WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian jewish population

  1. The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations in the Brazilian Jewish population justifies a carrier screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rozenberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurologic degeneration, fatal in early childhood. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population the disease incidence is about 1 in every 3,500 newborns and the carrier frequency is 1 in every 29 individuals. Carrier screening programs for Tay-Sachs disease have reduced disease incidence by 90% in high-risk populations in several countries. The Brazilian Jewish population is estimated at 90,000 individuals. Currently, there is no screening program for Tay-Sachs disease in this population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program in the Brazilian Jewish population by determining the frequency of heterozygotes and the acceptance of the program by the community. SETTING: Laboratory of Molecular Genetics - Institute of Biosciences - Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 581 senior students from selected Jewish high schools. PROCEDURE: Molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS: Among 581 students that attended educational classes, 404 (70% elected to be tested for Tay-Sachs disease mutations. Of these, approximately 65% were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Eight carriers were detected corresponding to a carrier frequency of 1 in every 33 individuals in the Ashkenazi Jewish fraction of the sample. CONCLUSION: The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease carriers among the Ashkenazi Jewish population of Brazil is similar to that of other countries where carrier screening programs have led to a significant decrease in disease incidence. Therefore, it is justifiable to implement a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program for the Brazilian Jewish population.

  2. Cintia Moscovich's Brazilian View on Jewish Literary Themes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the work of Cintia Moscovich, author of four books, and one of the very few Brazilian writers dealing with Jewish subjects. Her writings concentrate on the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, where Jewish immigration began 100 years ago. Unlike Jewish immigrants' literature in Yiddish or in ...

  3. North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christopher L; Palamara, Pier F; Dubrovsky, Maya; Botigué, Laura R; Fellous, Marc; Atzmon, Gil; Oddoux, Carole; Pearlman, Alexander; Hao, Li; Henn, Brenna M; Burns, Edward; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David; Friedman, Eitan; Pe'er, Itsik; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-08-21

    North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group. However, their relatedness to each other; to European, Middle Eastern, and other Jewish Diaspora groups; and to their former North African non-Jewish neighbors has not been well defined. Here, genome-wide analysis of five North African Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan) and comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European, and North African admixture. Two major subgroups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining tree, and identity-by-descent analysis-Moroccan/Algerian and Djerban/Libyan-that varied in their degree of European admixture. These populations showed a high degree of endogamy and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. By principal component analysis, these North African groups were orthogonal to contemporary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North African Jews-founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during the Inquisition.

  4. The population genetics of the Jewish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrer, Harry; Skorecki, Karl

    2013-02-01

    Adherents to the Jewish faith have resided in numerous geographic locations over the course of three millennia. Progressively more detailed population genetic analysis carried out independently by multiple research groups over the past two decades has revealed a pattern for the population genetic architecture of contemporary Jews descendant from globally dispersed Diaspora communities. This pattern is consistent with a major, but variable component of shared Near East ancestry, together with variable degrees of admixture and introgression from the corresponding host Diaspora populations. By combining analysis of monoallelic markers with recent genome-wide variation analysis of simple tandem repeats, copy number variations, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at high density, it has been possible to determine the relative contribution of sex-specific migration and introgression to map founder events and to suggest demographic histories corresponding to western and eastern Diaspora migrations, as well as subsequent microevolutionary events. These patterns have been congruous with the inferences of many, but not of all historians using more traditional tools such as archeology, archival records, linguistics, comparative analysis of religious narrative, liturgy and practices. Importantly, the population genetic architecture of Jews helps to explain the observed patterns of health and disease-relevant mutations and phenotypes which continue to be carefully studied and catalogued, and represent an important resource for human medical genetics research. The current review attempts to provide a succinct update of the more recent developments in a historical and human health context.

  5. The demographic consequences of U.S. Jewish population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, U O; Dellapergola, S

    1983-01-01

    This study is concerned with the population dynamics of the U.S. Jewish population. It is an extension of a previous study by Sidney Goldstein and develops the themes elaborated in that study in two directions: further investigation of nuptiality, fertility, and mixed marriage; and quantitative assessments of alternative projections of future population. The data are primarily taken from the National Jewish Population Study of 1970-1971. The authors conclude that the balance of internal population dynamics of U.S. Jewry is probably negative and, despite immigration, will become progressively more negative in the future.

  6. Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saurav; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Malhotra, Anil K; Lee, Annette T; Gregersen, Peter K; Kane, John M; Pe'er, Itsik; Darvasi, Ariel; Lencz, Todd

    2012-01-25

    Relatively small, reproductively isolated populations with reduced genetic diversity may have advantages for genomewide association mapping in disease genetics. The Ashkenazi Jewish population represents a unique population for study based on its recent (marriage within the community. We genotyped more than 1,300 Ashkenazi Jewish healthy volunteers from the Hebrew University Genetic Resource with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad platform. Comparison of the genotyping data with that of neighboring European and Asian populations enabled the Ashkenazi Jewish-specific component of the variance to be characterized with respect to disease-relevant alleles and pathways. Using clustering, principal components, and pairwise genetic distance as converging approaches, we identified an Ashkenazi Jewish-specific genetic signature that differentiated these subjects from both European and Middle Eastern samples. Most notably, gene ontology analysis of the Ashkenazi Jewish genetic signature revealed an enrichment of genes functioning in transepithelial chloride transport, such as CFTR, and in equilibrioception, potentially shedding light on cystic fibrosis, Usher syndrome and other diseases over-represented in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Results also impact risk profiles for autoimmune and metabolic disorders in this population. Finally, residual intra-Ashkenazi population structure was minimal, primarily determined by class 1 MHC alleles, and not related to host country of origin. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is of potential utility in disease-mapping studies due to its relative homogeneity and distinct genomic signature. Results suggest that Ashkenazi-associated disease genes may be components of population-specific genomic differences in key functional pathways.

  7. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  8. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of population based BRCA testing with varying Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Patel, Shreeya; Antoniou, Antonis C; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Turnbull, Clare; Evans, D Gareth; Hopper, John L; Macinnis, Robert J; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Legood, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing has been found to be cost-effective compared with family history-based testing in Ashkenazi-Jewish women were >30 years old with 4 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents. However, individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents, and cost-effectiveness data are lacking at these lower BRCA prevalence estimates. We present an updated cost-effectiveness analysis of population BRCA1/BRCA2 testing for women with 1, 2, and 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents. Decision analysis model. Lifetime costs and effects of population and family history-based testing were compared with the use of a decision analysis model. 56% BRCA carriers are missed by family history criteria alone. Analyses were conducted for United Kingdom and United States populations. Model parameters were obtained from the Genetic Cancer Prediction through Population Screening trial and published literature. Model parameters and BRCA population prevalence for individuals with 3, 2, or 1 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent were adjusted for the relative frequency of BRCA mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish and general populations. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for all Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent scenarios. Costs, along with outcomes, were discounted at 3.5%. The time horizon of the analysis is "life-time," and perspective is "payer." Probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated model uncertainty. Population testing for BRCA mutations is cost-saving in Ashkenazi-Jewish women with 2, 3, or 4 grandparents (22-33 days life-gained) in the United Kingdom and 1, 2, 3, or 4 grandparents (12-26 days life-gained) in the United States populations, respectively. It is also extremely cost-effective in women in the United Kingdom with just 1 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £863 per quality-adjusted life-years and 15 days life gained. Results show that population-testing remains cost-effective at the £20,000-30000 per quality

  10. Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-06-11

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads.

  11. ABCC8 mutation allele frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population and risk of focal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Benjamin; Blech, Ilana; Krakinovsky, Yocheved; Ekstein, Josef; Gillis, David; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Landau, Heddy; Abeliovich, Dvorah

    2011-10-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (OMIM# 256450) is a devastating disease most commonly caused by dominant or recessive mutations in either ABCC8 or KCNJ11, the genes that encode for the β-cell adenosine triphosphate-regulated potassium channel. A unique combination of a paternally inherited germline mutation and somatic loss-of-heterozygosity causes the focal form of the disease (Focal-congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy [Focal-CHI]), the incidence of which in genetically susceptible individuals is not known. We genotyped 21,122 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for two previously identified ABCC8 founder mutations and utilized a clinical database of 61 unrelated Ashkenazi patients with congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy to obtain an estimate of the risk of Focal-CHI in a genetically susceptible fetus. The combined mutation carrier rate in Ashkenazi Jews was 1:52, giving an estimated frequency of homozygosity or compound heterozygosity of 1:10,816 in this population. The risk of Focal-CHI is 1:540 per pregnancy in offspring of carrier fathers. We recommend that these mutations be included in the genetic screening program for the Ashkenazi Jewish population. As the risk of Focal-CHI is not expected to be mutation specific, the data reported in this study are useful for counseling all families in which the father was found to carry a recessive ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation.

  12. Lower Cancer Rates Among Druze Compared to Arab and Jewish Populations in Israel, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmon, Iris; Linn, Shai; Portnov, Boris A; Richter, Elihu; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2017-06-01

    The Druze are a small ethnic minority in Israel amounting to about 130,000 residents (or 1.7 % of the total population of the country). Unlike other population groups, the Druze strive to keep their own traditions and marry mainly inside their own community. During the last decade, cancer morbidity among both Jews and Arabs in Israel has been increasing, while data on the Druze are little known and have not been analyzed and compared to other population groups to date. To compare cancer morbidity rates among Druze, Arabs and Jews in Israel during 1999-2009, gender-specific and age-standardized incidence rates of all site cancers and specific cancers of three population groups (Jews, Arabs and Druze) were received from the Israel National Cancer Registry for the period 1999-2009. Based on these rates, periodical incidence rates were calculated and mutually compared across the groups stratified by gender. As the analysis shows, the Druze had significantly lower cancer rates compared to both Arabs and Jews. Thus, for all site cancers, there were significantly higher cancer rates in Jewish males versus Druze males (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.65) and in Jewish females versus Druze females (RR = 1.53, 95 % CI = 1.27-1.85), but not statistically significant for Arab males versus Druze males (RR = 1.12 95 % CI = 0.93-1.35). Lung cancer rates in Arab males were also higher compared to Druze males (RR = 1.84, 95 % CI = 1.13-3.00). Jewish males had statistically significant higher rates of prostate cancer compared to Druze males (RR = 2.47, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.91). For thyroid and colon cancers, risks were not significantly different at the 95 % CI level; however, the risks were significantly different at the 90 % CI level (RR = 3.62, 90 % CI 1.20-11.02 and RR = 1.69, 90 % CI = 1.03-2.77, respectively). Jewish females had significantly higher rates of invasive breast cancer (RR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.25), in situ cervical cancer (RR

  13. [Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients in Jewish and Bedouin populations in southern Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorny, Alexander; Lifshits, Tova; Kratz, Assaf; Levy, Jaime; Golfarb, Daniel; Zlotnik, Alexander; Knyazer, Boris

    2011-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. In recent years, there is a dramatic increase in the number of diabetic patients in the Bedouin population in the Negev region. To analyze the clinical features and find out the incidence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy of type 2 diabetes patients in the Jewish and Bedouin populations. Data was collected from the files of 523 patients, who were examined by ophthalmologists at different clinics in southern Israel, and who were not previously diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy until that examination. All the data was analyzed by univariate analysis, and a multivariate model was built to predict the risk to develop diabetic retinopathy, separately for the Jewish and Bedouin population in the Negev. The average age was 64 +/- 10.3 years in the Jewish population and 58.6 +/- 12 years in the Bedouin population (P diabetic retinopathy and/or maculopathy) were found in 13.4% of Jews, compared to 22% of Bedouins (P predicting factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy in the Jewish population: long duration of diabetes, older age, high HbA1c, insulin treatment, high levels of LDL and creatinine; and 4 predicting factors in the Bedouin population: long duration of diabetes, high HbA1c, insulin treatment and smoking. The Bedouin population in southern Israel suffers more from retinal diabetic complications compared to Jewish patients. Common risk factors for both populations are long duration of diabetes, high HbA1c and insulin treatment.

  14. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  15. Double heterozygosity in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, O; Narod, S; Lejbkowicz, F; Dishon, S; Goldberg, Y; Gemer, O; Rennert, G

    2011-04-01

    The frequency and characteristics of disease in individuals who concomitantly harbor pathogenic mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are not established. Data were collected from the database of Clalit Health Services National Familial Cancer Consultation Service. Probands referred to this clinical service and their family members are routinely tested for the three Jewish founder mutations (BRCA1: 185delAG, 5382insC, BRCA2: 6174delT). In addition, carriers identified in a population-based cohort of all cases diagnosed with breast cancer in Israel in 1987-1988 allowed the estimation of the population frequency of this phenomenon. In the clinic-based series of 1191 carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 belonging to 567 families, 22 males and females (1.85%) from 17 different families (3.0%) were found to harbor two different mutations. These included 18 individuals (1.51%) who concomitantly carried the 185delAG BRCA1 and the 6174delT BRCA2 mutations and four individuals (0.34%) who carried the 5382insC BRCA1 and the 6174delT mutations. All individuals were heterozygote carriers and none had a double mutation of both founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene itself. Seven of the 16 double carrier women (46.7%) had a personal history of breast carcinoma, diagnosed at a mean age of 44.6, compared with 372/926 (40.2%) carriers of a single mutation diagnosed with a mean age at diagnosis of 48.1 [odds ratio (OR)=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-4.0]. One case (6.7%) had a personal history of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed at the age of 53 compared with 55/926 (5.9%) of the women with single mutation (OR=1.1, CI=0.2-7.6). The frequency of double mutations in the population-based national breast cancer cohort was 2.2% of all carriers, and 0.3% of all breast cancer cases in the Ashkenazi population in the cohort. The mean age at diagnosis of breast cancer was younger in the carriers of two mutations. Double carriers of mutations in the BRCA genes are rare and seem to be

  16. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their contribution to the an may be gauged by their forming 30%1 of Nobel Prize winners for medicine while constituting a fraction of 1% of the total world population. Garrison,2 Talbot,3 Roth4 and the Encyclopaedia Judaica5 were consulted for Jewish identification. The laner authority includes those of 'Jewish origin', ...

  17. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jewish hospital movement in the USA, which started in the last century for Jews as foreign immigrants and was extended to the general population this century, is an exten- sive organisation. Refugee physicians from Europe laid the foundations of Jewish medical involvement in medicine in the. USA with Abraham ...

  18. Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations alter susceptibility to T2DM complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadon Sarah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome-wide association studies searching for candidate susceptibility loci for common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its common complications have uncovered novel disease-associated genes. Nevertheless these large-scale population screens often overlook the tremendous variation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and its involvement in complex disorders. Results We have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic variability in Ashkenazi (Ash, Sephardic (Seph and North African (NAF Jewish populations (total n = 1179. Our analysis showed significant differences (p Conclusion Our findings support the possibility that recent bottleneck events leading to over-representation of minor mtDNA alleles in specific genetic isolates, could result in population-specific susceptibility loci to complex disorders.

  19. Dental Anomalies in a Brazilian Cleft Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Mariano, Lorena C; Canguçu, Daiane; Coutinho, Thaynara S L; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Martelli-Junior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2016-11-01

      The aim of this study was to radiographically investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P).   A retrospective analysis of 207 panoramic radiographs of patients with NSCL/P aged 12 to 45 years without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment was performed.   Dental anomalies were found in 75.4% of the patients, and tooth agenesis (29.2%) and supernumerary tooth (2.6%) were the most common anomalies. The risk of agenesis was higher among the individuals with cleft palate (CP) compared with individuals with cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) (agenesis: CP versus CL: odds ratio 6.27, 95% confidence interval 2.21-17.8, P = .0003; CP versus CLP: odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.27-6.81, P = .01). The frequency of dental agenesis was higher in patients with unilateral complete CLP (agenesis: P agenesis: P = .0013), complete CP (agenesis: P agenesis: P dental agenesis (P dental anomalies in patients with NSCL/P was higher than that reported in overall population. This study found preferential associations between dental anomalies and specific extensions of NSCL/P, suggesting that dental agenesis and ectopic tooth may be part of oral cleft subphenotypes.

  20. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  1. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  2. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  3. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    RASKIN, SALMO; ALLAN, NASSER; TEIVE, HÉLIO A.G.; CARDOSO, FRANCISCO; HADDAD, MÔNICA SANTORO; LEVI, GILBERTO; BOY, RAQUEL; LERENA JR, JUAN; SOTOMAIOR, VANESSA SANTOS; JANZEN-DÜCK, MÔNICA; JARDIM, LAURA BANNACH; FELLANDER, FLÁVIO R.; ANDRADE, LUIZ AUGUSTO FRANCO

    2000-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repe...

  4. Spinopelvic parameters evaluation in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B

    2015-07-01

    The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.

  5. MICA-HLA-B haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a population of Jewish descent from Majorca (the Balearic Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Ana; Muñoz-Saá, Iván; Crespí, Catalina; Serra, Antònia; Etxagibel, Aitziber; Matamoros, Núria; Milà, Joan; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2009-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) gene is located 46 kb centromeric of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B and is highly polymorphic, similar to HLA genes. This allelic variation may influence the affinity of MICA molecules to their receptor on natural killer, gammadelta T and CD8+ T cells, NKG2D, and the immune response to organ transplantation and disease susceptibility. In the present study, we typed MICA and HLA-B polymorphisms in 95 individuals from a population of Jewish descent (Chuetas) and 195 individuals of Caucasian origin from Majorca (the Balearic Islands). MICA*008, -*004, and -*002 were the most common alleles and accounted for 53 and 60% in Chuetas and Majorcans, respectively. Other common alleles (frequency >5%) were MICA*016, -*009, -*012, -*007, and -*017 in Chuetas and -*009, -*001, and -*018 in Majorcans. We also studied two-locus haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Both populations presented haplotypes with significant LD that were shared by other Caucasians populations, but we reported particular haplotypes in the Chueta group: MICA*002-HLA-B*38, MICA*016-HLA-B*35, MICA*012-HLA-B*55, and MICA*017-HLA-B*57. These haplotypes were not reported in other studies at high frequencies. In conclusion, the Chueta population presents a particular genetic pool but has affinities with the host population.

  6. Experiences from a pilot program bringing BRCA1/2 genetic screening to theUS Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesman, Chana; Rose, Esther; Grant, Allison; Zimilover, Adam; Klugman, Susan; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    The notion of offering population-based screening to the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population for the BRCA1/2 founder mutations continues to gain support. A program called the BRCAcommunity initiative was designed to identify the benefits and barriers associated with implementing this screening in a clinical setting. Interested AJ individuals were stratified into high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) groups based on self-reported cancer histories. Those at HR were offered traditional genetic counseling/testing; those at LR were offered group genetic counseling and subsidized AJ BRCA founder mutation testing. During the pilot year, 62% of initial registrants and 53% of ultimate study participants were classified into the HR group. Among the 101 HR and 88 LR study participants, 8 and 2 BRCA carriers were identified, respectively. The LR carriers would have been missed by current mechanisms. Survey responses provided insight into the motivations and fears associated with pursuing testing, the efficacy of the initiative design, and challenges that exist on multiple levels, including the community, health-care providers, and insurance coverage. Although the medical value of identifying presymptomatic BRCA carriers in Ashkenazi Jews is evident, further measures need to be taken before this effort can be accomplished on a large scale.Genet Med advance online publication 13 October 2016.

  7. Demography, vulnerabilities and right to health to Brazilian prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases. The prison becomes the object of differentiated intervention by public bodies linked to the executive and the judiciary - it is worth remarking that the data show the high level of inequalities and health vulnerabilities among the prison population, whose needs involve a set of cross-sector of transverse public policies actions towards penal execution.

  8. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  9. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)-based testing. In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn't adversely affect short-term psychological

  10. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  11. Ashkenazi Jewish genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Joel

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of several genes responsible for 'single-gene' disorders and disease predispositions is higher among Ashkenazi Jews than among Sephardi Jews and non-Jews. The disparity is most likely the result of founder effect and genetic drift, rather than heterozygote advantage. The more common Mendelian Ashkenazi Jewish genetic disorders are summarized, and examples of variable expressivity and penetrance, inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, and potential modifiers are presented. The importance of genetic counseling in both the pre- and post-test phases of population screening is emphasized.

  12. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Vargas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  13. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  14. Refractive errors in a Brazilian population: age and sex distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fabio H; Corrente, José E; Opromolla, Paula; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Schellini, Silvana A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of refractive errors and their distribution according to age and sex in a Brazilian population. This population-based cross-sectional study involved 7654 Brazilian inhabitants of nine municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, between March 2004 and July 2005. Participants aged >1 year were selected using a random, stratified, household cluster sampling technique, excluding individuals with previous refractive or cataract surgery. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.5D, high myopia as SE ≤-3.0D, hyperopia as SE ≥+0.5D, high hyperopia as SE ≥+3D, astigmatism as ≤-0.5DC and anisometropia as ≥1.0D difference between eyes. Age, sex, complaints and a comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refraction test were collected and analysed using descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate methods. The prevalence of astigmatism was 59.7%, hyperopia 33.8% and myopia was 25.3%. Astigmatism had a progressive increase with age. With-the-rule (WTR) axes of astigmatism were more frequently observed in the young participants and the against-the-rule (ATR) axes were more frequent in the older subjects. The onset of myopia occurred more frequently between the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Anisometropia showed a prevalence of 13.2% (95% CI 12.4-13.9; p refractive error and hyperopia was also associated with sex. Hyperopia was associated with WTR axes (odds ratio 0.73; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8; p prevalent refractive error in a Brazilian population. There was a strong relationship between age and all refractive errors and between hyperopia and sex. WTR astigmatism was more frequently associated with hyperopia and ATR astigmatism with myopia. The vast majority of participants had low-grade refractive error, which favours planning aimed at correction of refractive error in the population. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Jewish Wedding Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNAL, Asife

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Jewish wedding has so far unchanged for centuries in the basic elements, although each congregation has demonstrated little differences due to settled customs. The Jewish wedding traditions carries proper religious properties for the the sanctity of family unity which conduce to the continuation of the Jewish generation. The community attaches great importance to this united ceremony, combining the engagement (erusin/kiddushin) and the marriage (nisuin) which had been done sep...

  16. A digital Jewish history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiatacz Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

  17. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  18. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rally discriminated against as regards appointments. When this discrimination declined in about 1950, Jewish hospitals had only 10-20% Jewish patients but were continued as a service to the community at large and were funded from Jewish sources. In 1966 there were 64 major Jewish hospitals in the USA, some of which ...

  19. Daily dietary selenium intake of selected Brazilian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Gonzaga, I.B.; Silva, V.L.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its essential characteristics, the daily dietary selenium intake of individuals should be monitored accurately. Daily selenium intake of different Brazilian population groups based on duplicate portion diet analysis was evaluated and compared with the new estimated average requirement values (EAR), to assess if selenium deficiency or excess could be observed in these groups. Selenium content was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The average daily dietary selenium intake found was 26.3 (±8.3) μg/day for children from the city of Sao Paulo, 37.4 (±16.0) μg/day for children from Belem, 107 (±107) μg/day for children from Macapa, 28.4 (±7.5) μg/day for institutionalized elderly, 32 (±6) μg/day for non-institutionalized elderly and 37 (±17) μg/day for university students from Sao Paulo. Most daily dietary selenium intake range observed were below the EAR values. The values obtained for children groups from Belem and Macapa cities, whose intake levels were much higher than the recommendation, were an exception. (author)

  20. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  1. Physical stature of Jewish Dutchmen: an overview of three cases from the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    I investigated the changes in stature of Jewish and Non-Jewish conscripts in Amsterdam (northern Holland) and Groningen (Groningen) during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the middle of the nineteenth century the position of the Jewish population was rather weak from an economic

  2. Expanding sisterhood: Jewish lesbians and externalizations of Jewishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The body is a canvas that can be used to express a kaleidoscope of identities. For Jewish lesbians, who experience marginalization at the hands of both secular and religious society, externalizations of Jewishness can be empowering. For some women, this embodied Jewishness makes a political statement; for others, it gives voice to their Jewish spirituality. In both cases, this ethnographic study probes the ways in which Jewish lesbians experience queerness and Jewishness and how overlaps of these identities manifest in hair styling, yarmulkes, and the wearing of prayer shawls.

  3. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Albino, Flávia Barbizan; de Moura, Karen Fernandes; Maftum, Gustavo Jorge; dos Santos, Mauro de Castro; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from ...

  4. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  5. High frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer genotypes in an Ashkenazi Jewish population from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, G; Dorado, P; Ferreiro, V; Naranjo, M E G; Peñas-Lledó, E M; LLerena, A

    2017-07-01

    A twofold higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (estimated from genotype: gUMs) was reported among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) living in New York (USA) than in other North American Caucasians, which might be important to guide the prescription for CYP2D6 substrates in AJ communities around the world. This study was aimed to determine whether the high frequency of CYP2D6 gUMs described in AJ from USA was replicated in AJ from Argentina when compared with other multiethnic admixture Argentines (GA). The frequency of the most common allelic variants and of CYP2D6 gUMs (>2 active genes) and poor metabolizers (0 active genes, gPMs) was also compared among the studied Argentine populations. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed in 173 AJ and 246 GA DNA samples of unrelated donors from the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. CYP2D6 alleles (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *10, *17, *35, *41 and multiple copies), genotypes and functional phenotype frequencies were determined. The frequencies of gUMs and gPMs in AJ from Argentina were 11.5% and 5.2%, respectively, whereas in GA, the frequencies of gUM and gPMs were 6.5% and 4.9%, respectively. Comparisons between AJ and GA showed that gUMs frequencies were twofold higher (P<0.05) in AJ than GA. CYP2D6*35 allele was more frequent in GA than AJ, whereas CYP2D6*41 and *1xN were more frequent in AJ than in GA (P<0.05). This study supports the previously reported high frequency of gUMs on another Ashkenazi population in New York. The present findings also support the interethnic variability of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism in the overall Argentine population.

  6. Common mutations in the phosphofructokinase-M gene in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with glycogenesis VII - and their population frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, J.B.; Raben, N.; Nicastri, C.; Adams, E.M.; Plotz, P.H. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Argov, Z. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Nakajima, Hiromu (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Eng, C.M.; Cowan, T.M. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Deficiency of the muscle enzyme is manifested by exercise intolerance and a compensated hemolytic anemia. Case reports of this autosomal recessive disease suggest a predominance in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The authors have explored the genetic basis for this illness in nine affected families and surveyed the normal Ashkenazi population for the mutations found. Genomic DNA was amplified using PCR, and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis. The polymorphic exons were sequenced or digested with restriction enzymes. A previously described splicing mutation, [Delta]5, accounted for 11 (61%) of 18 abnormal alleles in the nine families. A single base deletion leading to a frameshift mutation in exon 22 ([Delta]C-22) was found in six of seven alleles. A third mutation, resulting in a nonconservative amino acid substitution in exon 4, accounted for the remaining allele. Thus, three mutations could account for an illness in this group, and two mutations could account for 17 of 18 alleles. In screening 250 normal Ashkenazi individuals for all three mutations, they found only one [Delta]5 allele. Clinical data revealed no correlation between the particular mutations and symptoms, but male patients were more symptomatic than females, and only males had frank hemolysis and hyperuricemia. Because PFK deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews is caused by a limited number of mutations, screening genomic DNA from peripheral blood for the described mutations in this population should enable rapid diagnosis without muscle biopsy. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  8. Screening for thyroid disorders in asymptomatic adults from Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Benseñor

    Full Text Available Advances in thyroid disorder diagnosis have created new thyroid disorder categories such as subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. In the 1980s, immunometric assaying for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH emerged and became defined as the most cost-effective test in thyroid disorder screening. The second step in the screening of thyroid disorders is to determine free thyroxine (FT4, and cost-effective methods for its detection are now available. Using TSH and FT4, it is possible to determine four situations: clinical hyperthyroidism, clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism can be a strong indicator of risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women. Cardiovascular mortality among Brazilian women is one of the highest in the Western world. The best-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Although these are recognized as primary risk factors, there are other risk factors that could be identified as primordial risk factors. This may be the case for subclinical hypothyroidism. Early detection of thyroid disorders in women over fifty could be a highly cost-effective option in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders among Brazilian women.

  9. Proposal for a breakfast quality index for brazilian population: Rationale and application in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; Hopkins, Sinead; Gugger, Carolyn; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Breakfast has been related to positive nutrition and health outcomes, but criteria for an optimal composition of this meal are not well established. The aim of this study was to propose a breakfast quality index (BQI) for the Brazilian population, and to describe the relationship between breakfast quality, socio-demographic factors, dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day. BQI was constructed based on individual dietary data of 22,279 breakfast consumers, aged 20+ years from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study. The BQI was comprised of food components (cereals, fruit/vegetables, dairy products), and nutrient criteria (energy, fiber, free sugar, saturated fat, calcium and sodium). Mean, percentage and 95% CIs were estimated for variables according to BQI categories. The mean BQI was 4.2, with 71% of individuals falling into medium BQI category and 6% in high category. Individuals in urban areas, in higher categories of income and education and women had higher BQI means. Consumers with high BQI had higher intake of fruits/vegetables and higher breakfast and total daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, total sugar, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate and vitamins B6, A, C, and D, and lower trans fatty acids compared to those in low and medium BQI groups. Promoting a high-quality breakfast may contribute to a better nutrient intake and achievement of daily requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary cumulative acute risk assessment of organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids insecticides for the Brazilian population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira; Brito, Alessandra Page; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Boon, Polly E; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    Cumulative acute dietary risk assessments of organophosphorus (OPs), carbamates (CBs) and pyrethroids (PYs) were conducted for the Brazilian population. Residue data for 30786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from two national monitoring programs and one University laboratory, and consumption data

  11. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-10-10

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (ФST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ФST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora.

  12. Distribution of QPY and RAH haplotypes of granzyme B gene in distinct Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The cytolysis mediated by granules is one of the most important effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Recently, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at exons 2, 3, and 5 of the granzyme B gene, resulting in a haplotype in which three amino acids of mature protein Q48P88Y245 are changed to R48A88H245, which leads to loss of cytotoxic activity of the protein. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian populations. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian ethnic groups (white, Afro-Brazilian, and Asian by sequencing these regions. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of SNP 2364A/G at exon 2 in Afro-Brazilian individuals (42.3% and 17.3% were significantly higher when compared with those in whites and Asians (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively. The polymorphisms 2933C/G and 4243C/T also were more frequent in Afro-Brazilians but without any significant difference regarding the other groups. The Afro-Brazilian group presented greater diversity of haplotypes, and the RAH haplotype seemed to be more frequent in this group (25%, followed by the whites (20.7% and by the Asians (11.9%, similar to the frequency presented in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of polymorphisms in Afro-Brazilians, and the RAH haplotype was more frequent in these individuals. We believe that further studies should aim to investigate the correlation of this haplotype with diseases related to immunity mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and if this correlation is confirmed, novel treatment strategies might be elaborated.

  13. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  14. Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiro, Inês; Manco, Licínio; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2010-03-01

    The establishment of Jewish communities in the territory of contemporary Portugal is archaeologically documented since the 3rd century CE, but their settlement in Trás-os-Montes (NE Portugal) has not been proved before the 12th century. The Decree of Expulsion followed by the establishment of the Inquisition, both around the beginning of the 16th century, accounted for a significant exodus, as well as the establishment of crypto-Jewish communities. Previous Y chromosome studies have shown that different Jewish communities share a common origin in the Near East, although they can be quite heterogeneous as a consequence of genetic drift and different levels of admixture with their respective host populations. To characterize the genetic composition of the Portuguese Jewish communities from Trás-os-Montes, we have examined 57 unrelated Jewish males, with a high-resolution Y-chromosome typing strategy, comprising 16 STRs and 23 SNPs. A high lineage diversity was found, at both haplotype and haplogroup levels (98.74 and 82.83%, respectively), demonstrating the absence of either strong drift or founder effects. A deeper and more detailed investigation is required to clarify how these communities avoided the expected inbreeding caused by over four centuries of religious repression. Concerning haplogroup lineages, we detected some admixture with the Western European non-Jewish populations (R1b1b2-M269, approximately 28%), along with a strong ancestral component reflecting their origin in the Middle East [J1(xJ1a-M267), approximately 12%; J2-M172, approximately 25%; T-M70, approximately 16%] and in consequence Trás-os-Montes Jews were found to be more closely related with other Jewish groups, rather than with the Portuguese non-Jewish population.

  15. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  16. Coping strategies in voice disorders of a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Epstein, Ruth; Yazigi, Latife; Behlau, Mara

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore coping strategies of individuals with and without vocal complaint and to examine relationships between the type of coping and vocal complaint; vocal symptoms; vocal self-assessment; perceptual analysis and states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. One hundred seventy-eight subjects with (n=87) and without vocal (n=91) complaint completed the following analysis: identification and characterization questionnaire, vocal self-assessment, perceptual analysis, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Health Locus of Control Scale. Age (P=0.219) and sex (P=0.132) were similar for both groups. The groups were statistically different for the following vocal characterization: number of symptoms, voice complaint, vocal self-assessment, and perceptual analysis. Conversely, the groups did not differ on states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. Mean coping scores for the group with vocal complaint was 51.86 and for the group without vocal complaint was 23.18. Furthermore, men and women did not differ on the coping strategies reported (P=0.750); however, individuals with vocal complaint reported statistically more strategies than the individuals without vocal complaint (Panxiety (P=0.022), and correlated negatively with locus of control (P=0.001). No correlation was found between coping and the other variables studied. These findings indicate that people with vocal complaint use a variety of coping strategies, problem focused in particular, to deal with their voice problems. Coping results appear to be associated with perceptual characteristics of voice and some traits, such as depression, anxiety, and locus of control. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Opinion and knowledge of the population of a Brazilian city about organ donation and transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Julio Cezar Uili; Cilião, Camilla; Parolin, Mônica Beatriz; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; Gama Filho, Ozimo Pereira; Saad, Danilo Tatim; Pistori, Rafael Petracca; Martone, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    To determine the opinion and knowledge of the population of Curitiba about organ donation and transplantation. The opinion and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation of 1,000 subjects over 18 years of age were determined. The subjects responded to a questionnaire of 20 queries. Respondents had age, gender, social-economic, and education distributions similar to those of the Brazilian population, as defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Eighty-seven percent of respondents were in favor of organ donation. There was no difference in the percentage of respondents in favor of donation in relation to gender, marital status, religion, and income. The main reasons in favor of donation were to save life, to help other persons and to donate life. The main reasons against donation were distrust towards medicine or the Brazilian transplantation organization, the existence of organ sale, and fear of body mutilation. Most respondents believed that wealthy people have a better chance to receive an organ than poor people, that sales of organs exists in Brazil, and that misdiagnosis of brain death may occur. Most respondents are in favor of organ donation and have a good knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. The majority distrusts Brazilian organization of organ distribution and brain death diagnosis.

  18. Importance of cancer among the Brazilian elderly population from 2000 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Bezerra de Souza Fêde

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe cancer hospital morbidity and mortality in the Brazilian elderly population according to the primary site of neoplasms per Brazilian region and their importance on Public Health System expenses. Methods: The data were obtained from the Ministry of Health records from 2000 to 2005. Rresults: From 2000 to 2005, there were 507,174 deaths due to neoplasms of the population older than 60 years old. The largest mortality rates were found in South and South-East regions. Among women, breast cancer was the most fatal neoplasm; among men, prostate cancer and trachea, bronchi and lung cancer. In situ neoplasms accounted for the highest average hospitalizations and the highest average expenses of the total amount paid for hospitalizations, while brain neoplasms accounted for the highest average amount spent per hospitalization. Cconclusions: The elderly population corresponds to the majority of deaths due to neoplasms in the Brazilian population and for most of the hospitalizations expenses due to oncologic causes and subsequent expenses of the public health system.

  19. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a brazilian military police population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Viviani-Silva; Godinho, Eliane-Lopes; Farias, Lucyana-Conceição; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Santos, Sérgio-Henrique-Sousa; Rodrigues-Neto, João-Felício; Ferreira, Raquel-Conceição; De-Paula, Alfredo-Maurício-Batista; Martins, Andréa-Maria-Eleutério-de Barros-Lima; Sena-Guimarães, André-Luiz

    2015-04-01

    Data obtained from oral health surveys are very important for identifying disease-susceptible groups and for developing dental care and prevention programs. So, the purpose of the current article was to investigate the prevalence of oral mucosa lesions (OMLs) in a population of Brazilian police. Interviews and oral cavity examinations were performed on a sample of 395 police officers who were randomly selected by the calibrated researcher. The number of individuals was obtained by a sample calculation using the finite population correction. The diagnostic criteria were based on the WHO (1997) criteria and adapted to Brazilian surveys. In total, 8.61% of the population presented some OML. Traumatic injuries and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the most prevalent lesions. The prevalence of potentially malignant disorders was lower than among the Brazilian population.The most prevalent lesion among the police officers was related to trauma. Patients dissatisfied with oral health had a higher risk of presenting OMLs. Key words:Mouth disease, mouth mucosa, military personnel, public health, oral pathology, oral leukoplakia.

  20. [Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, N A; Albuquerque, M E

    1999-02-01

    The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80's. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States below Rio Grande do Norte. All the remaining states were classified as "regular" or "unsatisfactory". There was a significant improvement in the quality of the census population data and an increase in the coverage of death. It is possible to obtain get reliable mortality indicators for many Brazilian States.

  1. HLA-F polymorphisms in a Euro-Brazilian population from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvailer, L F S; Wowk, P F; Mattar, S B; da Siva, J S; da Graça Bicalho, M; Roxo, V M M S

    2014-12-01

    HLA-F is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene. It codes class Ib MHC molecules with restricted distribution and less nucleotide variations than MHC class Ia genes. Of the 22 alleles registered on the IMGT database only four alleles encode for proteins that differ in their primary structure. To estimate genotype and allele frequencies, this study targeted on known protein coding regions of the HLA-F gene. Genotyping was performed by Sequence Base Typing (SBT). The sample was composed by 199-unrelated bone marrow donors from the Brazilian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME), Euro-Brazilians, from Southern Brazil. About 1673 bp were analyzed. The most frequent allele was HLA-F*01:01 (87.19%), followed by HLA-F*01:03 (12.31%), HLA-F*01:02 (0.25%) and HLA-F*01:04 (0.25%). Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was verified between HLA-F and HLA classes I and II alleles. This is the first study regarding HLA-F polymorphisms in a Euro-Brazilian population contributing to the Southern Brazilian genetic characterization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic diversity and evidence of recent demographic expansion in waterbird populations from the Brazilian Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,IF.; Miño,CI.; Del Lama,SN.

    2007-01-01

    The present study determined nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) levels of genetic variability and phylogeographic patterns in breeding populations of Roseate Spoonbill (N = 57), Wood Stork (N = 89), and Jabiru Stork (N = 30), sampled in the Brazilian Pantanal. These species were selected since they are bioindicators of wetlands’ health and are threatened in other parts of their distribution. As they are in close association with this ecosystem, they are appropriate for studying the effects of ...

  3. Association between weather seasonality and blood parameters in riverine populations of the Brazilian Amazon,

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Poliany C.O.; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the seasonality of blood parameters related to iron homeostasis, inflammation, and allergy in two riverine populations from the Brazilian Amazon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 120 children and adolescents of school age, living in riverine communities of Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil, describing the hematocrit, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum iron, total white blood cell count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, C-reactive protein, and immunoglobulin E levels...

  4. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L

    2002-03-01

    Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women), all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7) and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9), were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation), but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  6. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  7. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radanovic

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE. Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women, all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7 and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9, were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation, but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  8. Cryptic lineages and Pleistocene population expansion in a Brazilian Cerrado frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cynthia P A; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2012-02-01

    Diversification of South American species endemic to open habitats has been attributed to both Tertiary events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless, phylogeographical studies of taxa in these regions are few, precluding generalizations about the timing and processes leading to differentiation and speciation. We inferred population structure of Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a frog widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. Three geographically distinct lineages were recovered in our phylogeny. The Chapada dos Guimarães (CG) clade was the first to diverge from other populations and contains multiple haplotypes from a single population in western Cerrado, probably representing a cryptic species. The southeast clade (SE) includes populations along the southeastern limit of the range within the historical distribution of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Finally, the Central Cerrado (CC) group includes haplotypes from the interior of Brazil that are paraphyletic relative to the SE clade. Analyses of historical demography indicate significant population expansion in the CC and SE populations, likely associated with colonization of newly formed open habitats. The divergence of populations in the CG clade occurred in the late Miocene, concordant with the uplift of the central Brazilian plateau. Divergence of the SE clade from the CC occurred during the mid-Pleistocene. Thus, both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations promoted divergences among lineages. Our study reveals a complex history of diversification in the Cerrado, a morphoclimatic domain highly threatened because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. We identified surprisingly deep divergences in a widely distributed frog, indicating that the Cerrado is not a barrier-free habitat and that its diversity is likely underestimated. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Autochthonous yeast populations from different brazilian geographic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gildo Almeida da

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are versatile microorganisms which show heterogeneity in their abilities of aromatic molecules formation. The metabolic conversions may improve the production of a particular compound already formed by the microorganism or promote the production of a completely new biochemicals. These conversions depend on the environment. The microbiome of terroir is unique. If the term terroir is a set of physical properties of a vineyard that contribute to the specific characteristics of its wine, the microorganisms will undoubtedly form an integral part of this concept. There are yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria that can affect the quality of the wine. The aim of the present study was to identify the autochthonous yeast populations of grape berries collected from regions with Geographic Indications or under construction. The identification was carried out by an approach, combining Maldi-Tof-MS, PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer with 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Some species are common to different GIs and in some of them other species are completely absent, besides some places are contiguous areas. In some areas, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia myanmarensis and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the predominant species.

  10. The Inherited p53 Mutation in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Maria Isabel; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2016-12-01

    A common criticism of studying rare diseases is the often-limited relevance of the findings to human health. Here, we review ∼15 years of research into an unusual germline TP53 mutation (p.R337H) that began with its detection in children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a remarkably rare childhood cancer that is associated with poor prognosis. We have come to learn that the p.R337H mutation exists at a very high frequency in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in one of 375 individuals within a total population of ∼100 million. Moreover, it has been determined that carriers of this founder mutation display variable tumor susceptibility, ranging from isolated cases of pediatric ACC to Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes, thus representing a significant medical issue for this country. Studying the biochemical and molecular consequences of this mutation on p53 tumor-suppressor activity, as well as the putative additional genetic alterations that cooperate with this mutation, is advancing our understanding of how p53 functions in tumor suppression in general. These studies, which originated with a rare childhood tumor, are providing important information for guiding genetic counselors and physicians in treating their patients and are already providing clinical benefit. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  12. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  13. The genetic heterogeneity of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis in a sample of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne-Moreira, Carolina; Marques, Vanessa Daccach; Magno Gonçalves, Marcus V; Fernandes de Oliveira, Mauricio; Tomaselli, Pedro J; Nunez, José; Moreira do Nascimento, Osvaldo J; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Marques, Wilson

    2018-03-09

    To present the genetic heterogeneity of a sample of the Brazilian population with TTR mutations. This cohort study was descriptive and retrospective, and enrolled patients with peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause that were found to have a mutation in the TTR gene during the process of etiological investigation, between July 1997 to January 2016. Over the study period, 129 point mutations were identified in 448 tested patients, of whom 128 were of Brazilian origin. The TTR Val30Met mutation was identified in 116 patients (90,6%); while seven (4,7%) patients had a pathogenic non-TTR mutation and seven (4,7%) carried non-pathogenic mutations (4.7%). The four non-TTRMet30 pathogenic mutations were TTR Aps38Tyr; TTR Ile107Val; TTR Val71Ala; and TTR Val122Ile. In the non-pathogenic group, we only found two mutations, including TTR Gly6Ser and TTR Thr119Thr. Our study depicts a scenario of greater genetic heterogeneity among Brazilian hATTR patients with FAP. We expect that this number will grow fast over a short period of time, due to increasing availability of genetic tests, increasing knowledge of the disease and the multivariate origin of our population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  15. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  16. Normative data of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test for brazilian elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to present normative data for Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test stratified by sex, gender, age, and education for the Brazilian elderly population. Method We evaluated 2.132 healthy elderly both genders, with a mean age of 70.30 years (± 7.28 from two community-based samples in Brazil drawn from different economic areas who were screened with cognitive and functional tests and the memory test. Statistical analyses were performed by independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Results Statistical analyses showed that memory scores tend to improve significantly with increasing years of education and decrease significantly as age increased. Conclusion We conclude that gender, education and age had effect on the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation performance in this Brazilian community-based sample.

  17. No association between periodontal disease and GHQ-12 in a Brazilian Police population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Eliane-Lopes; Farias, Lucyana-Conceição; Aguiar, João-Carlos-Andrade; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Bonan, Paulo-Rogério-Ferreti; Ferreira, Raquel-Conceição; De Paula, Alfredo-Maurício-Batista; Martins, Andréa-Maria-Eleutério de Barros-Lima; Guimarães, André-Luiz-Sena

    2011-09-01

    We attempt to investigate a possible association between periodontal disease (PD) and mental disorders (MD) in a population of Brazilian Police. From a total study population consisting of 803 policemen, 345 police officers were obtained by a sample calculation using the finite population correction who were randomly selected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Patients who had been prescribed steroids or those diagnosed with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases were excluded from this study. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess mental disorders. Odds ratios (ORs) for periodontal diseases severity and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The risk of advanced scores in Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated using Poisson Regression analyses. Only smoking and age were associated with severity in CAL and CPI index. No relation between MD and PD was observed even in different positions within the police department. It was not observed relation between GHQ-12 and the incidence of Periodontal Disease in a Brazilian Police population. Classical factors like age and smoking, however, were associated with CAL and CPI index higher scores in this population.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of self-reported ancestry groups in an admixed Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Tulio C; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Abreu, Breno S; Gentil, Paulo; Moreno-Lima, Ricardo; Oliveira, Ricardo J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    Population stratification is the main source of spurious results and poor reproducibility in genetic association findings. Population heterogeneity can be controlled for by grouping individuals in ethnic clusters; however, in admixed populations, there is evidence that such proxies do not provide efficient stratification control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of self-reported with genetic ancestry and the statistical risk of grouping an admixed sample based on self-reported ancestry. A questionnaire that included an item on self-reported ancestry was completed by 189 female volunteers from an admixed Brazilian population. Individual genetic ancestry was then determined by genotyping ancestry informative markers. Self-reported ancestry was classified as white, intermediate, and black. The mean difference among self-reported groups was significant for European and African, but not Amerindian, genetic ancestry. Pairwise fixation index analysis revealed a significant difference among groups. However, the increase in the chance of type 1 error was estimated to be 14%. Self-reporting of ancestry was not an appropriate methodology to cluster groups in a Brazilian population, due to high variance at the individual level. Ancestry informative markers are more useful for quantitative measurement of biological ancestry.

  19. Genetic Heterogeneity of Self-Reported Ancestry Groups in an Admixed Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Tulio C; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Abreu, Breno S; Gentil, Paulo; Moreno-Lima, Ricardo; Oliveira, Ricardo J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    Background Population stratification is the main source of spurious results and poor reproducibility in genetic association findings. Population heterogeneity can be controlled for by grouping individuals in ethnic clusters; however, in admixed populations, there is evidence that such proxies do not provide efficient stratification control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of self-reported with genetic ancestry and the statistical risk of grouping an admixed sample based on self-reported ancestry. Methods A questionnaire that included an item on self-reported ancestry was completed by 189 female volunteers from an admixed Brazilian population. Individual genetic ancestry was then determined by genotyping ancestry informative markers. Results Self-reported ancestry was classified as white, intermediate, and black. The mean difference among self-reported groups was significant for European and African, but not Amerindian, genetic ancestry. Pairwise fixation index analysis revealed a significant difference among groups. However, the increase in the chance of type 1 error was estimated to be 14%. Conclusions Self-reporting of ancestry was not an appropriate methodology to cluster groups in a Brazilian population, due to high variance at the individual level. Ancestry informative markers are more useful for quantitative measurement of biological ancestry. PMID:21498954

  20. SSR characterization of Oryza glumaepatula populations from the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Rosa, Thalita Marra; Borba, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The level and distribution of the genetic variability in 18 natural populations of Oryza glumaepatula that were collected from two Brazilian states were estimated using a set of 23 highly informative SSR markers. Samples comprising 78 and 117 individuals from populations of the states of Tocantins and Roraima, respectively, were evaluated in order to integrate and support previous studies that were carried out with populations of O. glumaepatula from Brazil. A total of 189 alleles were identified with an average of 8.22 alleles per locus. The 11 populations from Roraima presented, in combination, a higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.245) compared with that of the seven populations from Tocantins (HE = 0.212). All of the populations showed high and significant inbreeding values (mean f = 0.59); however, the mean was higher in Tocantins populations, indicating a higher gene flow in Roraima populations. The overall coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations was high and significant (0.59) and was higher in Tocantins due to the isolation of each population, in contrast to Roraima, where gene flow occurred more frequently. The SSR panel used in this work resulted to be informative (polymorphism information content = 0.201) for assessing genetic structure in O. glumaepatula populations.

  1. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  2. Molecular and behavioral differentiation among Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Alejandra S; Vigoder, Felipe M; Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Ferreira, Gabriel E M; Souza, Nataly A; Araújo, Izeneide B; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2009-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. There is strong evidence that L. longipalpis is a species complex, but until recently the existence of sibling species among Brazilian populations was considered a controversial issue. In addition, there is still no consensus regarding the number of species occurring in this complex. Using period, a gene that controls circadian rhythms and affects interpulse interval periodicity of the male courtship songs in Drosophila melanogaster and close relatives, we analyzed the molecular polymorphism in a number of L. longipalpis samples from different regions in Brazil and compared the results with our previously published data using the same marker. We also studied the male copulation songs and pheromones from some of these populations. The results obtained so far suggest the existence of two main groups of populations in Brazil, one group representing a single species with males producing Burst-type copulation songs and cembrene-1 pheromones; and a second group that is more heterogeneous and probably represents a number of incipient species producing different combinations of Pulse-type songs and pheromones. Our results reveal a high level of complexity in the divergence and gene-flow among Brazilian populations of the L. longipalpis species complex. This raises important questions concerning the epidemiological consequences of this incipient speciation process.

  3. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere’s method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Cássia Silva AZEVEDO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older. The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004 and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80 years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78 years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26 years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54 years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere’s formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  5. Prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in Brazilian population studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus has been associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, there is no conclusive evidence on the prevalence of oral or pharyngeal infection by human papillomavirus in the Brazilian population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of human papillomavirus infection in the Brazilian population. METHODS: Systematic review of published articles. Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Scielo electronic databases were searched. The search included published articles up to December 2014 in Portuguese, Spanish and English. A wide search strategy was employed in order to avoid publication biases and to assess studies dealing only with oral and/or oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infections in the Brazilian population. RESULTS: The 42 selected articles enrolled 4066 patients. It was observed that oral or oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infections were identified in 738 patients (18.2%; IC 95 17.6-18.8, varying between 0.0% and 91.9%. The prevalences of oral or oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infections were respectively 6.2%, 44.6%, 44.4%, 27.4%, 38.5% and 11.9% for healthy people, those with benign oral lesions, pre-malignant lesions, oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, risk groups (patients with genital human papillomavirus lesions or infected partners and immunocompromised patients. The risk of human papillomavirus infection was estimated for each subgroup and it was evident that, when compared to the healthy population, the risk of human papillomavirus infection was approximately 1.5-9.0 times higher, especially in patients with an immunodeficiency, oral lesions and squamous cell carcinoma. The rates of the most well-known oncogenic types (human papillomavirus 16 and/or 18 also show this increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, the Brazilian healthy population has a very low oral human papillomavirus infection rate. Other

  6. Frequency of Werner helicase 1367 polymorphism and age-related morbidity in an elderly Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.C. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4% and 121 males (31.6% of European (89.2%, Japanese (3.3%, Middle Eastern (1.81%, and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%. There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These subjects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%, hypertension (83.7%, diabetes (63.3%, obesity (41.23%, dementia (8.0%, depression (20.0%, and neoplasia (10.8%. Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japanese population.

  7. Factors associated with osteoporosis in Brazilian women: a population-based household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Sousa, Maria Helena; Osis, Maria José; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The aging of Brazilian population has been well-documented. A longer time since menopause, poor self-perception of health, and having arthrosis and balance problems are factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Poor self-perception of health, menopausal treatment with natural remedies, smoking, and decreased functional capacity are associated with early onset of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis and its associated factors in Brazilian women over 50 years of age and to obtain information on factors related to the early onset of the disease. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over 50 years of age residing in Campinas/Brazil was conducted between May 10 and October 31, 2011 in the form of a population survey. A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers. Osteoporosis was classified either as self-reported or as osteoporosis diagnosed by bone densitometry. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi-square test, Poisson regression analysis, and Cox multiple regression model. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis was 21.3 %. A longer time since menopause (prevalence ratios (PR), 1.04; 95 % CI, 1.03-1.05; p osteoporosis. The variables associated with early onset of the disease were: self-perception of health as fair/poor/very poor (coefficient, 0.77; p menopausal treatment with natural remedies (coefficient, 1.01; p 20 cigarettes/day (coefficient, 1.02; p = 0.003), and problems in running/lifting something heavy/practicing sports/doing heavy work (coefficient, 0.60; p = 0.029). The results of this study have improved understanding of the factors associated with osteoporosis in the Brazilian population and may help identify those women who should undergo bone densitometry.

  8. Grand Illusion? The Phenomenon of Jewish Life in Poland after the Holocaust in Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ilwicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish Life in Poland inLower Silesia began with the end of World War II. Survivors from the local concentration camp in Gross Rosen created the first Jewish committee and, with German Jewish survivors, started a new chapter in the post war history of Lower Silesia. The fact that only 10% of the Jews from the whole population overcame the extermination should be borne in mind. There is a related branch of research that seeks to determine how long Jewish life continued in Europe, where and under what conditions. In the last few years, we have become aware of the extent to which Jews actually built new possibilities after World War II in Poland, 1945–1968. In fact, the prevailing popular image of post–war Jewry is a simplistic one that divides the Jewish population into basic groups: the assimilated Jews of Russia; the “Jewish Jews” of Poland and other western areas, annexed to the Soviet Union, who sought to preserve at least some aspects of Yiddishkayt (Jewishness; and the traditional Jews, who remained devout. In the period of 1945–1950, the Jews created the most important center of Jewish Life in Europe, in terms of culture, industry, education and intellectual life. A stabilization period of the Jewish settlement began with the autumn of 1946. The softening of emigration rules and the closure of the Polish borders in the winter of 1947 helped Jews fully concentrate on the Jewish life in Poland. At that time, political, social, economic and cultural activities continued to be carried out on a large scale. In 1946, 16,960 Jews were registered in Wrocław. With the change of the policy towards the Jewish community by the communist government of Poland, the Jewish settlement in Wrocław slowed down and eventually, at the beginning of the 70’s, Jewish life in the Lower Silesia disappeared from the cultural map of the local landscapes. Even though some of the Jewish settlers remained in the Lower Silesia to continue Jewish life in

  9. Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Central Obesity in a Southern Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína P. Jaeger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in energy balance control, stimulating appetite and increasing body weight in wasting syndromes. Different studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene and obesity with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the 1359G/A (rs1049353, 3813A/G (rs12720071 and 4895A/G (rs806368 polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene in a Brazilian population of European descent. To verify the association between these variants and obesity-related traits in this population, 756 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods. The 4895G allele was associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR (P = 0.014; P = 0.042 after Bonferroni correction. An additive effect with the GAA haplotype was associated with WHR (P = 0.028, although this statistical significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.084. No significant association was observed between the genotypes of the 1359G/A and 3813A/G polymorphisms and any of the quantitative variables investigated. Our findings suggest that CNR1 gene polymorphism is associated with central obesity in this Brazilian population of European ancestry.

  10. Main visual symptoms associated to refractive errors and spectacle need in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellini, Silvana; Ferraz, Fabio; Opromolla, Paula; Oliveira, Laryssa; Padovani, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To determine the main visual symptoms in a Brazilian population sample, associated to refractive errors (REs) and spectacle need to suggest priorities in preventive programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the southeast region of Brazil, using a systematic sampling of households, between March 2004 and July 2005. The population was defined as individuals aged between 1 and 96y, inhabitants of 3600 residences to be evaluated and 3012 households were included, corresponding to 8010 subjects considered for participation in the survey, of whom 7654 underwent ophthalmic examinations. The individuals were evaluated according their demographic data, eye complaints and eye examination including the RE and the need to prescribe spectacles according to age. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software package and descriptive analysis using 95% confidence intervals (PBrazilian population.

  11. Is there really natural selection affecting the l frequencies (long hair) in the Brazilian cat populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, M

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on cat genetics contains a presumed typical example of natural selection affecting l frequencies (long hair) in 16 Brazilian cat populations. It has been observed that the hotter and more tropical the climate in Brazil, the lower the values of l frequencies in the cat populations. Nevertheless, this study of some new cat populations in Latin America showed that all of them, independent of the climate, had high or very high l frequencies. l postulate that an alternative migrational-historical hypothesis exists that explains the correlation between the l frequencies and climate characteristics (which are correlated with the latitude) without using natural selection explanations concerning the appearance of the l allele in Brazil.

  12. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a Brazilian population: The Botucatu Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports population-based data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among children and adults in Botucatu, Brazil. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving a random start point and then systematic sampling of an urban Brazilian population in the city of Botucatu. There were approximately 3 300 individuals aged 1 to 91 years who were eligible to participate in the study. Of this sample, 2485 (75.3% underwent ophthalmic examination. The ophthalmic examination included uncorrected (presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity using standardized protocols. The primary cause of decreased visual acuity was identified for all patients with visual impairment. Results Presenting low vision and presenting blindness were found in 5.2% (95% CI: 4.3–6.1 and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.6–2.8 of the population, respectively. Unilateral presenting low vision and unilateral presenting blindness were found in 8.3% (95% CI: 7.2–9.5 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9–4.4 of the population respectively. Best corrected low vision was found in 1.3% of the population (95% CI: 0.9–1.7 and best corrected blindness was discovered in 0.4% of people (95% CI: 0.2–0.7. The main cause of presenting low vision was refractive error (72.3% and cataract was the most prevalent cause of blindness (50%. Conclusion The main causes of low vision and blindness in this Brazilian city were uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, and retinal diseases. Programs to further reduce the burden of visual impairment need to be targeted toward the correction of refractive error and surgery for cataracts.

  13. Genetic diversity and evidence of recent demographic expansion in waterbird populations from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Miño, C I; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    The present study determined nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) levels of genetic variability and phylogeographic patterns in breeding populations of Roseate Spoonbill (N=57), Wood Stork (N=89), and Jabiru Stork (N=30), sampled in the Brazilian Pantanal. These species were selected since they are bioindicators of wetlands health and are threatened in other parts of their distribution. As they are in close association with this ecosystem, they are appropriate for studying the effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on their demographic patterns. Levels of nuclear genetic diversity in Pantanal populations were not significantly different from those of other populations throughout the American continent, where they are considered threatened or of special concern. Reduced levels of mtDNA genetic diversity were observed in the Central American population of Jabiru Stork in comparison to the Pantanal population. Recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal was markedly evidenced by unimodal patterns of mismatch distribution and Fus Fs neutrality test in these three species. We hypothesize that the average time of population expansion (between 30,843 and 14,233 years before present) is associated to responses of these birds populations to paleoclimatic changes in these wetlands during the last glaciation period. We recommend special conservation efforts with the Jabiru Stork populations, a genetic monitoring program based on mtDNA, and an ecological characterization of these waterbirds species throughout their distribution range.

  14. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  15. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Francisco E; Baudouin, Luc; Lebrun, Patricia; Chaves, Lázaro J; Brondani, Claudio; Zucchi, Maria I; Vencovsky, Roland

    2010-10-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (H(e) ) and observed heterozygosity (H(o) ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was t(a) = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities.

  16. Jewish Culture and the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Adam M

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...

  17. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  18. [Instruments in Brazilian Sign Language for assessing the quality of life of the deaf population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveiro, Neuma; Duarte, Soraya Bianca Reis; Freitas, Adriana Ribeiro de; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Porto, Celmo Celeno; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    To construct versions of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS instruments in Brazilian sign language to evaluate the Brazilian deaf population's quality of life. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS) was used to construct instruments adapted to the deaf community using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras). The research for constructing the instrument took placein 13 phases: 1) creating the QUALITY OF LIFE sign; 2) developing the answer scales in Libras; 3) translation by a bilingual group; 4) synthesized version; 5) first back translation; 6) production of the version in Libras to be provided to the focal groups; 7) carrying out the Focal Groups; 8) review by a monolingual group; 9) revision by the bilingual group; 10) semantic/syntactic analysis and second back translation; 11) re-evaluation of the back translation by the bilingual group; 12) recording the version into the software; 13) developing the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS software in Libras. Characteristics peculiar to the culture of the deaf population indicated the necessity of adapting the application methodology of focal groups composed of deaf people. The writing conventions of sign languages have not yet been consolidated, leading to difficulties in graphically registering the translation phases. Linguistics structures that caused major problems in translation were those that included idiomatic Portuguese expressions, for many of which there are no equivalent concepts between Portuguese and Libras. In the end, it was possible to create WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS software in Libras. The WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-DIS in Libras will allow the deaf to express themselves about their quality of life in an autonomous way, making it possible to investigate these issues more accurately.

  19. [Differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Jewish and Bedouin patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaev, Elena; Sagy, Iftach; Zaid, Eed Abu; Nevzorov, Roman; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Zeller, Lior; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the Jewish and Bedouin populations. A retrospective analysis was conducted of hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis in adult patients between 2003 and 2010. The clinical and biochemical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis patients of Jewish origin were compared with those of Bedouin origin. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The study cohort included 220 consecutive patients for whom the admission diagnosis was diabetic ketoacidosis. The cohort was categorized according to Jewish and Bedouin origin as follows: 177 (80.5%) Jewish and 43 (19.5%) Bedouin patients. The Jewish patients were significantly older than the Bedouin patients (45.8 +/- 18.9 vs. 32.9 +/- 15.3, p diabetic ketoacidosis in both the Jewish and Bedouin groups had type 1 diabetes mellitus. No differences were found for in-hospital mortality, 30 days mortality or complication rates in groups of Jewish and Bedouin patients. The Length of hospital stay was significantly Longer in the Jewish compared to the Bedouin groups of patients (median 4 days (IQR 2; 6 days) vs. median 3 days (IQR 2; 4 days) respectively, p = 0.05). We did not find significant differences in the outcomes between Bedouin and Jewish patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. The Bedouin patients in the present study were younger compared to Jewish patients and the Length of the hospital stay was shorter in the Bedouin compared to the Jewish group. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bed-ridden state were independent predictors of 30-day mortality in both ethnic groups.

  20. Evaluation of the various biokinetic models of liberation from characteristic deposition fraction of brazilian population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Lourenco, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The Publication 66 of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1994) presented the Human Respiratory tract Model that simulates the deposition and translocation of radioactive material in the air that penetrates in the body by inhalation. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variation in fractional activity absorbed into blood when physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the deposition model. The clearance model was implemented in the software Excel (version 2000) using a system of differential equations to solve simultaneous process of translocation and absorption of material deposited. After implementation were applied in the model fractional deposition calculated by deposition model using physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population. The results show that the variation in the clearance model depends on the material dissolution. For materials of rapid absorption, the variations calculated are not significant. Materials of moderate and slow absorption, presented variation greater than 20% in fractional activity absorbed into blood, depending on levels of exercise. (author)

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire on Dementia for the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Tatiana; Bramham, Jessica; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Santos, Raquel Luiza dos; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Torres, Bianca; Rosa, Rachel Dias Lopes da; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social and emotional functioning may affect the communication skills and interpersonal relationships of people with dementia and their caregivers. This study had the aim of presenting the steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ) for the Brazilian population. Cross-cultural adaptation study, conducted at the Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in a public university. The process adopted in this study required six consecutive steps: initial translation, translation synthesis, back translation, committee of judges, pretesting of final version and submission to the original author. In general, the items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. During the first pretest, people with dementia and their caregivers had difficulties in understanding some items relating to social skills, which were interpreted ambiguously. New changes were made to allow better adjustment to the target population and, following this, a new pretest was performed. This pre-test showed that the changes were relevant and gave rise to the final version of the instrument. There was no correlation between education level and performance in the questionnaire, among people with dementia (P = 0.951). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire was well understood and, despite the cultural and linguistic differences, the constructs of the original version were maintained.

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  3. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  4. Morphological variation among populations of Hemigrammus coeruleus (Characiformes: Characidae in a Negro River tributary, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Lazzarotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We explored patterns of phenotypic variation in Hemigrammus coeruleus from the Unini River basin, a blackwater river in the Brazilian Amazon. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate variation in body shape among populations from four tributaries (UN2-UN5. We found no evidence for sexual dimorphism in body size and shape. However, morphological differences among populations were detected as the analyses recovered significant groups corresponding to each sub-basin, with some overlap among them. The populations from UN2, UN3 and UN5 had more elongate bodies than fish from UN4. The most morphologically divergent population belonged to UN4, the tributary with the most divergent environmental conditions and the only one with seasonally-muddy waters. The morphological variation found among these populations is likely due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation, arising as a product of divergent ecological selection pressures among sub-basins. This work constitutes one of the first to employ a population-level geometric morphometric approach to assess phenotypic variation in Amazonian fishes. This method was able to distinguish subtle differences in body morphology, and its use with additional species can bring novel perspectives on the evaluation of general patterns of phenotypic differentiation in the Amazon.

  5. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  6. Bioethics for clinicians: 22. Jewish bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsand, Gary; Rosenberg, Zahava R.S.; Gordon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Jewish bioethics in the contemporary era emerges from the traditional practice of applying principles of Jewish law (Halacha) to ethical dilemmas. The Bible (written law) and the Talmud (oral law) are the foundational texts on which such deliberations are based. Interpretation of passages in these texts attempts to identify the duties of physicians, patients and families faced with difficult health care decisions. Although Jewish law is an integral consideration of religiously observant Jews, secularized Jewish patients often welcome the wisdom of their tradition when considering treatment options. Jewish bioethics exemplifies how an ethical system based on duties may differ from the secular rights-based model prevalent in North American society. PMID:11332319

  7. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  8. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  9. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaretti-Castro M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years, with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX at the lumbar site (L2-L4 and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6% were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry, 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52 were classified as bb, 48.8% (62 as Bb and 10.2% (13 as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 ± 0.16 g/cm² than in the BB group (1.08 ± 0.14; P<0.05, and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 ± 0.15. Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 ± 0.11 g/cm² compared to Bb (0.93 ± 0.12 and BB (0.90 ± 0.09 (P<0.05. These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females.

  10. Use of generic medicines by the Brazilian population: an evaluation of PNAUM 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the existence of differences in the use of generic medicines in Brazil according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and acquisition sources of the medicines. METHODS Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines. Data collection took place between September, 2013 and February, 2014 in homes of Brazilian cities (urban area. The use of medicines has been investigated in relation to the treatment of chronic diseases and, in the case of acute events, regarding use over the previous 15 days. Generics were identified by visualization of packaging presented by the users of the medicines. The independent variables used were sex, age, education level, economic class, and region of the Country. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was evaluated by Pearson’s Chi-squared test, considering a 5% significance level. RESULTS The prevalence of generic medicines use was 45.5% (95%CI 43.7–47.3. There was no difference considering education level. The prevalence was higher in females (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9–49.0 than in males (43.1%; 95%CI 40.5–45.8, and were higher with increasing age. Generic medicines were more used in the economic class C (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9–49.1 and in the South (50.6%; 95%CI 46.6–54.6 and Southeast (49.9%; 95%CI 46.8–53.0 regions. Generics accounted for 37.3% of the medicines provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS Currently, there is a choice of purchase or free provision by the Brazilian Unified Health System, characterized by quality assurance and reduced price regarding branded medicines considered as reference. In the private market, a considerable part of the population is choosing generic medicines thanks to the availability of this option for virtually

  11. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning incorporating law, art and the sciences. S AIr MedJ 1989; 76: 26-28. Medicine has over ... Berlin in the late 19th century for the basic medical sciences and infectious disease; it was here that Jews played .... Steinschneider (1817 - 1907), in his studies of medieval Jewish physicians, traced 3014 worthy of recording.

  12. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M.

    2014-01-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  13. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  14. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... History of Medicine. The Jewish contribution to medicine. Part 11. The 19th and 20th centuries. H.DUBOVSKY. Summary. Despite the opening of German universities to Jews in the .... private practice since religious prejudice prevented him from ..... investigations in orphanages and prisons he established a.

  15. Genetic risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a Brazilian population with high African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rego Borges, Andrea; Sá, Jamile; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Viena, Camila Sane; Mariano, Lorena C; de Castro Veiga, Patricia; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Machado, Renato Assis; de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Messetti, Ana Camila; Spritz, Richard A; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2015-10-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL ± P) is the most common orofacial birth defect, exhibiting variable prevalence around the world, often attributed to ethnic and environmental differences. Linkage analyses and genome-wide association studies have identified several genomic susceptibility regions for NSCL ± P, mostly in European-derived or Asian populations. Genetic predisposition to NSCL ± P is ethnicity-dependent, and the genetic basis of susceptibility to NSCL ± P likely varies among populations. The population of Brazil is highly admixed, with highly variable ancestry; thus, the genetic determinants of NSCL ± P susceptibility may be quite different. This study tested association of 8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously identified by genome-wide studies in other populations, with NSCL ± P in a Brazilian population with high African ancestry. SNPs rs560426, rs642961, rs1530300, rs987525, rs3758249, rs7078160, rs17085106, and rs13041247 were genotyped in 293 Brazilian patients with NSCL ± P and 352 unaffected Brazilian controls. Each sample was also genotyped for 40 biallelic short insertion/deletion polymorphic markers to characterize genetic ancestry. The average African ancestry background was 31.1% for the NSCL ± P group and 36.7% for the control group. After adjustment for ancestry and multiple testing, the minor alleles of rs3758249 (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25-2.01, P = 0.0001) and rs7078160 (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.21-2.07, P = 0.0002) were significantly associated with risk of NSCL ± P. Polymorphisms located in IRF6 (rs642961) and 8q24 (rs1530300 and rs987525) showed marginal associations in this Brazilian population with high African ancestry. These results indicate that rs3758249 at 9q22 and rs7078160 at 10q25.3 represent risk loci for NSCL ± P in the Brazilian population with high African ancestry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. QTL mapping for yield components and agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map QTL for agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population. For this, 207 F2:3 progenies from the cross CS3035PTA276-1-5-2x UFVS2012 were genotyped and cultivated in Viçosa-MG, using randomized block design with three replications. QTL detection was carried out by linear regression and composite interval mapping. Thirty molecular markers linked to QTL were detected by linear regression for the total of nine agronomic traits. QTL for SWP (seed weight per plant, W100S (weight of 100 seeds, NPP (number of pods per plant, and NSP (number of seeds per plant were detected by composite interval mapping. Four QTL with additive effect are promising for marker-assisted selection (MAS. Particularly, the markers Satt155 and Satt300 could be useful in simultaneous selection for greater SWP, NPP, and NSP.

  17. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  18. Respiratory tract dose calculation considering physiological parameters from samples of Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.; Lopes, R.; Lourenco, M.; Cardoso, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The ICRP 66 presents deposition fraction in the respiratory tract regions considering reference values from Caucasian man. However, in order to obtain a more accurate assessment of intake and dose the ICRP recommends the use of specific information when they are available. The application of parameters from Brazilian population in the deposition and in the clearance model shows significant variations in the deposition fractions and in the fraction of inhaled activity transferred to blood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence in dose calculation to each region of the respiratory tract when physiological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the model. The purpose of the dosimetric model is to evaluate dose to each tissues of respiratory tract that are potentially risk from inhaled radioactive materials. The committed equivalent dose, H.T., is calculated by the product of the total number of transformations of the radionuclide in tissue source S over a period of fifty years after incorporation and of the energy absorbed per unit mass in the target tissue T, for each radiation emitted per transformation in tissue source S. The dosimetric model of Human Respirator y Tract was implemented in the software Excel for Windows (version 2000) and H.T. was determined in two stages. First it was calculated the number of total transformations, US, considering the fractional deposition of activity in each source tissue and then it was calculated the total energy absorbed per unit mass S.E.E., in the target tissue. It was assumed that the radionuclide emits an alpha particle with average energy of 5.15 MeV. The variation in the fractional deposition in the compartments of the respiratory tract in changing the physiological parameters from Caucasian to Brazilian adult man causes variation in the number of

  19. Unraveling Brazilian Indian population prostate good health: clinical, anthropometric and genetic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M. de Lima Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare dietary, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, genetic and prostatic features of Brazilian Indians and non-Indians (Amazon. Methods 315 men, 228 Indians and 89 non-Indians, ≥40 years old were submitted to digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, testosterone, TP53 and GSTP1 genotyping, anthropometric, lifestyle, dietary, personal and familial medical history. Prostatic symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Results Macuxis and Yanomamis represented 43.6% and 14.5% of Indians respectively who spontaneously referred no prostate symptoms. Mean IPSS was 7, range 3-19, with only 15% of moderate symptoms (score 8-19; Mean age was 54.7 years, waist circumference 86.6 cm, BMI 23.9 kg/m2. Yanomamis presented both lower BMI (21.4 versus 24.8 and 23.3, p=0,001 and prostate volume than Macuxis and “other ethnic groups” (15 versus 20, p=0.001. Testosterone (414 versus 502 and 512, p=0.207 and PSA (0.48 versus 0.6 and 0.41, p=0.349 were similar with progressive PSA increase with aging. Val/Val correlated with lower PSA (p=0.0361. Indians compared to control population presented: - TP53 super representation of Arg/Arg haplotype, 74.5% versus 42.5%, p<0.0001. -GSTP1 Ile/Ile 35.3% versus 60.9%; Ile/Val 45.9% versus 28.7%; Val/Val 18.8% versus 10.3%; p=0.0003. Conclusions Observed specific dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and genetic profile for TP53 and GSTP1 may contribute to Brazilian Indian population prostate good health.

  20. Disordered eating in Jewish adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Leora; Heinmaa, Margus; Bryden, Pier; Bradley, Susan; Toner, Brenda

    2008-09-01

    To examine the presence and nature of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among Jewish Canadian adolescents, as compared with non-Jewish Canadian adolescents in an urban community. A secondary goal was to examine whether rates of eating-disordered behaviour differed among the adolescents based on the degree of Jewish religious observance. High school students (n = 868) from the Toronto area completed a demographic and religious practice questionnaire together with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), a self-report test that discriminated adolescents with syndromal eating disorders from normal adolescents. Jewish females aged 13 to 20 years, but not males, reported significantly more disordered eating behaviours and attitudes, compared with their non-Jewish female counterparts. Twenty-five percent of Jewish females, as compared with 18% of non-Jewish females, scored above the clinical cut-off for the EAT. No differences in vulnerability to disordered eating were found within the group of Jewish females or males related to their degree of religious observance. Adolescent Jewish females, but not males, appear to be at greater risk for abnormal attitudes and behaviours related to eating, compared with their non-Jewish female peers. While the reasons for this finding are unclear, this study is a step toward improving understanding of the relations between sex, culture, religion, and the development of eating disorders. Culturally sensitive and sex-specific prevention strategies and treatment interventions are indicated.

  1. Several different lactase persistence associated alleles and high diversity of the lactase gene in the admixed Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise C Friedrich

    Full Text Available Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The -13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The -13779*C,-13910*T, -13937*A, -14010*C, -14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was -13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The -13910*T was higher (0.295 in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175 in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the -13910*T allele is an oversimplification.

  2. Gill ectoparasite assemblages of two non-native Cichla populations (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Brazilian reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, F H; Santos, L N; Takemoto, R M

    2011-06-01

    The gills of 41 Cichla piquiti and 39 C. kelberi from Itaipu and Lajes reservoirs, respectively, Brazil, were examined to describe the ectoparasite assemblages of these two non-native peacock-bass populations. All ectoparasite species of the two studied hosts (C. piquiti and C. kelberi) were dominant, but Ascocotyle sp. (metacercariae) was the prevalent (58.53%) and most abundant helminth species in C. piquiti hosts, while Sciadicleithrum ergensi was the dominant species in C. kelberi hosts. Gill ectoparasites of C. piquiti and C. kelberi showed a typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation, which is commonly reported for many other freshwater fishes. Ectoparasite prevalence and abundance did not vary between host sexes of the two Cichla populations. The prevalence and abundance of Ascocotyle sp. were positively correlated with C. piquiti standard length (SL), but only the abundance of S. ergensi showed a positive correlation with C. kelberi SL. Although environmental differences between reservoirs might also have influenced the results, we anticipated that the presence of a close congener in Itaipu reservoir and the lack of other Cichla species in Lajes reservoir were the key factors to explain the contrasts between C. piquiti and C. kelberi gill ectoparasites. Overall, our results suggest that the trend of parasite species loss through the invasion process may have contributed to the establishment of non-native C. piquiti and C. kelberi populations in Brazilian reservoirs.

  3. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  4. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  5. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  6. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L; Scaff, M

    2004-11-01

    In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean +/- SD = 47.2 +/- 17.6 years), with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 +/- 4.8 years). Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50) and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61). Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05). When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05), except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05) in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  7. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanovic M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean ± SD = 47.2 ± 17.6 years, with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 ± 4.8 years. Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50 and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61. Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05. When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05, except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05 in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  8. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.C. Smith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, has a critical role in cell cycle, apoptosis and cell senescence and participates in many crucial physiological and pathological processes. Identification of TP53 polymorphism in older people and age-related diseases may provide an understanding of its physiology and pathophysiological role as well as risk factors for complex diseases. TP53 codon 72 (TP53:72 polymorphism was investigated in 383 individuals aged 66 to 97 years in a cohort from a Brazilian Elderly Longitudinal Study. We investigated allele frequency, genotype distribution and allele association with morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, neoplasia, low cognitive level (dementia, and depression. We also determined the association of this polymorphism with serum lipid fractions and urea, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR using sense 5'-TTGCCGTCCCAAGCAATGGATGA-3' and antisense 5'-TCTGGGAAGGGACAGAAGATGAC-3' primers and digested with the BstUI enzyme. This polymorphism is within exon 4 at nucleotide residue 347. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis and Student t-test using the multiple comparison test were used. Allele frequencies, R (Arg = 0.69 and P (Pro = 0.31, were similar to other populations. Genotype distributions were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This polymorphism did not show significant association with any age-related disease or serum variables. However, R allele carriers showed lower HDL levels and a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease than P allele subjects. These findings may help to elucidate the physiopathological role of TP53:72 polymorphism in Brazilian elderly people.

  9. Visual impairment and myopia in Brazilian children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes Ibrahim, Fuad; Moraes Ibrahim, Marlon; Pomepo de Camargo, Juliana Rosa; Veronese Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes; Scott, Ingrid U; Silva Paula, Jayter

    2013-03-01

    To determine the frequency of myopia and other causes of visual impairment (VI) in individuals aged 10 to 15 years who live in a typical Brazilian city. Random selection of geographically based clusters was performed to obtain a sample of children aged 10 to 15 years in Gurupi City, Tocantins, Brazil. From June to August 2007, children in 12 clusters were enumerated through a door-to-door survey. All children with an uncorrected visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/32 in either eye were scheduled for ophthalmologic evaluation, including VA and ocular motility testing, cycloplegic refraction, and external, biomicroscopic, and dilated funduscopic examinations. The primary cause of VI was determined for eyes with an uncorrected VA of 20/40 or worse. A total of 1590 children were examined; 814 (51%) were boys and 776 (49%) were girls. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected VA of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 5.72%, 2.83%, and 0.81%, respectively. The primary cause of VI in one or both eyes was refractive error in 65 (89%) of 73 children, amblyopia in 4 (5.5%) of 73 children, retinal disorders in 3 (4.1%) of 73 children, and congenital cataracts in 1 (1.4%) of 73 children. In this population, the prevalence of VI-related myopia was 3.14%. The prevalence of VI among children aged 10 to 15 years in this typical Brazilian city is low and similar to other school-based studies, and most of the VI is caused by uncorrected myopia.

  10. Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin pyrethroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas D`avila Pessoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.

  11. Interseasonal variation of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae populations in the Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Raisa dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] is currently the main plusiine pest in the Americas, not only because of the damage caused to soybean, but also with several crop species in a broad geographical range. However, its population dynamics is still poorly understood, despite outbreak records that are common across different locations in the Americas. The current study aimed at identifying phenological patterns of C. includens emphasizing its differences among the three years of sampling effort in an intercropping area of the Brazilian Savanna. Thereafter, we tested whether the El Niño size effect, meteorological factors, or soybean, corn and wheat cycles, are better predictors of its monthly abundance. The insects were collected with a light trap during five consecutive nights (repetitions during 35 new moons. In total, 2026 specimens were collected in all months of the year although not consecutively. Across each year, monthly abundance of C. includens was non-uniform, characterized by sharp population peaks concentrated in the rainy season. These peaks varied from January until March, depending on the year sampled. We found that the local soybean cycle and El Niño effect to significantly influence the species abundance across the entire period of study. These results aid in understanding the species population dynamics and its status as a pest, providing evidence of factors that determine its phenological patterns. Although it presents a very defined phenology, the population dynamics of C. includens varies significantly between years and locations, which demonstrates the importance and need to monitor local populations of larvae and adults for its management.

  12. JEWISH SUFISM IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Epafras, Leonard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling. In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might ...

  13. Ancient and Medieval Jewish Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sacha

    This chapter surveys the history of Jewish calendars from Biblical origins to the later Middle Ages, with reference to their structure, astronomical basis, and cultural context. Special attention is given to the 364-day calendar (third century BCE-first century CE) and the fixed rabbinic calendar (from late Antiquity to the Middle Ages). The chapter concludes with a discussion of attempts to date the institution of the rabbinic calendar on the basis of its minor astronomical discrepancies.

  14. Jewish postmodern writers and national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the peculiarity in Jewish national identity has been a very actual detail for hundreds of years to this day. It has been a matter of controversy from the time of patriarchate, especially after the creation of Diaspora, not only among Jews but among all people in the world. Recent disputations in Jewish Knesset, about who can be called a Jew, summarize all the questions of Jewish origins and the question above all questions - what essentially determines the essence of Jewish identity in relation to other nations? We find two types of classification which relate to Jewish writers: 1. by the language; 2. by the topic. Some of the significant authors, especially in America, who had written prose with Jewish subject matter, could be classified into two main groups by the language in which they had written: Hebrew and English. A strict classification by topic is not possible, but comparing the writers' attitudes towards different questions of life, Judaism and modern tendencies, the following topics have emerged as the unique themes being shared by the various numbers of authors: religious and mythological questions; historical questions; solitude and alienation; infiltration into another societies; Jewish sufferings; family in Jewish community. In this paper we shall try to express the most frequent indicators of the Jewish construction in their literary works as the main characteristics of Jewish national figure and their identity. They have represented the indicators of their bad destiny, their sacrifice for the better world by the solitude and alienation of Jewish individual in America, turning back to the historical facts (since World War II as the cause for anti-Jewish atrocity and suffering then and now. The writers put the Jews on the pedestal of a sublime nation and at the same time made them the victims of modern society.

  15. Technology: So Pervasive in Jewish Living, so Absent from Jewish Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Jewish world, like the world civilization that hosts it, is awash in new technologies. Appropriately, there is a great deal of attention paid to how to improve the Jewish world and Jewish identity through technology. Paradoxically there is a paucity of literature characterizing the relationship of Jews and Judaism to technology. This article…

  16. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  17. [Characteristics associated with the use of dental services by the adult Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Matos, Divane Leite; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the factors related to the use of dental services by Brazilian adults. Data were collected from 13,356 adults (35 to 44 years of age), participating in a nationwide epidemiological survey of oral health (SB-BRASIL 2003 Project). Data analysis was based on Poisson regression, which produced estimates of Prevalence Ratios as a measure of association. Data analysis showed that the use of dental services by adults was associated with: female gender, low education and income, living in the Northeastern and Southern regions and in small cities, complaints of toothache or gum pain, need for partial/total prosthesis, a greater amount of permanent teeth requiring treatment, demand for service due to some dental problems and evaluation of dental care received on a regular basis. These results showed that the population attended by the public service was socio-economically less privileged and had greater need for treatment. This situation reflects an historical abandonment of the adult population by the dental healthcare system in Brazil and poses a major challenge to the Unified Health Service, in light of its intended role to reduce inequalities and provide universal access to comprehensive care.

  18. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  19. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Role of Karaites in Jewish History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kazemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this research is the place of the Karaites in the Jewish society. Karaites do not believe in Talmud and put particular emphasis on reading Torah. Therefore, they were excluded from the main Jewish society. It seems that the oppression of this sect and a group called ‘Jewish apostates’ had been distorted in the Jewish record. This study aims to project this relatively unknown fact. The study implements historical research method by investigating the current academic literature as well as historical documents.

  1. Cultural Concerns when Counseling Orthodox Jewish Couples for Genetic Screening and PGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2015-12-01

    There is a spectrum of attitudes within the Orthodox Jewish community towards genetic testing and PGD. Increased understanding of the belief systems of the Orthodox Jewish population will enhance the genetic counselors' ability to better serve this unique group of patients. By improving cultural competence, genetic counselors can help patients choose the testing options that they deem appropriate, while simultaneously respecting the patient's belief system.

  2. Exploring the discourse between genetic counselors and Orthodox Jewish community members related to reproductive genetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittman, Ilana Suez; Bowie, Janice V; Maman, Suzanne

    2007-02-01

    Genetic technology is complex, relatively new and involves sensitive issues pertaining to personhood and reproduction. While ethno cultural barriers to genetic care are well documented, little attention has been devoted to understanding religious beliefs pertaining to genetic services. This study evaluated the discourse between genetic counselors and Orthodox Jewish community members' perceptions of reproductive genetic technology. A cross section of the Orthodox Jewish community was sampled through purposeful and snowball recruitment for in-depth interviews with key informants. Genetic counselors felt apprehensive about serving the Orthodox Jewish population and were unaware of social norms, religious and cultural practices unique to this population. Similarly, Orthodox Jewish consumers exhibited major misgivings about genetic testing. Importantly, stereotypic expectations by both counselors and consumers exacerbated existing communication difficulties. Cultural differences and poor communication between genetic counselors and Orthodox Jewish community members impeded the ability of the Orthodox Jewish community to utilize genetic services. This work illuminates complex issues pertaining to medical encounters between providers and patients with ideological, social and cultural differences. In particular, issues of access to care and transcultural competence in serving religious minority groups, such as Orthodox Jews are presented. On the whole, this group is largely unrecognized in the minority health literature in spite of barriers and challenges that they face. Findings of this study may have application to other cloistered and highly observant religious groups when dealing with reproductive technology and other populations with diverse values, beliefs and behaviors pertaining to reproductive health.

  3. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  4. Estimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using DMSP night-time satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Silvana; Camara, Gilberto; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DPI - Divisao de Processamento de Imagens, C.P. 515, CEP 12201-097 SJC-SP, (Brazil); Quintanilha, Jose Alberto [Escola Politecnica da USP-POLI-USP, Av. Almeida Prado, Trav. 2, no. 83, CEP 05508-900 SP-SP, (Brazil); Elvidge, Christopher D. [National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO, 80305-3328, (United States)

    2005-03-15

    This paper describes a methodology to assess the evidence of human presence and human activities in the Brazilian Amazonia region using DMSP/OLS night-time satellite sensor imagery. It consists on exploring the potential of the sensor data for regional studies analysing the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and population, and the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and electrical power consumption. In the mosaic of DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery from September 1999, 248 towns were detected from a total of 749 municipios in Amazonia. It was found that the night-time light foci were related to human presence in the region, including urban settlements, mining, industries, and civil construction, observed in ancillary Landsat TM and JERS imagery data. The analysis considering only the state of Para revealed a linear relation (R{sup 2} = 0.79) between urban population from the 1996 census data and DMSP night-time light foci. Similarly, electrical power consumption for 1999 was linearly correlated with DMSP night-time light foci. Thus the DMSP/OLS imagery can be used as an indicator of human presence in the analysis of spatial-temporal patterns in the Amazonia region. These results are very useful considering the continental dimension of Amazonia, the absence of demographic information between the official population census (every 10 years), and the dynamics and complexity of human activities in the region. Therefore DMSP night-time light foci are a valuable data source for global studies, modelling, and planning activities when the human dimension must be considered throughout Amazonia. (Author)

  5. Microsatellite studies on an isolated population of African descent in the Brazilian state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Leal Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The African descent population of the Bananal community in the Brazilian state of Bahia (BA was characterized as a genetic isolate and analyzed for some short tandem repeat (STR microsatellite autosomic polymorphic loci (CSF1PO, TH01, TPOX, F13A1, FESFPS and vWA. These genetic variants were further compared to data obtained from an urban sample from the town of Jequié (BA regarding demographic and anthropogenetic aspects. The Bananal sample comprised 32 unrelated individuals whereas Jequié was represented by 76 individuals. The Bananal Negroid Phenotypic Index (NPI was 0.98 and the Negroid Cultural Index (NCI 0.24. Consanguineous marriages occurred at a frequency of 34.61% and the F value was 0.0126. All six loci studied were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p > 0.05. The genotypic and allele frequencies of the CSF1PO and vWA loci were similar. In the Bananal population the genic diversity of the THO1 locus was 66.8% and that of the F13A1 locus was 83.7%. The estimated ethnic racial admixture was 81% African and 19% Amerindian. The multiple correlation coefficient (R² indicated adequate adaptation (99%. Total genetic variation for the six loci was 82.9% with an index of 6.7% for population subdivision (G ST' = 0.067. Anthropologic data and results obtained from the allele frequencies of the loci studied are indicative of a genetic isolate in Bananal, reminiscent of the a 'quilombo community' (i.e. one founded by run away slaves.

  6. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  7. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  8. Oral and Maxillofacial Lesions Diagnosed in Older People of a Brazilian Population: A Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leorik P; Leite, Rafaella B; Sobral, Ana P V; Arruda, José A; Oliveira, Leni V; Noronha, Mariana S; Kato, Camila O; Mesquita, Ricardo A; Schuch, Lauren F; Gomes, Ana P N; Vasconcelos, Ana C U; Souza, Lélia B

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among older adults (≥60 years) from representative regions in Brazil. Retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Biopsy records were obtained from the archives of four Brazilian referral centers of oral diagnosis between 2000 and 2016. A total of 45,506 biopsy records of all patients were analyzed, of these 7,259 persons aged 60 and older were selected. Data such as gender, age, race, anatomical location, and histopathological diagnosis were collected and categorized. Pearson's chi-square test (P oral lesions. Oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in 7,259 older people, including 59.4% women (P Oral squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent neoplasm (83.4%) (P oral diseases obtained from biopsy records provides more accurate data about the diagnosis and oral health of elderly patients. These indicators thus support the development of specific health policies for the prevention and treatment of oral and maxillofacial lesions that affect this population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Performance of four ischemic stroke prognostic scores in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Ischemic stroke (IS prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. Method We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100, Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL, and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE were compared. Results Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. Conclusion THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.

  10. Performance of four ischemic stroke prognostic scores in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Gustavo W; Dutra, Lívia A; Brasil, Israel P; Pacheco, Evelyn P; Arruda, Márcio J C; Volcov, Cristiane; Domingues, Renan B

    2016-02-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS) prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100), Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL), and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) were compared. Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.

  11. The Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Ulcerative Colitis in a Northeast Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of UC in Bahia, a Brazilian state, and to identify the variables associated with extensive colitis, steroid therapy, immunosuppression, and colectomy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study UC patients were interviewed, and additional information was collected from the medical records. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were used. Results. This study included 267 individuals, the mean age of whom was 39.4 years at diagnosis. There was a predominance of females and left-side colitis. Extensive colitis was positively associated with male gender, diarrhea, weight loss, and a younger age at diagnosis. In contrast, active smoking and a family history of IBD were negatively associated with extensive colitis. Positive associations were observed between steroid therapy and diarrhea, weight loss, urban patients, extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs, and hospitalization. Younger age and weight loss at diagnosis, a family history of IBD, extensive colitis, EIMs, hospitalization, and steroid therapy were all positively associated with immunosuppression. In contrast, Caucasian individuals, smokers, patients with rectal bleeding, and rural patients areas were all observed to have a decreased likelihood of immunosuppression. Conclusions. Our results corroborate the association between higher prevalence of extensive colitis and younger age at diagnosis. An association between steroid therapy and clinical presentation at diagnosis was observed. The observation that white individuals and rural patients use less immunosuppressive drugs highlights the need to study the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the behavior of UC in this population.

  12. Does the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations suffer taxonomic influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMedeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Santos, André Maurício Melo; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-04-19

    The analysis of the influence of taxonomic affiliation on the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations can help elucidate theoretical aspects of medicinal plant selection. Ethnobotanical medicinal plant studies were compiled and the resulting medicinal flora was compared to the total angiosperm flora with a Bayesian approach and the IDM model. A total of 35 families were considered to be overused and six were classified as underused for the Bayesian approach. On the other hand, the IDM model considered 13 families as overused and five as underused (all of them were also highlighted by the Bayesian approach). A high overuse level of Bixaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae and Smilacaceae was recorded for both Bayesian and IDM model, while Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, Eriocaulaceae, Poaceae and Bromeliaceae were considered as underused for both analyses. The most dissimilar body system in terms of family composition was 'mental and behavioral disorders'. It was also found that the body systems are different from one another in the proportion of taxonomic groups, which could indicate chemical specificity in the treatment of diseases. Results indicate that the chemical specificity of taxonomic groups directly influences medicinal plant selection. Moreover, when data presented here are compared to other studies, there is clearly an overuse pattern for families like Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae and an underuse pattern for Poaceae and Orchidaceae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Spectrum of β-Thalassemia Mutations in a Population from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aylla N L M; Cardoso, Greice L; Cunha, Daniele A; Diniz, Isabela G; Santos, Sidney E B; Andrade, Gabriela B; Trindade, Saide M S; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro O; Francês, Larissa T V M; Guerreiro, João F

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations was investigated for the first time in a cohort of 33 unrelated patients from the Brazilian Amazon attending the Center for Hemotherapy and Hematology of the Pará Foundation (HEMOPA), in Belém, the state capital of Pará, Northern Brazil. Identification of the β-thal mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the β-globin gene. Mutations were identified in all patients, corresponding to a spectrum of 10 different point mutations and a total of 37 alleles studied. HBB: c.92 + 5G > A [IVS-I-5 (G > A)], was the most common β-thal mutation, followed by HBB: c.118C > T [codon 39 (C > T)], HBB: c.-138C > T [-88 (C>T)], HBB: c.92 + 1G > A [IVS-I-1 (G > A)] and HBB: c.92 + 6T > C [IVS-I-6 (T > C)] mutations. These five mutations (four Mediterranean origin and one African origin) accounted for 86.5% of the β-thal alleles. The profile of β-thal mutations found in northern Brazil is different from those described in other regions of the country. In the southeast and south, the nonsense mutation HBB: c.118C > T is the most prevalent, followed by HBB: c.93-21G > A [IVS-I-110 (G > A)], whereas in the northeast, HBB: c.92 + 6T > C has been identified as the most common mutation, followed by HBB: c.92 + 1G > A. This heterogeneous geographical distribution is certainly related to the ancestry of Brazilian populations because they have similar genetic backgrounds (European, African and Amerindian), although with slightly different admixture proportions. Furthermore, the European contribution in the southeast and south was largely made up of immigrants of other nationalities, such as Italian and Spanish, in addition to Portuguese.

  14. [Jewish Doctors in Luxembourg: A misunderstood minority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, H

    After an outline on the hypocrisy of the Catholic Church towards jewish doctors, the author list some arguments to explain why Jewish doctors were that sought after. He then concentrates on the situation in Luxembourg - on indigenous doctors and migrants, finishing with a parallel between asylum seekers from yesterday and today.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in an indigenous population in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocieli Malacarne

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown a high incidence and prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in indigenous populations around the World. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and annual risk of infection (ARI as well as to identify factors associated with LTBI in an indigenous population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2011. We performed tuberculin skin tests (TSTs, smears and cultures of sputum samples, and chest radiographs for individuals who reported cough for two or more weeks. Associations between LTBI (TST ≥5mm and socio-demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics were investigated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratio (PR was used as the measure of association. RESULTS We examined 263 individuals. The prevalence of LTBI was 40.3%, and the ARI was 2.4%. Age ≥15 years [PR=5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.5-8.6], contact with tuberculosis (TB patients (PR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-11.9, previous TB history (PR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, and presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar (PR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9 were associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS Although some adults may have been infected years prior, the high prevalence of infection and its strong association with age ≥15 years, history of TB, and recent contact with TB patients suggest that the TB transmission risk is high in the study area.

  16. Prevalence of high blood pressure measured in the Brazilian population, National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Santos, Nadir Baltazar Dos; Perillo, Rosângela Durso; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-04-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent cause of morbidity and a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. The aim here was to describe the prevalence of blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg in the adult Brazilian population and federal states, along with self-reported information about previous medical diagnoses of hypertension, use of medication and medical care for hypertension control. Cross-sectional study analyzing information from the National Health Survey of 2013, relating to Brazil and its federal states. The sample size was estimated as 81,254 households and information was collected from 64,348 households. The survey consisted of interviews, physical and laboratory measurements. Systolic blood pressure was considered to be high when it was ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure, ≥ 90 mmHg. It was found that 22.8% of the population has blood pressure measurements ≥ 140/90 mmHg. The proportion was higher among men than among women: 25.8% versus 20.0%. The frequency increased with age, reaching 47.1% in individuals over 75 years and was highest in the southeast and south. 43.2% reported previous medical diagnoses of hypertension and, of these, 81.4% reported using medication for hypertension and 69.6%, going to the doctor within the past year for pressure monitoring, thus showing regular medical follow-up. These results are important for supporting measures for preventing and treating hypertension in Brazil, with the aim of achieving the World Health Organization's goal of reducing hypertension by 25% over the next decade.

  17. Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fabio H; Corrente, José E; Opromolla, Paula; Schellini, Silvana A

    2014-06-25

    The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractive errors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractive error (RE) worldwide is substantially higher. The purpose of the present study is to determine the reversal of visual impairment and blindness in the population correcting RE and possible associations between RE and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the western region of state of São Paulo, using systematic and random sampling of households between March 2004 and July 2005. Individuals aged more than 1 year old were included and were evaluated for demographic data, eye complaints, history, and eye exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractive error (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction. A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence of 4.6% of optically reversible low vision and 1.8% of blindness reversible by optical correction were found. UREN was detected in 6.5% of individuals, more frequently observed in women over the age of 50 and in higher RE carriers. Visual impairment related to eye diseases is not reversible with spectacles. Using multivariate analysis, associations between URE and UREN with regard to sex, age and RE was observed. RE is an important cause of reversible blindness and low vision in the Brazilian population.

  18. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  19. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on researc...

  20. Potential genetic markers for nonsyndromic oral clefts in the Brazilian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Machado, Renato; de Toledo, Isabela Porto; Martelli-Júnior, Hercilio; Reis, Silvia Regina; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2018-02-15

    Although various genes and genomic regions were described as of susceptibility for nonsyndromic oral clefts (NOC), recent reports have demonstrated significant interethnic variations in the genetic predisposition, a situation that affects the Brazilian population, one of the most admixed populations in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to describe the available information on genetic risk markers for NOC in the Brazilian population. A systematic search of the literature was performed using LILACS, LIVIVO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, and studies that investigated genetic susceptibility markers for NOC in the Brazilian population were retrieved. Markers with enough statistical data were subjected to meta-analysis using random- or fixed-effects model with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as effect measures. Forty-nine studies conducted since 1999 were found, and in these 114 markers were evaluated throughout case-control or family-based approaches. Most of the studies were conducted with patients affected by nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL ± P), and 79 markers (69.3%) were evaluated by a single study only. Meta-analysis was performed with nine markers, and the most promising results were obtained for IRF6 (rs642961), 8q24 (rs987525 and rs1530300) and MTHFR (rs1801133), which were associated with increased risk for NSCL ± P, and for BMP4 (rs17563) that showed a protective effect for NSCL ± P. A large number of genetic markers distributed in several genes/loci was associated with NOC in the Brazilian population, but in general the original studies included limited number of samples and unsatisfactory protocols. The classical risk markers located in IRF6 and 8q24 showed promising results as well as rs1801133 in MTHFR and rs17563 in BMP4, and they should be validated in larger and multicenter studies taking in consideration the variations in the miscegenation of Brazilian

  1. An update of Gaucher mutations distribution in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: prevalence and country of origin of the mutation R496H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Silvia; Karpati, Mazal; Peleg, Leah

    2014-11-01

    Gaucher disease is the most prevalent inherited disorder among Ashkenazi Jews (carrier frequency of about 6%) and six mutations account for about 96% of their mutant alleles. Two mutations, N370S and R496H, have been reported only in mildly affected or asymptomatic patients. Due to the rarity of R496H, it was recommended that it be excluded from screening programs. To verify the frequency and trace the origin of Gaucher mutations in screened individuals whose Ashkenazi ethnicity was confirmed by the birthplace of their grandparents. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the screened results for the period 2006-2011. Mutations were identified by restriction analysis, Tag-It detection system, Pronto diagnostic kit and Nanogen technology (NanoChip 400). The heterozygote frequency of eight mutations was estimated in a cohort of 16,910 alleles. Two mutations, N370S and R496H, were the most frequent in our population. However, while the occurrence of N370S carriers was similar to other reports (1:19.4), that of R496H carriers was considerably elevated (1:207). Examination of the screened individuals' ethnicity showed a significant difference in the distribution pattern of the country of origin between the carriers of these two mutations. The origin pattern differences between the two groups of heterozygotes might reflect a separate geographic region of introduction for various mutations. As a result, secondary subgroups could be formed within the Ashkenazi population. This might clarify the dissimilarities in the occurrence of R496H mutation reported by various centers.

  2. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  3. HLA-F coding and regulatory segments variability determined by massively parallel sequencing procedures in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thálitta Hetamaro Ayala; Buttura, Renato Vidal; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana Caricati; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Castelli, Erick C

    2016-10-01

    Human Leucocyte Antigen F (HLA-F) is a non-classical HLA class I gene distinguished from its classical counterparts by low allelic polymorphism and distinctive expression patterns. Its exact function remains unknown. It is believed that HLA-F has tolerogenic and immune modulatory properties. Currently, there is little information regarding the HLA-F allelic variation among human populations and the available studies have evaluated only a fraction of the HLA-F gene segment and/or have searched for known alleles only. Here we present a strategy to evaluate the complete HLA-F variability including its 5' upstream, coding and 3' downstream segments by using massively parallel sequencing procedures. HLA-F variability was surveyed on 196 individuals from the Brazilian Southeast. The results indicate that the HLA-F gene is indeed conserved at the protein level, where thirty coding haplotypes or coding alleles were detected, encoding only four different HLA-F full-length protein molecules. Moreover, a same protein molecule is encoded by 82.45% of all coding alleles detected in this Brazilian population sample. However, the HLA-F nucleotide and haplotype variability is much higher than our current knowledge both in Brazilians and considering the 1000 Genomes Project data. This protein conservation is probably a consequence of the key role of HLA-F in the immune system physiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  5. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  6. Association between weather seasonality and blood parameters in riverine populations of the Brazilian Amazon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C.O. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the seasonality of blood parameters related to iron homeostasis, inflammation, and allergy in two riverine populations from the Brazilian Amazon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 120 children and adolescents of school age, living in riverine communities of Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil, describing the hematocrit, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum iron, total white blood cell count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, C-reactive protein, and immunoglobulin E levels in the dry and rainy seasons. The chi-squared test and the prevalence ratio were used for the comparison of proportions and mean analysis using paired Student's t-test. Results: Hemoglobin (13.3 g/dL and hematocrit (40.9% showed higher average values in the dry season. Anemia prevalence was approximately 4% and 12% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Serum iron was lower in the dry season, with a mean of 68.7 mcg/dL. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 25.8% in the dry season and 9.2% in the rainy season. Serum ferritin did not show abnormal values in both seasons; however, the mean values were higher in the dry season (48.5 ng/mL. The parameters of eosinophils, lymphocytes, global leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin E showed no seasonal differences. C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin E showed abnormal values in approximately 7% and 60% of the examinations, respectively. Conclusion: Hematological parameters of the red cell series and blood iron homeostasis had seasonal variation, which coincided with the dry season in the region, in which an increase in atmospheric pollutants derived from fires is observed.

  7. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of three established single nucleotide polymorphisms, IVS1-397T>C, IVS1-351A>G, and +261G>C, in the ESR1 gene with the prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. Three hundred and forty-one subjects (127 women and 214 men with coronary artery disease (CAD were classified as having significant disease (CAD+ patient group when they showed 60% or more luminal stenosis in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment at angiography; patients with 10% or less luminal stenosis were considered to have minimal CAD (CAD- patient group. The control sample consisted of 142 subjects (79 women and 63 men without significant disease, in whom coronary angiography to rule out the presence of asymptomatic CAD was not performed. The polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction analyses. In the male sample, the +261G>C*C allele was more frequent in CAD+ than CAD- subjects (8 versus 1%, P = 0.024. Homozygosity for the C allele of the IVS1-397T>C polymorphism was also significantly associated with increased CAD severity (OR: 2.99; 95% CI = 1.35-6.63; P = 0.007. In agreement with previous findings, these results suggest that the IVS1-397T>C*C allele was associated with CAD severity independent of gender, whereas the association of the +261G>C variant with CAD was observed in males only. The relation between ESR1 variation and CAD may influence clinical decisions such as the use of hormone therapy, and additionally will be helpful to identify the genetic susceptibility determinants of cardiovascular disease development.

  8. Use of generic medicines by the Brazilian population: an evaluation of PNAUM 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Dal-Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the existence of differences in the use of generic medicines in Brazil according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and acquisition sources of the medicines. Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines). Data collection took place between September, 2013 and February, 2014 in homes of Brazilian cities (urban area). The use of medicines has been investigated in relation to the treatment of chronic diseases and, in the case of acute events, regarding use over the previous 15 days. Generics were identified by visualization of packaging presented by the users of the medicines. The independent variables used were sex, age, education level, economic class, and region of the Country. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was evaluated by Pearson's Chi-squared test, considering a 5% significance level. The prevalence of generic medicines use was 45.5% (95%CI 43.7-47.3). There was no difference considering education level. The prevalence was higher in females (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.0) than in males (43.1%; 95%CI 40.5-45.8), and were higher with increasing age. Generic medicines were more used in the economic class C (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.1) and in the South (50.6%; 95%CI 46.6-54.6) and Southeast (49.9%; 95%CI 46.8-53.0) regions. Generics accounted for 37.3% of the medicines provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System. Currently, there is a choice of purchase or free provision by the Brazilian Unified Health System, characterized by quality assurance and reduced price regarding branded medicines considered as reference. In the private market, a considerable part of the population is choosing generic medicines thanks to the availability of this option for virtually all medicines most used by the population. Analisar se há diferença no

  9. A minimum set of ancestry informative markers for determining admixture proportions in a mixed American population: the Brazilian set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hadassa C; Horimoto, Andréa V R; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Barreto, Mauricio L; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima-Costa, Maria F; Gouveia, Mateus H; Machado, Moara; Silva, Thiago M; Sanches, José M; Esteban, Nubia; Magalhaes, Wagner C S; Rodrigues, Maíra R; Kehdy, Fernanda S G; Pereira, Alexandre C

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian population is considered to be highly admixed. The main contributing ancestral populations were European and African, with Amerindians contributing to a lesser extent. The aims of this study were to provide a resource for determining and quantifying individual continental ancestry using the smallest number of SNPs possible, thus allowing for a cost- and time-efficient strategy for genomic ancestry determination. We identified and validated a minimum set of 192 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for the genetic ancestry determination of Brazilian populations. These markers were selected on the basis of their distribution throughout the human genome, and their capacity of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms. We analyzed genotyping data from 6487 individuals belonging to three Brazilian cohorts. Estimates of individual admixture using this 192 AIM panels were highly correlated with estimates using ~370 000 genome-wide SNPs: 91%, 92%, and 74% of, respectively, African, European, and Native American ancestry components. Besides that, 192 AIMs are well distributed among populations from these ancestral continents, allowing greater freedom in future studies with this panel regarding the choice of reference populations. We also observed that genetic ancestry inferred by AIMs provides similar association results to the one obtained using ancestry inferred by genomic data (370 K SNPs) in a simple regression model with rs1426654, related to skin pigmentation, genotypes as dependent variable. In conclusion, these markers can be used to identify and accurately quantify ancestry of Latin Americans or US Hispanics/Latino individuals, in particular in the context of fine-mapping strategies that require the quantification of continental ancestry in thousands of individuals.

  10. Field studies of a Brazilian seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Villar Freret-Meurer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to fill the gaps that remain under Hippocampus reidi biology. Analysis of variations of sex ratio, density, breeding season, distribution and home range of a population of the endangered Brazilian seahorse H. reidi from a rocky shore on Araçatiba beach, Ilha Grande, Brazil were carried out. Araçatiba beach is a tourist Environmental Protected Area, suffering antropic pressure. A fixed population of H. reidi was studied, where al lthe individuals were visually tagged and sex, reproductive state and location on site were identified from December 2002 to November 2004. A total of 20 individuals were visually tagged with a mean density of 0.18 m-2. Sex ratios were skewed, with more females than males. All the males brooded during 13 months and presented smaller home range than the females during the breeding season. The highest densities were found on shallowest areas.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de preencher algumas lacunas sobre a biologia natural de Hippocampus reidi. Foram analisadas as variações na proporção sexual e densidade, período reprodutivo, distribuição e área de deslocamento de uma população do cavalo marinho brasileiro ameaçado de extinção Hippocampus reidi de um costão rochoso da praia de Araçatiba, Ilha Grande, Brasil. A praia de Araçatiba é uma Área de Proteção Ambiental turística, a qual sofre com a pressão antropogênica. Foi estudada uma população fixa de H. reidi, sendo que todos os indivíduos foram marcados visualmente e foram determinados o sexo, o período reprodutivo e a localização na área de novembro de 2002 a novembro de 2004. Um total de 20 indivíduos foram marcados com uma densidade média na área de 0,18 m-2. A proporção sexual variou de forma alternada com maior número de fêmeas que de machos. Durante 13 meses todos os machos encontrados estavam incubando. Os cavalos marinhos apresentaram área de deslocamento menor que as fêmeas durante o

  11. The functional EGF+61 polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila FALAGAN-LOTSCH

    2015-08-01

    susceptibility in a Brazilian population, but supported the different genetic background between CL±P and CP. Moreover, we confirmed the potential effect of maternal alcohol intake on cleft risk in our population.

  12. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  13. Radiocarbon dating: Jewish inspiration of Christian catacombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Leonard V.; van der Borg, Klaas; de Jong, Arie F. M.; Poole, Imogen

    2005-07-01

    The famous catacombs of ancient Rome are huge underground cemeteries, of which two Jewish catacomb complexes of uncertain age and 60 early-Christian catacombs have survived. Here we use radiocarbon dating to determine the age of wood originating from one of the Jewish catacombs and find that it pre-dates its Christian counterparts by at least 100 years. These results indicate that burial in Roman catacombs may not have begun as a strictly Christian practice, as is commonly believed, but rather that its origin may lie in Jewish funerary customs.

  14. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  15. Determination of insulin-like growth factor-I reference values using an immunoradiometric assay in a Brazilian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Denise B; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos A; Matos, Haroldo J; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion in healthy adults, which makes it a good diagnostic marker for screening of GH-related disorders. Studies also have supported a possible relation between IGF-I levels and the risk and prognostic for some malignancies, besides a relation between IGF-I levels and mortality. As the determination of the IGF-I normal values for local populations is strongly desired, the aim of this investigation was to determine reference values for IGF-I using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in an adult Brazilian population of Rio de Janeiro city, since there is no other study using this methodology in Brazilian population, and that this method is widely used in Brazil and worldwide. The study included samples of blood taken from 484 healthy subjects (251 men and 233 women) aged 18-70. The subjects agreed with this study, approved by the Ethical Committee of the Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed using a Diagnostic System Laboratories kit. For data analysis, age- and sex-specific figures were fitted after transformation of IGF-I values. In adulthood, a slow age-dependent decrease was found. There was no significant difference in IGF-I values between men and women. This study established age-specific IGF-I reference values, for a healthy Brazilian adult population, determined by a widely IGF-I, IRMA used currently in Brazil.

  16. Evaluation of the normal values of bone densitometry in brazilian women population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Martins, L.R.F.; Alonso, C.R.; Blomer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) can vary according with color, sex, feed and knowing the miscegenation and nutritional state of the Brazilian people; it is obvious that the fixed values of Caucasian females BMD cannot be employed to the Brazilian women. We have studied 158 Brazilian women with average age of 42 ± 14 years in whom it was settled the BMD over the lumbar vertebral column (L2, L3 and L4) and the femoral neck with a gadolinium-153 source double-photon densitometer and analyzed images in a IBM/PC/AT 286 processor computer. It was determined the linear regression equation corresponding to the variation of the bone mineral density as a function of age. The results were: BMD-lumbar column = 1.405 - 0.0086 x age ± 0.013 g/cm 2 and BMD-femoral neck = 0.909 - 0.0034 x age ± 0.11 g/cm 2 preferred to the age group between 25 to 80 years old. The results analysis shows that the Brazilian women BMD is lesser than the Caucasian. (author)

  17. Counting the founders: the matrilineal genetic ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Rosset, Saharon; Tzur, Shay; Hadid, Yarin; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Rosengarten, Dror; Pereira, Luisa; Amorim, Antonio; Kutuev, Ildus; Gurwitz, David; Bonne-Tamir, Batsheva; Villems, Richard; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-04-30

    The history of the Jewish Diaspora dates back to the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests in the Levant, followed by complex demographic and migratory trajectories over the ensuing millennia which pose a serious challenge to unraveling population genetic patterns. Here we ask whether phylogenetic analysis, based on highly resolved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenies can discern among maternal ancestries of the Diaspora. Accordingly, 1,142 samples from 14 different non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities were analyzed. A list of complete mtDNA sequences was established for all variants present at high frequency in the communities studied, along with high-resolution genotyping of all samples. Unlike the previously reported pattern observed among Ashkenazi Jews, the numerically major portion of the non-Ashkenazi Jews, currently estimated at 5 million people and comprised of the Moroccan, Iraqi, Iranian and Iberian Exile Jewish communities showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect, which did however characterize the smaller and more remote Belmonte, Indian and the two Caucasus communities. The Indian and Ethiopian Jewish sample sets suggested local female introgression, while mtDNAs in all other communities studied belong to a well-characterized West Eurasian pool of maternal lineages. Absence of sub-Saharan African mtDNA lineages among the North African Jewish communities suggests negligible or low level of admixture with females of the host populations among whom the African haplogroup (Hg) L0-L3 sub-clades variants are common. In contrast, the North African and Iberian Exile Jewish communities show influence of putative Iberian admixture as documented by mtDNA Hg HV0 variants. These findings highlight striking differences in the demographic history of the widespread Jewish Diaspora.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in the Leishmania guyanensis vector Lutzomyia anduzei (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpassa, Vera Margarete; Figueiredo, Adrya da Silva; Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone

    2015-04-01

    Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) anduzei has been recognized as a secondary vector of Leishmania guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon region. Since L. anduzei is anthropophilic, co-exists in areas of high leishmaniasis transmission and has been found infected with L. guyanensis, the understanding of the vector population structure and of the process responsible for it is paramount to the vector management and control efforts. In this study we analyzed 74 and 67 sequences of the COI and Cytb loci, respectively, from mitochondrial DNA, aiming to estimate the intra-population genetic variability and population structure in six L. anduzei samples from the Brazilian Amazon region. For COI, we found 58 haplotypes, low to high (FST=0.0310-0.4128) and significant (P=0.0033) genetic structure, and reduced gene flow among populations. The haplotype network yielded many reticulations that likely resulted from hypervariability in the locus. For Cytb, we observed 27 haplotypes, low to moderate (FST=0.0077-0.1954) and nonsignificant (P>0.05) genetic structure for the majority of comparisons and extensive gene flow among populations, in line with the haplotypes network data. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the variation occurred within populations (83.41%, 90.94%); nevertheless, there were significant differences (ΦST=0.0906-0.1659; P=0.00098; P=0.00000) among them for both loci. The Mantel test showed that the genetic structure is not associated to an isolation-by-distance (IBD) model in either of both loci. These data suggest that L. anduzei is genetically very diverse. The genetic structure lacking IBD may be due to adaptation to local habitats and the low dispersal capacity of the sandflies, and both could lead to population fragmentation and geographic isolation. These findings have important implications for epidemiology, surveillance and vector control and may be a first step in understanding the evolutionary history of this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Diversity of the MBL2 gene in various Brazilian populations and the case of selection at the mannose-binding lectin locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, A B W; Culpi, L; Tsuneto, L T; de Souza, I R; Kun, J F J; Petzl-Erler, M L

    2006-09-01

    The mannose binding lectin (MBL2) polymorphism is responsible for a common immunodeficiency in the human species. There were suggestions that the MBL2 polymorphism has been under balancing selection, based on the high global frequency of alleles generating MBL deficiency and on the worldwide distribution of diseases negatively associated with them. To describe the distribution of MBL2 allelic haplotypes in Brazilian populations and to discuss the evolution of this polymorphism, we analyzed six South Brazilian populations (152 Guarani Amerindian, 239 Kaingang Amerindian, 107 admixed, Brazilian 32 Afro-Brazilian, 202 Euro-Brazilian and 16 Oriental-Brazilian). Eight haplotypes were observed: MBL2*HYPA, LYQA, LYPA, LXPA, LYPB, LYQC, HYPD, and LYPD. In addition, through sequencing of the promoter and exon 1 from Amerindian and Oriental individuals, three new single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the MBL2 promoter region in the Kaingang. Analysis of the sequencing data by neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F*) revealed no deviation from selective neutrality equilibrium in the Guarani and Kaingang. Significant Fay and Wu's H results are explained by the recent gene flow in these populations. Contrarily to previous thoughts, stochastic evolutionary factors seem therefore to have had a predominant role in shaping the MBL2 polymorphism, at least in the Amerindians.

  20. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  1. A biogeographical population genetics perspective of the colonization of cats in Latin America and temporal genetic changes in Brazilian cat populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We used nine morphological genes to analyze cat populations from Mexico, the Dominican Republic, the Colombian, Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon, Bolivia and Brazil. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the O locus. The highest allele frequencies so far detected at world level for alleles I (inhibitor and L (long hair were found at La Paz (Bolivia. The analyses revealed at least five cat gene pools in Latin America: These findings suggest that the current genetic distribution of cats in Latin America correlates with the colonization of the Americas during the XIV to XVIII centuries. Additionally, the cat populations of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Manaus were sampled, to compare their 1996-2003 genetic profiles with those obtained in 1983. Generally, these genetic profiles seem temporally stable, which is important for comparing cat populations sampled in different years and decades.

  2. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gastauer,Markus; Almado,Roosevelt; Miazaki,Angela; Souza,Écio; Moreira,Luis; Meira-Neto,João

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. New ...

  3. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  4. Creation of a National, At-home Model for Ashkenazi Jewish Carrier Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzaid, Karen Arnovitz; Page, Patricia Zartman; Denton, Jessica Johnson; Ginsberg, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Ethnicity-based carrier screening for the Ashkenazi Jewish population has been available and encouraged by advocacy and community groups since the early 1970's. Both the American College of Medical Genetics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend carrier screening for this population (Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114(4), 950-953, 2009; Genetics in Medicine, 10(1), 55-56, 2008). While many physicians inquire about ethnic background and offer appropriate carrier screening, studies show that a gap remains in implementing recommendations (Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers, 2011). In addition, education and outreach efforts targeting Jewish communities have had limited success in reaching this at-risk population. Despite efforts by the medical and Jewish communities, many Jews of reproductive age are not aware of screening, and remain at risk for having children with preventable diseases. Reaching this population, preferably pre-conception, and facilitating access to screening is critically important. To address this need, genetic counselors at Emory University developed JScreen, a national Jewish genetic disease screening program. The program includes a national marketing and PR campaign, online education, at-home saliva-based screening, post-test genetic counseling via telephone or secure video conferencing, and referrals for face-to-face genetic counseling as needed. Our goals are to create a successful education and screening program for this population and to develop a model that could potentially be used for other at-risk populations.

  5. Envelhecimento populacional: uma realidade brasileira The ageing of population: the Brazilian scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Ramos

    1987-06-01

    light of the demographic changes. It is stressed that the elderly have been the fastest growing age-group in Brazil since 1940. In fact, from 1980 up to the year 2000, the over-60s will increase 107% whereas the under 15s will increase only 14%. Comparing the rates of growth for the elderly populations in England and Brazil, the tendency is to have a decreasing rate of growth in England (230% between 1900-1960 and 80% between 1960-2025 and an increasing rate of growth in Brazil (497% and 917% respectively. Life tables are presented from 1950 to 1982 for the population of S. Paulo (a highly industrialised urban area. Life Expectancy, Survival, and Mortality Rate curves are generated from these life tables. The data show that the expectation of life at birth in S. Paulo State (Brazil has risen from 57 years in the 50's, to 70 years in 1982. Interestingly enough, in that year, a woman in the county of S. Paulo, after the age of 45, could already expect to live more than women of the same age in England. In terms of survival chances, 77% of the cohort of women born in the county of S. Paulo in 1982 are expected to be alive at the age of 65, compared to 85% in England. Figures for men are 62% and 75% respectively. It was concluded that although far from solving the problems related to the very young, the Brazilian authorities are already facing an ageing process comparable to that experienced by the developed countries, with all its implications for the health and social care systems.

  6. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a Brazilian population sample in the respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Reis, A. A.; Cardoso, J. C. S.; Lourenco, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The human respiratory tract model (HRTM) adopted by ICRP in its Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population wherever such information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence of using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66 model. (authors)

  7. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  8. Frequency of EBV associated classical Hodgkin lymphoma decreases over a 54-year period in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques; Moreira, Adriana; Ribeiro, Karina Braga; Paes, Roberto Pinto; Zerbini, Maria Claudia; Aldred, Vera; de Souza, Carmino Antonio; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Vassallo, Jose

    2018-01-30

    The epidemiology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma varies significantly in populations with different socioeconomic conditions. Among other changes, improvement in such conditions leads to a reduction in the association with EBV infection and predominance of the nodular sclerosis subtype. This study provides an overview of the epidemiology of 817 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in five reference hospitals of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, over 54 years (1954-2008). The cases were distributed in 3 periods (1954-1979; 1980-1999; and 2000-2008). EBV-positive cases decreased from 87% to 46%. In children and adolescents (45 years), the decrease in EBV infection was not significant. Nodular Sclerosis was the most common subtype in all periods. These results support the hypothesis that, in the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo, classical Hodgkin lymphoma has changed and now shows characteristics consistent with Pattern III observed in populations that experienced a similar socioeconomic transition.

  9. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    András Kovács

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accep...

  10. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Jardim, Lorena Amaral; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  11. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  12. Concealed in the Open: Recipients of International Clandestine Jewish Aid in Early 1950s Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Paul Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the emergence of the semi-clandestine efforts of a network of international Jewish philanthropies and the Israeli government to send material and financial aid to Jews in early-communist Hungary. Post Second World War Hungary was a special focus for Jewish aid organizations in the west and the Israeli government. They poured resources into Hungary, both to feed, cloth and provide medical care to hundreds of thousands of Jews, and to assist thousands of Jews migrating west through Hungary. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the dominant Jewish aid organization in the world at the time, ran its largest and most expensive program in Hungary. Working with Israeli and Hungarian authorities, it financed a network of welfare services, often through the importation of scarce consumer goods and raw materials. As the Communist Party reshaped the economy, and pushed out “undesirable elements” from Hungarian life, this aid program served a growing population of impoverished, sick, and religious Jews, some exiled in Hungary’s countryside. This program increasingly took advantage of black market networks to distribute aid. Yet, after conditions deteriorated so much that this program ceased officially, Jewish aid providers in the US and Israel adapted their earlier practices and networks to take advantage of the impoverished consumer economy in program to distribute aid clandestinely to Hungarian Jews, with the cooperation of Hungary’s communist authorities.

  13. Distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies of IL1A, IL4, NFKB1 and PAR1 variants in Native American, African, European and Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Marcos A T; Cavalcante, Giovanna C; Santos, Ney P C; Gusmão, Leonor; Guerreiro, João F; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Santos, Sidney

    2016-02-16

    The inflammatory response plays a key role at different stages of cancer development. Allelic variants of the interleukin 1A (IL1A), interleukin 4 (IL4), nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFKB1) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) genes may influence not only the inflammatory response but also susceptibility to cancer development. Among major ethnic or continental groups, these polymorphic variants present different allelic frequencies. In admixed populations, such as the Brazilian population, data on distribution of these polymorphisms are limited. Here, we collected samples of cancer-free individuals from the north, northeast, midwest, south and southeast regions of Brazil and from the three main groups that gave rise to the Brazilian population: Native Americans from the Brazilian Amazon, Africans and Europeans. We describe the allelic distributions of four IL1A (rs3783553), IL4 (rs79071878), NFKB1 (rs28362491) and PAR1 (rs11267092) gene polymorphisms, which the literature describes as polymorphisms with a risk of cancer or worse prognosis for cancer. The genotypic distribution of the four polymorphisms was statistically distinct between Native Americans, Africans and Europeans. For the allelic frequency of these polymorphisms, the Native American population was the most distinct among the three parental populations, and it included the greatest number of alleles with a risk of cancer or worse prognosis for cancer. The PAR1 gene polymorphism allelic distribution was similar among all Brazilian regions. For the other three markers, the northern region population was statistically distinct from other Brazilian region populations. The IL1A, IL4, NFKB1 and PAR1 gene polymorphism allelic distributions are homogeneous among the regional Brazilian populations, except for the northern region, which significantly differs from the other four Brazilian regions. Among the parental populations, the Native American population exhibited a higher incidence of alleles with risk of

  14. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastauer, Markus; Almado, Roosevelt P; Miazaki, Angela S; Diniz, Écio S; Moreira, Luis C B; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 3417 trees and treelets identified during three censuses in both areas.

  15. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  16. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD. The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19 is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS.

  17. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F T; Araujo Júnior, E; Santana, E F M; Lima, J W O; Cecchino, G N; Silva Costa, F Da

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the total activity performed by women with low-risk pregnancy as well as translate and pursue a cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian reality. We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study including 305 women between 16 and 40 years of age with low-risk pregnancies. The Department of Public Health, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. We applied an adapted version of PPAQ to assess the levels of physical activity and the intensity in the metabolic equivalent task (MET), which could be distinguished as follows: sedentary (6.0 METs). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare energy expenditure (MET) with socio-demographic variables. More than half of the participants performed activities that were classified as light (51.4%). If we group the activities that were categorized as sedentary and light, this value increases to 74.7%, showing a high prevalence of insufficiently active pregnant women. Lower energy expenditure was observed in the third gestational trimester among pregnant women with lower educational level, single women, and mixed-race women (p Brazilian population to serve as a basis for future public policies focused on combating the health problems of mother-infant pairs.

  18. Fitness evaluation of two Brazilian Aedes aegypti field populations with distinct levels of resistance to the organophosphate temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Affonso Belinato

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR for temephos. The insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain was used as an experimental control. The population presenting the higher temephos resistance level, Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás (RR95 of 19.2, exhibited deficiency in the following four parameters: blood meal acceptance, amount of ingested blood, number of eggs and frequency of inseminated females. Mosquitoes from Boa Vista, state of Roraima, the population with lower temephos resistance level (RR95 of 7.4, presented impairment in only two parameters, blood meal acceptance and frequency of inseminated females. These results indicate that the overall fitness handicap was proportional to temephos resistance levels. However, it is unlikely that these disabilities can be attributed solely to temephos resistance, since both populations are also resistant to deltamethrin and harbour the kdr allele, which indicates resistance to pyrethroids. The effects of reduced fitness in resistant populations are discussed.

  19. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  20. Determinants of oral self-care in the Brazilian adult population: a national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bordin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims to investigate variables related to adherence to oral self-care in the Brazilian adult population. It is an exploratory study, using secondary data from a population-based survey on a representative sample of the adult population of the entire Brazilian territory (n=60202. The sample was selected using a multiple stage approach. The oral self-care indicator was defined by grouping the variables: periodicity of dentist appointments, use of dental floss, toothbrush and toothpaste, frequency of brushing and replacement of the toothbrush. The scores obtained from the indicator were categorized into adequate, partially adequate, and inadequate care. Statistical analysis consisted of dimensionality reduction, and oral self-care-related variables were submitted to logistic regression. The variables mostly related to inadequate or partially adequate oral self-care were: illiteracy (OR = 11.20, OR = 4.81, low educational level (OR = 3.50, OR = 1.96, negative oral health self-concept (OR=3.73, OR=1.74, absence of natural teeth (OR = 4.98, OR=2.60, edentulous lower arch (OR = 3.09; _____, number of missing upper teeth (OR=1.14, OR=1.05, absence of health insurance (OR=2.23, OR=2.07, sedentary lifestyle (OR=2.77, OR=1.51, and smoking (OR=2.18, OR=1.40. It was concluded that the individual's level of education is one of the main factors for adherence to adequate oral self-care, followed by level of oral health self-concept and tooth loss. Likewise, lifestyle also bears a significant influence.

  1. THE JEWISH PAST OF EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Etelka DOHI TREPSZKER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Transylvania, buildings with a high quality architecture have been constructed along the centuries. The purpose of the present study is to document the built heritage of Transylvania, particularly the Jewish buildings and especially those that had been neglected over the last years. The article is the continuation of the article about the Jewish architecture in Transylvania, with a case study about the Jewish girls’ school in Satu Mare. The research domain is interdisciplinary because it links History, Architecture, Art history and the problem of Globalization as well. The niche in this domain remains the fact that the buildings are not identified, rehabilitated, or promoted. Previous studies have mostly focused on synagogues and prayer houses. Most of the other precious buildings have been left aside. This study offers a new approach to change the point of view of the people who live in Romania, and helps them appreciate the heritage they have received.

  2. Contributing Factors to Teacher Satisfaction for Jewish Day School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanner, Malka

    2010-01-01

    At a time of rising concern for hiring and retaining qualified Jewish educators, this study looked at factors contributing to the decision to enter or remain in the field of Jewish education. If Jewish day school administrators can determine what characteristics attract and retain qualified teachers then perhaps they can mitigate the current…

  3. Jewish Studies in the Secondary School: Materials and Sources, 1881-1917: The Great Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mark

    During the period covered by this annotated bibliography the Jewish population in the United States increased 10-fold to two and one half million. Approximately 90% of the immigrants came from Eastern Europe, with a large proportion of them settling in New York City's Lower East Side, or Great Ghetto. The print sources cited represent a variety of…

  4. Support for Palestinians among Jewish Americans: The Importance of Education and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne B.; Abu Ahmad, Manal Yazbak; Dembo, Robert; Ben Hagai, Ella

    2017-01-01

    The violent and protracted Israeli-Palestinian conflict continues, and Jewish Americans play a significant role in influencing related US foreign policy as well as in promoting positive interactions with Palestinians globally. Diaspora populations have played an important role in international peace processes and American Jews are actively…

  5. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  6. The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E. : Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; Popović, M.

    2011-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E.: Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives,” in The Jewish Revolt against Rome: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (ed. Mladen Popović; Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 154; Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011),

  7. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  8. Sociodemographic characteristics of indigenous population according to the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian demographic censuses: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira de Barros; Silva, Leandro Okamoto da

    2017-05-25

    The sociodemographic profiles of different segments of the Brazilian population have been the object of multiple inter-census comparisons. This study compared the age distribution, number of household residents, formal schooling, and income of indigenous persons according to the population censuses of 2000 and 2010. There was an important decrease in the number of residents per occupied household, and slight aging of the indigenous population, except in the urban North. Meanwhile, there was a proportional increase in individuals with per capita household income up to one minimum wage, along with a reduction in the income bracket of more than two minimum wages in the country's five major geographic regions, in both urban and rural areas. Although schooling also increased, the increments differed according to geographic region and urban versus rural area; the urban Southeast showed larger gains in schooling, while the rural North and Central displayed smaller increases. The study emphasizes the need for more in-depth research focusing on specificities and backing the evaluation and implementation of public policies for the indigenous population.

  9. [Elaboration and validation of longitudinal reference intervals of fetal weight with a sample of the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Érica Luciana de Paula; Bennini, João Renato; Faro, Cristina Barros de Araújo; Marussi, Emílio Francisco; Barini, Ricardo; Peralta, Cleisson Fábio Andrioli

    2012-10-01

    To elaborate models for the estimation of fetal weight and longitudinal reference intervals of estimated fetal weight (EFW) using a sample of the Brazilian population. Prospective observational study. Two groups of patients were evaluated: Group EFW (estimation of fetal weight): to elaborate (EFW-El) and validate (EFW-Val) a model for the prediction of fetal weight; Group LRI (longitudinal reference intervals): To elaborate (LRI-El) and validate (LRF-Val) conditional (longitudinal) percentiles of EFW. Polynomial regression analysis was applied to the data from subgroup EFW-El to elaborate a model for the estimation of fetal weight. The performance of this model was compared to those of previously published formulas. Linear mixed models were used for the elaboration of longitudinal reference intervals of EFW using data from subgroup LRI-El. Data obtained from subgroup LRI-Val were used to validate these intervals. Group EFW consisted of 458 patients (EFW-El: 367; EFW-Val: 91) and Group LRI consisted of 315 patients (LRI-El: 265; LRI-Val: 50). The model obtained for EFW was: EFW=-8.277+2.146xBPDxACxFL-2.449xFLxBPD². The performances of other models were significantly worse than those obtained with our formula. Equations for the prediction of conditional percentiles of EFW were derived from the longitudinal observation of patients of subgroup LRI-El and validated with data from subgroup LRI-Val. We described a method for customization of longitudinal reference intervals of EFW obtained using formulas generated from a sample of the Brazilian population.

  10. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12 in an older Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Carver

    Full Text Available Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population.The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil.The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women. Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22. A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12 previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66 loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51 loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent.Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  11. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a sample Brazilian population in the human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.A.; Cardoso, J.C.S.; Lourenco, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed in ICRP Publication 66 account for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These changing characteristics can influence the rates and the sites of deposition. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The HRTM model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. lt is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined in ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The respiratory values at different levels of activity for ages varying from

  12. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB), a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators.

  13. Mannose-binding lectin and MBL-associated serine protease-2 gene polymorphisms in a Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraroni, N R; Segat, L; Guimarães, R L; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S; Constantino-Silva, R N; Loja, C; da Silva Duarte, A J; Grumach, A S

    2012-02-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein able to bind to carbohydrate patterns on pathogen membranes; upon MBL binding, its' associated serine protease MBL-associated serine protease type 2 (MASP2) is autoactivated, promoting the activation of complement via the lectin pathway. For both MBL2 and MASP2 genes, the frequencies of polymorphisms are extremely variable between different ethnicities, and this aspect has to be carefully considered when performing genetic studies. While polymorphisms in the MBL-encoding gene (MBL2) have been associated, depending upon ethnicity, with several diseases in different populations, little is known about the distribution of MASP2 gene polymorphisms in human populations. The aim of our study was thus to determine the frequencies of MBL2 (exon 1 and promoter) and MASP2 (p.D371Y) polymorphisms in a Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro. A total of 294 blood donor samples were genotyped for 27 polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene by direct sequencing of a region spanning from the promoter polymorphism H/L rs11003125 to the rs1800451 polymorphism (at codon 57 in the first exon of the gene). Genotyping for MASP2 p.D371Y was carried out using fluorogenic probes. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the prevalence of the MASP2 p.D371Y polymorphism in a Brazilian population. The C allele frequency 39% is something intermediate between the reported 14% in Europeans and 90% in Sub-Saharan Africans. MBL2 polymorphisms frequencies were quite comparable to those previously reported for admixed Brazilians. Both MBL2 and MASP2 polymorphisms frequencies reported in our study for the admixed Brazilian population are somehow intermediate between those reported in Europeans and Africans, reflecting the ethnic composition of the southern Brazilian population, estimated to derive from an admixture of Caucasian (31%), African (34%) and Native American (33%) populations. In conclusion, our population genetic study describes the frequencies

  14. The Religious Factor in Jewish Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, Ernest

    1977-01-01

    Highlighting the relationship between religion and social change, the article clarifies this relationship by defining the religious and secular factors in the process of Jewish identification. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, N.Y. 10016. (Author/JR)

  15. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  16. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jonas; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Fátima; Carneiro, Jeferson; Santos, Simôni; Rodrigues, Luis R; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2013-01-01

    The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  17. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  18. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Ladeira, M.S.P.; Pedrazzoli, J. Jr.; Ribeiro, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC) in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA + was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the X 2 test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively) and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03). The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals

  19. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA+ was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the χ² test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03. The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  20. Association Between Genes Involved in Craniofacial Development and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Renato Assis; Messetti, Ana Camila; de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; de Almeida Reis, Silvia Regina; Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2016-09-01

    To determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to craniofacial development, which were previously identified as susceptibility signals for nonsyndromic oral clefts, in Brazilians with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). The SNPs rs748044 (TNP1), rs1106514 (MSX1), rs28372960, rs15251 and rs2569062 (TCOF1), rs7829058 (FGFR1), rs1793949 (COL2A1), rs11653738 (WNT3), and rs242082 (TIMP3) were assessed in a family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and a structured case-control analysis based on the individual ancestry proportions. The SNPs were initially analyzed by TDT, and polymorphisms showing a trend toward excess transmission were subsequently studied in an independent case-control sample. The study sample consisted of 189 case-parent trios of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P), 107 case-parent trios of nonsyndromic cleft palate (NSCP), 318 isolated samples of NSCL±P, 189 isolated samples of NSCP, and 599 healthy controls. Association of alleles with NSCL/P pathogenesis. Preferential transmission of SNPs rs28372960 and rs7829058 in NSCL±P trios and rs11653738 in NSCP trios (P = .04) were observed, although the structured case-control analysis did not confirm these associations. The haplotype T-C-C formed by TCOF1 SNPs rs28372960, rs15251, and rs2569062 was more frequently transmitted from healthy parents to NSCL±P offspring, but the P value (P = .01) did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. With the modest associations, our results do not support the hypothesis that TNP1, MSX1, TCOF1, FGFR1, COL2A1, WNT3, and TIMP3 variants are risk factors for nonsyndromic oral clefts in the Brazilian population.

  1. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A.; Santos, Raul D.; Sposito, Andrei C.; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria Neto, Jose; Izar, M. Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R.; Stoppa, Sheila R.; Malta, Deborah C.; Bensenor, Isabela M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:28591319

  2. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  3. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.C. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil); Ladeira, M.S.P. [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Pedrazzoli, J. Jr.; Ribeiro, M.L. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC) in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA{sup +} was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the X{sup 2} test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively) and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03). The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  4. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,IA.; Valenti,MW.; Silva-Matos,DM.

    2009-01-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of th...

  5. Descriptive study of suicide attempts in the Brazilian elderly population, 2000 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2015-06-01

    The study describes hospital admission rates for suicide attempts among the Brazilian elderly and discusses the weaknesses of data from information systems. Data were extracted from the Hospital Information System (HIS) and from the Violence and Injury Surveillance System (VIVA). The analyzes included: (1) temporal evolution of rates by age group (1-9; 10-19; 20-39; 40-59 and 60 or over) from 2000 to 2014 by region; (2) triennial hospital admission rates by sex for age groups 60-69, 70-79 and 80 or over by region and state; (3) hospital admission rates for the elderly from the two information systems. Temporal evolution showed higher rates in the north and lower ones in the northeast. The analysis by age group and sex showed higher rates for older men of the three investigated age groups. The comparison of rates obtained from the two information systems showed a gradual increase in rates from VIVA. After 2012, rates obtained from VIVA were higher in the Southeast, South and Midwest regions. The study highlights the need for further improvement of information on hospital morbidity and data from compulsory notification of violence.

  6. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in a Brazilian population of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Silva, Kelly Samara; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; de Oliveira, Elusa Santina Antunes; Nahas, Markus Vinicius

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the clustering of four unhealthy behaviors (tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables) and their association with sociodemographic factors among adult industrial workers in Brazil. Data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District were collected via questionnaire from 2006 to 2008. Clustering of risk behaviors was identified using the ratio between the observed and expected percentages of each combination of unhealthy behaviors. Among the 44,477 workers surveyed, 18.0% of men and 11.4% of women accumulated three or four unhealthy behaviors. The most frequent combination was physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables. The concurrent presence of all four behaviors was 86% higher in men and 148% higher in women than would be predicted if the frequency of these behaviors were independent. Presence of one or more negative behaviors was more frequent in men, younger individuals and in those with lower levels of education and family income than subjects without these characteristics. There was a strong tendency for unhealthy behaviors to assume combinatorial patterns, mainly in men, people with less education, income, and age, suggesting important disparities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factorial validity and reliability of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in the Brazilian physician population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Barbosa, Genário Alves; Oliveira Andrade, Edson de; Carneiro, Mauro Brandão

    2010-07-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a widely used screening instrument. One- and two-factor structures have been identified in some countries. In Brazil, the best factor structure is still unclear. This study aimed at knowing its factorial validity and reliability, and testing the one-factor and two-factor models. The participants were 7,512 Brazilian physicians. They answered the GHQ-12 and demographic questions. Unrotated (one-factor) and rotated (two-factor) structures of the GHQ-12 were extracted by principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analyses (ML) were used to compare the one- and two-factor solutions. The two-factor model fitted the data better than the one-factor one. Those two factors were depression and social dysfunction, and they showed themselves to be directly correlated to one another. They also showed adequate reliability coefficients. The two-factor model is remarkably adequate, showing better fit indices, although it is acceptable to admit a common factor, which could be defined as psychological distress.

  8. Population structure of Annona crassiflora: an endemic plant species of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, R; Setotaw, T A; Rodrigues, F A; França, D V C; da Silveira, F A; Pio, L A S; Pasqual, M

    2016-12-23

    Habitat fragmentation has numerous consequences, particularly to endemic species, and has a negative impact on the genetic diversity of neglected species, leading to genetic drift. Annona crassiflora Mart. is a species that is endemic to Brazil, and its incidence in the Cerrado biome has decreased. The identification and characterization of its remaining diversity is necessary for its conservation. Our aim was to study the population structure of A. crassiflora populations from different Cerrado regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Corinto, Curvelo, Carmo da Mata, Boa Esperança, and Paraguaçu) using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and DNA content. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry using 10 individuals from each population. ISSR markers were used for genotyping accessions in order to study their genetic diversity and population structures. We found considerable genetic variation among populations, with the highest variability observed in the Curvelo population. There was a significant positive correlation between DNA content and latitude (r = 0.46, P = 0. 0003). A Bayesian-based cluster analysis grouped the populations into three clusters, which followed their geographical origins. There was some level of genetic diversity and differentiation among the populations, suggesting the need for a conservation plan for this species. The ISSR markers and DNA content analysis were effective in studying the genetic diversity and population structure of A. crassiflora.

  9. Shyness and social phobia in Israeli Jewish vs Arab students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sarel, Amiram; Avital, Avi; Abdo, Basheer; Joubran, Samia; Ram, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been repeatedly shown to be very prevalent in the Western society with prevalence rates of 10% or above. However, very few studies have been performed in the Middle East and in Arab countries. A total of 300 Israeli students participated in our study and were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Cheek and Buss Shyness Questionnaire (CBSQ), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A total of 153 Jewish and 147 Arab students participated in the survey. Social anxiety disorder was found in 12.33% of the sample, according to the LSAS cutoff score of more than 60. The 2 subsamples had similar LSAS and CBSQ scores and similar SAD-positive rates (LSAS >60). Females had higher scores on the LSAS, as were those without a spouse and those who had been in psychological treatment. Based on a regression analysis, the significant predictors of the LSAS score were the CBSQ score and female sex. A very high correlation was found between the LSAS and the CBSQ scores. Although our sample is not representative of the whole Israeli population, we conclude that SAD and shyness were similarly prevalent in Jewish and Arab students in Israel. Social anxiety disorder scores were higher among females, those without a spouse, and those who received psychological treatment. Further studies on the clinical and cultural characteristics of SAD in Israeli subcultures would add to the growing body of knowledge on SAD in various cultures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels of taurine introgression in the current Brazilian Nelore and Gir indicine cattle populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high density panel of more than 777000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to investigate the population structure of Nelore and Gir, compared to seven other populations worldwide. Principal Component Analysis and model-based ancestry estimation clearly separate the indici...

  11. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  12. Serological statuses of pregnant women in an urban Brazilian population before and after the 2008 rubella immunization campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Moura, Adriana; Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves de; Correia, Jailson B

    2016-01-20

    Vaccinating populations against rubella aims to mitigate viral circulation and to ensure that women of childbearing age are immunized to reduce the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. This study determined the serological statuses of pregnant women in an urban Brazilian population before and after the national rubella immunization campaign that was undertaken in 2008, and it assessed the socio-demographic factors associated with seronegativity. Pregnant women living in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil, who participated in a municipal prenatal screening program that involved blood tests for rubella, were assessed between June 2007 and May 2012. Socio-demographic factors associated with seronegativity were assessed, including the year of the blood test, categorized as before or after the 2008 immunization campaign, and the women's birth cohorts, the women's ethnicities, the gestational ages at the first prenatal visit, and the women's districts of residence. A total of 54,717 capillary blood samples were tested for rubella. The prevalence of pregnant women who were seronegative for rubella declined from 9.4% before the national immunization campaign to 2.8% after the national immunization campaign. Women were more likely to be seronegative for rubella before and after the immunization campaign if they were born between 1990 and 2000 or delayed starting prenatal care. The decline in the prevalence of pregnant women who were seronegative for rubella to rubella immunization campaign was successful in Maceió. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae in a Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA. Silva

    Full Text Available Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m². We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  14. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Valenti, M W; Silva-Matos, D M

    2009-08-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m(2). We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  15. Prevalence of neurocognitive disorders and depression in a Brazilian HIV population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trentin Troncoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Combined antiretroviral therapy has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV carriers to live longer. This increased life expectancy is associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which are diagnosed via a complex neuropsychological assessment. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS is a screening instrument validated in Brazil for use in the absence of neuropsychological evaluation. HIV patients are frequently diagnosed with depression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT, the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables.METHODS:One hundred fourteen patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted in a public outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in Marília City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected following consultation. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the nature and distribution of the data and hypotheses.RESULTS:According to the IHDS, 53.2% of the sampled patients were neuropsychologically impaired. According to the HAM-D17, 26.3% had depressive disorders. There were significant associations between the IHDS and the TGT and DS. Multiple regression analysis indicated that female gender, educational level, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 levels were significantly and independently associated with neurocognitive impairment.CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment according to the IHDS is high and associated with female gender, education level, and low CD4 levels.

  16. Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection and Oral Shedding in Amerindian and Non-Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Sumita, Laura M.; Nascimento, Maria-Claudia; Oliveira, Juliane; Mascheretti, Melissa; Quiroga, Mariana; Freire, Wilton S.; Tateno, Adriana; Boulos, Marcos; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown. Methods Antibodies against either HHV-8 lytic antigen or HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were detected, by immunofluorescence assays, in 339 Amerindians and 181 non-Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon. Serological markers of oro-fecal (hepatitis A), parenteral (hepatitis B and C), and sexual (herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis) transmission were measured by specific ELISAs. Salivary HHV-8 DNA was detected by use of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and was sequenced. Results Antibodies against either lytic antigen or LANA were detected in 79.1% of Amerindians and in 6.1% of non-Amerindians (adjusted seroprevalence ratio [SR], 12.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1–22.4]; P< .0001). HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (PTrend< .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. The 2 populations did not differ in seroprevalence of oro-fecal or parenteral markers, but seroprevalence of markers of sexual transmission was lower among Amerindians. HHV-8 DNA in saliva was detected in 47 (23.7%) of 198 HHV-8 seropositive Amerindians. Detection of HHV-8 DNA decreased with age (PTrend< .04) and was more common in men (SR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.3–3.5]; P= .003). A total of 36 (76.6%) of the 47 saliva HHV-8 DNA samples were sequenced, and all clustered as subtype E. Conclusion The data support the hypothesis of early acquisition and horizontal transmission, via saliva, of HHV-8 subtype E in Amerindian populations. PMID:17703414

  17. Genetic gain of ‘Valenciana’ onion populations developed in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Esmael Silva de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic improvement in the last recurrent selection cycles applied in two ‘Valenciana’ onion populations in Petrolina, PE. The experiments were carried out between October 2014 and January 2015, in Petrolina and Juazeiro, BA. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design, with 12 treatments and three replications. Analyses of variances were carried out separately for each population. The control population CNPH6400 was the comparison basis. Heritability and genetic gain were estimated for total (Prototal and commercial (Procom bulb yields. Significant differences were observed for Prototal and Procom in both populations and in both environments, except for the 25CA10 population, in Juazeiro. The highest Procom genetic gains were observed in Petrolina for 25CA10 and T811CR13 populations (510.5% and 522.1%, respectively, proving the efficiency of recurrent selection cycles. Genetic gains were nonlinear, and fluctuations may have occurred due to genetic drift.

  18. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  20. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Papile Maciel Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995, previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South

  1. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Brito, Liz Magalhães; Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra de; Bicudo, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; Crosato, Edgard Michel; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira de

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological adjustment is recommended as demonstrated in this

  2. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  3. Genetic composition of a Brazilian population: the footprint of the Gold Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, E M; Santos, A M; Castro, I M; Machado-Coelho, G L L; Cândido, A P C; Leite, T M; Pereira, R W; Freitas, R N

    2013-10-29

    Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) are powerful tools for inferring the genetic composition of admixed populations. In this study, we determined the genetic ancestry of the Ouro Preto (Brazil) population and evaluated the association between ancestry and self-reported skin color. The genetic ancestry of 189 children and adolescents was estimated by genotyping 15 AIMs. The estimate of population admixture was determined using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented in two different programs (STRUCTURE and ADMIXMAP). Volunteers self-reported their skin colors. The European ancestry contribution ranged from 0.503 to 0.539, the African contribution ranged from 0.333 to 0.425, and the Amerindian component ranged from 0.04 to 0.164. The relative contributions of African (P Ouro Preto has a higher contribution of African ancestry compared to the mean for the southeast region of Brazil. Therefore, extrapolating the African ancestry contribution for southeastern Brazil to the Ouro Preto population would underestimate the actual value for this city. We also showed that self-reported skin color could be appropriate for describing the genetic structure of this particular population.

  4. Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae from Brazilian northeastern river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Souza Medrado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil, providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers, and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream, as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48, but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream. Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, A.R. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (United States) Center for Blood Research, Boston, MA (United States) American Red Cross Blood Services-Northeast Region, Dedham, MA (United States)); Wagner, R.; Khatri, K.; Notani, G.; Awdeh, Z.; Alper, C.A. (Center for Blood Research, Boston, MA (United States)); Yunis, E.J. (Center for Blood Research, Boston, MA (United States) American Red Cross Blood Services-Northeast Region, Dedham, MA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype (HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8) or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) halotypes in 25 non-Jewish PV patients, DR4, DQw8 was found in 12 of the patients and DRw6, DQw5 was found in 15. Only 3 patients had neither. The non-Jewish patients were of more Southern European extraction than our controls. This suggests that there are two major MHC susceptibility alleles in American patients with PV. The more ancient apparently arose on a haplotype in the Jews, HLA-B38(35), SC21(SC31), DR4, DQw8, and spread to other populations largely as D-region segments. The other arose in or near Italy on the haplotype HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5 amd has also partially fragmented so that many patients carry only DRw14, DQw5. The available data do not permit the specific localization of either the DR4, DQw8-or the DRw14, DQw5-linked susceptibility genes.

  6. Prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a Brazilian population sample at-risk for hereditary breast cancer and characterization of its genetic ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, André E.; Pereira, Rui; Andrade, Carlos E.; Felicio, Paula S.; Souza, Cristiano P.; Mendes, Deise R.P.; Volc, Sahlua; Berardinelli, Gustavo N.; Grasel, Rebeca S.; Sabato, Cristina S.; Viana, Danilo V.; Machado, José Carlos; Costa, José Luis; Mauad, Edmundo C.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Arun, Banu; Reis, Rui M.; Palmero, Edenir I.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are very few data about the mutational profile of families at-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) from Latin America (LA) and especially from Brazil, the largest and most populated country in LA. Results Of the 349 probands analyzed, 21.5% were BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated, 65.3% at BRCA1 and 34.7% at BRCA2 gene. The mutation c.5266dupC (former 5382insC) was the most frequent alteration, representing 36.7% of the BRCA1 mutations and 24.0% of all mutations identified. Together with the BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG mutation, these mutations constitutes about 35% of the identified mutations and more than 50% of the BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. Interestingly, six new mutations were identified. Additionally, 39 out of the 44 pathogenic mutations identified were not previously reported in the Brazilian population. Besides, 36 different variants of unknown significance (VUS) were identified. Regarding ancestry, average ancestry proportions were 70.6% European, 14.5% African, 8.0% Native American and 6.8% East Asian. Materials and methods This study characterized 349 Brazilian families at-risk for HBOC regarding their germline BRCA1/BRCA2 status and genetic ancestry. Conclusions This is the largest report of BRCA1/BRCA2 assessment in an at-risk HBOC Brazilian population. We identified 21.5% of patients harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and characterized the genetic ancestry of a sample group at-risk for hereditary breast cancer showing once again how admixed is the Brazilian population. No association was found between genetic ancestry and mutational status. The knowledge of the mutational profile in a population can contribute to the definition of more cost-effective strategies for the identification of HBOC families. PMID:27741520

  7. Health-related quality of life in the Brazilian Amazon: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Caicedo Roa, Monica; Galvao, Tais Freire

    2017-08-14

    To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner cities (0.908 ± 0.122; p quality of life than women (β = 0.041, p quality of life compared with being formally employed (β = 0.031, p = 0.037). The poorest people had a lower quality of life than the richest people (β = -0.118, p quality of life in the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, as expected for the general population, and was higher among individuals who lived in the inner cities, men and those in higher social classes. Gender discrepancies and differences in quality of life between the capital and inner cities should be further investigated.

  8. Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Humans differentiate, classify, and discriminate: social interaction is a basic property of human Darwinian evolution. Presumably inherent differential physical as well as behavioral properties have always been criteria for identifying friend or foe. Yet, biological determinism is a relatively modern term, and scientific racism is, oddly enough, largely a consequence or a product of the Age of Enlightenment and the establishment of the notion of human equality. In recent decades ever-increasing efforts and ingenuity were invested in identifying Biblical Israelite genotypic common denominators by analysing an assortment of phenotypes, like facial patterns, blood types, diseases, DNA-sequences, and more. It becomes overwhelmingly clear that although Jews maintained detectable vertical genetic continuity along generations of socio-religious-cultural relationship, also intensive horizontal genetic relations were maintained both between Jewish communities and with the gentile surrounding. Thus, in spite of considerable consanguinity, there is no Jewish genotype to identify.

  9. Robotics and artificial intelligence: Jewish ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Z H

    2006-01-01

    In 16th Century Prague, Rabbi Loew created a Golem, a humanoid made of clay, to protect his community. When the Golem became too dangerous to his surroundings, he was dismantled. This Jewish theme illustrates some of the guiding principles in its approach to the moral dilemmas inherent in future technologies, such as artificial intelligence and robotics. Man is viewed as having received the power to improve upon creation and develop technologies to achieve them, with the proviso that appropriate safeguards are taken. Ethically, not-harming is viewed as taking precedence over promoting good. Jewish ethical thinking approaches these novel technological possibilities with a cautious optimism that mankind will derive their benefits without coming to harm.

  10. The Fate of Job in Jewish Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book...

  11. Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Humans differentiate, classify, and discriminate: social interaction is a basic property of human Darwinian evolution. Presumably inherent differential physical as well as behavioral properties have always been criteria for identifying friend or foe. Yet, biological determinism is a relatively modern term, and scientific racism is, oddly enough, largely a consequence or a product of the Age of Enlightenment and the establishment of the notion of human equality. In recent decades ever-increasing efforts and ingenuity were invested in identifying Biblical Israelite genotypic common denominators by analysing an assortment of phenotypes, like facial patterns, blood types, diseases, DNA-sequences, and more. It becomes overwhelmingly clear that although Jews maintained detectable vertical genetic continuity along generations of socio-religious-cultural relationship, also intensive horizontal genetic relations were maintained both between Jewish communities and with the gentile surrounding. Thus, in spite of considerable consanguinity, there is no Jewish genotype to identify. PMID:25653666

  12. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  13. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living...

  14. Euthanasia: an overview and the jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Glick, Shimon; Or, Reuven; Jotkovitz, Alan

    2006-10-01

    End-of-life care poses fundamental ethical problems to clinicians. Defining euthanasia is a difficult and complex task, which causes confusion in its practical clinical application. Over the course of history, abuse of the term has led to medical atrocities. Familiarity with the relevant bioethical issues and the development of practical guidelines might improve clinical performance. To define philosophical concepts, to present historical events, to discuss the relevant attitudes in modern bioethics and law that may be helpful in elaborating practical guidelines for clinicians regarding euthanasia and end-of-life care. Concepts found in the classic sources of Jewish tradition might shed additional light on the issue and help clinicians in their decision-making process. An historical overview defines the concepts of active versus passive euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and related terms. Positions found in classical Jewish literature are presented and analyzed with their later interpretations. The relevance and application in modern clinical medicine of both the general and Jewish approaches are discussed. The overview of current bioethical concepts demonstrates the variety of approaches in western culture and legal systems. Philosophically and conceptually, there is a crucial distinction between active and passive euthanasia. The legitimacy of active euthanasia has been the subject of major controversy in recent times in various countries and religious traditions. The historical overview and the literature review demonstrate the need to provide clearer definitions of the concepts relating to euthanasia, for in the past the term has led to major confusion and uncontrolled abuse. Bioethical topics should, therefore, be included in medical training and continuing education. There are major debates and controversies regarding the current clinical and legal approaches. We trust that classical Jewish sources might contribute to the establishment of clinical

  15. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  16. A Jewish physician amidst the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, L J

    2000-10-23

    On November 27, 1940, in Nazi Germany, a prescription was written by a Jewish physician, Dr Lucie Adelsberger. This article examines that prescription and tells the story of the physician who wrote it. Tracing the fate of Dr Adelsberger throughout the Holocaust, this article describes her ordeal as a prisoner-physician at the Auschwitz concentration camp and her struggles to help sick camp inmates survive under the most brutal of conditions. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2891-2894

  17. Carrier testing for Ashkenazi Jewish disorders in the prenatal setting: navigating the genetic maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Carlos P; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Carter, Suzanne M; Klugman, Susan; Gregg, Anthony R; Gross, Susan J

    2014-09-01

    Exciting developments in the fields of genetics and genomics have facilitated the identification of the etiological basis of many Mendelian disorders. Several of the methods used in gene discovery have focused initially on homogeneous populations, including the Ashkenazi Jewish population. The founder effect is well recognized in this community, in which historical events and cultural behaviors have resulted in a limited number of mutations underlying genetic disorders with substantial health impact. New technologies have made it possible to rapidly expand the test panels, changing testing paradigms, and thereby creating challenges for the physician in deciphering the appropriate approach to genetic screening in this population. The goal of this review is to help primary obstetric health care providers navigate through this quickly moving field so as to better counsel and support their patients of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amerindian (but not African or European) ancestry is significantly associated with diurnal preference within an admixed Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kieren J; Campos Santos, Hadassa; Beijamini, Felipe; Duarte, Núbia E; Horimoto, Andréa R V R; Taporoski, Tâmara P; Vallada, Homero; Negrão, André B; Krieger, José E; Pedrazzoli, Mário; Knutson, Kristen L; Pereira, Alexandre C; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals. We found an association between the degree of Amerindian (but not European of African) ancestry and morningness, equating to 0.16 units for each additional percent of Amerindian ancestry, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and residential zone. To our knowledge, this is the first published report identifying an association between genetic ancestry and MEQ, and above all, the first one based on ancestral contributions within individuals living in the same community. This previously unknown ancestral dimension of diurnal preference suggests a stratification between racial/ethnic groups in an as yet unknown number of genetic polymorphisms.

  19. Polymorphisms upstream of the melanocortin-1 receptor coding region are associated with human pigmentation variation in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke-Montinelli, Vanessa; Urmenyi, Turan P; Rondinelli, Edson; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Silva, Rosane; Moura-Neto, Rodrigo S

    2012-01-01

    We describe an association of two SNPs, rs3212345:C>T and rs3212346:G>A, located approximately 2.5 kb upstream of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) translation initiation codon, with pigmentation phenotype variation in a Southeast Brazilian miscegenated population. One hundred thirty-eight genetically unrelated subjects, with multicolor phenotype, were selected from the southeast region of Brazil. Skin, hair and eye color, and tanning ability were rated. Genotypes for each SNP (rs3212345:C>T and rs3212346:G>A) were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed with the additive model to determine which of the polymorphisms contributed to a specific phenotype. We found that the rs3212345:C>T is associated with light skin, red hair, and poor tanning ability, while the rs3212346:G>A is associated with dark skin, black hair, and strong tanning ability. The presence of rs3212345-C and rs3212346-A alleles in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and marmoset genomes suggests that they are the ancestral alleles. These data suggest that the rs3212345-T and rs3212346-G alleles may have contributed to lighter pigmentation phenotypes in modern humans. Genotyping for these SNPs may prove useful to the fields of molecular anthropology and forensic genetics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yêska Paola Costa Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82. The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4% and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%. There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  2. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  3. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  4. [Analysis of TV food advertising in the context of recommendations by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Coelho, Francielly de Souza; Guimarães, Julia Soares; Fortaleza, Rafaela Garcia; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-05-18

    This study aimed to analyze TV food advertising in Brazil based on the recommendations of the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014. Programming from the four most popular TV channels was recorded on two non-consecutive days in January 2014. The commercials were categorized in (i) foods and beverages, (ii) restaurants, and (iii) non-food services, goods, and products, with those in the first category subdivided according to recommendations in the food guide. The commercials' categories were described by means of their frequency (and 95% confidence interval), for all the records and according to the day of the week. Of the 2,732 commercials that were identified, food and beverage advertising was the third largest category, with 10.2% of the total. In this category, ultra-processed foods accounted for 60.7% of the commercials, while fresh or minimally processed foods at around 7%. The findings run counter to the guide's recommendations, reinforcing the importance of measures to regulate food advertising in Brazil.

  5. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  6. Chemical variation of tannins and triterpenes in Brazilian populations of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ. Mossi

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus aquifolia species are widely used as a cicatrisation agent, an anti-spasmodic, contraceptive, antiulcerogenic, diuretic and analgesic. Considering the importance of these species in popular medicine, this work is focused on the determination of the chemical content of tannins and the triterpenes friedelan-3-one, friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in 15 native populations of Maytenus ilicifolia distributed in the south and mind-west regions of Brazil. Correlation of the concentration of these compounds with the environmental parameters such as average annual temperature, climate, vegetation, geomorphology, latitude and altitude was determined using Pearson's coefficient. Results showed that average annual temperature and climate have significant effect on tannin content at a 95% confidence level. The highest tannin concentration was found in Ponta Porã population, and for the triterpenes investigated, a significant correlation between their concentrations with the environmental variables studied was not verified.

  7. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil.Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases; and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls. The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection.GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02. Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity.Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is associated with the GPB S

  8. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  9. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A; Lima, S Soares; Rapozo, D C M; Faria, M; Albano, R M; Pinto, L F Ribeiro

    2006-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white). The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6) or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1). The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05) from that present in non-white individuals (0.03). CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08) in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  10. Built Environment and Walking Behavior Among Brazilian Older Adults: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Corseiul Giehl, Marui; Hallal, Pedro C; Weber Corseuil, Claudia; Schneider, Ione J; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the built environment influence on specific domains of walking is important for public health interventions to increase physical activity levels among older adults. The purpose was to investigate the association between built environment characteristics and walking among older adults. A population-based study was performed in 80 census tracts in Florianopolis, Brazil, including 1,705 older adults (60+ years old). Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Built environment characteristics were assessed through a geographic information system. All analyses were conducted through a multilevel logistic regression. Individuals living in neighborhoods with a higher population density (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-3.42), with a higher street connectivity (OR: 1.85; 95% CI, 1.16-2.94), a higher sidewalk proportion (OR: 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.83), and paved streets (medium tertile: OR: 1.61, 95% CI, 1.04-2.49; highest tertile: OR: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.27) were more likely to walk for transportation. Regarding walking for leisure, only 2 predictors were associated, area income (OR: 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12) and street density (OR: 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02-2.10). Improving the neighborhood built environment is an important step for achieving higher levels of walking in the elderly population in a middle-income country.

  11. The Care of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Ezra; McCarthy, Matthew W; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-04-01

    The Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community embraces a system of values and a rigorous behavioral code that are deeply rooted in religious tradition and history. Here we describe some of the unique challenges that stem from the encounter between modern medical practice and the Ultra-Orthodox world. Through examples of clinical and ethical scenarios ranging from prenatal care to end-of-life decisions, we illustrate problems related to observance of age-old practices in a modern hospital setting, balancing acceptance of Divine will with standard risk assessment, reconciliation of patient autonomy with deference to rabbinic authority and fear of stigma associated with mental illness in a traditional society. We also offer a generalizable model where inquiry precedes pre-formulated judgment to help clinicians provide enhanced care for this population.

  12. Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Taís N; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Wilson, Daniel J; Madureira, Ana P; Falcão, Paula R K; Fontes, Cor J F; Gil, Luiz H S; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Carvalho, Luzia H; Brito, Cristiana F A

    2010-11-22

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein. To test whether diversifying natural selection has shaped the nucleotide diversity of PvDBPII in Brazilian populations, this region was sequenced in 122 isolates from six different geographic areas. A Bayesian method was applied to test for the action of natural selection under a population genetic model that incorporates recombination. The analysis was integrated with a structural model of PvDBPII, and T- and B-cell epitopes were localized on the 3-D structure. The results suggest that: (i) recombination plays an important role in determining the haplotype structure of PvDBPII, and (ii) PvDBPII appears to contain neutrally evolving codons as well as codons evolving under natural selection. Diversifying selection preferentially acts on sites identified as epitopes, particularly on amino acid residues 417, 419, and 424, which show strong linkage disequilibrium. This study shows that some polymorphisms of PvDBPII are present near the erythrocyte-binding domain and might serve to elude antibodies that inhibit cell invasion. Therefore, these polymorphisms should be taken into account when designing vaccines aimed at eliciting antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion.

  13. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population--Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Ana Carolina J; Cassani, Roberta S L; Forti, Adriana C e; Vilela, Brunna S; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.

  14. Population biology of the crab Armases angustipes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sesarmidae at Brazilian tropical coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Sá Leitão C. de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi terrestrial crabs are important elements of the fauna of coastal regions. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 at estuaries of the Ariquindá River, considered a non impacted area, and Mamucabas River, considered a few impacted area, on the south coast of state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The species occurred in all months of the year. The number of individuals per month varied, being higher in the months of transition between the seasons. This is probably due to significant seasonal variations of air and burrow temperature and burrow salinity. There was no sexual dimorphism in size of A. angustipes in the mangrove of Ariquindá River, but males were larger than females in the mangrove of Mamucabas River. In both estuaries, the sex ratio did not differ from Mendelian proportion, but showed a deviation for females. The analysis of temporal variation in sex ratio showed significant differences in some months of the year. These variations are due to cyclical events that act distinctly on each sex. In both estuaries, size classes of carapace width were equally represented by both sexes. The ovigerous females of A. angustipes occurred only in some months of the year, especially in summer, in both estuaries. Probably the high phytoplankton productivity observed in summer favors the reproductive activity, since these algae serve as food for the larvae. Specimens of the population of Rio Ariquindá are largest and wider than those of Mamucabas River. This fact, associated with the low abundance of crabs and the lower frequency of ovigerous females observed in Mamucabas River, is an indication that this population may be influenced by the environmental impacts that this estuary has received.

  15. Clinical and Phenotypic Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Arab and Jewish Children in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawi, Firas; Assa, Amit; Bashir, Husam; Peleg, Sarit; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-08-01

    Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Demographic, clinical, and phenotypic variables were compared between Arabs and Jews from Eastern (Sephardic) and Western (Ashkenazi) origin. Seventy-one Arab children with IBD were compared with 165 Ashkenazi and 158 Sephardic Jewish children. Age and gender did not differ between groups. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish Crohn's disease (CD) patients had significantly more stenotic behavior (24 and 26 vs. 5%, p = 0.03) and less fistulzing perianal disease (15 and 11 vs. 31%, p = 0.014) compared with Arab patients. Arab children with ulcerative colitis (UC) had more severe disease at diagnosis compared to Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews reflected by higher Pediatric UC Activity Index (45 vs. 35 and 35, respectively, p = 0.03). Arab patients had significantly lower proportion of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies positivity (in CD) and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity (in UC) than both Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish children (23 vs. 53 and 65%, p = 0.002 and 35 vs. 60 and 75%, respectively, p = 0.002). Arab and Jewish children with IBD differ in disease characteristics and severity. Whether genetic or environmental factors are the cause for these differences is yet to be determined.

  16. [Medicine, physicians and medical ethics in Jewish tradition through the ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-08-01

    Medicine has always had a place of honor in the Jewish heritage. Since Biblical times, the sources of Judaism have valued the physician's activities and seen them as a partnership with God's deeds. Later, in the times of the Mishna and the Talmud, a model of scholars evolved who were not only learned sages but also had extensive medical and scientific knowledge. Their dealings with various issues in medical ethics were the basis for deliberation on questions that appeared throughout history on the advancement of medical science. The various sources from this period show the sages' sensitivity regarding the subject of human life, saving lives and the importance of the availability of medicine for all segments of the population. During the years following the completion of the Talmud, the medical profession was common among the Jews and they excelled in this field. Jewish doctors left behind a Legacy of values in medicine. Hebrew was considered a significant Language in the medical field and was cited in various medical texts such as in the book written by Vesalius, the "father" of modern anatomy. The rapid progress of medicine poses new challenges in bioethics. There is a need for physicians with extensive medical knowledge along with an understanding of ethical issues in order to offer solutions to new situations. Knowledge of the Jewish literature throughout the ages on a variety of subjects and the essential values which are their foundation can contribute to the modern discussion on biomedical questions. This is even more important in Israeli society where many of the laws are formed based on Jewish values. Engagement with Jewish medical ethics can help in educating physicians to have the ability to contribute to public debate and legislation in a way that would balance between the values and needs which an ethical issue raises.

  17. Educational praxis for the Brazilian peasant populations: from pedagogical ruralism to historical-dialectical materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Reis dos Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the trajectory of social movements in defense and in the construction of education for peasant populations, this article aimed to point out and discuss the possibilities and limitations of field education concept, to the extent that we believe that this discussion becomes even more important when we consider that the capitalist society is organized into social classes, with a strong domain of the class that holds the means of production on the class that sells workforce to ensure thelivelihood. The methodological guideline consisted of components of the technical-documentary analysis, as it admits scientific books and writings, laws, resolutions, ordinances, federal, state and local opinions as sources.We opted for the technical-documentary analysis, since the documents are stable and perennial source of information, persisting over time and can be consulted repeatedly, which provides greater stability to the conclusions.We realized the recognition of the social movements in defense of education in the field, the importance of knowledge in the formation process for peasant populations, camping and settled down, as well as a more objective understanding of the relevance in the fight for the transposition of the capitalist society.

  18. Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Dirce Maria Navas; de Oliveira Junior, Jose Oswaldo; da Fonseca, Paulo Renato Barreiros; Posso, Irimar de Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life. Methods Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression. Results Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants. Conclusion 39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities. PMID:29081680

  19. Surgery for valvular heart disease: a population-based study in a Brazilian urban center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available In middle income countries, the burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD remains high, but the prevalence of other heart valve diseases may rise as the population life expectancy increases. Here, we compared population-based data on surgical procedures to assess the relative importance of causes of heart valve disease in Salvador, Brazil.Medical charts of patients who underwent surgery for valvular heart disease from January 2002-December 2005 were reviewed. Incidence of surgery for valvular heart disease was calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with in-hospital death following surgery. The most common etiologies for valvular dysfunction in 491 valvular heart surgery patients were RHD (60.3%, degenerative valve disease (15.3%, and endocarditis (4.5%. Mean annual incidence for surgeries due to any valvular heart diseases, RHD, and degenerative valvular disease were 5.02, 3.03, and 0.77 per 100,000 population, respectively. Incidence of surgery due to RHD was highest in young adults; procedures were predominantly paid by the public health sector. In contrast, the incidence of surgery due to degenerative valvular disease was highest among those older than 60 years of age; procedures were mostly paid by the private sector. The overall in-hospital case-fatality ratio was 11.9%. Independent factors associated with death included increase in age (odds ratio: 1.04 per year of age; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.06, endocarditis (6.35; 1.92-21.04, multiple valve operative procedures (4.35; 2.12-8.95, and prior heart valve surgery (2.49; 1.05-5.87.RHD remains the main cause for valvular heart surgery in Salvador, which primarily affects young adults without private health insurance. In contrast, surgery due to degenerative valvular disease primarily impacts the elderly with private health insurance. Strategies to reduce the burden of valvular heart disease will need to address the disparate factors that contribute to RHD

  20. Semi-volatile compounds variation among Brazilian populations of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of compressed carbon towards extracting semi-volatile compounds present in maté leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. is due to the growing interest in mate constituents to develop new products in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The objective of this work was to assess the chemical distribution of semi-volatile compounds in 20 native populations of maté collected all over Brazil. The extracts of bulk samples (30 plants of each population were obtained by the high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction technique, and analyzed by GC/MSD. The quantification of compounds (caffeine, theobromine, phytol, squalene, vitamin E, eicosane, pentatriacontane, and stigmasterol showed significant variations within the different populations and compounds analyzed, which are not related to geographical origin or macroclimate characteristics. The results pointed out to the importance of genetic and local environmental factors on the chemical composition of this species.A extração empregando dióxido de carbono a altas pressões em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., tem sido justificada pelo crescente interesse desta matriz vegetal ou de parte de seus constituintes na formulação de novos produtos, tais como cosméticos e medicamentos, entre outros. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar a distribuição química de compostos semi-voláteis em 20 populações de erva-mate coletadas em toda área de distribuição desta espécie no Brasil. 30 plantas foram selecionadas para produzir a amostra de cada população. Os extratos de cada amostra foram obtidos por extração com dióxido de carbono a alta pressão e, posteriormente, foram analisados por CG/EM. A quantificação de alguns compostos semi-voláteis presentes nos extratos (cafeína, teobromina, fitol, esqualeno, vitamina E, eicosano, pentatriacontano e stigmasterol, apresentaram variações significativas entre as concentrações dos diferentes compostos

  1. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Castilho, Lilian; Amaral, Daphne R T; Costa, Daiane C; Furlani, Natália G; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Machado, Moara; Reid, Marion E; Zalis, Mariano G; Rossit, Andréa R; Santos, Sidney E B; Machado, Ricardo L; Lustigman, Sara

    2011-01-24

    Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases); and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls). The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; Pselection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is associated with the GPB S+ variant in this population.

  2. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  3. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiero Anelise V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1. The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0, black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9, low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3, smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9 and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9. To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7 and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6 were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health.

  4. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-02-25

    Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health.

  5. Profile of a Brazilian population with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaksic Mateo Sainz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a public health problem. Tobacco smoking is the major cause, but not the only one. Air pollution, exposure to chemicals, environmental smoke exposure, and passive smoking are among other contributing causes; being viral and bacterial infections also risk factors. Gender and weight are associated to the severity of the disease. Co-morbidity is frequent. OBJECTIVE: To characterize a population of COPD outpatients followed at an outsourced medical service. METHODS: Questionnaires were applied to patients with COPD. The data included gender, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, oxygen delivery users, and FEV1, exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to wood smoke, history of tuberculosis and co-morbid diseases. RESULTS: Of the 70 patients enrolled in the study, 70% (49 were men with an average age of 64 ± 10 years, average weight of 63 ± 16 kg and average BMI of 22 ± 5 kg/m². Mean FEV1 was 35 ± 14% and 45.7% were oxygen dependent. Nine (12.8% patients never smoked, while 78.8% had quit tobacco smoking, (38 ± 11 pack/years was the average. Nine (12.8% smoked corn husk cigarettes. Eighteen (25.7% were exposed to wood smoke. Eleven (15.7% patients had tuberculosis, 5.7% complained of asthma symptoms, 2.8% had bronchiectasis, 11.4% diabetes mellitus, 51.4% hypertension, and 20% Cor pulmonale. CONCLUSION: Other possible COPD etiologies must be investigated. Determinants of the pulmonary injury could be environmental smoke exposure associated to former infections. Men with low BMI are typically representative of this severe patient population. Hypertension and Cor Pulmonale are frequent co-morbidity factors.

  6. Validity of periodontitis screening questions in a Brazilian adult population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Quirino RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Population-based studies assessing self-reported periodontal questions in low-income countries are lacking, and therefore we aimed to assess the accuracy of self-reported periodontal items in Brazil. One thousand one hundred and forty adults from Florianópolis, Brazil, had their periodontium clinically examined, and responded to the following self-reported items on periodontal conditions: Question (Q1, Do you have any wobbly teeth?; Q2, Do your gums usually bleed?; and Q3, Has your dentist ever told you that you have gum disease? Periodontitis was defined as: a. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss in the same tooth, in at least one tooth (PD1; or b. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss, not necessarily in the same tooth (PD2. Sensitivity (SN and specificity (SP were calculated, and analyses were stratified by socioeconomic status and time since last dental visit. Scores were generated in order to determine the accuracy of the whole set of items. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Prevalence of clinically diagnosed periodontitis was 2.6% (95%CI = 1.7–4.0% for PD1 and 3.8% (95%CI = 2.7–5.3% for PD2. Prevalence of self-reported periodontitis varied between 2.7 (Q2 and 22.0% (Q3. SN and SP ranged between 0.0–60.0% and 73.3–98.6%, respectively; Q1 showed the highest accuracy (140.8% followed by Q3 (140.0%. The combined score of the three self-reported items did not improve accuracy estimates; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.70 and 0.68 for PD1 and PD2, respectively. The accuracy of self-reported items was low, and further studies are needed in order to develop valid and reliable periodontitis screening questions for population-based studies.

  7. Validity of periodontitis screening questions in a Brazilian adult population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Renato Quirino; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-10-10

    Population-based studies assessing self-reported periodontal questions in low-income countries are lacking, and therefore we aimed to assess the accuracy of self-reported periodontal items in Brazil. One thousand one hundred and forty adults from Florianópolis, Brazil, had their periodontium clinically examined, and responded to the following self-reported items on periodontal conditions: Question (Q)1, Do you have any wobbly teeth?; Q2, Do your gums usually bleed?; and Q3, Has your dentist ever told you that you have gum disease? Periodontitis was defined as: a. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss in the same tooth, in at least one tooth (PD1); or b. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss, not necessarily in the same tooth (PD2). Sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) were calculated, and analyses were stratified by socioeconomic status and time since last dental visit. Scores were generated in order to determine the accuracy of the whole set of items. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Prevalence of clinically diagnosed periodontitis was 2.6% (95%CI = 1.7-4.0%) for PD1 and 3.8% (95%CI = 2.7-5.3%) for PD2. Prevalence of self-reported periodontitis varied between 2.7 (Q2) and 22.0% (Q3). SN and SP ranged between 0.0-60.0% and 73.3-98.6%, respectively; Q1 showed the highest accuracy (140.8%) followed by Q3 (140.0%). The combined score of the three self-reported items did not improve accuracy estimates; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.70 and 0.68 for PD1 and PD2, respectively. The accuracy of self-reported items was low, and further studies are needed in order to develop valid and reliable periodontitis screening questions for population-based studies.

  8. Teaching about Catholic-Jewish Relationships: Interpreting Jewish Hostility to Jesus in the Gospels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansbrough, Henry

    2016-01-01

    A recent article in this journal, "Teaching about Catholic--Jewish relations: some guidelines to assist the work of teachers in Catholic schools," by Clare Jardine (Volume 7, no 1, 46-60), includes a page on "A new approach to New Testament studies." There the author points out that "The situations described in the Gospels…

  9. On the Origins and Persistence of the Jewish Identity Industry in Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    "Jewish identity," which emerged as an analytical term in the 1950s, appealed to a set of needs that American Jews felt in the postwar period, which accounted for its popularity. Identity was the quintessential conundrum for a community on the threshold of acceptance. The work of Kurt Lewin, Erik Erikson, Will Herberg, Marshall Sklare,…

  10. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Fernandes Bellinato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PY are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP, deltamethrin (PY, and diflubenzuron (IGR of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3. Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities.

  11. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women, genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3, African (6.6, and Native American (6.3 ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; p<0.001. Independent of education level, African ancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001, and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009. Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all p<0.001. Our findings, from an admixed population, indicate that both genomic ancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  12. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. [Food Frequency Questionnaire developed and validated for the Brazilian population: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de

    2015-09-01

    Assessing food intake is a challenge for researchers given the inherent complexity of the issue. One of the methods used in epidemiological studies is the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The scope of this paper was to identify studies that developed and/or validated the FFQ in Brazil, analyzing the methods used and the main results of the validation. The PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases were researched for studies published prior to 2013 on the development and validation of the FFQ in Brazil. These studies were analyzed according to: i) the main methodological characteristics of the elaboration/validation process of the questionnaires; ii) the key results related to validation. Forty-one studies were assessed: 6 on the development of the FFQ; 18 on the development and validation of the FFQ; 17 on the validation of the FFQ. There were inter-regional differences in the publications and methodological differences in the elaboration and validation of the FFQ. Adults and adolescents were the groups most covered for the validation of the FFQ, though specific studies for children < 5 years of age were not found. The methodological rigor and statistical results guarantee the suitability of the validation of the FFQ for the target populations, with high correlations for energy, carbohydrates, fibers, calcium and vitamin C.

  14. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  15. Association of workplace and population characteristics with prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian industry workers: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Chaves Junior, Hilton de Castro; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Ione M F; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to risk factors for hypertension may be influenced by the characteristics of the workplace, where workers spend most of their daily time. To evaluate the association between features of the companies, particularly the presence of facilities to provide meals, and of population characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, taking into account individual risk factors for hypertension. This multilevel analysis was based on a cross-sectional study with individual and company data from the SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria-Social Service of Industries) study and population-based data from the national census statistics. Workers aged ≥15 years were randomly selected from small (20-99), medium (100-499) and large (≥500 employees) companies per state using multistage sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between hypertension and individual, workplace and population variables, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) adjusted for three-level variables. 4818 Workers from 157 companies were interviewed and their blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Overall, 77% were men, aged 35.4 ±10.7 years, with 8.7 ±4.1 years of schooling and mostly worked in companies with a staff canteen (66%). Besides individual characteristics-being male, ageing, low schooling, alcohol abuse and higher BMI-a workplace with no staff canteen (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52), small companies (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) and living in cities with higher economic inequality (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) were associated with a higher risk for hypertension. Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. These three-level characteristics help to interpret differences in the prevalence of hypertension between regions or countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of Osgood-Schlatter syndrome in a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, Gildásio Lucas; dos Santos Gomes, Cristiano; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Osgood-Schlatter (OS) syndrome is a disease of the musculoskeletal system often observed during the bone growth phase in adolescents. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: Demographic and anthropometric factors and those linked to the practice of sports may be related to the prevalence of OS. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic profile and associated factors of individuals with OS syndrome in a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 956 adolescent students (474 boys, 482 girls) from 2008 to 2009 enrolled in the school system of Natal, Brazil. The age ranged between 12 and 15 years (13.7 ± 1.04 years). Tests were performed to assess the anthropometric and clinical aspects related to OS. To confirm the diagnosis of OS syndrome, the participant had to fulfill all the following clinical criteria: pain with direct pressure on the tibial apophysis; aforementioned pain before, during, and after physical activities; enlargement or prominence of the tibial apophysis; pain with resisted knee extension; and pain from jumping. The prevalence of OS in the sample was 9.8% (11.0% of boys and 8.3% of girls; boys, 13.5 ± 1.07 years; girls, 13.6 ± 1.01 years). The results showed that 74.6% of the students suffered from muscle shortening. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that the factors associated with the presence of OS were the regular practice of sport activity (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.10) and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle (odds ratio, 7.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.86-17.86). The regular practice of sports in the pubertal phase and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle were the main factors associated to the presence of OS syndrome in the students.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and physical activity in southern Brazilian community-dwelling elders: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert César L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The association between a sedentary lifestyle and obesity is well documented, and is linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS. There is some evidence that information regarding the health benefits of physical activity is beginning to impact on the elderly people and is beginning to change their behavior. We aimed to investigate the level of physical activity undertaken by elderly people with MS and those without this condition. Methods - We evaluated 362 community-dwelling elders of Novo Hamburgo, southern Brazil. Diagnosis of MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the physical activity (PA level was estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was carried out to verify associations between MS risk factors and the level of PA. Logistic regression was used to estimate the MS odds ratio for each level of PA. Results - No significant association was found between MS and the level of physical activity, irrespective of sex. The odds ratio for the presence of MS adjusted for sex and age and using insufficiently active elderly people as reference was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7 in sufficiently active elderly people and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0 in very active elderly people. Conclusion - The elderly citizens of a southern Brazilian community who were diagnosed with MS presented the same levels of PA as the individuals who did not have this diagnosis. This may imply that information on the importance of physical activity has already reached this higher risk population.

  18. BMI gain and insulin resistance among school-aged children: a population-based longitudinal study in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Gimeno, Suely G A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-12-14

    Investigation of the determinants of metabolic outcomes associated with non-communicable diseases is increasingly important in developing countries, but such parameters have not been explored extensively during childhood. The present study assessed the impact of weight gain, measured as BMI-for-age Z-scores, on glucose and insulin concentrations, homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure during school years among Amazonian children. A population-based prospective study of 696 children aged >4 to ≤ 10 years with complete anthropometric information at baseline (51% females and 86% of mixed race) was carried out; 411 children had data on metabolic parameters after a median follow-up period of 2.0 years (range 1.7-2.6 years). During follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion of overweight children (BMI-for-age Z-score >1) from 10.1 to 15.8% (P= 0.003). In linear regression models adjusted for the child's sex, age, race/ethnicity, baseline household wealth, birth weight and pubertal development stage, for each unit of BMI-for-age Z-score variation during follow-up, an increase of 8.58 (95% CI 7.68, 9.60) pmol/l in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and 1.47 (95% CI 1.30, 1.66) in HOMA-IR values was observed. There was no significant impact of weight gain on glucose concentrations and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, we found evidence that an increase in BMI during a 2-year period affected insulin resistance during school years. Considering the significant increase in overweight in this age group, special attention should be paid to monitoring increases in BMI in children from the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Inferring paternal history of rural African-derived Brazilian populations from Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Lilian; Nunes, Kelly; Macedo-Souza, Lúcia Inês; Rocha, Jorge; Meyer, Diogo; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2017-03-01

    Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler). A subset of 82 samples was also genotyped using SNPs array (Axiom Human Origins-Affymetrix). We estimated haplotype and haplogroup frequencies, haplotype diversity and sharing, and pairwise genetic distances through F ST and R ST indexes. We identified 95 Y chromosome haplotypes, classified into 15 haplogroups. About 63% are European, 32% are African, and 6% Native American. The most common were: R1b (European, 34.2%), E1b1a (African, 32.3%), J1 (European, 6.9%), and Q (Native American, 6.2%). Genetic differentiation among communities was low (F ST  = 0.0171; R ST  = 0.0161), and haplotype sharing was extensive. Genetic, genealogical and oral surveys allowed us to detect five main founder haplotypes, which explained a total of 27.7% of the Y chromosome lineages. Our results showed a high European patrilineal genetic contribution among the founders of quilombos, high amounts of gene flow, and a recent common origin of these populations. Common haplotypes and genealogical data indicate the origin of quilombos from a few male individuals. Our study reinforces the importance of a dual approach, involving the analysis of both anthropological and genetic data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of alpha thalassemic genotypes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Suemasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia is the most common inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis. Genomic deletions involving the alpha-globin gene cluster on chromosome 16p13.3 are the most frequent molecular causes of the disease. Although common deletions can be detected by a single multiplex gap-PCR, the rare and novel deletions depend on more laborious techniques for their identification. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA technique has recently been used for this purpose and was successfully used in the present study to detect the molecular alterations responsible for the alpha-thalassemic phenotypes in 8 unrelated individuals (3 males and 5 females; age, 4 months to 30 years in whom the molecular basis of the disease could not be determined by conventional methods. A total of 44 probe pairs were used for MLPA, covering approximately 800 kb from the telomere to the MSLN gene in the 16p13.3 region. Eight deletions were detected. Four of these varied in size from 240 to 720 kb and affected a large region including the entire alpha-globin gene cluster and its upstream regulatory element (alpha-MRE, while the other four varied in size from 0.4 to 100 kb and were limited to a region containing this element. This study is the first in Brazil to use the MLPA method to determine the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The variety of rearrangements identified highlights the need to investigate all cases presenting microcytosis and hypochromia, but without iron deficiency or elevated hemoglobin A2 levels and suggests that these rearrangements may be more frequent in our population than previously estimated.

  1. Jewish Arab Activism through Dialogical Encounters: Changing an Israeli Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Tamar; Saba, Tuffaha; Shay, Nava

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a Jewish Arab dialogue model of national encounters which has been developed at Tel Hai College in Upper Galilee in Israel. These planned encounters, which have taken place for eight consecutive years within the framework of a course entitled "A Jewish-Arab dialogue--action research" are recognized as part of the…

  2. Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions) of Paul's sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul's sibling language in light of ...

  3. The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M. van; Luttikhuizen, G P

    2000-01-01

    J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, “The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature,” in The Creation of Man and Woman: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions (ed. Gerard P. Luttikhuizen; Themes in Biblical Narrative 3; Leiden, Boston, and Köln: Brill, 2000),

  4. Defying Normative Male Identities: The Transgressive Possibilities of Jewish Boyhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael C.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study discovers teenage boys whose connections to Judaism and Jewish life offered them resilience and contextual opportunities for identity development. Those who have active, positive Jewish identities describe adaptations that are more independent of adolescent peer norms and freer, in terms of masculine pressures, than less…

  5. Diversity, Community, and Pluralism in Jewish Community Day High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Students in "community" (nondenominational) Jewish high schools represent a diversity of denominational affiliations, including those who affiliate with more than one denomination and those that affiliate with none. These schools strive to create communities in which students with varying Jewish beliefs and practices are, at the very…

  6. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  7. How They Teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jeffrey Alan

    2017-01-01

    Though Holocaust education is of critical importance in the world of Jewish Day Schools, little research has been conducted about it. The purpose of this paper is to answer some critical questions about how they teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools--the who, what, when, where, how, and why questions. Additionally, comparisons are made between…

  8. Association of cytokines in individuals sensitive and insensitive to dust mites in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima; Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2014-01-01

    Allergic reaction to dust mites is a relatively common condition among children, triggering cutaneous and respiratory responses that have a great impact on the health of this population. Anaphylactic hypersensitivity is characterized by an exacerbated response involving the production of regulatory cytokines responsible for stimulating the production of IgE antibodies. To investigate an association of variants in cytokine genes (IL1A-889, IL1B-511, +3962, IL1R1970, IL1RA11100, IL4RA+1902, IL12-1188, IFNG+874, TGFB1 codon 10, codon 25, TNFA-308, -238, IL2-330, +166, IL4-1098, -590, -33, IL6-174, nt565, and IL10-1082, -819, -592) between patients sensitive to dust mites and a control group. A total of 254 patients were grouped as atopic and non-atopic according to sensitivity as evaluated by the Prick Test and to cytokine genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) method using the Cytokine Genotyping Kit. A comparison between individuals allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Blomia tropicalis and a non-atopic control group showed significant differences between allele and genotype frequencies in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes, with important evidence for IL4-590 in T/C (10.2% vs. 43.1%, odd ratio [OR] = 0.15, p = 5.2 10-8, pc = 0.0000011, and 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.07-0.32) and T/T genotypes (42.9% vs. 13.8%, OR = 4.69, p = 2.5 10-6, pc = 0.000055, and 95%CI = 2.42-9.09). Other associations were observed in the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1A-889 (T/T, C, and T) and IL2-330 (G/T and T/T) and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4RA+1902 (A and G), IL4-590 (T/C, T/T, C, and T), and IL10-592 (A/A, C/A, A, and C). Our results suggest a possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes and hypersensitivity to dust mites.

  9. The Jewish Reformist Movement and its Challenges in Modern Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ebrahim Mousavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish reformist effort is a modernist movement which began under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, the proponents of which asked for a series of reformation within the Judaism so that they could guarantee a modernist approach in Jewish thought and have new experiences.    Prior to that, the formation of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century Europe, along with the occurrence of the French Revolution, had caused the intellectualistic thoughts to spread. The scholars supporting intellectualism believed that the proving of everything even the religious propositions was applicable only through the intellect, they also emphasized on the motto of freedom and equality of all nations.  Such liberal ideas were the most inspiring for the Jews since by resorting to them; they could terminate a long period of hardship for the Jewish people. The Jewish modernist thinkers, following Moses Mendelsohn in the eighteenth century under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, announced that the admission of Jewish Doctrines should have intellectual bases and therefore rejected some of the traditional beliefs in their religion. Having modernist ideas, they asked for changes in some of the traditional beliefs such as Jewish Nationalistic ideas, and attributed the main cause of Jewish problems at that time to such ideas    The present paper aims at introducing the Jewish reformist movement first and after mentioning its historical background, will elaborate on the significant views within the movement, then the most important challenges the movement faces in modern time will be explained. Here it will be mentioned that being totally different from traditional approach,   these challenges are the outcomes of modern reformist commentaries toward religious sources. Some of the most important challenges mentioned here are: 1- Women's religious and social functions 2- The homosexual problem 3- The Problem of Jewish and non-Jewish marriages 4- The

  10. The Jewish Reformist Movement and its Challenges in Modern Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish reformist effort is a modernist movement which began under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, the proponents of which asked for a series of reformation within the Judaism so that they could guarantee a modernist approach in Jewish thought and have new experiences.    Prior to that, the formation of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century Europe, along with the occurrence of the French Revolution, had caused the intellectualistic thoughts to spread. The scholars supporting intellectualism believed that the proving of everything even the religious propositions was applicable only through the intellect, they also emphasized on the motto of freedom and equality of all nations.  Such liberal ideas were the most inspiring for the Jews since by resorting to them; they could terminate a long period of hardship for the Jewish people. The Jewish modernist thinkers, following Moses Mendelsohn in the eighteenth century under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, announced that the admission of Jewish Doctrines should have intellectual bases and therefore rejected some of the traditional beliefs in their religion. Having modernist ideas, they asked for changes in some of the traditional beliefs such as Jewish Nationalistic ideas, and attributed the main cause of Jewish problems at that time to such ideas    The present paper aims at introducing the Jewish reformist movement first and after mentioning its historical background, will elaborate on the significant views within the movement, then the most important challenges the movement faces in modern time will be explained. Here it will be mentioned that being totally different from traditional approach,   these challenges are the outcomes of modern reformist commentaries toward religious sources. Some of the most important challenges mentioned here are: 1- Women's religious and social functions 2- The homosexual problem 3- The Problem of Jewish and non-Jewish marriages 4- The

  11. Smoking and poverty in Brazil: an analysis of the profile of the smoking population based on the 2008-09 Brazilian government Family Budget Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazotti, Angelita; Finokiet, Manuela; Conti, Irio Luiz; França, Marco Tulio Aniceto; Waquil, Paulo Dabdab

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the Brazilian population who spent money with tobacco products. POF dataset was used from IBGE of the years 2008 and 2009. The same definition that IBGE usually use for tobacco consumer was applied, which is someone has spent money with any kind of tobacco products and its derivatives. It was used individual aspects taking into account such as gender, schooling, age (over 14 years old), income lines, regions and ethnics to characterize these populations. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate the results and the complex sample design of the survey was considered. According to our results, on average, 10% of the Brazilian population have spent money with tobacco products. Besides, these people are older, earn low salaries and have less schooling than someone who does not consume tobacco. Moreover, for this population 1.5% of the family budget is spent on tobacco products. Last but not least, the most of tobacco consumers are men. In general, money which is spent on tobacco products can cause impressive effects on domestic budget because this value could supply other important necessities to the family. Although there are many monitoring and prevention strategies to avoid tobacco consume, deep knowledge about this population that actually consume these products can increase the efficacy of more specific policies.

  12. Genetic diversity of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) population in the Brazilian Pantanal assessed by combining fresh fecal DNA analysis and a set of heterologous microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantellatto, Aline Meira Bonfim; Caparroz, Renato; Christofoletti, Maurício Durante; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-01-01

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is close to being classified as 'globally threatened', with the largest population occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal. Since capture is stressful to these animals, non-invasive sampling methods such as the use of feces can provide reliable sources of DNA. The aim of this study was to use fecal samples to evaluate the genetic variability of the Brazilian Pantanal population of pampas deer. Six heterologous microsatellite markers were used to screen 142 stool specimens. Seventy-four deer were identified, of which 50 adults were used to determine the genetic characteristics of the population. The Pantanal population showed high genetic diversity (mean number of alleles per locus = 11.5, expected heterozygosity = 0.75). This is the first investigation to characterize a South American deer species using fecal DNA and demonstrates the usefulness and efficiency of this approach, as well as the feasibility of obtaining information that could not have been easily obtained by traditional DNA sampling. Our findings suggest that management strategies for this species may be much more effective if applied now when the population still shows high genetic variability.

  13. The Management of Pupil Difference in Catholic-Protestant and Palestinian-Jewish Integrated Education in Northern Ireland and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire; Bekerman, Zvi

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers issues related to integration in education, specifically those related to the integration of ethnic/religious populations in conflict. The case study we will use is the educating together of Catholic and Protestant children and Palestinian and Jewish children in two troubled societies, Northern Ireland and Israel, where…

  14. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  15. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population--Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina J Vasques

    Full Text Available Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR. However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR.A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index.After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70 and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71 were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001. In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0 more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001; whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3 and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5 more likely to have IR (p < 0.001, respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio.SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.

  16. Spiritual Criminology: The Case of Jewish Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Ben Yair, Y

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known. Our aim here is to present a complementary perspective; that is, spiritual criminology that emerges from the spiritual perspective. Following a description of the state-of-the-art in criminological research concerning spirituality and its impact upon individuals, we focus on Jewish criminology as an illustrative case study, and present a spiritual Jewish view on good and evil, including factors that lead to criminality, the issue of free choice, the aim of punishment and societal response, crime desistance, rehabilitation, and prevention. The proposed establishment of spiritual criminology can be further developed by including parallel schools of spirituality, to create an integrated field in criminology.

  17. Karl Mannheim’s Jewish Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kettler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore Karl Mannheim’s puzzling failure (or refusal to address himself in any way to questions arising out of the position of Jews in Germany, either before or after the advent of Nazi rule—and this, notwithstanding the fact, first, that his own ethnic identification as a Jew was never in question and that he shared vivid experiences of anti-Semitism, and consequent exile from both Hungary and Germany, and, second, that his entire sociological method rested upon using one’s own most problematic social location—as woman, say, or youth, or intellectual—as the starting point for a reflexive investigation. It was precisely Mannheim’s convictions about the integral bond between thought grounded in reflexivity and a mission to engage in a transformative work of Bildung that made it effectively impossible for him to formulate his inquiries in terms of his way of being Jewish. It is through his explorations of the rise and fall of the intellectual as socio-cultural formation that Mannheim investigates his relations to his Jewish origins and confronts the disaster of 1933. The key to our puzzle is to be found in the theory of assimilation put forward in the dissertation of his student, Jacob Katz.

  18. Analysis of genetic ancestry in the admixed Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro using 46 autosomal ancestry-informative indel markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Fernanda Saloum Neves; Pereira, Rui; Caiafa, Alexandre; Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Gusmão, Leonor; Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian population is highly heterogeneous as a result of five centuries of inter-ethnic mating between native Amerindians, European colonizers and Africans arrived during slavery. This study aimed to assess the proportions of inter-ethnic admixture in the Brazilian population of Rio de Janeiro using autosomal Ancestry-Informative Markers (AIMs). The autosomal data were also compared to the results expected from uniparental genetic markers. A total of 413 individuals were genotyped for 46 AIM-Indels and ancestry estimates were then assessed using HGDP-CEPH samples as ancestral reference. Individuals from Rio de Janeiro presented highly diverse admixture patterns. The global admixture estimates showed a predominantly European ancestry, above 55%, followed by African and Amerindian contributions. A separate self-declared Afro-descendant group also included in this study revealed an increased African ancestry, from ∼30% to ∼50%. The inter-ethnic admixture landscape of Rio de Janeiro captured by autosomal AIM-Indels is in agreement with historical records and similar to that expected from uniparental mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The AIM-Indel panel proved to be a rapid strategy to estimate autosomal genetic ancestry at individual and population levels in Rio de Janeiro, which is useful in population genetics and in case-control association studies.

  19. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  20. Impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation ("sprinkles") on iron deficiency anemia in Bedouin Arab and Jewish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Fraser, Drora; Vardy, Hillel; Belmaker, Ilana

    2014-07-01

    A high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia persists in Bedouin Arab and Jewish pediatric populations in southern Israel. To compare the effect of daily use of the micronutrient supplementation (MMS), "Sprinkles," a powdered formulation of iron, vitamins A and C, folic acid and zinc, with liquid iron and vitamins A and D on iron deficiency at 12 months of age. The 621 eligible Bedouin and Jewish infants in the study were assigned to the MMS and control arms and received supplementations from age 6 to 12 months. We examined the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, red blood cell distribution, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. In addition, we used the high Iron Deficiency Index (IDI) if two or more of the above six parameters showed abnormal levels. Rates of anemia decreased significantly over the 6 month period, from 58.8% to 40.6% among Bedouin infants (P = 0.037) and from 40.6 to 15.8% among Jewish infants (P = 0.017). In Bedouin infants the prevalence of high IDI decreased significantly from 79.2% to 67.4% (P = 0.010) in the MMS group, but there was no change in the controls. Among Jewish infants, the high IDI prevalence decreased from 67% to 55.6% with no statistically significant difference in the two study arms. In the multivariate analysis in Bedouin infants MMS use was associated with a reduced risk of 67% in high IDI at age 12 months as compared to controls (P = 0.001). Fewer side effects in the intervention groups in both ethnic populations were reported. MMS fortification of home food can be recommended as an effective and safe method for preventing iron deficiency anemia at 12 months of age.

  1. Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians do not demonstrate enrichment in mitochondrial haplogroup J.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran I Shlush

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity has been reported in several population subgroups. While studies from northern Italy and Finland, have described a higher frequency of haplogroup J among centenarians in comparison to non-centenarian, several other studies could not replicate these results and suggested various explanations for the discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated haplogroup frequencies among Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians using two different sets of matched controls. No difference was observed in the haplogroup J frequencies between the centenarians or either matched control group, despite adequate statistical power to detect such a difference. Furthermore, the lack of association was robust to population substructure in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Given this discrepancy with the previous reported associations in the northern Italian and the Finnish populations, we conducted re-analysis of these previously published data, which supported one of several possible explanations: i inadequate matching of cases and controls; ii inadequate adjustment for multiple comparison testing; iii cryptic population stratification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There does not exist a universal association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity across all population groups. Reported associations in specialized populations may reflect genetic or other interactions specific to those populations or else cryptic confounding influences, such as inadequate matching attributable to population substructure, which are of general relevance to all studies of the possible association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with common complex phenotypes.

  2. Insights into the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and RDRio in a southeastern Brazilian prison unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Fé Dagmar; Sánchez, Alexandra; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Vasconcellos, Sidra; Massari, Véronique; Barreto, Angela; Cesconi, Vanderci; de Almeida Machado, Silvia Maria; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Sola, Christophe; Larouzé, Bernard; Suffys, Philip Noel; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a serious public health problem, continuing to be an important threat for confined populations. We used spoligotyping to estimate the genotypic clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from inmates in two blocks in a southeastern Brazilian prison unit, with TB incidence rate of 8185/100.000. The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade is well represented in the country, and the LAM specific molecular markers, RD(Rio) large sequence polymorphism and the SNP on the Rv3062 [ligB(1212)], were used to characterize spoligotype signatures from prison isolates. Typing of RD(Rio) and ligB increase LAM clade from 66.7% (n=72/108) to 69.4% (n=75). The LAM2 SIT17 (n=23) and SIT179 (n=12) signatures comprised one third of all isolates, followed by Haarlem (11.5%, n=12), T (8.7%, n=9) and X (5.7%, n=6) clades. Strains with unknown signatures represented 5.5% (n=6), and four (3.7%) did not match any lineage. We observed RD(Rio) among 64 (59.2%) isolates, and 54 (50%) were of the LAM clade. In particular, the LAM2/RD(Rio) sub-lineage was significantly associated with clustering (p=0.02) and its frequency was higher (32%) when compared to that of the previous general TB cases in RJ (4.29%). Overall cluster frequency defined by spoligotyping/IS6110-RFLP was 62%. The two evolutionary markers helped to evaluate some LAM signature misconceptions and demonstrate that LAM2/RD(Rio) was found with high frequency, hitherto being unnoticed. All these data, allied to high clustering, imply that public health measures to minimize the escalation of TB in prison is essential, and both spoligotyping as well as RD(Rio) would be useful tools to monitor the effects of the measures with respect to M. tuberculosis lineage variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. From imago Dei in the Jewish-Christian traditions to human dignity in contemporary Jewish law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2009-09-01

    The article surveys and analyzes the roles in Judaism of the value of imago Dei/human dignity, especially in bioethical contexts. Two main topics are discussed. The first is a comparative analysis of imago Dei as an anthropological and ethical concept in Jewish and Western thought (Christianity and secular European values). The Jewish tradition highlights the human body and especially its procreative function and external appearance as central to imago Dei. The second is the role of imago Dei as a moral value relative to others. In rabbinic Judaism, respect for human dignity is not the primary moral maxim; it is secondary to the value of neighborly love and sometimes to other moral laws and values.

  4. СОЦІАЛЬНА СТРУКТУРА ЄВРЕЙСЬКОГО НАСЕЛЕННЯ РОСІЙСЬКОЇ ІМПЕРІЇ НАПРИКІНЦІ ХIХ СТОЛІТТЯ / THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE JEWISH POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр БЕЗАРОВ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Безаров Александр. Социальная структура еврейского населения Российской империи в конце ХIХ века. В статье проанализирована социальная структура еврейского населения в конце ХIХ века. Сделаны выводы о том, что структура расселения российских евреев во многом определялась правовыми ограничениями, но ассимиляционное, демографическое и миграционное давление, которое испытывала на себе, главным образом, местечковая масса еврейства, явилось следствием общего процесса урбанизации, что привело к её дальнейшему обнищанию и к усилению эмиграционного потока среди российских евреев. Ключевые слова: еврейская этногрупа, социальная структура, модернизация, урбанизация, идентичность, черта оседлости, Российская империя. Bezarov Alexander. The social structure of the Jewish population of the Russian Empire in the late nineteenth century Abstract. Modernization, which experienced a Late Imperial Russia in the last third of the nineteenth century changed the social structure of the multinational country. Russian Jews who were the largest Jewish diaspora in the world, found themselves locked in "permanent Pale of Jewish Settlement" which remained as a system component of the Jewish population’s social structure of the Russian Empire throughout of the XIXth century. Thereby, its specific institutions determined the direction and nature of social processes such as

  5. Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eFalk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction is a basic property of human Darwinian evolution. Presumably inherent differential physical as well as behavioural properties have always been criteria for identifying friend or foe. Yet, biological determinism is a relatively modern term, and scientific racism is, oddly enough, largely a consequence or a product of the Age of Enlightenment and the establishment of the notion of human equality. In recent decades ever-increasing efforts and ingenuity were invested in identifying Biblical Israelite genotypic common denominators by analysing assorted phenotypes, like facial patterns, blood types, diseases, DNA-sequences, and more. It becomes overwhelmingly clear that although Jews by their socio-religious-cultural relationship maintained also considerable consanguinity, there is no Jewish genotype to identify.

  6. Autopsy: Traditional Jewish laws and customs "Halacha".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Norman R; Goodman, Jeffrey L; Hofman, Walter I

    2011-09-01

    Judaism has many traditions, customs, rules, and laws, which relate to the proper and ethical disposition of a decedent when a Medical Examiner/ Coroner is involved. In almost all United States jurisdictions, statutes mandate the need to determine the cause and manner of death (Coroners' Act PA Pl. 323, num. 130, section 1237). This article is a review of some religious writings, legal precedents, and forensic authorities, which may help to assist the Medical Examiner/Coroner when confronted with a Jewish decedent. There can be flexibility as to the extent that such forensic studies can and should be performed. The final consent and interpretation of the rules, laws, traditions, and customs will rest with the courts and local rabbinic authority.

  7. Unconscious conflict of interest: a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    In contemporary medicine, it is not always obvious whether the acceptance of a benefit constitutes a conflict of interest. A particular area of controversy has been the impact of small gifts or other benefits from pharmaceutical companies on physicians' behaviour. Typically, in such cases, the gift is not an explicit reward for cooperation; the physician does not perceive the gift as an attempt to influence his or her judgement; and the reward is relatively minor. Under these circumstances, physicians are generally of the view that acceptance of gifts will not affect their behaviour, notwithstanding findings from social psychology and neuroscience that the impact of gifts is often unconscious, shaping action without a person's awareness. Here, we draw on traditional texts of Jewish law pertaining to the prohibition of taking a gift to illustrate recognition by the ancients of unconscious conflicts of interest, and their approach to dealing with the problem.

  8. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  9. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  10. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  11. 78 FR 26215 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... cast a shadow over Europe in the last century. It is what led Holocaust survivors and Jews trapped... Americans helped forge. More than 350 years have passed since Jewish refugees first made landfall on...

  12. Bikkur Holim: the origins of Jewish pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys classical Jewish texts--from the Hebrew Bible through Medieval codes--regarding the concept and practice of Bikkur Holim, literally, "the sick visit." How does this literature understand this ethical, religious act; who are the practitioners; what are their objectives? Although the Hebrew Bible does not contain a biblical precedent or legal mandate for Bikkur Holim, various categories of pastoral actions are traced in midrashic and talmudic texts. Their nuances are examined closely and a conceptualization of Jewish pastoral care is identified in a work by thirteenth century rabbi, jurist and physician, Nahmanides. Ezekiel 34 is proposed as the source for the rabbinic term, Bikkur Holim, as well as the conceptual understanding of Jewish pastoral care. Finally, the author posits various questions regarding the implication of his findings on the conduct of Jewish pastoral care, the value of spiritual assessment, and the nature of chaplaincy work in our various religious traditions.

  13. Environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, new funeral technologies, and preferences of the Northeastern and Southern Brazilian population as for the funeral process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nicholas Joseph Tavares; Lezana, Álvaro Guillermo Rojas; Freire Dos Santos, Paulo da Cruz; Santana Pinto, Ibsen Mateus Bittencourt; Zancan, Claudio; Silva de Souza, Gustavo Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Cemeteries and crematoria are the main funeral ways used in the world nowadays. It is a little-studied segment in the present days, mainly as for the possible environmental impacts in the environment, such as those derived from dental amalgam, prostheses, and dioxins, among other. This article aimed to identify the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria and to point out new trends in funeral processes such as freeze-drying and alkaline hydrolysis. The study is justified due to the large part of the Brazilian population that do not know the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, as well as to bring information about the new processes. For that, a research was carried out with 400 people. The main results show that among all the funeral processes, the new freeze-drying process was opted by 33% of the sample. We also identified that the main reasons for choosing the funeral process were less environmental impact (28%), no after-death expenses (grave payment) (16.1%), and the possibility of putting away or throwing away the remains wherever you want (14.9%). Finally, new funeral processes were well accepted by the Brazilian population-those who were interviewed-due to their benefits.

  14. Application of physiological parameters of a sample of the Brazilian population in different levels of exercise, on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Lourenco, Maria C.

    2005-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population, in different levels of exercise, on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The deposition model was implemented using software Excel for Windows (version 2000). The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. The variations are not the same for all regions of the respiratory tract and depend on levels of exercise. (author)

  15. The missing link of Jewish European ancestry: contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran

    2013-01-01

    The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The "Rhineland hypothesis" depicts Eastern European Jews as a "population isolate" that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the "Khazarian hypothesis" suggests that Eastern European Jews descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized empire until the 13th century. Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, the Khazars' contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Near Eastern-Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe a major difference among Caucasus populations explained by the early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus. Our results have important implications for the demographic forces that shaped the genetic diversity in the Caucasus and for medical studies.

  16. Jewish Destiny in the Novels of Albert Cohen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bond

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The unity of Cohen's novels is due to their common theme of Jewish destiny. This is traced in the lives of the Valeureux and of Solal. The Valeureux are caricatures of the Jew, and demonstrate that Jewish identity and destiny are imposed by others. Their lives are precarious because Jews are always persecuted, a message also conveyed by other persecuted characters and by Cohen's direct interventions. But the Valeureux cling to their Jewishness and exalt their religion because it teaches the need to tame man's instincts. Solal seeks success in Gentile society, but learns it is a cruel society that exploits man's instincts. He is sickened by the hypocrisy of this society, by its frivolity and by the realisation that death makes all ambition pointless. Unable to escape his Jewish background, he defends Jewish victims of Hitler, and is ostracised. He now encounters the same fate as other Jews and becomes a victim of anti-Semitism. He finally commits suicide. Neither the Valeureux nor Solal have the solution to anti-Semitism, which Cohen sees only in the State of Israel. But, while seeing Israel as the solution, Cohen is interested mainly in Jews like the Valeureux, who have preserved the Jewish identity for centuries.

  17. Estimativa da herdabilidade do diabetes juvenil em uma população brasileira An estimate of the inheritability of juvenile diabetes in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calógeras A. de A. Barbosa

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A herdabilidade da suscetibilidade do diabetes juvenil em uma população brasileira é estimada baseando-se em informações da prevalência da doença na população em geral e entre os pais de afetados. A estimativa de 90%, então obtida, sugere uma alta participação de fatores genéticos na determinação da moléstia. Exemplifica-se a aplicação desse resultado no cálculo de risco de recorrência do diabetes em familiares de indivíduos afetados.The inheritability of liability to juvenile diabetes in a Brazilian population is estimated from parent-offspring correlation. The high value of the estimate, 0.9, suggests that genetic factors are the most important causative agents of the disease in this population.

  18. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailson-Brito, J; Dorneles, P R; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Azevedo, A F; Vidal, L G; Zanelatto, R C; Lozinski, C P C; Azeredo, A; Fragoso, A B L; Cunha, H A; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2010-05-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranaguá Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SigmaDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SigmaPCB; and from organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The food security under another look: analysis on the evolution of the Brazilian population occupied in activities of self-consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of the Brazilian active population occupied in activities of self-consumption between 2001 and 2006 years. The date used come from the National Research on Sample of Domiciles. The authors examine the situation since the point of view the individuals and families (rural or urban, also classified as employers, self employed e and workers families, besides others forms of classification (exclusively agrarian, no-agrarian and pluriactive. The study reveals an important and general increment on the population employed in the self-consumption activities. However this research showed that this kind of activity is essentially feminine which occupies approximately 6.1 million of families in rural and urban areas of Brazil.

  20. Jewish Law, Scarcity of Sperm Donors and the Consequent Private Import of Sperm of Non-Jews by Israeli Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit

    2015-08-20

    The objective of this article is to explore how Israeli Jewish women cope with the religious prohibition on sperm donation and the scarcity of Israeli donors, and to estimate the number of available sperm donors in Israel. A key word search was employed to retrieve relevant Hebrew and English sources; additional information was collected via interviews with two sperm donors and twelve donor insemination patients. Rabbinical instructions focus on married women and refrain from acknowledging the growing number of non-married donor insemination patients. Non-married women follow the restrictions relevant to married women and hence refrain from purchasing Jewish sperm. Israeli sperm banks offer donations of Jewish donors whose number is estimated at a maximum of 140 and a minimum of 50 for the entire Jewish population of 6.2 million. In order to abide by American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommendations, the number of available donors should optimally be six times larger. The scarcity of sperm donors drives the private import of American sperm donations. Reconsideration of the rabbinical prohibition to allow collecting sperm for donating to women who wish to have a baby is needed for the sake of increasing the donor pool, along with measures to ensure donors' privacy and dignity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Genetic characterisation of populations of the critically endangered Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara, Serranidae from the Northern Brazilian coast through analyses of mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia C. Silva-Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara is one of the most endangered species of fish of the subfamily Epinephelinae. Slow to develop and mature, and dependent on mangrove habitats for breeding, the species also suffers intense harvesting, which has reduced drastically in numbers in many areas. To contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of E. itajara populations, we conducted a molecular genetics study of the species, focusing on populations from the Northern Brazilian coast. The mtDNA control region (D-loop of 116 individuals from five localities (Bragança, Ajuruteua, Parnaíba, Fortaleza and Natal was analysed, and a sequence of 499 base pairs identified. Analyses of the sequences indicated that genetic variability was generally lower in E. itajara than in other endangered species of the genus. AMOVA found no significant grouping structure among the populations. Nested Clade Analysis revealed a significant association between genetic variability and geographic distribution among only three populations (Ajuruteua, Parnaíba and Natal. Genetic diversity was higher in populations from the Amazon region, which may be related to the better conservation of mangrove habitats in this area. Therefore, the present study could be used for the implementation of conservation and management measures in order to protect and consolidate these populations.

  2. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  3. Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 166 BC-73 AD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, William T

    2005-01-01

    .... The Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire (Maccabee Revolt) was a successful insurgency that gained the free practice of religion for the Jewish people and, ultimately, an independent Jewish State...

  4. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice.

  5. [The importance of Jewish nursing in World War I as shown by the example of the Jewish nurses' home in Stuttgart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The history of Jewish nursing in World War I has so far not been central to medical history research. Rosa Bendit's war diary is still the only source available on the voluntary service Jewish nurses provided during World War I. Their number was small compared to that of nurses in general. Jewish nursing in Germany has hardly been researched. Jewish nurses, like their Christian colleagues, took on wartime nursing tasks voluntarily. This paper will focus on the experiences of the nurses who were sent to various locations in East and West by the Stuttgart Jewish Nurses' Home. Based on quotations from the war diary their position within the medical service will be described, compared and analyzed. The paper draws attention to special characteristics in the comparison ofJewish and Christian nurses and explores issues such as religious observance, religious discrimination, patriotism and differences in the evaluation of the nurses' work. A brief outline of the history of the Stuttgart Jewish Nurses' Home illustrates their working conditions. The Jewish nurses applied themselves with as much effort and devotion as their Christian counterparts. Although there were only few of them, the Jewish nurses managed to establish a recognized position for themselves within the medical service. The history of Jewish nursing in Stuttgart ended in 1941 when the Jewish Nurses' Home was dissolved by the Nazis and four nurses were murdered in concentration camps.

  6. Standardization of the face-hand test in a Brazilian multicultural population: prevalence of sensory extinction and implications for neurological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The face-hand test is a simple, practical, and rapid test to detect neurological syndromes. However, it has not previously been assessed in a Brazilian sample; therefore, the objective of the present study was to standardize the face-hand test for use in the multi-cultural population of Brazil and identify the sociodemographic factors affecting the results. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 150 individuals. The sociodemographic variables that were collected included age, gender, race, body mass index and years of education. Standardization of the face-hand test occurred in 2 rounds of 10 sensory stimuli, with the participant seated to support the trunk and their vision obstructed in a sound-controlled environment. The face-hand test was conducted by applying 2 rounds of 10 sensory stimuli that were applied to the face and hand simultaneously. The associations between the face-hand test and sociodemographic variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlations. Binomial models were adjusted for the number of face-hand test variations, and ROC curves evaluated sensitivity and specificity of sensory extinction. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between the sociodemographic variables and the number of stimuli perceived for the face-hand test. There was a high relative frequency of detection, 8 out of 10 stimuli, in this population. Sensory extinction was 25.3%, which increased with increasing age (OR=1.4[1:01–1:07]; p=0.006 and decreased significantly with increasing education (OR=0.82[0.71-0.94]; p=0.005. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian population, a normal face-hand test score ranges between 8–10 stimuli, and the results indicate that sensory extinction is associated with increased age and lower levels of education.

  7. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians.

  8. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-07-30

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient's consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians.

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  10. Issues of Gender, Sovietization and Modernization in the Jewish Metropolis of Minsk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Bemporad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available By using the case study of Minsk - a historic Jewish center in pre-revolutionary Russia, and capital of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic after 1917 - this article explores the Sovietization and modernization of Jewish women in an urban setting of the former Pale of Settlement during the 1920s. The study of a “Jewish metropolis” like Minsk, situated in the heart of the pre-1917 territory of designated Jewish residence, provides a better insight into the ways in which most Jewish women adjusted to the Bolshevik rise to power, negotiated between Communism and Jewish identity, and integrated into Soviet society. By focusing in particular on the Minsk branch of the Women's Department of the Communist Party (Zhenotdel, this article reveals the evolution of the gender discourse on the Jewish street, the changing roles of Jewish women in the new revolutionary society, as well as the challenges they faced when attempting to modernize according to Bolshevik guidelines.

  11. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence.

  12. Identical MHC markers in non-Jewish Iranian and Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris: possible common central Asian ancestral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, N; Yunis, E J; Alper, C A; Yunis, J J; Delgado, J C; Yunis, D E; Firooz, A; Dowlati, Y; Bahar, K; Gregersen, P K; Ahmed, A R

    1997-09-15

    Previous studies showed that almost all Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris carried the extended haplotype [HLA-B38, SC21, DRB1*0402, DQB1*0302] or [HLA-B35, SC31, DRB1*0402, DQB1*0302] or class II fragments of them. Non-Jewish patients carried [HLA-B55, SB45, DRB1*1401, DQB1*0503] or its class II fragments. In the present study of 20 Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris, 17 were found to carry DRB1*0402, DQB1*0302 haplotypes, also found among normal Iranian haplotypes and the same as that of the Jews. These findings suggest that the pemphigus MHC susceptibility gene among Iranians derived from the same ancestor as that in the Ashkenazim. The ancient Jews were under Persian domination from 500 B.C. until 300 B.C. and in the 8th century A.D., a Tataric people living in the kingdom of Khazar on the Western shore of the Caspian Sea and the Northern shore of the Black Sea, near Persia, converted to Judaism, providing possible opportunities for gene mixing in two populations that are distinct and separate today.

  13. Development of Genomic DNA Reference Materials for Genetic Testing of Disorders Common in People of Ashkenazi Jewish Descent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalman, Lisa; Wilson, Jean Amos; Buller, Arlene; Dixon, John; Edelmann, Lisa; Geller, Louis; Highsmith, William Edward; Holtegaard, Leonard; Kornreich, Ruth; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M.; Payeur, Toby L.; Sellers, Tina; Toji, Lorraine; Muralidharan, Kasinathan

    2009-01-01

    Many recessive genetic disorders are found at a higher incidence in people of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent than in the general population. The American College of Medical Genetics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended that individuals of AJ descent undergo carrier screening for Tay Sachs disease, Canavan disease, familial dysautonomia, mucolipidosis IV, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Fanconi anemia type C, Bloom syndrome, and Gaucher disease. Although the...

  14. The Depiction of Jewish People's Struggle Against Negative Stereotypes in Art Spiegelman's Graphic Novel Maus

    OpenAIRE

    Mudita, Nasti

    2013-01-01

    Jewish people have been facing discrimination and negative stereotyping for ages. Conflicts between the majority and Jewish communities, propagated by racial prejudice, result in violent acts committed by the society to isolate the Jews. MAUS is a biography of Art Spiegelman's father, VladekSpiegelman, which tells about his experience in surviving the persecution of Jewish people in Poland during World War II, and also about Art Spiegelman's efforts to defy the lingering stereotypes of Jewish...

  15. Examining differences in drinking patterns among Jewish and Arab university students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Bord, Shiran; Elias, Wafa; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shiftan, Yoram; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide there is a dearth of studies examining drinking patterns in Arabs and how these compare to other populations. The few studies that exist have suggested distinct drinking patterns in Arabs, with not only high rates of abstinence but also high rates of heavy drinking among current drinkers. No studies have yet examined potential socio-cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to this distinct drinking pattern. Israel represents a unique and valuable resource for studying Arab population drinking patterns because Israeli Arabs are nonimmigrants living in areas where exposure to Western lifestyles, including alcohol consumption, is prevalent. The current study was set out to examine differences in alcohol consumption in a convenience sample of 1310 Jewish and Arab students from Israeli universities and colleges and to explore alcohol expectancies as potential mediators of ethno-religious differences. Logistic regressions were used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to test differences between Jewish and Arab students on binary outcomes (lifetime, last month, and heavy drinking). Mediation of ethno-religious differences by alcohol expectancies was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results show that while Israeli Arab students tend to be more likely to abstain from alcohol than Israeli Jewish students, among current drinkers, Israeli Arab students are at a particular high risk of heavy drinking. Results also show that this is partly mediated by the expectancy that alcohol only influences the drinker at high levels of intake. The current study confirms distinct Arab drinking patterns found in previous studies. The present study is the first demonstration that drinking expectations mediate ethno-religious differences in heavy drinking among Israeli Arabs and Jews. This work contributes to the understanding of ethno-religious group differences in harmful drinking, potentially informing future etiologic research and public health interventions

  16. Differences in quality of life between Jewish and Arab patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Golan, Eliezer; Ifrah, Anneke; Weinstein, Talia; Shohat, Tamy

    2017-12-01

    Higher health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in dialysis patients has been associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower mortality. Since Arab patients on dialysis have better survival rates than Jewish patients, we hypothesized that they would have higher HRQOL. We also studied the impact of several risk factors on HRQOL in each population. Based on a national dialysis registry, patients from 64 hemodialysis units were recruited to participate. Patients who consented were interviewed face-to-face, using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF36) questionnaire. Five hundred and fifty-eight (50.6%) Jewish and 544 (49.4%) Arab patients participated in the study. For Arab patients mean crude scores for the "mental component summary" and KDQOL scores were significantly lower than for Jewish patients [31.6 (95% Cl 30.0-33.3) vs. 38.0 (95% Cl 36.1-39.9), p Arabs in the "emotional role" and "work status" subscales. The two populations had similar general health assessments and albumin level. For both, HRQOL was positively associated with higher educational level, higher albumin level, and dialysis connection by fistula or graft; and negatively associated with low income and diabetes. HRQOL was negatively associated with previous cerebrovascular accident among Arabs and with female gender among Jews. Differences between Jews and Arabs in subscales related to psychosocial factors suggest that cultural differences in the perceptions of sickness and health may be relevant here. Future studies should explore such possibility and focus on the large gap in the "work status" subscale.

  17. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and

  18. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  19. Let my people go (home to Spain: a genealogical model of Jewish identities since 1492.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S Weitz

    Full Text Available The Spanish government recently announced an official fast-track path to citizenship for any individual who is Jewish and whose ancestors were expelled from Spain during the inquisition-related dislocation of Spanish Jews in 1492. It would seem that this policy targets a small subset of the global Jewish population, that is, restricted to individuals who retain cultural practices associated with ancestral origins in Spain. However, the central contribution of this manuscript is to demonstrate how and why the policy is far more likely to apply to a very large fraction (i.e., the vast majority of Jews. This claim is supported using a series of genealogical models that include transmissible "identities" and preferential intra-group mating. Model analysis reveals that even when intra-group mating is strong and even if only a small subset of a present-day population retains cultural practices typically associated with that of an ancestral group, it is highly likely that nearly all members of that population have direct genealogical links to that ancestral group, given sufficient number of generations have elapsed. The basis for this conclusion is that not having a link to an ancestral group must be a property of all of an individual's ancestors, the probability of which declines (nearly superexponentially with each successive generation. These findings highlight unexpected incongruities induced by genealogical dynamics between present-day and ancestral identities.

  20. Let my people go (home) to Spain: a genealogical model of Jewish identities since 1492.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish government recently announced an official fast-track path to citizenship for any individual who is Jewish and whose ancestors were expelled from Spain during the inquisition-related dislocation of Spanish Jews in 1492. It would seem that this policy targets a small subset of the global Jewish population, that is, restricted to individuals who retain cultural practices associated with ancestral origins in Spain. However, the central contribution of this manuscript is to demonstrate how and why the policy is far more likely to apply to a very large fraction (i.e., the vast majority) of Jews. This claim is supported using a series of genealogical models that include transmissible "identities" and preferential intra-group mating. Model analysis reveals that even when intra-group mating is strong and even if only a small subset of a present-day population retains cultural practices typically associated with that of an ancestral group, it is highly likely that nearly all members of that population have direct genealogical links to that ancestral group, given sufficient number of generations have elapsed. The basis for this conclusion is that not having a link to an ancestral group must be a property of all of an individual's ancestors, the probability of which declines (nearly) superexponentially with each successive generation. These findings highlight unexpected incongruities induced by genealogical dynamics between present-day and ancestral identities.

  1. Freud's Jewish identity and psychoanalysis as a science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Arnold D

    2014-12-01

    Ludwik Fleck, the Polish philosopher of science, maintained that scientific discovery is influenced by social, political, historical, psychological, and personal factors. The determinants of Freud's Jewish identity are examined from this Fleckian perspective, as is the impact of that complex identity on his creation of psychoanalysis as a science. Three strands contributing to his Jewish identity are identified and explored: his commitment to the ideal of Bildung, the anti-Semitism of the times, and his "godlessness." Finally, the question is addressed of what it means that psychoanalysis was founded by a Jew. For Freud, psychoanalysis was a kind of liberation philosophy, an attempt to break free of his ethnic and religious inheritance. Yet it represented at the same time his ineradicable relationship with that inheritance. It encapsulated both the ambivalence of his Jewish identity and the creativity of his efforts to resolve it. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  2. City College and the Jewish Poor. Education in New York, 1880-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Sherry

    The role of the College of the City of New York (CCNY) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is described, particularly with regard to early Jewish immigrants. It is suggested that the myth of the "easy marriage" of Jewish values and American opportunities ignores the variety of Jewish culture and the drama of the vast…

  3. Problems and Prospects of Jewish Education for Intelligent Citizenship in a Post-Everything World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Judaism, Jewish life, the Jewish people--indeed, almost all facets of the Jewish experience--are in a postmodern, post-denominational, post-ethnic, post-Zionist, post-diaspora, or what may simply be called a "post-everything" age. Studies show that post-everything youth in general are less concerned with national/ethnic/religious identification…

  4. Practitioners and Practices in Museum Education: The Case of Three Jewish Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Yaara Shteinhart

    2011-01-01

    As Jewish museums are witnessing a rapid numerical rise in the United States and beyond, the professional and academic literature on Jewish museum education lags behind. This dissertation is aimed to help narrow this gap by examining how the education departments of Jewish museums in the United States conceptualize, promote, and conduct programs…

  5. The impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: The case of four Aedes aegypti populations from different Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriela de Azambuja; David, Mariana Rocha; Martins, Ademir de Jesus; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2018-02-01

    In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. It will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs. The insecticide resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations was monitored. Quantitative bioassays with the major insecticides employed in the country was performed: the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid-PY) and the larvicides, temephos (an organophosphate) and diflubenzuron (a chitin synthesis inhibitor). Temephos resistance was detected in all populations although exhibiting a slight decrease over time probably due to the interruption of field use. All vector populations were susceptible to diflubenzuron, recently introduced in the country to control Ae. aegypti. Resistance against deltamethrin was extremely high in three populations. Molecular assays investigated substitutions in the voltage gated sodium channel (NaV), the PY target site, at positions 1011, 1016 and 1534. Elevated frequencies of substitutions Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys related to high PY resistance levels were identified. Biochemical assays detected alterations in the activities of two detoxifying enzyme classes related to metabolic resistance, glutathion-S-transferases and esterases. The results obtained were evaluated in the context of both recent insecticide use and the records of dengue incidence in each locality. The four Ae. aegypti populations evaluated were resistant to the neurotoxic insecticides, temephos and deltamethrin. However, they were still susceptible to diflubenzuron. A probable correlation between adult insect resistance to PY and the domestic application of insecticides is discussed, pointing to the need for

  6. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders in an Adult Brazilian Community Population Using the Research Diagnostic Criteria (Axes I and II) for Temporomandibular Disorders (The Maringá Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progiante, Patrícia Saram; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Lawrence, Herenia P; Goya, Suzana; Grossi, Patrícia Krieger; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and comorbid factors (sleep bruxism and headaches). This study was a cross-sectional population survey in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. Axes I and II of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were used for assessment of TMD signs and symptoms. The population was users of the Brazilian public health system (SUS), of both sexes, between the ages of 20 and 65 years, and not seeking treatment for TMD. The selected population (N = 1,643) was composed mostly of (a) women (65.9%), (b) married or single individuals (90.6%), (c) Caucasians (70.1%), (d) individuals aged 32.7 ± 10.3 years, (e) individuals earning a medium income (75.1%), and (f) those who had completed a high school education or higher (79.9%). According to the chronic pain grade classification (CPG) in the RDC/TMD Axis II, 36.2% of the population had some degree of TMD pain (CPG I to IV); however, only 5.1% had severe limitation due to pain (CPG III or IV). In the RDC/TMD Axis I diagnoses, 29.5% presented with muscle disorders (group I), 7.9% with disk displacements (group II), and 39.1% with other joint disorders (group III). Headaches were present in 67.9% and awake and sleep bruxism in 30% and 33.4% of the population, respectively. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD was high in this population, but with low disability; however, the proportion of patients in need of treatment was much lower.

  7. The impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: The case of four Aedes aegypti populations from different Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ademir de Jesus; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Background In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. It will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs. Methodology/Principal findings The insecticide resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations was monitored. Quantitative bioassays with the major insecticides employed in the country was performed: the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid—PY) and the larvicides, temephos (an organophosphate) and diflubenzuron (a chitin synthesis inhibitor). Temephos resistance was detected in all populations although exhibiting a slight decrease over time probably due to the interruption of field use. All vector populations were susceptible to diflubenzuron, recently introduced in the country to control Ae. aegypti. Resistance against deltamethrin was extremely high in three populations. Molecular assays investigated substitutions in the voltage gated sodium channel (NaV), the PY target site, at positions 1011, 1016 and 1534. Elevated frequencies of substitutions Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys related to high PY resistance levels were identified. Biochemical assays detected alterations in the activities of two detoxifying enzyme classes related to metabolic resistance, glutathion-S-transferases and esterases. The results obtained were evaluated in the context of both recent insecticide use and the records of dengue incidence in each locality. Conclusions/Significance The four Ae. aegypti populations evaluated were resistant to the neurotoxic insecticides, temephos and deltamethrin. However, they were still susceptible to diflubenzuron. A probable correlation between adult insect resistance to PY and the domestic

  8. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  9. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lailson-Brito, J.; Dorneles, P.R.; Azevedo-Silva, C.E.; Azevedo, A.F.; Vidal, L.G.; Zanelatto, R.C.; Lozinski, C.P.C.; Azeredo, A.; Fragoso, A.B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for ΣDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for ΣPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  10. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  11. O deslocamento da população brasileira para as metrópoles The displacement of the Brazilian population to the metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O OBJETIVO deste artigo é analisar a urbanização no Brasil, na segunda metade do século XX, lembrando que somente o Censo de 1970 registrou uma população urbana que superou a rural. Essa recente e acelerada urbanização, em razão da intensa migração interna, fez coincidir a concentração da população urbana nas grandes cidades, assim como nas principais metrópoles brasileiras. Essas últimas, nas duas últimas décadas, têm reduzido as suas taxas de crescimento populacional, não só em razão do declínio generalizado das taxas de fecundidade, mas, principalmente, como conseqüência da redução do número dos seus imigrantes. O saldo migratório negativo do aglomerado metropolitano de São Paulo, entre 1995-2000, é um expressivo exemplo. Contudo, apesar de o país ter se distanciado de uma hipermetroplização, vale a pena sublinhar que, em 2000, mais de 40% da população urbana brasileira ainda residia nessas metrópoles.THE AIM of this article is the analysis of the Brazilian urbanization process during the second half of the 20th century. For this purpose it is important to take note that the 1970 Demographic Census indicated that the urban population had surpassed the rural population for the first time. The rapid contemporary urbanization due to intense internal migration concentrated the urban population in the larger Brazilian cities and metropolitan areas. During the last two decades, however, the growth rates of the larger cities has declined due to lower fertility rates and, more importantly, decreasing number of immigrants. Indeed, the metropolitan area of São Paulo, for example, presented negative net migration for the 1995-2000 period. Although internal migration trends do not point to a process of "hipermetropolitanization", it must be taken into account that as of 2000 40% of the country’s urban population still inhabited the larger metropolitan areas.

  12. On Jewish Being: Notes on Jean Améry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available That the question of identity takes on a sense of urgency, one with its own possibilities and impossibilities, the moment that identity is bound up with death, is hardy surprising. What follows are a series of reflections on the question of identity, Jewish identity, raised by Jean Améry’s remarkable text On the Necessity and Impossibility of Being a Jew (Über Zwang und Unmöglichkeit, Jude zu sein. Améry’s text was of course published in the wake of his own experiences as an active member of the resistance, as having been imprisoned in Auschwitz and as the victim of torture. Philosophically, rather than biographically, if there were a point of comparison, then it is to Levinas’s 1947 text Etre juif. Both pose the problem of how the question of Jewish identity, Jewish being, is to be understood in the wake of the Shoah. The meaning of the formulations - Jude zu sein, Jude sein, Etre juif, Jewish being – delimits the question to be addressed. This will be the case even if its point of address, namely what the question stages, is itself far from straightforward. Moreover, while what is demanded within that question is itself philosophically important, it is equally the case that the question of Jewish being is at work within both communities and synagogues across the Jewish world. As a consequence it is as much a philosophical question as it is one that has a structuring effect on how Jewish survival is conceived (and thus equally on what that survival is taken to be. How survival is understood is an issue that continues to exert its force. Who is the subject of survival? What is the subject of survival? Who or what has been subjected to the issue of survival? Survival is both more nuanced and complex than the brute fact of an afterlife. Jewish being as a present question – a question of the present - continues therefore.

  13. Consanguinity among the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lutfi; Halpern, Gabrielle J

    2006-08-01

    Consanguineous marriages are associated with many problems, although the prevailing opinion is that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. This explains why the custom is still extremely prevalent, particularly in Arab countries, India and small isolated communities. Among Israeli Arabs there has been a reduction in the rate of such marriages, although it is still sufficiently high to cause medical problems. Among Israeli Jews, the rate has always been much lower. Future goals are to expand the educational programs aimed at the Israeli Arab community and to promote the uptake of genetic counseling and prenatal testing where available in order to reduce the health problems even further. Ongoing research in order to identify specific genes will enable more conditions to be detectable early in pregnancy. We expect that the willingness of families to agree to termination of affected pregnancies will reduce the number of babies born with these conditions.

  14. Waist circumference measures: cutoff analyses to detect obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men population--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Cocate, Paula G; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Bressan, Josefina; de Silva, Mateus Freitas; Rodrigues, Joel Alves; Natali, Antônio José

    2014-09-01

    Low-cost practical and reliable tools to evaluated obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are of clinical practice and public heath relevance worldwide. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the anatomical point of waist circumference that best identify overweight, obesity and central obesity in Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men and to test the relationships of its cutoff points with metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred men [age: 51 (47-54)] underwent anthropometric, body composition, clinical, sociodemographic and blood plasma biochemical evaluations. The umbilical line circumference (WCUL) was the best predictor for overweight (total body fat ≥ 20%; cutoff point: 88.8 cm), obesity (total body fat ≥ 25%; cutoff point: 93.4 cm) and central obesity (abdominal area fat ≥ 34.6%; cutoff point: 95.6 cm) as measured by dual beam X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm or ≥ 93.4 cm showed significantly higher values for MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure). The occurrence of WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm was positively associated (p obesity prevalence by 19.3% while that of WCUL ≥ 93.4 cm was associated with the prevalence of MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors. WCUL measure seems to be the best predictor for overweight, obesity and central obesity in urban residents Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men; and the WCUL cutoff point (88.8 cm) is significantly associated with MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors in the studied population.

  15. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Silmara Rodrigues; Parise, Edison Roberto; Carvalho, Luciana de

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥ 255 mL/day or ≥ 123 mg caffeine/day). According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (caffeine/day). Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal) (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p=0.04), lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4) fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, pcaffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026), γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  17. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto X. Piccini

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.

  18. Blood pressure, seasonal body fat, heart rate, and ecological differences in Caboclo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H P; James, G D; Crews, D E

    2006-01-01

    This study compares blood pressure (BP) and related cardiovascular risk factors among three Caboclo communities from the Brazilian Amazon. Its purpose is to investigate possible risk differentials related to variable ecological settings and Western influences. Caxiuanã is characterized as a more "traditional" group, while Aracampina and Santana are viewed as more "transitional" in lifestyle. A total of 348 subjects from the three communities were evaluated in the wet or the dry season or in both. Measurements across the communities were compared by season and sex. Results suggest little seasonal variation in average BP, BP change, body fat, or body fat change among men. Conversely, there is substantial seasonal and inter-community variation among women. Additional analyses reveal (1) an inconsistent association between age and BP across the communities; (2) that BMI is not associated with BP transitional communities in either season but is associated with both systolic and diastolic pressure in the most traditional community; and (3) little to no sex effect on BP. These results suggest increased Western influence affects body composition particularly of women. However, increased BMI and fat among transitional Caboclo women does not directly translate into higher BP; rather, their BP appears to be more affected by seasonal stresses. Finally, conditions during the wet season diminish age-related variation in BP, suggesting that during the wet season these Caboclo may be less active. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:10-22, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccini Roberto X.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.

  20. What does it mean to ‘eat Jewishly?’: authorizing discourse in the Jewish food movement in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mulhern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of ‘eating Jewishly’ among participants at Shoresh Jewish Environmental Programs in Toronto, Canada. Participants at Shoresh construct and draw upon Jewish tradition in order to resolve gaps between the is and the ought of the conventional food system, and to a lesser extent, the narrower food system of kashrut. ‘Eating Jewishly’ re-positions religious orthodoxy as one in a set of authorizing discourses, subsuming all Jewish eating acts under one rubric. ‘Eating Jewishly’ thus departs from standard narratives of Jewish eating as either eating kosher, or eating traditional Jewish foods. I use a theory of authorizing discourse to show the conditions of possibility through which Shoresh develops their intervention as Jewish. I conclude that such authorization practices are a key form of productive constraint in the formation of Shoresh’s lived religion, and in the formation of religion as a framework for social good.

  1. "Scholasticism Is a Daughter of Judaism": The Discovery of Jewish Influence on Medieval Christian Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, George Y

    2017-01-01

    This article retells the surprising discovery of a considerable Jewish influence on Christian scholasticism in the Middle Ages. While most students of Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas knew that both had read Jewish philosophy, only the rediscovery of especially Maimonides's Guide of the Perplexed by Jewish philosophers in the nineteenth century showed the whole extent of the scholastics' dependence on Jewish predecessors - especially where they do not refer to them specifically. This Jewish discovery naturally faced Catholic resistance, if not denial, and turns thus into an interesting chapter in the history of theological ideas.

  2. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  3. Evaluation of two-year Jewish genetic disease screening program in Atlanta: insight into community genetic screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yunru; Liu, Shuling; Grinzaid, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Improvements in genetic testing technologies have led to the development of expanded carrier screening panels for the Ashkenazi Jewish population; however, there are major inconsistencies in current screening practices. A 2-year pilot program was launched in Atlanta in 2010 to promote and facilitate screening for 19 Jewish genetic diseases. We analyzed data from this program, including participant demographics and outreach efforts. This retrospective analysis is based on a de-identified dataset of 724 screenees. Data were obtained through medical chart review and questionnaires and included demographic information, screening results, response to outreach efforts, and follow-up behavior and preferences. We applied descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and logistic regression to analyze the data and compare findings with published literature. The majority of participants indicated that they were not pregnant or did not have a partner who was pregnant were affiliated with Jewish organizations and reported 100 % AJ ancestry. Overall, carrier frequency was 1 in 3.9. Friends, rabbis, and family members were the most common influencers of the decision to receive screening. People who were older, had a history of pregnancy, and had been previously screened were more likely to educate others (all p influencers who then encouraged screening in the target population. Educating influencers and increasing overall awareness were the most effective outreach strategies.

  4. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of the Root Canal Morphology of Molars by Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography in a Brazilian Population: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Bruno Vieira; Noro Filho, Gilberto Araújo; de Andrade Salgado, Daniela Miranda Richarte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Giovani, Elcio Magdalena; Costa, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    One of the factors influencing the success of endodontic treatment is anatomic knowledge of the root canal system. Because of the difficulties of using conventional radiographic methods to evaluate root canals, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been very useful for evaluating the morphology of root canals. The purpose of this study was to use CBCT to evaluate differences in the anatomy of the mandibular first molars with respect to the patient's sex and the location of the tooth in a Brazilian population. The study included CBCT images from 198 patients (106 women and 92 men), representing a total of 342 teeth. Of the 342 mandibular first molars included in the study, 0.3% had 2 canals, 75.1% had 3 canals, 23.7% had 4 canals, and 0.9% had 5 canals. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 81 years old, with an average age of 48.9 years. Women were more likely to have 2 canals on the distal root of the right side than men were (P morphology compared with other populations around the world, further studies are needed to aid endodontic diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Frequency of polymorphisms of genes coding for HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2 in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munerato Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry of human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1 into target cells requires both CD4and one of the chemokine receptors. Viruses predominantly use one, or occasionally both, of the major co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, although other receptors, including CCR2B and CCR3, function as minor co-receptors. A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta32 within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5 has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposition to HIV-1. The heterozygous genotype delays disease progression. This allele is common among Caucasians, but has not been found in people of African or Asian ancestry. A more common transition involving a valine to isoleucine switch in transmembrane domain I of CCR2B (64I, with unknown functional consequences, was found to delay disease progression but not to reduce infection risk. As the Brazilian population consists of a mixture of several ethnic groups, we decided to examine the genotype frequency of these polymorphisms in this country. There were 11.5% CCR5 heterozygotes among the HIV-1 infected population and 12.5% among uninfected individuals, similar to data from North America and Western Europe. The prevalence of CCR2-64I homozygotes and heterozygotes was 0.06 and 15.2%, respectively, also similar to what is known for North America and Western Europe.

  7. Association of HLA-G 3'UTR polymorphisms and haplotypes with severe sepsis in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Eriza Cristina; Zambra, Francis Maria Báo; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Delongui, Francieli; Grion, Cíntia Magalhães Carvalho; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Chies, José Artur Bogo

    2017-11-01

    The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a molecule involved in immune system modulation, acting in the maintenance of a state of immune tolerance. Some polymorphisms in the HLA-G gene 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) were associated to distinct levels of HLA-G expression and to sepsis development. In the present study, haplotypes and polymorphisms of the HLA-G 3'UTR were analyzed in Brazilian septic patients. The HLA-G 3'UTR was amplified by PCR, sequenced and eight polymorphisms were genotyped (the 14bp insertion/deletion, +3003T/C, +3010C/G, +3027A/C, +3035C/T, +3142G/C, +3187A/G and+3196C/G) in DNA samples from septic patients (with severe sepsis or septic shock) and controls. The haplotypes were inferred and association tests were performed through Chi square test and binary logistic regression. The+3027AC genotype was associated asa risk factor to sepsis development (OR 3.17, P Bonferroni 0.048). Further, the presence of the UTR-7 haplotype (OR 2.97, P Bonferroni 0.018), and of 14bp-Ins_+3142G_+3187A haplotype (OR 2.39, P Bonferroni 0.045) were associated with sepsis, conferring susceptibility. Our data confirm an important role of HLA-G 3'UTR polymorphisms in the development of severe forms of sepsis (severe sepsis and septic shock). The genotyping of HLA-G genetic variants and haplotypes could be useful as a prediction tool of increased risk to severe sepsis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. -765 G>C POLYMORPHISM OF THE COX-2 GENE AND GASTRIC CANCER RISK IN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine CAMPANHOLO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Genomic alterations play important roles in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenases (COX are important enzymes in the maintenance of mucosal integrity and in pathological processes, mainly in inflammation and cancer. The -765G>C COX-2 polymorphism has been implicated in gastric cancer risk. Objectives To evaluate the COX-2 gene polymorphism as a predictor of gastric cancer risk. Methods One hundred gastric cancer patients and 150 controls were enrolled from a Brazilian centre. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption and smoking behavior, were collected via questionnaire. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the genotypes were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results G/G, G/C and C/C genotypes frequencies was 42.7%, 50% and 7.3%, respectively in controls and 59.0%, 34.0% and 7.0% in gastric cancer. The frequency of the genotypes differed between the groups (P = 0.033. A higher risk of gastric cancer was associated with COX-2 -765G/G genotype (P = 0.048; OR:1.98, 95% CI = 1.01-3.90. Alcohol consumption and smoking in patients with -765G/G genotype also increased the risk of gastric cancer. Conclusions The -765G/G genotype and the -765G allele had been associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. The presence of smoking and alcohol consumption increased the risk for gastric cancer in subjects with -765G/G genotype compared with the control group. Polymorphism of COX-2 gene and gastric cancer risk.

  9. The Association of the Immune Response Genes to Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Disease in a Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vansan Marangon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of the host contributes to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV-related cervical disease. Immune response genes to HPV must be investigated to define patients with the highest risk of developing malignant disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphic immune response genes, namely KIR, HLA class I and II, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of cytokines with HPV-related cervical disease. We selected 79 non-related, admixed Brazilian women from the state of Paraná, southern region of Brazil, who were infected with high carcinogenic risk HPV and present cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, and 150 HPV-negative women from the same region matched for ethnicity. KIR genes were genotyped using an in-house PCR-SSP. HLA alleles were typed using a reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide technique. SNPs of TNF −308G>A, IL6 −174G>C, IFNG +874T>A, TGFB1 +869T>C +915G>C, and IL10 −592C>A −819C>T −1082G>A were evaluated using PCR-SSP. The KIR genes were not associated with HPV, although some pairs of i(inhibitoryKIR-ligands occurred more frequently in patients, supporting a role for NK in detrimental chronic inflammatory and carcinogenesis. Some HLA haplotypes were associated with HPV. The associations of INFG and IL10 SNPs potentially reflect impaired or invalid responses in advanced lesions.

  10. Impact of untreated dental caries on the quality of life of Brazilian children: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sâmara Luciana de Andrade; Santana, Caroline Chavier Pereira; Paschoal, Marco Aurélio Benini; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2018-04-17

    The assessment of oral health should consider clinical and biopsychosocial aspects. To evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries on the quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 647 Brazilian children. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 8-10 ) and the 'oral health' global indicator were administered to the children and used as the outcomes. Parents answered a general questionnaire, and oral clinical examinations were performed. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson's regression analysis (α = 5%). The psychometric properties of the CPQ 8-10 were tested for younger age group (6/7 years). Untreated caries was a predictor of impact on quality of life for the following items: 'pain in teeth/mouth' (PR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.41-2.04), 'difficulty biting/chewing hard foods' (PR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.05-1.56), 'difficulty eating what you wanted to eat' (PR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.29-2.02), 'trouble sleeping' (PR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.27-2.13), 'missed school' (PR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24-2.12), 'trouble doing homework' (PR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.12-2.31), and 'difficulty paying attention in class' (PR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.96). Children with untreated dental caries feel greater negative impacts on quality of life than children without untreated caries. © 2018 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dental approach in the pediatric oncology patient: characteristics of the population treated at the dentistry unit in a pediatric oncology brazilian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to characterize the population seen at the dentistry unit of the hematology-oncology service of the Oncology-Hematology Service, Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Oral problems resulting from cancer therapy increase the risk of infection, length of hospital stay, treatment cost and negative impact on the course and prognosis of the disease. METHOD: Of the 367 medical records of cancer patients seen from November 2007 until December 2008: 186 with a cancer diagnosis and complete clinical data were selected, while 20 with a cancer diagnosis and incomplete records were excluded; 161 medical records with only hematological diagnosis were also excluded. The following characteristics were assessed: ethnicity, gender, age, diagnosis and characteristics of the neoplasm, cancer therapy status and performed dental procedures. RESULTS: Review of 1,236 visits indicated that 54% (n=100 of the patients had blood cancers, 46% (n=86 had solid tumors and 63% were undergoing anticancer therapy. The proportion of males (52.7% in the study population was slightly greater. The most common cancer was acute lymphocytic leukemia (32.2%. Cancer occurred more often among those patients aged 5 to 9 years. The most common dental procedures were restorative treatment, preventive treatment and removal of infectious foci. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the studied population were similar to those of the general Brazilian and global populations, especially regarding gender and diagnosis distributions. The aim of implementation of the dentistry unit was to maintain good oral health and patients' quality of life, which is critical to provide oral care and prevent future oral problems.

  12. Incidence of bifid uvula and its relationship to submucous cleft palate and a family history of oral cleft in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Sizina Aguiar G; Santos, Maria Luiza; Machado, Renato Assis; Dias, Verônica Oliveira; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Swerts, Mario Sérgio Oliveira; Júnior, Hercílio Martelli; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa

    2017-08-24

    Bifid uvula is a frequently observed anomaly in the general population and can be regarded as a marker for submucous cleft palate. In this study aimed to determine the frequency of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate and their relationship with oral clefts in a Brazilian population. We conducted a transversal, descriptive and quantitative study of 1206 children between August 2014 and December 2015. A clinical examination of the children was conducted by means of inspection of the oral cavity with the aid of a tongue depressor and directed light. After the clinical examination in children, parents answered a questionnaire with questions about basic demographic information and their family history of oral clefts in their first-degree relatives. After application of the questionnaires, the information collected was archived in a database and analyzed by the statistical program SPSS ® version 19.0, by applying Chi-Square tests. Values with pcleft palate was not found in any child. When the family histories of children were examined for the presence of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate, no first degree relatives presented with the congenital anomaly. This study revealed that the incidence of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate in this population was quite similar to previously reported incidence rates. Our study suggests an intensification of new reviews, with broader and diverse populations, seeking to associate the occurrence of bifid uvula, submucous cleft palate and oral clefts. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Denomination on Religious Socialization for Jewish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…

  14. Book Review Author: Hilary Putnam Title: Jewish Philosophy as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Although the general title of Hilary Putnam's Jewish. Philosophy as a Guide to Life tends to be somewhat ambiguous and potentially misleading, the subtitle. Rosenzweig, Buber, Levinas, Wittgenstein provides some assistance – with one qualification. The heart of the book, an analysis of the proinciples of Franz ...

  15. Breaking through the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy about Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Rela Mintz

    2005-01-01

    Jewish education needs a philosophy if its practitioners are to be considered part of a "real" profession and its professors are to be thought of as having mastered a legitimate academic discipline. A strong cadre of researchers who have produced a valid and reliable body of research also is required to earn a respected place in the academy. Until…

  16. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  17. The Dutch and Portuguese-Jewish Background of David Ricardo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heertje, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the Dutch and Portuguese-Jewish background of David Ricardo. The important pieces of information, found in the Amsterdam municipal archives, on the one hand correct, and on the other complement, the data presented by P. Sraffa. Recently, new evidence has been found on

  18. What's Wrong with the History of American Jewish Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    The history of education is a worthwhile pursuit within the study of history writ-large, for education is a powerful cultural device that has been manipulated for a variety of social, political, and economic purposes. So, why is it the case that little work has been done to date on the history of American Jewish schooling? This article assesses…

  19. Reinventing Religion: Jewish Religion Textbooks in Russian Gymnasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eliyana R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines 10 textbooks used in Jewish religion classes in Russian high schools in the final decades of the 19th century. The textbooks reveal an expectation of a low level of Hebrew background, an interest in promoting the practice of prayer, and two distinct approaches to teaching Judaism. While some of the books introduce students to…

  20. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  1. Porcine and bovine surgical products: Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Catherine; Maddern, Guy

    2008-04-01

    To determine the acceptability of porcine and bovine surgical implants among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths whose beliefs prohibit them from consuming porcine and bovine products. An evaluation of current literature concerning religious beliefs among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths was undertaken to determine if animal-derived surgical implants are permitted for use in these religions. Because of the limited published literature about this topic, the opinions of religious leaders in Australia were sought. Religious and cultural beliefs can conflict with and limit treatment options, especially in surgery. Approximately 81 porcine and bovine surgical implants are regularly used in Australia. It is deemed acceptable for members of the Jewish faith to undergo surgery using porcine products. In dire situations and only after all other options have been exhausted, followers of the Muslim faith are permitted to use porcine surgical products. Hindu religious leaders did not accept the use of bovine surgical implants. Australia comprises a multicultural society; therefore, it is necessary to consider religious beliefs of all patients. As part of a surgeon's duty of care, the informed consent process should include a discussion about animal-derived surgical implants to avoid religious distress and possible litigation. A greater understanding of religious views would enhance the medical care of persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths.

  2. Educating Jewish Children in Weimar and Nazi Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert S.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the Jewish experience in Germany, insofar as it may be generalized, suggests that minority education is significant to its constituency only insofar as it is perceived to be "useful" or "necessary": the primary defining factors are economic and social, and the conditions are set by the majority society, not by…

  3. Jewish Holocaust Histories and the Work of Chronological Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jordana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways that, in Holocaust education in Jewish schools in Melbourne and New York at the beginning of the 21st century, knowledge of the Holocaust is transferred to students in chronological form. It begins by asking: What work do chronological narratives do within the Holocaust historical narratives offered within Jewish…

  4. Holocaust Education in Jewish Schools in Israel: Goals, Dilemmas, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown the Holocaust to be the primary component of Jewish identity (Farago in Yahadut Zmanenu 5:259-285, 1989; Gross in Influence of the trip to Poland within the framework of the Ministry of Education on the working through of the Holocaust. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 2000; "Herman in Jewish…

  5. The elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish society: social workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2018-02-13

    In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.

  6. Effects of liming and legume/cereal cropping on populations of indigenous rhizobia in an acid Brazilian Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, D.S.; Murphy, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Given the acid soil conditions in many regions of common bean production in the tropics and the deleterious effects of soil acidity on rhizobia, studies to assess survival of Phaseolus-nodulating rhizobial populations in acidic soils are important to ensure establishment of effective N2-fixing

  7. Susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Brazilian populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Barros, V C; de Souza, S F; Barros, S S; Teodoro, L P; Soares, Z R; Gontijo, N F; Reithinger, R

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the insecticide susceptibility of two geographically separated Lutzomyia longipalpis populations (Lapinha and Montes Claros) with different histories of insecticide exposure (i.e. no exposure and repeated exposure, respectively). (i) Bioassay monitoring of sand fly survival over time when exposed to a range of insecticides; and (ii) analysis of the level of insecticide detoxification enzymes in individual sand flies caught at both study sites. Insecticides tested were the organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion and the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and deltamethrin. Survival analyses showed that whilst there was no overall significant difference in susceptibility of both populations to organophosphates, Lapinha sand flies were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than those from Montes Claros. Multiple regression analyses also showed that insecticide susceptibility in both locations varied with sand fly sex. The relative susceptibilities of the two sand fly populations to tested insecticides were also compared. Thus, Montes Claros sand flies were most susceptible to malathion, followed by fenitrothion, deltamethrin and permethrin. Those from Lapinha were most susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, followed by malathion, permethrin, deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Montes Claros sand flies had significantly lower insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than Lapinha sand flies. Our results are the first record of significantly reduced susceptibility to the insecticides used in control of wild populations of Lu. longipalpis. They demonstrate the importance of evaluating chemicals against this species by conventional bioassay and microplate assays before and during spraying programmes.

  8. Impact of forest fragment size on the population structure of three palm species (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Rita de Cássia Quitete; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes

    2014-06-01

    The main threats to natural populations in terrestrial ecosystems have been widly recognized to be the habitat fragmentation and the exploitation of forest products. In this study, we compared the density of the populations and the structure of three tropical palm species, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum, Euterpe edulis and Geonoma schottiana. For this, we selected five forest fragments of different sizes (3 500ha, 2 400ha, 57ha, 21ha and 19ha) where palms were censused in nine 30 x 30m plots. We tracked the palms survival from 2005 to 2007, and recorded all new individuals encountered. Each individual was assigned in one of the five ontogenetic stages: seedling, infant, juvenile, immature and reproductive. The demographic structure of each palm species was analyzed and compared by a generalized linear model (GLM). The analysis was performed per palm species. The forest fragment area and the year of observation were explanatory variables, and the proportion of individuals in each ontogenetic class and palm density were response variables. The total number of individuals (from seedlings to reproductives, of all species) monitored was 6 450 in 2005, 7 268 in 2006, and 8 664 in 2007. The densities of two palm species were not influenced by the size of the fragment, but the population density of A. aculeatissimum was dependent on the size of the fragment: there were more individuals in the bigger than in the smaller forest fragments. The population structure of A. aculeatissimum, E. edulis, and G. schottiana was not altered in the smaller fragments, except the infants of G. schottiana. The main point to be drawn from the results found in this study is that the responses of density and population structure seem not to be dependent on fragment size, except for one species that resulted more abundant in bigger fragments.

  9. Social Inclusion of Children With Down Syndrome: Jewish and Muslim Mothers' Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Biton, Anna; Itzhaki, Michal

    The current study examined mothers' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to socially integrate children with Down syndrome (DS) in the family, with children without disabilities and school system. A questionnaire based on a descriptive, cross-sectional design was administered to Jewish and Muslim mothers. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to integrate children with DS. Analysis included a regression test of intention to integrate children with DS and a one-way ANOVA for differences between Jewish and Muslim mothers. Nearly all the Jewish mothers (93.7%) and about half the Muslim mothers (52.8%) had performed screening tests for DS during their pregnancy. All mothers displayed low knowledge level about DS. Being Jewish (t=2.89; p=0.005) and holding more positive beliefs (t=3.39; p=0.001) were associated with a higher intention to socially integrate children with DS. Significant positive correlations were found between beliefs and attitudes (r=0.65; psocially integrate children with DS (r=0.39; psocial inclusion of children with DS are quite positive and the intention to integrate children with DS in the family, with children without disabilities, and in the mainstream school system is high. However, their level of knowledge about DS is low. Nurses, as a critical source of information about DS, should develop an ethno-cultural sensitivity to diverse populations in order to influence attitudes and beliefs regarding the social integration of children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA) on the interaction between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure in an urban Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roberto; Bellinazzi, Vera Regina; Sposito, Andrei C; Mill, José G; Krieger, José E; Pereira, Alexandre C; Nadruz, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are implicated in the physiopathogenesis of salt-induced hypertension and the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene has been associated with higher superoxide production. This study investigated the impact of this polymorphism on the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (USE) and blood pressure levels in an urban Brazilian population. We cross-sectionally evaluated 1,298 subjects from the city of Vitoria-ES, located in the Southeast region of Brazil, by clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of laboratory parameters, USE measurement and p22-phox C242T polymorphism genotyping. No significant differences in studied parameters were detected between the studied genotype groups (CC vs. CT+TT). Systolic blood pressure exhibited significant correlation with USE only in T allele carriers (r = 0.166; pBrazilian population.

  11. The song of the Brazilian population of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae, in the year 2000: individual song variations and possible implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arraut Eduardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The song of the Brazilian population of the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae was studied in its breeding and calving ground, the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil, from July to November 2000. Aural and spectral analyses of digital recordings were completed for approximately 20 song cycles, totaling 5 hours of song from 10 different recording events. We identified 24 note types, organized in five themes. All songs presented the same themes and the order in which they were sung did not vary. We registered the appearance of a note type and the disappearance of a phrase ending, which indicate that the song changed as the season progressed. Moreover, we detected individual variation in the way singers performed certain complex note types. As songs are transmitted culturally, it is likely that singers have different abilities to compose and/or learn new notes. If, as it has been previously suggested, 'new' songs are preferred to 'old' ones, these more able singers will be sending out information about their learning abilities that could be used by other whales to decide whether or not to interact with them.

  12. Polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA -308 G/A is not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Trevilatto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a major mediator of the immune-inflammatory response and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic periodontitis. Polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNFA gene have been associated with some types of inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the TNFA (G-308A gene and chronic periodontitis in Brazilians. Methods: One hundred and thirteen (113 over 25 years were divided according to the severity level of periodontal disease: 44 healthy individuals (control group, 31 subjects with moderate and 38 patients with severe periodontitis. Genomic DNA was obtained from epithelial cells. The samples were analyzed for TNFA (G-308A polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The significance of the differences in the genotype frequencies of the polymorphism was assessed by Chi-square test (p<0.05. Results: No significant differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequency were found between control and groups with periodontitis. Conclusion: It was concluded that TNFA (-308 polymorphism was not associated with chronic periodontitis. Other polymorphisms in this or/and other genes of the host inflammatory response might be involved in determining susceptibility to periodontitis in the study population.

  13. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  14. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly B.P.L.V. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q. Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1, which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3. These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis.

  15. Between Tikkun Olam and Self-Defense: Young Jewish Americans Debate the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Ben Hagai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined processes associated with ingroup members’ break from their ingroup and solidarity with the outgroup. We explored these processes by observing the current dramatic social change in which a growing number of young Jewish Americans have come to reject Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. We conducted a yearlong participant observation and in-depth interviews with 27 Jewish American college students involved in Israel advocacy on a college campus. Findings suggest that Jewish Americans entering the Jewish community in college came to learn about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through a lens of Jewish vulnerability. A bill proposed by Palestinian solidarity organizations to divest from companies associated with Israel (part of the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions or BDS movement was also interpreted through the lens of Israel's vulnerability. As the college’s Student Union debated the bill, a schism emerged in the Jewish community. Some Jewish students who had a strong sense of their Jewish identity and grounded their Judaism in principles of social justice exhibited a greater openness to the Palestinian narrative of the conflict. Understanding of Palestinian dispossession was associated with the rejection of the mainstream Jewish establishment’s unconditional support of Israel. Moreover, dissenting Jewish students were concerned that others in the campus community would perceive them as denying the demands of people of color. We discuss our observations of the process of social change in relation to social science theories on narrative acknowledgment and collective action.

  16. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population?Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Pareja, Jos? Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 82...

  17. Extinction of mammalian populations in conservation units of the Brazilian Cerrado by inbreeding depression in stochastic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marcel Müller Fernandes Pereira da; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola

    2008-01-01

    Despite methodological and theoretical advances in conservation genetics, data on genetic variation on broad regional spatial scales are still scarce, leading conservation planners to use general heuristic or simulation models for an integrated analysis of genetic, demographic and landscape parameters. Here, we extended previous results by evaluating spatial patterns of extinction by inbreeding depression under stochastic variation of environments for mammalian populations in 31 conservation ...

  18. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda N Regis

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents and Santa Cruz (83,000, in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.

  19. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda N; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M Nogueira; da Silva, Juliana C Serafim; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M F; Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N M; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.

  20. The Central Sensitization Inventory validated and adapted for a Brazilian population: psychometric properties and its relationship with brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Wolnei; Antunes, Luciana C; Elkfury, Jéssica Lorenzzi; Herbstrith, Evelyn G; Busanello Sipmann, Raquel; Souza, Andressa; Torres, Iraci Ls; Souza Dos Santos, Vinicius; Neblett, Randy

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim was to assess the psychometric properties (including internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility, and factor structure) of the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), adapted and validated for a Brazilian population (CSI-BP). Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between the CSI-BP and the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and determined if the symptoms elicited by the CSI-BP discriminate between subjects who do/do not respond to the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) task, as assessed by change in numeric pain scale (0-10) score. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a pain clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 222 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain and 63 healthy control subjects completed the CSI-BP and the Brazilian Portuguese pain-catastrophizing scale (BP-PCS). A team of experts translated the CSI according to the international guidelines. Test-retest, item analysis, convergent validity, and factor analysis were performed. Later, a random subsample (n=77) was used to correlate the CSI-BP adjusted index with change in numeric pain-scale score during the CPM task and a BDNF blood sample. The CSI-BP presented strong psychometric properties (test-retest reliability 0.91, Cronbach's α =0.91). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure, supporting the original English version. The CSI-BP adjusted index showed moderate positive correlation with the BP-PCS, and classified more than 80% of patients correctly vs healthy controls. Serum BDNF levels explained 27% of the variation in the CSI-BP adjusted index. Subjects with impairment in the descending modulatory system had higher CSI-BP adjusted index scores than subjects who responded normally to the CPM task: 49.35 (12.1) vs 39.5 (12.33), respectively ( P <0.05). The CSI-BP was found to be a psychometrically strong and reliable instrument, with primary evidence of validity. Higher scores on the CSI-BP were correlated positively with

  1. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥255 mL/day or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (< or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p = 0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p < 0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR– 0.16; 95%CI – 0.03–0.80; p = 0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.

  2. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives. This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia. An effort was made to establish a correspondence between the local "emic" terms of traditional medicine and the symptoms or diseases known by conventional medicine ("etic" terms). The ultimate goal was to gain insights to suggest further pharmacological studies with the local resources. Fieldwork was guided by methods of anthropology, botany and zoology-with the assistance of a doctor-among the traditional healing experts in Jaú National Park (during 199 days in 1995) and Unini River Extractive Reserve (210 days from 2008 to 2012). Fifty-nine healers of different kinds were interviewed: a prayer-maker, medium, natural resource expert, massage therapist, midwife and snakebite healer. The clinical manifestations and healing resources of the following CBS were collected: "mau olhado" (evil eye), "quebrante" (chipping); "espante" (fright or susto); "doença do ar" (air diseases); "vento caído" (fallen wind); "derrame" (leakage); "mãe do corpo" (mother of the body) and "panema" (unlucky). The first three seem to be local variations of other CBSs already described in Latin America. "doença do ar", "vento caído", "derrame" and "mãe do corpo" seem to be folk terms for known conventional medical disorders, while "panema" is a yet undescribed Brazilian CBS that is possibly related to dysthymic disorder or depression and deserves further investigation. Treatments included prayer rituals, fumigation, baths and oral remedies using 25 plants and 10 animals. It was possible to establish

  3. Teaching Approaches of Beginning Teachers for Jewish Studies in Israeli "Mamlachti" Schools: A Case Study of a Jewish Education Teachers' Training Program for Outstanding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzin, Ori

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a longitudinal qualitative study that examined teaching approaches of neophyte teachers in Israel during their 4-year exclusive teachers' training program for teaching Jewish subjects and first two years of teaching. The program wanted to promote change in secular pupils' attitudes toward Jewish subjects. We…

  4. Crescimento físico e estado nutricional de populações indígenas brasileiras Physical growth and nutritional status of Brazilian indian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo V. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho revisa a literatura sobre crescimento físico de populações indígenas do Brasil. Os estudos voltados para caracterização do estado nutricional através da antropometria são relativamente recentes e, ainda, não chegam a prover um quadro claro da situação. Quando comparadas com crianças brasileiras ou com populações-referência internacionais (NCHS, as indígenas são em média de menor estatura e peso, ainda que mantenham a proporcionalidade corporal, avaliada pelo indicador 'peso para estatura'. Estes resultados podem ser interpretados como evidência de altas freqüências de desnutrição energética-protéico crônica. Pelo menos para alguns grupos, dados oriundos de inquéritos de saúde provêem evidências favoráveis à existência de condições nutricionais marginais. É indicado, contudo, que curvas de referências internacionais talvez não sejam adequadas para avaliar o crescimento físico de populações específicas, incluindo as crianças indígenas brasileiras. Chama-se atenção, também, para o fato de que mudanças nas práticas tradicionais de subsistência e nas condições de saúde devido ao processo aculturativo podem contribuir para a deterioração do estado de nutrição das populações indígenas.This paper reviews the literature on the physical growth of native populations from Brazil. Studies aiming at relating the physical growth patterns of these populations to their nutritional status are relatively recent and still do not provide a comprehensive picture of the situation. Compared to non-indigenous Brazilian children and international reference populations (NCHS, indigenous children are short and light for their age, although they maintain their body proportionality, as evaluated by weight for height. These findings could be interpreted as an indication of high rates of chronic protein-energy undernutrition. At least for some groups, data derived from health surveys provide further

  5. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION, DIRECTLY APPLIED TO GASTRIC BIOPSIES, IN AN URBAN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Antimicrobial resistance is the major factor leading to eradication failure in H. pylori treatment. Molecular tests are useful to detect genetic mutations predictive of clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones resistance. Knowledge of the local prevalence rate of resistance is important to define the best recommended treatment. Objective - To assess the prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones, using a molecular test, in a Southeastern urban Brazilian population. Methods - A total of 72 H. pylori seropositive patients [65% female, mean age 39 (19-73 years] never treated before for this infection were studied. All patients underwent gastroscopy in addition to antrum and corpus biopsies and molecular test GenoType HelicoDR (Hain Life Science, Germany to detect H. pylori and point mutations in genes responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. The molecular procedure was divided into three steps: DNA extraction from biopsy samples, a multiplex amplification with biotinylated primers and a reverse hybridization. The most frequent point mutations involved in resistance to the two antibiotics were evaluated. Results - Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in nine (12.5% patients and to fluoroquinolones in eight (11.1% patients. The point mutation A2147G was the most common (77.8% among resistant strains to clarithromycin. In 50% of the resistant strains to fluoroquinolones, the mutant codon couldn't be identified. Conclusion - The resistance rates to clarithromycin and fluorquinolones in a large urban population in the Southeast of Brazil were acceptable, suggesting that these drugs remain appropriate options to first and second-line of H. pylori treatment. The molecular test represents an adequate diagnostic tool for monitoring H. pylori resistance.

  6. Transmission of Human Herpesvirus Type 8 Infection Within Families in American Indigenous Populations From the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jaila D.; Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Dudbridge, Frank; Freire, Wilton S.; Gregório, Shinai Arriel; Torrez, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe; Quiroga, Mariana; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Nascimento, Maria Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The intrafamilial dynamics of endemic infection with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) in Amerindian populations is unknown. Methods Serum samples were obtained from 517 Amerindians and tested for HHV-8 anti–latent nuclear antigen (anti-LANA) and antilytic antibodies by immunofluorescence assays. Logistic regression and mixed logistic models were used to estimate the odds of being HHV-8 seropositive among intrafamilial pairs. Results HHV-8 seroprevalence by either assay was 75.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.5%–79.1%), and it was age-dependent (Ptrend 4) number of siblings (OR, 3.20, 95% CI: 1.33–7.67). In separate analyses by serological assay, there was strong dependence in mother–offspring (OR 8.94, 95% CI: 2.94–27.23) and sibling pairs aged ≥10 years (OR, 11.91, 95% CI: 2.23–63.64) measured by LANA but not lytic antibodies. Conclusions This pattern of familial dependence suggests that, in this endemic population, HHV-8 transmission mainly occurs from mother to offspring and between close siblings during early childhood, probably via saliva. The mother to offspring dependence was derived chiefly from anti-LANA antibodies. PMID:22474036

  7. Reflections on Palliative Care from the Jewish and Islamic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual care is a vital part of holistic patient care. Awareness of common patient beliefs will facilitate discussions about spirituality. Such conversations are inherently good for the patient, deepen the caring staff-patient-family relationship, and enhance understanding of how beliefs influence care decisions. All healthcare providers are likely to encounter Muslim patients, yet many lack basic knowledge of the Muslim faith and of the applications of Islamic teachings to palliative care. Similarly, some of the concepts underlying positive Jewish approaches to palliative care are not well known. We outline Jewish and Islamic attitudes toward suffering, treatment, and the end of life. We discuss our religions' approaches to treatments deemed unnecessary by medical staff, and consider some of the cultural reasons that patients and family members might object to palliative care, concluding with specific suggestions for the medical team.

  8. The care of patients with dementia: a modern Jewish ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan B; Clarfield, A Mark; Glick, Shimon

    2005-05-01

    Patients with dementia and their families can face many difficult and agonizing ethical dilemmas over the course of the illness. An awareness of the Jewish ethical response to some of these issues can help clinicians in treating patients of the Jewish faith and also serve as an example of how one ethical system addresses these questions. The Jewish response is grounded in a profound respect and value for human life in all its forms and man's responsibility to preserve it, but Judaism rejects unproven therapies and recognizes the limitations of modern medicine. Jewish law also codifies normative obligations that children have toward their elderly parents. With these principles in the forefront, this article analyzes a Jewish ethical response to various problems in the care of the demented patient such as truth telling, transfer to a nursing home, artificial nutrition, and end-of-life care, taking into account modern concepts of the doctor-patient relationship and ancient Jewish tradition.

  9. Measuring population fluctuation of jatropha stem-borer [Cophes notaticeps (Marshall)] in the Brazilian Cerrado using a new trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Silva, C N; Frizzas, M R; Dianese, A C

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to monitor the population fluctuation of Cophes notaticeps (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation in the Federal District, Brazil, through the use of a new trap, combined with different attractive lures and trap colors. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF) in a field trial with 720 plants. The new trap, named CPAC16, was made with PVC pipes (100 mm in diameter) of about 40 cm in length, with a window (8 × 10 cm2) in its center to enable insect access. A lure compartment was fixed on the inside of the trap`s top, and a pot, containing water and detergent, was placed at its bottom to collect the insects. The traps were painted in red, yellow, blue and green. Molasses, ethanol and pineapple were used as attractive lures. The traps were in the field trial area between May 2013 and April 2014 and the insects were collected weekly. The incidence of plants presenting damage caused by C. notaticeps was evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study. The CPAC16 trap proved efficient in monitoring C. notaticeps. About 3494 of C. notaticeps adults were collected during the study. There were no significant differences among traps painted with different colors. The most attractive lure was molasses collecting 75.2% (n = 2627) of the specimens. Although the population peak occurred in December (n = 1162), C. notaticeps were collected throughout the year. The incidence of plants attacked by C. notaticeps ranged from 66.4% (start) to 100% (end).

  10. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Gronner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m², waist circumference and blood pressure (BP were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively. Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  12. Jewish community museum as a result of citizen activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Salner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on circumstances under which the Jewish Community Museum was established and officially opened in the Bratislava synagogue in 2012. Already prior to WWII, a respected architect and collector Eugen Barkány came with the idea of opening a museum consisting of Slovak judaica. He followed up his project after the liberation, too. In the second half of the sixties, it seemed that thanks to the Jewish Religious Community (JCR/ŽNO Bratislava support there would be created a Slovak branch of the Prague Jewish Museum within the premises of the Neolog Bratislava synagogue. However, the project implementation had to be postponed for many years to come: first of all due to Bárkány’s death (1967, demolition of the synagogue giving place to the construction of a new bridge, and the occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968. In the beginning of the next millenium, it was Maroš Borský, Art historian and Judaist, who undertook this project. He persuaded the board members of the JCR (ŽNO Bratislava to vacate the already abandoned female gallery of the only preserved synagogue for presentation of Barkány’s collection. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum already offered three exhibits entitled: The Shadow of the Past (2013; We Are Here (2014; and Engerau – a Forgotten Story of Petržalka in 2015.

  13. Nonaltruistic kidney donations in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2003-01-27

    In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.

  14. Contraceptive considerations for breastfeeding women within Jewish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertok Ilana R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast milk has been shown to have multiple benefits to infant health and development. Therefore, it is important that maternal contraceptive choices consider the effects on lactation. Women who observe traditional Jewish law, halakha, have additional considerations in deciding the order of preference of contraceptive methods due to religious concerns including the use of barrier and spermicidal methods. In addition, uterine bleeding, a common side effect of hormonal methods and IUD, can have a major impact on the quality of intimacy and marital life due to the laws of niddah. This body of Jewish laws prohibits any physical contact from the onset of uterine bleeding until its cessation and for an additional week. Health care professionals should understand the issues of Jewish law involved in modern contraceptive methods in order to work in tandem with the halakha observant woman to choose a contraceptive method that preserves the important breastfeeding relationship with her infant and minimizes a negative impact on intimacy with her husband.

  15. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  16. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops.

  17. Alcohol and Substance Use in the Jewish Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of addictions in the Jewish community is becoming increasingly prevalent, and yet, a gap exists in the literature regarding addictions in this community. Knowledge about the prevalence of addictions within Jewish communities is limited; some believe that Jews cannot be affected by addictions. To address this gap, a pilot study was conducted to gather preliminary evidence relating to addictions and substance use in the Jewish community. Results indicate that a significant portion of the Jewish community knows someone affected by an addiction and that over 20% have a family history of addiction. Future research needs are discussed.

  18. Fatores de risco para o prolapso genital em uma população brasileira Risk factors for genital prolapse in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moura Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de prolapso genital na população brasileira. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle envolvendo 316 pacientes que foram submetidas a estadiamento de prolapso, utilizando-se o sistema de quantificação de prolapso dos órgãos pélvicos. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No Grupo Caso, foram incluídas 107 pacientes com prolapso nos estádios III ou IV, e no Controle, 209 mulheres com estádios 0 ou I. As mulheres selecionadas respondiam à anamnese na qual eram questionadas sobre a presença de possíveis fatores de risco para prolapso genital, tais como: idade, idade da menopausa, paridade, tipos de parto (vaginal, cesariana ou fórcipe, ocorrência de macrossomia fetal, história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau de distopia genital, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS: as variáveis que se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos foram: idade, índice de massa corpórea, paridade, número de partos vaginais, de cesarianas, de partos fórcipe, peso do recém-nascido e história familiar positiva para prolapso. Raça, idade da menopausa, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos. Após a regressão logística, somente três variáveis se apresentaram como fatores de risco independentes: presença de pelo menos um parto vaginal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva. A cesariana se mostrou como fator protetor. CONCLUSÕES: na população brasileira, os fatores de risco independentes para prolapso foram a presença de pelo menos um parto normal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva para distopia.PURPOSE: to evaluate risk factors for the development of genital prolapse in the Brazilian population. METHODS: case-control study involving 316 patients submitted to prolapse staging, according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Case Group

  19. Positioning oneself and being positioned in the 'community' : an essay on Jewish ethnography as a 'Jew-ish' ethnographer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasstan, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research in the UK’s only support facility for ageing Jewish Shoah survivors, this paper charts the ‘foodways’ in a Centre where satiety is experienced as an emotional as well as a physical need. How the experience of genocidal violence and displacement give rise to particular tastes of trauma is explored, firstly through the symbolism of bread which is metaphorically leavened with meanings and memories of survival – both in Judaism and for the survivors interviewed. B...

  20. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  1. Voice-related quality of life in the pediatric population: validation of the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality-of Life survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lívia Lima; Paula, Kely Maria Pereira de; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    To measure the voice-related quality of life in children/adolescents with vocal complaints through the validation of the Brazilian Pediatric Voice-Related Quality-of-Life survey - VR-QOL-P (Qualidade de Vida em Voz Pediátrico - QVV-P), to verify whether the presence of vocal complaints interfere with the quality of life of children/adolescents, and to determine the relationship between the vocal assessment carried out by parents and the VR-QOL-P scores. The participants included 246 parents of children/adolescents of both sexes, aged between 2 years and 18 years (divided into preschoolers, schoolers and adolescents), with and without vocal complaints. All participants signed the informed consent form. Translation, linguistic and cultural adaptation, assessment of cultural equivalence, implementation of the protocol in its final version, voice assessment by parents, demographic and clinical descriptive statistical analysis of the population, individual analysis of the items, verification of psychometric measures of validation, reliability, reproducibility and responsiveness of the instrument to treatment, were carried out. Low scores, especially in the physical domain, were found in subjects with vocal complaints. Among those, adolescents suffered the greatest impact. The social-emotional domain was not sensitive in preschoolers. There was a correlation among the overall, social-emotional and physical scores, and the vocal assessment performed by parents. The VR-QOL-P was reliable, reproducible and responsive to voice problems. Voice change interferes with the quality of life of children/adolescents, and there is a relationship between the assessment of voice quality and VR-QOL-P scores - the older the individual, the worse the quality of life in aspects related to voice, especially in the physical domain, and the better the vocal quality, as perceived by the parents.

  2. Prevalence of self-reported medical diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas in a Brazilian population: demographic and socioeconomic patterns in the Pro-Saúde Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (UL) are considered the most common tumors of the female reproductive system. However, there are few epidemiological studies about this condition in Brazil. To estimate the prevalence of self-reported history of UL according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and to markers of access to health care. We analyzed data from 1,733 university employees who participated at the baseline waves of the Pro-Saude Study (1999-2001), in relation to three outcomes: (1) self-reported medical diagnosis of UL, (2) UL with symptoms prior to diagnosis, and (3) cases with hysterectomy due to UL. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated in relation to strata of variables related to demographic (age, color/race) and socioeconomic characteristics (education, income) and of markers of access to health care (Pap smear, breast clinical exam and private health insurance status). The prevalence of medically-diagnosed UL was 23.3% (95% CI - 21.3, 25.2), the UL with symptoms prior to diagnosis of 13.3% (95% CI - 11.7, 15.0) and hysterectomy due to UL, 8.4% (95% CI - 7.5, 10.3). Among participants younger than 45 years old, higher prevalence was observed among women with worse socioeconomic conditions and of black color/race. Among those with 45 years or more, there was higher prevalence among women with better access to health care. In this study population of Brazilian women, UL is a relevant health problem, and its prevalence and associated socio-demographic gradients are similar to those observed in other countries.

  3. The effect of combined polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdimara Corrêa Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes that encode chemokines or their receptors can modulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and disease progression. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A and their role in the course of HIV infection in a Southern Brazilian population. Clinical data were obtained from 249 patients for an average period of 6.4 years and genotypes were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Survival analyses were conducted for three outcomes: CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/µL, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or death. The frequency of the polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A were 0.024, 0.113, 0.487 and 0.207, respectively. CCR5-Δ32 was associated with a reduction in the risk for CD4+ T-cell depletion and with an increased risk for death after AIDS diagnosis. CCR2-64I was associated with a reduction in the risk for developing AIDS. SDF1-3'A was also associated with decreased risk for AIDS, but its effect was only evident when CCR2-64I was present as well. These results highlight the possibility of using these markers as indicators for the prognosis of disease progression and provide evidence for the importance of analysing the effects of gene polymorphisms in a combined fashion.

  4. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Rocha BRITTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and Adolescents' Rights Resolution nº 163 of 2014 about food advertising. The advertisements were recorded in July 2015, at different times and days of the week. Results: One hundred and sixty-two hours were recorded, registering 3,468 commercials: 1,850 were related to internal programming and 1,618 advertised toys (22.15%, food and beverages (5.61%, applications for electronic devices (5.58%, and entertainment/events (5.56%. The Fisher exact test showed fewer number of food commercials compared to other types of commercials (p<0.001. The main food items advertised by all television stations were ultraprocessed foods and no advertisements of fresh food were observed (p<0.001. Most of the food commercials (64.30% used children's language and characters; 43.00% used songs in children's voices, and 21.40% linked gift distribution to food. Conclusion: The number of food commercials observed was lower than in previous national studies. However, the advertisements did not follow current legislation, indicating the abuse of marketing communication to children. More effective public policies and the respect and enforcement of legislation on child advertising could protect children from high consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL17A and IL6 Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Milano

    Full Text Available In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, the complex interaction of host immune system and the mycobacteria is associated with levels of cytokines production that play a major role in determining the outcome of the disease. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with tuberculosis (TB outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between previously reported SNPs IL2-330 T>G (rs2069762; IL4-590 C>T (rs2243250; IL6-174 G>C (rs1800795; IL10-592 A>C (rs1800872; IL10-1082 G>A (rs1800896; IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036; IL17A -197 G>A (rs2275913; TNF -238 G>A (rs361525; TNF -308 G>A (rs1800629 and IFNG +874 T>A (rs2430561 and pulmonary TB (PTB susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study in individuals from Southern Brazil who were recruited between February 2012 and October 2013 in a high incidence TB city. We performed a multiplex genotyping assay in 191 patients with PTB and 175 healthy subjects. Our results suggest a decreased risk for PTB development associated with the IL17A -197A allele (OR = 0.29; p = 0.04, AA genotype (OR = 0.12; p = 0.04 and A carrier (AG/AA (OR = 0.29; p = 0.004 and IL6 -174C carrier (CC/CG (OR = 0.46; p = 0.04. We could not properly analyze IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036 and IFNG +874T>A due to genotypic inconsistencies and found no evidence of association for the IL2, IL4, IL10 and TNF polymorphisms and PTB. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of IL17 and IL6 polymorphisms on PTB outcome in Southern Brazilian population.

  6. Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo Zillmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68% were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.

  7. The role of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations: potential Leishmania spp. vectors in the Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tâmara Dias Oliveira; Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Ferreira, Tauana de Sousa; Freire, Luciana Pereira; Timbó, Renata Velôzo; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Nitz, Nadjar; Silva, Mariana Neiva; Santos, Alcinei de Souza; Sales, Nathyla Morgana Cunha; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Andrade, Andrey José de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs) in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season) and November (rainy season) in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp.) and 578 (22 spp.) were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens) identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil.

  8. Genetic diversity of arboreal cotton populations of the Brazilian semiarid: a remnant primary gene pool for cotton cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, I P P; Hoffmann, L V; de Lima, T H; da Silva, A R; Lucena, V S; Barroso, P A V

    2017-09-27

    Mocó cotton belong to the same species as the cultivated species, Gossypium hirsutum, and cultivated forms were mainly landraces but also developed as cultivars, bearing good fiber quality and drought tolerant when cropped as a perennial species. The northeast Brazil crop system based on this cotton type is finished, with a few small area planted in the three main States, where it was previously cultivated (Ceará, Paraíba, and Rio Grande do Norte), but in others, maintenance is accomplished by single dooryard plants. Plants were found in all visited Northeast Brazil municipalities, sometimes in the North of the country, and were collected for ex situ preservation and evaluation. Most of seeds had no fuzz (62.2%) and 94.6% of the genotypes presented spot in flowers. Seventy-one alleles were revealed in 12 loci. The genetic structure of the population evaluated by microsatellite markers shows two main groups, one comprising the Seridó region where landraces were originated and other comprising the state of Ceará, where a specific breeding program was developed. Genotypes collected in North Brazil States as well as those collected in Bahia, Alagoas, and Sergipe grouped with those collected in Ceará. The Mantel correlogram indicates a significant (P < 0.05) correlation between genetic and geographical distances up to 77 km. The ex situ maintenance and agronomical evaluation are the main concerns for mocó, as the use of the agricultural interesting traits, possibly introgressed to other genotypes, is predicted. The in situ preservation is still of interest since there is more diversity there than in the collected plants and some should be continued due to use as medicinal plant.

  9. [Factors associated with poor sleep quality in the Brazilian population ≥ 40 years of age: VIGICARDIO Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Loch, Mathias Roberto; Dos Santos, Hellen Geremias; Sakay Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri; Durán González, Alberto; Maffei de Andrade, Selma

    The prevalence of poor sleep quality in men and women ≥ 40 years old from the VIGICARDIO Study was determined, and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors associated with poor sleep quality were identified. A population-based study conducted in 2011 among 1,058 non-institutionalised individuals randomly selected from Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between sleep quality and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors in men and women. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 34% in men and 44% in women. Having bad/regular self-rated health status was a factor associated with poor sleep quality in men (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.17-2.72) and women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68-3.53). Being obese (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.46), having depression (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.13) and presenting temporal orientation difficulties (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.08-3.52) were associated factors in women. Difficulty to understand what is explained (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.09) and alcohol abuse (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.83) were associated factors in men. Factors affecting sleep quality are different for men and for women. These factors should be taken into consideration when devising activities that promote good sleep quality, with a view to improving their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations: potential Leishmania spp. vectors in the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Dias Oliveira Machado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. OBJECTIVE To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. METHODS Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season and November (rainy season in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp. and 578 (22 spp. were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins

  11. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  12. Factors associated with last dental visit or not to visit the dentist by Brazilian adolescents: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio P da Fonseca

    Full Text Available We investigated the factors associated with no dental visit within the last two years by adolescents in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, by using data from the Oral Health Conditions of São Paulo state population Project (SBSP-2015 conducted in 2015.This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a representative sample of adolescents aged 15 to higher years residing in São Paulo State. The examiners were calibrated and dental visits were measured categorically as 1- Less than 1 year, 2- One to two years, 3 - Three years or more, 4- I have never visited the dentist. Based on the literature we dichotomized the outcome in two groups: response 1 plus 2 against response 3 plus 4. Then, Multilevel Poisson Regression (MPR was used to estimate the prevalence ratios of last dental visit three years or had never been to a dentist by adolescents compared with those who had visited the dentist within the past two years, with contextual variables as the distal level; sociodemographic variables, mesial; and individual variables, proximal level.A high percentage of adolescents (84.9% reported visiting the dentist in the last 2 years. Whereas, 626 (11.6% had not visited the dentist for over 3 years and 188 (3.4% had never been. A significantly higher proportion of females than males reported visiting the dentist in the past 2 years (p = 0.003. The oral and dental condition was reported as satisfactory by 4,350 respondents (80.6%, and when they accessed the health service, 2,286 (42.3% went to the public service. Lower mean family income (1.62PR;95%CI;1.36-1.94; ≥ 1,000 inhabitant/Dental Surgeons (1.25PR;95%IC;1.03-1.56;male (1.26PR;95%CI; 1.11-1.43 non-Caucasian ethnicity (Mulatto:1.30PR;95%CI;1.13-1.50 and Black:1.58PR;95%CI;1.29-1.93; dissatisfaction with the oral health condition (1.20PR;95%CI;1.01-1.45,last visit to the public service versus private service (2.26PR; 95%CI;1.91-2.65 and presenting with periodontal disease in the form of dental

  13. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  14. Selected genetic disorders affecting Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lenore B

    2007-01-01

    Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern European ancestry have a disproportionately high prevalence of several autosomal recessive genetic disorders. This article describes these 9 disorders and their genetic inheritance patterns: Bloom syndrome; Canavan disease; cystic fibrosis; familial dysautonomia; Fanconi anemia; Gaucher disease; Mucolipidosis IV; Niemann-Pick disease; and Tay-Sachs disease. Genetic testing, counseling, and family planning options for the at-risk population are described. The role of the community health nurse is addressed.

  15. Estudo audiológico de uma população idosa brasileira Audiological study of an elderly brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio do Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A população idosa brasileira cresce e representa 8,6% do total populacional. Fatores ambientais, hábitos de vida, sexo e fatores genéticos interferem na evolução da presbiacusia que reduz a qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Investigar queixas audiológicas e vestibulares em idosos, executar audiometria tonal, verificar se há diferenças entre os sexos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 320 pacientes idosos (160 homens e 160 mulheres foram submetidos a anamnese audiológica e audiometria tonal. Análise estatística dos resultados pelos testes ANOVA, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. RESULTADO: As queixas audiológicas e vestibulares (perda auditiva, tinnitus, plenitude auricular, tontura foram similares entre os sexos (exceção, a tontura: pThe Brazilian elderly population is growing, and already represents 8,6% of our total population. Environmental factors, lifestyle, gender and genetics impact the development of presbycusis, which reduces quality of life. AIM: investigate audiologic and vestibular complaints in the elderly; perform tonal audiometry and check to see if there are differences between genders. STUDY: Cross-sectional clinical prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 320 elderly patients (160 men and 160 women were submitted to audiologic interview and tonal audiometry. The results were statistically analyzed by the following methods: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Squared. RESULTS: audiologic and vestibular complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus, ear fullness, dizziness were similar between the genders (except for dizziness: p<0,05; tonal audiometry showed a significant difference, with hearing loss in the high frequencies among men; and among women the curves were descending and flat. These results were statistically significant (P<0,001. CONCLUSION: our results lead us to conclude that, when the genders are compared, hearing loss in the elderly has similar symptoms; however, there are

  16. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Bakos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0

  17. Brazilian news portals characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  18. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  19. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  20. Teachers' Study Guide: The American Jewish Writer. The Image of the Jew in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersand, Joseph; Zara, Louis

    This guide was prepared to give an historical as well as a contemporary perspective on American Jewish authors and their writings. An introductory section presents information on such authors as Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, and Philip Roth; on the unique problems which Jewish writers have encountered in America; and on the breadth of current…

  1. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  2. Patterns of Intellectual Ability in Jewish and Arab Children in Israel: II. Urban Matched Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblich, Amia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Arab and Jewish children living in a city in northern Israel were matched as closely as possible for school grade, age and SES, and tested on the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence. Results indicated little if any difference between Jewish and Arab children in level or pattern of the intellectual abilities as elicited by the WPPSI…

  3. Exclusion and renewal : identity and Jewishness in Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" and David Vogel's Married Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Francina Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    In this study I explore literary structures of identity-formation in the works of assimilated/acculturated Jewish writers: Kafka’s novella “The Metamorphosis” (“Die Verwandlung”, 1912) and David Vogel’s Hebrew novel Married Life. 1929) These authors wrote their works when the failure of Jewish

  4. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  5. Moral Courage from the Perspective of Arab Teachers in Jewish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to call attention to the phenomenon of female Muslim Arab teachers teaching in Israeli Jewish schools. The study examined the manner in which these female Muslim Arab teachers perceived their integration into the milieu of the Jewish schools, based on their descriptions of the various processes they experience when dealing…

  6. On Being Jewish: A Qualitative Study of Identity among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jennifer; Milner, David

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants' developmental history…

  7. Jewish and secular medical ethics share themes but diverge on issues such as heroic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L

    1997-01-01

    An american expert on Jewish medical ethics explained the nuances of these rules during a recent address in Ottawa. Although Jewish and secular rules concerning medical ethics often coincide, they diverge in several important areas, including the subject of patient autonomy. PMID:9371074

  8. Teachable Moments in Jewish Education: An Informal Approach in a Reform Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik H.; Bar-Shalom, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing "teachable moments" within daily situations to impart knowledge and transmit values is a type of informal education. In a structured camp environment, such teachable moments may be integrated into the educational curriculum. "Jewish teachable moments" may be used to address Judaism and Jewish Peoplehood holistically,…

  9. Building a Community of Young Leaders: Experiential Learning in Jewish Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J.; Thomas, Margaret M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether more frequent participation in Jewish activist learning events is associated with higher levels of engagement in social justice-related activities and conceptions of Jewish identity. The study design was cross-sectional and comparative. An online survey was completed by 165 participants in an activist learning program.…

  10. Virginia Tech to present Jewish Film Festival Nov. 6-8

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The first Jewish Film Festival at Virginia Tech will be held on campus Nov. 6-8. The festival will feature guest speakers or special programs at all screenings to engage the audience in dialogue about the Jewish experience and elements of each film.

  11. Ready to Lead? A Look into Jewish Religious School Principal Leadership and Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisben, Eran

    2018-01-01

    Although most Jewish supplementary religious school principals have graduated from various academic training programs, there are no data about how these programs sufficiently prepare educational leaders. This study examined the essential leadership and management skills of effective Jewish religious school leaders, and assessed their preparation…

  12. Educating for God and Country: Cooperation among Jewish and Christian Educators, 1927-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Heather A.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the origins of Protestant and Jewish religious educators' ideas about the role of religious education in building a multicultural democracy. Maintains that Protestant and Jewish educators were brought together by common interests in transforming religious education, along progressive lines, into character education. (MJP)

  13. Designing a Curriculum Model for the Teaching of the Bible in UK Jewish Secondary Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process of designing a curriculum model for Bible teaching in UK Jewish secondary schools. This model was designed over the period 2008-2010 by a team of curriculum specialists from the Jewish Curriculum Partnership UK in collaboration with a group of teachers from Jewish secondary schools. The paper first outlines the…

  14. Infertility associated with precoital ovulation in observant Jewish couples; prevalence, treatment, efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Adler, Chana; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Rosenak, Daniel; Hurwitz, Arye

    2012-02-01

    Religious (halachic*) infertility' results from precoital ovulation prior to immersion in a ritual bath (mikveh) 7 days after menstruation, as mandated by Jewish religious law. Previous authors recommended treatment with estradiol to postpone ovulation and enhance pregnancy rates. To evaluate the prevalence of halachic infertility in an ultra-Orthodox jewish community, and assess the efficacy of estradiol treatment in postponing ovulation and increasing pregnancy rates. We reviewed 88 cycles, of which 23 were control cycles and 65 estradiol-treated cycles, and analyzed the files of 23 women who were treated with 6 mg estradiol/day from day 1 for 5 days of the cycle. The prevalence of precoital ovulation in the infertile population was 21%. Most of the patients (94%) ovulated before day 13 of the cycle. A short follicular phase due to low ovarian reserve orthyroid endocrinopathy was noted in 12% of the patients. While 64% of the women reported consultation with a Rabbinate authority, 68% of the patients sought medical therapy. Estradiol postponed ovulation for at least one day in 89% of the treatment cycles. Ovulation post-mikveh occurred in 73% of estradiol-treated cycles. The pregnancy rate was 12.5% per cycle and the cumulative pregnancy rate 35% per woman. Half the patients reported spotting during estradiol-treated cycles, and this postponed coitus. Precoital ovulation is a major reason for infertility among observant couples attending fertility clinics. Estradiol treatment is effective in delaying ovulation and restoring fecundity; however, it causes some adverse effects that may decrease its effectiveness.

  15. Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M

    2015-04-01

    Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.

  16. Writings from the Margins: German-Jewish Women Poets from the Bukovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Colin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging at the crossroads of heterogeneous languages and cultures, German-Jewish women's poetry from the Bukovina displays the characteristics of i