the same (average 2%) for integrated doses from 1.2 to 12 kJ m -2, corresponding to 16 h of irradiation at most. The asymptotic profiles of the curves, clearly connected to a shielding effect provided by multi-layering cells on a cavitary substrate (carbon tape), means that the inactivation rate may not change significantly along extended periods of exposure to radiation. Such high survival rates reinforce the possibility of an interplanetary transfer of viable microbes.

  6. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  7. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  8. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  9. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  10. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  11. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  12. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  13. Logistics problems in soybeans Brazilian exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Lopes Jaguaribe Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization process, the world-wide nations are having an increase of the international trade. Brazil has, each time more, used the agribusiness as a strategy of insertion in the world-wide economy. The exportations of Brazilian agricultural productscome playing an important paper in the supplying revenues and increase of the domestic income, but a visible problem of the agribusiness for exportation is related to logistic. In theworld-wide marketplace, Brazil presents comparative advantages in the production of agricultural products in relation to the other world-wide producers, but it loses in logistic costs. The importance of this work is in characterizing the logistic problems of the Brazilian exportation of one of the most important commodities national, the soybeans. The soybeans is the agricultural product that more generates volume of exportation for Brazil, demanding sufficiently of the logistic structure of the country. For accomplishment of this work, it was used an general bibliographical research, where if it carried through a detailed survey of themain problems, causes, costs and solutions for the flowing of the soybeans in Brazilian for exportation. From the development of this work, it was perceived that the challenges of the logistic of the soybeans are many and that the resolution of these problems will increase the Brazilian international competitiveness, increasing the trustworthiness in the delivery times and reducing the costs of the inefficiencies in the exportation process.

  14. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  16. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  17. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  18. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  19. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  20. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  1. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  2. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  3. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  4. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  5. Vacuum design of advanced and compact synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers dealing with the following main topics: Vacuum considerations for synchrotron radiation sources; Machine design; Compact light sources for x-ray lithography; Surface cleaning and conditioning; Ion trapping, gas desorption, lifetime; Wigglers, undulators chamber design; and General conditioning of pumps, machines and gauges

  6. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  7. India's first synchrotron radiation source Indus-1: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Indian synchrotron radiation source Indus-l was commissioned in May 1999. This article briefs the development of accelerator based research programme in India and discusses the historical perspectives starting from the year 1953 at and goes to the development of Indus-1 and Indus-2 at Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore

  8. Surface, interface and bulk materials characterization using Indus synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet, soft and hard x-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized materials characterization techniques by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of solids. The availability of synchrotron sources and necessary instrumentation has led to considerable improvements in spectral resolution and intensities. As a result, application scope of different materials characterization techniques has tremendously increased particularly in the analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. The Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus-1 and Indus-2 are in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (AlPES) beam line on Indus-1 storage ring of 450 MeV and polarized light beam line for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) on Indus-2 storage ring of 2.5 GeV. (author)

  9. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  10. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  11. Synchrotron radiation, neutron, and mass spectrometry techniques at user facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, S. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Dove, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    User research facilities around the world offer tremendous opportunities for scientific experimentation by members of the Earth science community. Synchrotron radiation sources, neutron sources, mass spectrometers, and others represent a powerful force in tackling complex scientific problems. In these techniques, Earth materials are bombarded with beams of ions, subatomic particles and/or photons to learn the secr...

  12. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Scientific annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main event in 1993 was the commissioning start-up of DESY as synchrotron radiation source. The annual report covers activities in research (also DESY-Zeuthen), machinery, central data processing, development, and operation. There is much interest in international cooperation. (orig.)

  13. RF system of a synchrotron for protons and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the potential and the constraints of producing many kilovolts of rf accelerating voltage for synchrotrons in a cumbersome board frequency range are reviewed from the electrical engineering standpoint. This paper elaborates on numbers and limits which determine cost and complexity of the rf system. (orig./HSI)

  14. Surface Reactions Studied by Synchrotron Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrbek, J.

    1998-11-03

    The goal of this article is to illustrate the use of synchrotron radiation for investigating surface chemical reactions by photoelectron spectroscopy. A brief introduction and background information is followed by examples of layer resolved spectroscopy, oxidation and sulfidation of metallic, semiconducting and oxide surfaces.

  15. Spatially Varying X-ray Synchrotron Emission in SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K; Petre, R; Dyer, Kristy; Reynolds, Stephen P; Borkowski, Kazik; Petre, Rob

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of both galactic and extragalactic supernova remnants show non-thermal (non-plerionic) emission in the X-ray band. New synchrotron models, realized as SRESC and SRCUT in XSPEC 11, which use the radio spectral index and flux as inputs and include the full single-particle emissivity, have demonstrated that synchrotron emission is capable of producing the spectra of dominantly non-thermal supernova remnants with interesting consequences for residual thermal abundances and acceleration of particles. In addition, these models deliver a much better-constrained separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, whereas combining an unconstrained powerlaw with modern thermal models can produce a range of acceptable fits. While synchrotron emission can be approximated by a powerlaw over small ranges of energy, the synchrotron spectrum is in fact steepening over the X-ray band. Having demonstrated that the integrated spectrum of SN 1006, a remnant dominated by non-thermal emission, is well desc...

  16. Design of slow extraction system for therapy synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the optimized design of the lattice for therapy synchrotron and considering the requirement of radiation therapy,the third order resonant extraction is adopted.Using the momentum-amplitude selection method,the extraction system is designed and optimized.An extraction efficiency of more than 97%and a momentum spread less than 0.11%are obtained.

  17. Science minister puts French synchrotron back on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The new French minister of Science has said that he would pursue plans to build a synchrotron in France, reversing the decision of his predecessor. He is still intending to participate in the British project Diamond though (1/2 page).

  18. 200 MeV RF linac for synchrotron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction has been completed on an electron linear accelerator for the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This accelerator will be used for the injection of a 200 MeV electron beam into a synchrotron for lithography experiments. This paper describes the conceptual design of the linac, its e-gun pulser, and its control and timing systems. 3 figs., ref

  19. Beam model for non-planar orbits in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1984-03-26

    A framework has been developed for a beam model in the case of synchrotron orbits not confined to a plane. An appropriate moving reference system for the analysis of beam stability has been introduced. As examples of strong perturbations to median plane symmetry, two geometries for the overpass for the Tevatron collider are considered.

  20. Nuclear Bragg diffraction of synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years several groups have successfully carried out experiments involving the excitation of nuclear resonances using synchrotron radiation. All the experiments so far have used 57Fe as the resonant nucleus. The extremely narrow width of the 14.4 keV resonance in 57Fe makes these experiments very difficult at even the highest-brightness synchrotron beam lines currently available, so much effort is being devoted toward improvements in equipment and techniques. The general aim of this work is to use resonant scattering to produce high-flux beams of extremely monochromatic radiation, which can then be used as source beams for a variety of experiments. This talk, however, will stress the kinds of physics questions that can be answered using broad-band synchrotron radiation to induce resonant nuclear diffraction in perfect crystal samples. Experiments of this type are being carried out today, albeit with difficulty, using present synchrotron sources. They will become technically easy when advanced sources such as the APS become available, and it is expected that nuclear Bragg diffraction will become a standard technique

  1. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  2. Polarized galactic synchrotron and dust emission and their correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Steve K

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the level of polarized dust and synchrotron emission using the WMAP9 and Planck data. The primary goal of this study is to inform the assessment of foreground contamination in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements below $\\ell\\sim200$ from 23 to 353 GHz. We compute angular power spectra as a function of sky cut based on the Planck 353 GHz polarization maps. Our primary findings are the following. (1) There is a spatial correlation between the dust emission as measured by Planck at 353 GHz and the synchrotron emission as measured by WMAP at 23 GHz with $\\rho\\approx0.4$ or greater for $\\ell<20$ and $f_{\\mathrm{sky}}\\geq0.5$, dropping to $\\rho\\approx0.2$ for $30<\\ell<200$. (2) A simple foreground model with dust, synchrotron, and their correlation fits well to all possible cross spectra formed with the WMAP and Planck 353 GHz data given the current uncertainties. (3) In the 50$\\%$ cleanest region of the polarized dust map, the ratio of synchrotron to dust amplitudes...

  3. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  4. Characterizing THz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at Femtosecond Linear Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xu-Ling; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LU YU; LUO Feng; LU Shan-Liang; YU Tie-Min; DAI Zhi-Min

    2009-01-01

    The generation and observation of coherent THz synchrotron radiation from femtosecond electron bunches in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics femtosecond accelerator device is reported.We describe the experiment setup and present the first result of THz radiation properties such as power and spectrum.

  5. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  6. Discovery of synchrotron emission from a YSO jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco-González Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron emission at radio wavelengths is commonly found in relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs and microquasars and allows the study of the magnetic field in these kind of jets. In contrast, the radio emission from jets from young stellar objecs (YSOs is usually of very different nature: thermal free-free emission, which does not provide direct information about their magnetic field. Thus, that the magnetic field is still one of the most unknown physical parameters in these YSO jets. However, very recently, we detected for the first time polarized synchrotron emission from of a YSO (HH 80-81, a result that has two important consequences. First, it allows to study the magnetic field in a YSO jet by analyzing the properties of the synchrotron emission, in a similar way than in the case of AGN jets. Secondly, the presence of synchrotron emission in a YSO jet implies the presence of relativistic particles, and therefore, an acceleration mechanism that should be taken place in these "slow" jets. These results open new windows for the study of YSO jets in a wide range of wavelengths, from radio to X- and Gamma-rays.

  7. The national synchrotron ray of hope or ring of fire?

    CERN Document Server

    Hollis, T

    2002-01-01

    While most agree the synchrotron will be a boost for Australian science, the author reports on concerns about the cost of building and operating the project Biotech industry representatives want to know how that $100 million will be used and want to see the government's justification for pouring more than a third of its total technology budget for 2001/2 into the synchrotron. They, and the opposition, also want to know where the private money will come from to make up the balance or whether the state will ultimately have to pitch in the rest itself. Indeed, an Auditor-General's report released last week warned of the need for comprehensive financial risk management of the facility. The National Synchrotron, to be built at Monash University, will be a hollow ring of about 60 metres diameter and initially housing nine beamlines, each capable of performing independent experiments simultaneously. According to Dr Richard Garrett, director of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (http://www.ansto.gov.au/natf...

  8. Communication: Protonation process of formic acid from the ionization and fragmentation of dimers induced by synchrotron radiation in the valence region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Manuela S.; Medina, Aline; Sousa, Josenilton N.; Mendes, Luiz A. V.; Marinho, Ricardo R. T.; Prudente, Frederico V.

    2016-04-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of monomers of organic molecules have been extensively studied in the gas phase using mass spectroscopy. In the spectra of these molecules it is possible to identify the presence of protonated cations, which have a mass-to-charge ratio one unit larger than the parent ion. In this work, we investigate this protonation process as a result of dimers photofragmentation. Experimental photoionization and photofragmentation results of doubly deuterated formic acid (DCOOD) in the gas phase by photons in the vacuum ultraviolet region are presented. The experiment was performed by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer installed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory and spectra for different pressure values in the experimental chamber were obtained. The coupled cluster approach with single and double substitutions was employed to assist the experimental analysis. Results indicate that protonated formic acid ions are originated from dimer dissociation, and the threshold photoionization of (DCOOD)ṡD+ is also determined.

  9. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  10. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  11. Atomic physics at high brilliance synchrotron sources: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: present status of SPring-8 and the atomic physics undulator beamline; recent photoabsorption measurements in the rare gases and alkalis in the 3 to 15 keV proton energy region; atomic and molecular physics at LURE; experiments on atoms, ions and small molecules using the new generation of synchrotron radiation sources; soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using tunable synchrotron radiation; soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy excited by synchrotron radiation: Inelastic and resonant scattering near threshold; outer-shell photoionization of ions; overview of the APS BESSRC beamline development; the advanced light source: Research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics; Photoionization of the Ba+ ion by 4d shell excitation; decay dynamics of inner-shell excited atoms and molecules; absorption of atomic Ca, Cr, Mn and Cu; High-resolution photoelectron studies of resonant molecular photoionization; radiative and radiationless resonant raman scattering by synchrotron radiation; auger spectrometry of atoms and molecules; some thoughts of future experiments with the new generation of storage rings; Electron spectroscopy studies of argon K-shell excitation and vacancy cascades; ionization of atoms by high energy photons; ion coincidence spectroscopy on rare gas atoms and small molecules after photoexcitation at energies of several keV; an EBIS for use with synchrotron radiation photoionization of multiply charged ions and PHOBIS; gamma-2e coincidence measurements the wave of the future in inner-shell electron spectroscopy; recoil momentum spectroscopy in ion-atom and photon-atom collisions; a study of compton ionization of helium; future perspectives of photoionization studies at high photon energies; and status report on the advanced photon source. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  12. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira

    2008-12-01

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 μg L - 1 and in sediment samples 0.03 μg g - 1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

  13. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  14. Elemental changes in hemolymph and urine of Rhodnius prolixus induced by in-vivo exposure to mercury: A study using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantuano, Andrea; Pickler, Arissa; Barroso, Regina C.; de Almeida, André P.; Braz, Delson; Cardoso, Simone C.; Gonzalez, Marcelo S.; Figueiredo, Marcela B.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates were extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Some environmental conditions including pollution produce chronic and acute effects on different animal's organs and systems. In this work, we investigated changes in the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn in Rhodnius prolixus as insect model. The elements were quantified using urine and hemolymph samples collected on different days after feeding the insects with blood containing HgCl2. The synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The observation reveals that the calcium level was higher in the hemolymph than in urine. On the other hand, the urine collected from insects treated with HgCl2 showed higher level of Cl than hemolymph samples. Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations decrease drastically in urine samples collected after 2 days of HgCl2 treatment. The regulation of triatomines excretion was discussed pointing out the importance of trace elements.

  15. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  16. Synchrotron Physics and Industry: new opportunities for technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1979, with the opening in the UK of the world's first dedicated synchrotron light source, the SRS, experimental science in virtually every discipline underwent what amounted to a major revolution. The unique nature of synchrotron radiation, with its intensity, brightness, polarization, time structure and energy spectrum offer an unequalled probe of matter in all its states. The decades since have seen the development of a wide range of associated experimental techniques which harness the power of this radiation, including photoemission, EXAFS, spectroscopy, imaging and, of course, protein crystallography. These in turn have been applied to studies from surface science to molecular biology. The advances using synchrotron radiation throughout the 1980s and '90s naturally had a major impact on fundamental research, particularly in unraveling the structures of large proteins and in understanding the properties of semiconductors and surfaces. Much of this work could not have been accomplished without access to one of the world's increasing number of synchrotron facilities, of which there are now approaching 100. However, industrial awareness of the opportunities afforded by the use of synchrotron radiation was restricted to the handful of major multinational corporations, primarily in Europe, the USA and Japan, whose fundamental research staff had access. While there were major programmes in certain specific areas, such as X-ray lithography for semiconductor LSI fabrication, the general level of industrial involvement was low. But today, this is changing. In protein crystallography, for example, the use of synchrotron radiation in structure determination puts the 1PX' technique on the same level as NMR in terms of its routine utility. It has become an essential tool to drug designers in biopharmaceuticals, where access to the structural data is increasingly thought of almost as a service, rather than fundamental research. Pioneering work on medical imaging

  17. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  18. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  19. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  20. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  2. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  3. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  4. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  5. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  6. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  7. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  8. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  9. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  10. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  11. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  12. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  13. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  14. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  15. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  16. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  17. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  18. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  19. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  20. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  1. The growth of Brazilian metrics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Urbizagástegui Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is presented on the growth of the literature on bibliometrics, informetrics, and scientometrics published in Brazil by Brazilian and foreign authors in the form of journal articles, book chapters, and papers presented at conferences. From 1973 to December 2012, close to 2300 documents were published. This literature is growing exponentially at a rate of 24% per year and doubling in size every 3.2 years.

  2. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  3. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  4. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  5. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  7. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  8. Health practices and expectations of Brazilians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Teresa Eliot

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic examination of Brazilian immigrant perspectives regarding healthcare in the U.S. included participant observation and interviews with 42 Brazilian transnationals. Data were analyzed using Agar's approach. Findings show that Brazilians accessed allopathic care only as a last resort after self-treatment strategies failed, that they tended to feel that diagnostic testing, referrals, and symptom-relieving prescriptions were imperative to good care, and that they expected more personal warmth, continuity of care, and more affectionate verbal and nonverbal cues than their U.S. clinicians provided. Recommendations to improve quality of healthcare to Brazilian transnationals in the USA are discussed. PMID:19172985

  9. Materials science research at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kvick, A

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Beamline ID11 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France is dedicated to research in materials science notably employing diffraction and scattering techniques. Either an in-vacuum undulator with a minimum gap of 5 mm or a 10 kW wiggler giving high-flux monochromatic X-rays generates the synchrotron radiation in the energy range 5-100 keV. The dominant research is in the area of time-resolved diffraction, powder diffraction, stress/strain studies of bulk material, 3D mapping of grains and grain interfaces with a measuring gauge down approx 5x5x50 mu m, and microcrystal diffraction. A variety of CCD detectors are used to give time-resolution down to the millisecond time regime.

  10. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  11. Precision mirror mounting system for UHV compatible synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ultra high vacuum compatible system for precision adjustment of the orientation and location of a mirror with respect to incident synchrotron radiation beam has been designed. This will be used for the upcoming photoelectron spectroscopy beamline to be installed on Indus-1. Our ray tracing calculations indicate that positioning of mirror with respect to synchrotron radiation beam direction and other beam line optical components is very critical for good resolution and photon flux. This requires the mirror to have various motions with a precision control over these motions of the order of millidegree for angular and five micron for linear motions. Based on these calculations, design of mirror mount system having various kinematic motions in ultra high vacuum has been worked out and incorporated in the mechanical design of the system. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  13. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Hahn, A; Hurh, P; Lorman, E; Lundberg, C; Meyer, T; Miller, D; Pordes, S; Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measur...

  14. First Beam Measurements with the LHC Synchrotron Light Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Thibaut; /CERN; Bravin, Enrico; /CERN; Burtin, Gerard; /CERN; Guerrero, Ana; /CERN; Jeff, Adam; /CERN; Rabiller, Aurelie; /CERN; Roncarolo, Federico; /CERN; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2012-07-13

    The continuous monitoring of the transverse sizes of the beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on the use of synchrotron radiation and intensified video cameras. Depending on the beam energy, different synchrotron light sources must be used. A dedicated superconducting undulator has been built for low beam energies (450 GeV to 1.5 TeV), while edge and centre radiation from a beam-separation dipole magnet are used respectively for intermediate and high energies (up to 7 TeV). The emitted visible photons are collected using a retractable mirror, which sends the light into an optical system adapted for acquisition using intensified CCD cameras. This paper presents the design of the imaging system, and compares the expected light intensity with measurements and the calculated spatial resolution with a cross calibration performed with the wire scanners. Upgrades and future plans are also discussed.

  15. Study on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Excited by Synchrotron Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jia Guo; Wu-er Gan; Guo-bin Zhang; Qing-de Su

    2008-01-01

    A novel analysis approach using atomic fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation is presented. A system for synchrotron radiation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry is developed, and experimental conditions such as flow rate, analyte acidity, concentration of pre-reducing and hydrogenation system are optimized. The proposed method is successfully applied to get an excitation spectrum of arsenic. Seven of ten primary spectral lines, four of which have never been reported by means of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, agree well with the existing reports. The other three are proposed for the first time. Excitation potentials and possible transitions are investigated. Especially for the prominent line at 234.99 nm, the mechanism of generation is discussed and a model of energy transition processes is proposed.

  16. Diffuse Synchrotron Emission from Galactic Cosmic Ray Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron diffuse radiation (SDR) emission is one of the major Galactic components, in the 100 MHz up to 100 GHz frequency range. Its spectrum and sky map provide valuable measure of the galactic cosmic ray electrons (GCRE) in the relevant energy range, as well as of the strength and structure of the Galactic magnetic fields (GMF), both regular and random ones. This emission is an astrophysical sky foreground for the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and the extragalactic microwave measurements, and it needs to be modelled as better as possible. In this regard, in order to get an accurate description of the SDR in the Galaxy, we use - for the first time in this context - 3-dimensional GCRE models obtained by running the DRAGON code. This allows us to account for a realistic spiral arm pattern of the source distribution, demanded to get a self-consistent treatment of all relevant energy losses influencing the final synchrotron spectrum.

  17. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy: Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  18. A vacuum ultraviolet filtering monochromator for synchrotron-based spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and implementation of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator for use in filtering stray and scattered light from the principal monochromator output of the Stainless Steel Seya VUV synchrotron beam line at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. We demonstrate a reduction of three orders of magnitude of stray and scattered light over the wavelength range 1400-2000 Å with minimal loss of light intensity, allowing for over six orders of magnitude of dynamic range in light detection. We suggest that a similar filtering scheme can be utilized in any variety of spectroscopic applications where a large dynamic range and low amount of background signal are of import, such as in transmittance experiments with very high optical density.

  19. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe2 and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials

  20. Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.

  1. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, H Y N; McKinney, W R

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  2. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  3. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X [Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xiao Tiqiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: pingliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisaxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-21

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  4. Experience with interactive control software at the CERN proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, B E

    1973-01-01

    The computer system includes, in addition to the central computer, a Varian 620 used for real-time function generation and two Imlac PDS1 display mini-computers used as operator consoles. The configuration is being expanded to include 3 PDP-11/45's and links with various other online computers associated with the synchrotron, and the present survey of interactive control software in use with the old configuration was carried out as part of the planning of this expansion. This paper describes the various means of computer access available to the synchrotron operators and development engineers, and outlines the associated software. One of the more flexible pieces of software, an on-line syntax handler, is discussed in more detail. (3 refs).

  5. Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions

  6. Transverse beam coupling impedance of the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichelli, S.; Migliorati, M.; Biancacci, N.; Gilardoni, S.; Metral, E.; Salvant, B.

    2016-04-01

    Beam coupling impedance is a fundamental parameter to characterize the electromagnetic interaction of a particle beam with the surrounding environment. Synchrotron machine performances are critically affected by instabilities and collective effects triggered by beam coupling impedance. In particular, transverse beam coupling impedance is expected to impact beam dynamics of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS), since a significant increase in beam intensity is foreseen within the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. In this paper we describe the study of the transverse beam coupling impedance of the PS, taking into account the main sources of geometrical impedance and the contribution of indirect space charge at different energies. The total machine impedance budget, determined from beam-based dedicated machine measurement sessions, is also discussed and compared with the theoretical model.

  7. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B

    2000-01-01

    We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra

  8. Incoherent synchrotron emission of laser-driven plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebryakov, D. A., E-mail: dmserebr@gmail.com; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    When a relativistically intense linearly polarized laser pulse is incident on an overdense plasma, a dense electron layer is formed on the plasma edge which relativistic motion results in high harmonic generation, ion acceleration, and incoherent synchrotron emission of gamma-photons. Here we present a self-consistent analytical model that describes the edge motion and apply it to the problem of incoherent synchrotron emission by ultrarelativistic plasma electrons. The model takes into account both coherent radiation reaction from high harmonics and incoherent radiation reaction in the Landau–Lifshitz form. The analytical results are in agreement with 3D particle-in-cell simulations in a certain parameter region that corresponds to the relativistic electronic spring interaction regime.

  9. Time- and frequency domain spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettig, W.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Herbert, T.; Ding, A.

    1989-05-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting experiments show that the time structure of the synchrotron radiation from BESSY can be usefully applied for subnanosecond and nanosecond time-resolved experiments both in the single-bunch (4.8 MHz) and multibunch (500 MHz, 62.5 MHz) operation modes. Also experiments without the need for time resolution can profit by application of these correlation techniques. The possible use of transformation methods using Hadamard sequences is discussed.

  10. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  11. Micro-irradiation experiments in MOS transistors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially-resolved total-dose degradation has been performed in MOS transistors by focusing x-ray synchrotron radiation on the gate electrode with micrometer resolution. The influence of the resulting permanent degradation on device electrical properties has been analyzed using current-voltage and charge pumping measurements, in concert with optical characterization (hot-carrier luminescence) and one-dimensional device simulation. (authors)

  12. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis of necrotic bone

    OpenAIRE

    Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Utku, Haluk; Ikemoto, Yuka; Celasun, Bülent; Kömürcü, Mahmut; Atik, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) is a disease that results from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the bone. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy has been used to study the changes in mineral and matrix content of necrotic bone. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that in necrotic bone the relative mineral/matrix ratio decreased. Spectroscopic differences were observed between normal and necrotic bones. The noticeable differences may have important implications for analyzin...

  13. Synchrotron radiation sources- INDUS-1 and INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design features of INDUS-1 and INDUS-2 and their radiation characteristics such as variation of flux and brightness with wavelength are discussed. The construction of INDUS-1 and the injector system has reached an advanced stage and the design of INDUS-2 is in a final stage of optimization. The status of the synchrotron radiation facility is discussed briefly. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Benson, Stephen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  15. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  16. CCD sensors in synchrotron X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, M. G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I. S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Westbrook, E. M.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    1988-04-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron X-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ˜ 1 CCD electron/X-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of > 10 6 X-rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 × 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode X-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at a rate of ˜ 1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ˜ 2 min. In electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), the CCD was used in a parallel detection mode which is similar to the mode array detectors are used in dispersive EXAFS. With a beam current corresponding to 3 × 10 9 electron/s on the detector, a series of 64 spectra were recorded on the CCD in a continuous sequence without interruption due to readout. The frame-to-frame pixel signal fluctuations had σ = 0.4% from which DQE = 0.4 was obtained, where the detector conversion efficiency was 2.6 CCD electrons/X-ray photon. These multiple frame series also showed the time-resolved modulation of the electron microscope optics by stray magnetic fields.

  17. Photoionization of atoms and small molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of synchrotron radiation and time-of-flight electron spectroscopy has been used to study the photoionization dynamics of atoms (Li) and small molecules (SF6, SiF4, and SO2). Partial cross sections and angular distribution asymmetry parameters have been measured for Auger electrons and photoelectrons as functions of photon energy. Emphasis is on the basic understanding of electron correlation and resonant effects as manifested in the photoemission spectra for these systems. 254 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  19. A Pulsed Synchrotron for Muon Acceleration at a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, D J; Berg, J S; Palmer, R B

    2003-01-01

    A 4600 Hz pulsed synchrotron is considered as a means of accelerating cool muons with superconducting RF cavities from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are held to less than a megawatt by the low machine duty cycle plus 100 micron thick grain oriented silicon steel laminations and 250 micron diameter copper wires. Combined function magnets with 20 T/m gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  20. Plan and present status of synchrotron radiation applications at HESYRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 800 MeV electron storage ring is being constructed at Hefei, China. It is a dedicated UV synchrotron light source from which 27 beam lines could be extracted to accommodate about 50 experimental stations. Four beam lines and five stations are planned and some instruments have been designed and are under construction for the first five-year plan. The proposed experiments include x-ray lithography, soft x-ray microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, time-resolved spectroscopy and photochemistry

  1. Recent advances in synchrotron-based Moessbauer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the field of nuclear resonant scattering using synchrotron radiation matures, we see a shift from experiments designed to verify theoretical predictions towards those designed to use the phenomenon to elucidate the behavior of a sample. In parallel with this trend towards applications, we have seen further instrumental developments that extend the range of possible applications. This paper will review the recent work in this field with an emphasis on new sources, new isotopes, and new instrumentation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Workshop on performance optimization of synchrotron radiation storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum, with user participation, for accelerator physicists working in the synchrotron light source field to discuss current and planned state-of-the-art techniques to optimize storage ring performance. The scope of the workshop focused on two areas: lattice characterization and measurement, and fundamental limitations on low frequency beam stability. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. FLUX – Software to Calculate the Synchrotron Radiation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I. Gladkikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main characteristics of quantum flow of synchrotron radiation (SR of relativistic electron beam in the storage ring NSC KIPT with maximal energy of 225 MeV are represented. Analytical expressions for quantum flow intensity of SR with given wavelength and the geometry of registration are obtained. The algorithms for calculation of the last ones are proposed. The dependences which characterize the intensity and spectrally-angular properties of photon flux of SR are shown.

  4. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed

  5. The European 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Middelkoop, Willem Cornelis

    1977-01-01

    On 19th February 1971, CERN decided to build a super proton synchrotron at a cost of 1150*10/sup 6/ Swiss francs. The design target of 400 GeV with a beam intensity of 10/sup 13/ protons/pulse was reached on the 4th of November 1976 within the original budget, allowing for inflation. The technical aspects of the SPS are reviewed, together with operating experience since May 1976. (2 refs).

  6. Synchrotron Radiation Lithography and MEMS Technique at NSRL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two beamlines and stations for soft X-ray lithography and hard X-ray lithography at NSRL are presented. Synchrotron radiation lithography (SRL) and mask techniques are developed, and the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques are also investigated at NSRL. In this paper, some results based on SRL and MEMS techniques are reported, and sub-micron and high aspect ratio microstructures are given. Some micro-devices, such as microreactors are fabricated at NSRL.

  7. Crossed undulator system for a variable polarization synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossed undulator system can produce synchrotron radiation whose polarization is arbitrary and adjustable. The polarization can be linear and modulated between two mutually perpendicular directions, or it can be circular and can be modulated between right and left circular polarizations. The system works on low emittance electron storage rings and can cover a wide spectral range. Topics discussed include the basic principle of the system, the design equations and the limitations in performance

  8. Inelastic x-ray scattering at the National Synchrotron Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program at the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source is focused on the study of elementary excitations in condensed matter with total energy resolution on the order of 0.1 eV to 1.0 eV. Results from selected experiments are reported to demonstrate the capability of the beamline as well as the information can be obtained from inelastic x- ray scattering experiments

  9. Primakoff effect: synchrotron and coulomb mechanisms of axion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the axion radiative emission by alternating electromagnetic field Fa → γa is considered due to Primakoff effect. As a concrete supplement, the synchrotron and Coulomb mechanisms are discussed and in the last case the alternating field is formed at the infinite motion of a charge in a Coulomb center field. The estimates for contributions of these effects into axion luminosity of magnetic neutron stars and the Sun are determined

  10. Primakoff effect: Synchrotron and Coulomb mechanisms of axion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Primakoff effect-induced radiative emission of axions by an alternating electromagnetic field, Fa → γa, is considered for the first time. The synchrotron mechanism and the Coulomb mechanism--in the latter case, the alternating field is formed when a charge executes an infinite motion in the field of a Coulomb center--are considered as specific examples. The contributions of these effects to the axion emissivity of magnetic neutron stars and of the Sun are estimated

  11. Experiments planned to be made with the synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this working meeting, various research groups from the Land Sachsen and from the neighbouring countries Poland and the Czech Republic have been invited in order to present their materials research programmes or task-specific experiments intended to be carried out with the synchrotron radiation source to be installed in the near future. The proceedings volume in hand presents the discussion papers, which have been directly reproduced from the original foils. (orig.)

  12. HOT CARRIER SENSITIVITY OF MOSFET's EXPOSED TO SYNCHROTRON-LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, G.; Mahnkopf, R.; Wagemann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron-light irradiation for p- and n-channel MOSFET's on their sensitivity to hot carrier degradation was investigated. The radiation induces additional interface states and a positive oxide charge. Annealing at 450°C reduces the interface state density to its initial value but not the oxide charge. A hot carrier stress can compensate this remaining charge by trapping electrons. This effect produces an enhanced shift of the threshold voltage compared to non-irradiated d...

  13. Prospects for studying vacuum polarisation using dipole and synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ilderton, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of vacuum polarisation effects, in particular vacuum birefringence, using combined optical and x-ray laser pulses is now actively pursued. Here we briefly examine the feasibility of two alternative setups. The first utilises an alternative target, namely a converging dipole pulse, and the second uses an alternative probe, namely the synchrotron-like emission from highly energetic particles, themselves interacting with a laser pulse. The latter setup has been proposed for experiments at ELI-NP.

  14. Prospects for studying vacuum polarisation using dipole and synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of vacuum polarisation effects, in particular vacuum birefringence, using combined optical and x-ray laser pulses is now actively pursued. Here we briefly examine the feasibility of two alternative setups. The first utilises an alternative target, namely a converging dipole pulse, and the second uses an alternative probe, namely the synchrotron-like emission from highly energetic particles, themselves interacting with a laser pulse. The latter setup has been proposed for exper...

  15. Methods for lipid nanostructure investigation at neutron and synchrotron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    A lipid membrane is a main component of biological membranes. Contemporary bionanotechnologies use phospholipids and ceramides as basic components of drugs and cosmetic preparations. Phospholipids-based nanoparticles are used as drug carriers. Effective development of bionanotechnologies in Russia calls for creation of physical methods to diagnose the particle nanostructure which would be promising for application in pharmacology. Radiation with wavelengths of 1-10 Å is an adequate instrument for detecting the nanostructure of lipid bi- and monolayers. The review deals with methods that apply neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation for studying nanostructures of lipid membranes, phospholipid nanoparticles, and phospholipid monolayers on a water surface by techniques of diffraction, small-angle scattering, and reflectometry. The importance of the mutually complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for solving urgent problems of membrane biophysics, microbiology, dermapharmacology, and bionanotechnologies is demonstrated by particular examples of studies of phospholipid membranes and ceramide-based membranes. The efficiency of development and application of new methods for solving urgent problems of biophysics is shown. The review is written on the basis of results obtained over the period of 1999-2010 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of Neutron Physics in collaboration with the Pharmaceutical Departments of universities of France (Paris-Sud, Chatenay Malabry) and Germany (Martin Luther University, Halle). The experiments were performed at various European and Russian neutron and synchrotron sources.

  16. Accelerator system for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator system for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility that consists of 50MeV electron S-band linac, 1.2GeV full energy booster synchrotron and 1.2GeV storage ring, has been constructed. Eight 1.4T bending magnets and four 5T superconducting magnet with compact refrigerator system provide beam lines. For top-up operation, the 1ns single bunch electron beam from 50MeV injector linac is injected by on-axis injection scheme and accelerated up to 1.2GeV at booster synchrotron. The timing system is designed for injection from booster ring is possible for any bunch position of storage ring. To improve efficiency of booster injection, the electron gun trigger and RF frequency of 2856MHz is synchronized with storage ring frequency of 499.654MHz. The EPICS control system is used with timing control system for linac, pulse magnet and also for booster pattern memory system. The beam commissioning for 1.2GeV storage ring has been progressing. (author)

  17. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  18. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SRμCT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SRμCT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SRμCT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SRμCT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SRμCT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  19. Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, Mathieu; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Berrie, Barbara; Nevin, Austin; Jamme, Frédéric; Bertrand, Loïc

    2011-03-01

    UV-visible luminescence techniques are fre-quently used for the study of cultural heritage materials, despite their limitations for identification and discrimination in the case of complex heterogeneous materials. In contrast to tabletop setups, two methods based on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-UV-visible emission generated at a bending magnet of a synchrotron source are described. The main advantages of the source are the extended wavelength range attained, the continuous tunability of the source, and its brightness, leading to a submicrometer lateral resolution. Raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging were implemented and tested at the DISCO beamline (synchrotron SOLEIL, France). Investigative measurements were performed on a sample from a varnished musical instrument and a paint sample containing the pigment zinc white (ZnO) in order to illustrate some of the challenges analyzing heterogeneous cultural heritage cross-section samples with the novel imaging approach. The data sets obtained proved useful for mapping organic materials at the submicrometer scale and visualizing heterogeneities of the semiconductor pigment material. We propose and discuss the combined use of raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging in an integrated analytical methodology. Synchrotron UV luminescence appears as a novel tool for identification of craftsmen's and artists' materials and techniques and to assess the condition of artifacts, from the precise identification and localization of luminescent materials. PMID:21291177

  20. Report of meeting on monochromator technology for MR synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was held on June 12, 1996 at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The MR was reconstructed so as to be used for synchrotron radiation in the summer of the last year, and has been stably operated at 8-10 GeV. The synchrotron radiation of ultrahigh luminance was taken out, and by using this light, the experiments of 14 subjects were carried out, and a number of the data which have the highest quality in the world were obtained. By having carried out the researches, the perspective for future was able to be slightly obtained. As the technologies which supported these activities, there were many such as accelerators, beam lines and others, but especially the splendid working of the monochromator must be remembered. The monochromator is composed of the vacuum tanks for first crystal and second crystal, the bellows connecting both crystals and the translating table, and is cooled with liquid nitrogen. At the meeting, lectures were given on MR synchrotron radiation project, the concept of design of the monochromator, the precision control of goniometers, the detailed design, the table for first crystal, the assembling and installation, control software, the adjustment of light paths and others. (K.I.)

  1. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  2. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  3. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  4. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  5. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  6. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  7. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  8. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Sousa Batista; João Veríssimo de Oliveira Lisboa; Mário Gomes Augusto; Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  9. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  10. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  11. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  12. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  13. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nastri de Luca Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of São Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees & Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia.

  14. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  15. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  16. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  17. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  18. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  19. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...

  20. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  1. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  2. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  3. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic. PMID:318307

  4. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  5. A compact high brightness laser synchrotron light source for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present high-brightness hard X-ray sources have been developed as third generation synchrotron light sources based on large high energy electron storage rings and magnetic undulators. Recently availability of compact terawatt lasers arouses a great interest in the use of lasers as undulators. The laser undulator concept makes it possible to construct an attractive compact synchrotron radiation source which has been proposed as a laser synchrotron light source. This paper proposes a compact laser synchrotron light source for mediacal applications, such as an intravenous coronary angiography and microbeam therapy

  6. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m−1 to 697.41 Fμ m−1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m−1 to 566.11 Fμ m−1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis

  7. Recent advances in high power RF systems of Indus synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Indus accelerator complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, three major RF systems namely booster synchrotron RF system, Indus-1 Storage ring RF System and Indus-2 Storage ring RF System were commissioned and are running in round the clock operation mode for beam line users. High Power RF amplifier system of a particle accelerator required for energizing the Resonating structures is complex in nature and to run it smoothly with better performance various up gradations are needed. Booster and Indus-1 RF system operating at 31.6 MHz were conventional tetrode tube based system and were being used for more than 10 years. Indus-2 RF system consists of four Klystron based amplifier system with maximum output power of 64 kW each at 505.8 MHz. With recent advances in solid state RF amplifying devices and its inherent advantages like graceful degradation, low maintenance, better quality of signal, absence of high voltage points as compared to traditional tube based RF amplifiers, SSPAs of several tens of kW of RF power level are being successfully deployed in RF systems of Indus synchrotron. Booster RF system and Indus-1 RF system has been already replaced by Solid State RF amplifier system and is working satisfactorily. Presently three Klystron based RF systems for Indus-2 are already replaced with Solid State RF amplifier system with total installed power of 200 kW. In particle accelerators the beam parameters depend highly on the stability of the RF field. Due to dynamic beam loading conditions the variations in RF parameters of accelerating structures needs to be controlled precisely, hence low level RF feedback control system plays vital role. Considering revolutionary development in the field of digital electronics and inherent advantages of digital systems, FPGA based digital LLRF control system development work was taken up. In this paper recent up gradation in RF Systems of Indus Synchrotron will be presented. (author)

  8. Discussing the processes constraining the Jovian synchrotron radio emission's features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.

    2008-03-01

    Our recent analysis and understanding of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission with a radiation-belt model is presented. In this work, the electron population is determined by solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation and considering different physical processes. The results of the modeling are first compared to in situ particle data, brightness distributions, radio spectrum, and beaming curves to verify the simulated particle distributions. The dynamics of high-energy electrons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere and their related radio emission are then examined. The results demonstrate that the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron emission's brightness distribution along the magnetic equator. Simulations show that moons and dust both control the transport toward the planet by significantly reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate, near the equator and inside 1.8 Jovian radii, the innermost region of the magnetosphere. Due to interactions with dust and synchrotron mechanism, radiation-belt electrons are moved along field lines, between Metis (1.79 Jovian radii) and Amalthea (2.54 Jovian radii), toward high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce measurable secondary radio emissions. Among all the phenomena acting in the inner magnetosphere, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the primary moderator for the radiation's intensity at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the characteristics of the total radio flux with longitude. The sweeping effect amplifies the 10-h modulation of the beaming curve's amplitude while energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to phenomena adjusting it to the right level. Interactions with dust do not significantly constrain radio spectrum features. Resonances near Amalthea and Thebe are responsible for the Jovian radio spectrum's particular slope.

  9. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N

    2014-07-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce. PMID:25075341

  10. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  11. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  12. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  13. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  14. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  15. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  16. Automated tuning of the advanced photon source booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.V.

    1997-08-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 223 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of beam position monitor (BPM) reading, transfer line corrector magnets, magnet ramp timing, and empirically determined response functions, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their performance.

  17. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with relatively little morbidity. We extended the principles learned with coronary angiography to noninvasive imaging of the human bronchial tree. For these images, we utilized xenon as the contrast agent, as it has a K-edge very similar to that of iodine. In this case, there is no true competing diagnostic test, and pulmonary neoplasm is an enormous public health concern. In early experiments, we demonstrated remarkably clear images of the human bronchial tree. These images have been shown internationally; however, funding difficulties primarily with the Department of Energy have not allowed for progression of this promising avenue of research. One potential criticism of the project is that in order to obtain these images, we utilized national laboratories. Some have questioned whether this would lead to a practical imaging modality. However, we have shown that the technology exists to allow for construction of a miniature storage ring, with a superconducting

  18. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distribution for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, GHI; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  19. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distributions for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, G H I; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  20. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodke, A. D.; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T. A. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, 452013, Indore (India)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.