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Sample records for brazilian industries radiation

  1. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with {sup 192}Ir and one with {sup 60}Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  2. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with 192 Ir and one with 60 Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  4. An overview of applications and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.J.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  5. Brazilian industry evaluation system of performance on radiation protection in radioisotope gauges area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra A.; Borges, Jose C.

    1999-01-01

    The conventional industries more can see the advantages on doing their activities by using radioisotope gauges. This paper presents the methodology used to evaluation, by means of regulatory inspections, the performance on radiation protection of the Brazilian conventional industries in the field of radioisotope gauges. Sixty one inspections were analysed in the year of 1997 in these installations, taking into account the principal administrative and operational aspects. With the objective to have a final evaluation of the installation, it was given a value of each item of the inspection report, related of its importance. Finally, the values have been added and it had obtained a final evaluation, which has a range from 0 to 10 (poor or excellent). (author)

  6. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  7. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  8. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas; Sistema de avaliacao de desempenho em radioprotecao das industrias convencionais brasileiras nas areas de medidores nucleares e radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  9. Overview of the technological enhancement of natural radiation in the Brazilian non-uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Pires do Rio, M.A.; Rosa, R.; Veiga, L.H.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and milling of ores with significant amounts of uranium and thorium associated to the main ore has the potential to pose undue health risks to members of the general public and workers. In order to assess the status of this problem in the Brazilian non-uranium mining industries a comprehensive investigation project has been undertaken. The adopted methodology was based on the detailed analysis of each investigated industry operational flowplan, mass balance calculations, risk assessment (operational and post-operational scenarios taken into account) and environmental management principles. This papers addresses the main issues arising from the investigation effort, reports the most relevant conclusions and states the future studies to be implemented. It could be observed that these industries have the potential to cause relevant radiological impacts and must be regulated/controlled as to avoid these problems. (author)

  10. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  11. Radiologic accidents in industrial gamma radiography - Brazilian cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da

    1997-01-01

    Three severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography happened in Brazil during the period of 1985 to 1988. Five operators and nineteen public people were involved. These accidents caused some injuries in parts of the body, mainly hands and fingers. The main causes were faults in source monitoring, inadequate routine procedures and unknowing of radiation warning symbol by public people. The present paper shows the Brazilian cases of radiological accidents and makes some analysis of them. (author)

  12. Industrial applications of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation processing refers to the use of ionizing radiation to initiate chemical or biological changes in various materials as a substitute for conventional thermal or chemical processes. The method was inroduced in the industrial field 30 years ago and is now being widely used for numerous applications, among which industrial radiography, polymer modification, sterilization or decontamination, and food preservation. Both electron beam accelerators and gamma sources can be used, depending mainly of the amount of radiation and the penetration required. Radiation processing presents an increasing economical importance; in 1986 the market volume of ionized products ranged 3 billion $ [fr

  13. Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.S.; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

  14. Industrial processing with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The use of large isotopic radiation sources and accelerators in industry is reviewed. The advantages of various sources of ionizing radiation are indicated, and the development and present status of radiation technology are briefly described. Attention is given to the role played by radiation processing in the cross-linking of polymers as applied to cable insulation, artificial limbs and packaging materials, as well as for improving natural rubber. In addition, attention is given to radiation as a possible means of synthesizing polymers, of hardening non-conventional coatings and of manufacturing polymer-wood composites, thereby improving the properties of softwoods. The possibility of improving natural fibres by means of radiation is discussed, and attention is given to the important role already played by radiation in the sterilization of medical products. Finally, reference is made to the role which radiation can play in reducing food spoilage, as well as in making sewage sludge suitable for agricultural purposes [af

  15. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1987-07-01

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  17. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  18. Radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  19. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, L.P.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Radiologic accidents in industrial gamma radiography - Brazilian cases; Acidentes radiologicos em gamagrafia industrial - casos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Three severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography happened in Brazil during the period of 1985 to 1988. Five operators and nineteen public people were involved. These accidents caused some injuries in parts of the body, mainly hands and fingers. The main causes were faults in source monitoring, inadequate routine procedures and unknowing of radiation warning symbol by public people. The present paper shows the Brazilian cases of radiological accidents and makes some analysis of them. (author) 1 ref., 1 tab.; e-mail: dasilva at ird.gov.br

  1. Industrial applications of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Jean Rene

    1959-01-01

    The status of industrial applications of radiation chemistry as it stands 6 months after the second Geneva international conference is described. The main features of the interaction of ionizing radiations with matter are briefly stated and a review is made of the best studied and the more promising systems of radiation chemistry. The fields of organics, plastics, heterogeneous catalysis are emphasized. Economies of radiation production and utilization are discussed. Reprint of a paper published in Industries atomiques - no. 5-6, 1959

  2. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  3. Activity report 2006 - INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the activities of Brazilian Nuclear Industry company during 2006 as follows: uranium isotope enrichment; production of nuclear fuel; mineral resources; finance and administration; planning and sales; quality, safety and environment, communication and social action; economic and financial management

  4. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  5. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  7. Productivity and Openness: Firm Level Evidence in Brazilian Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Liu; Shoji Nishijima

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the productivity of Brazilian manufacturing industries, particularly addressing the influence of liberalization on productivity. We first calculate total factor productivity (TFP) by estimating the stochastic frontier production function and the inefficiency determination equation simultaneously. Then TFP growth rates are regressed on openness-related variables and other firm characteristics. The results show that firm openness to the world is a crucial determinant of ...

  8. Training in radioprotection in INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Taddei, Jose F.C.; Dias, Pedro L. dos S.; Iatesta, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the ideas that guided the training in radiation protection and the first results obtained in the first half of 2004. The training took place in the Uranium Concentrate Unit URA, in Caetite, BA, in the Ore Treatment Unit - UTM, in Caldas, MG, and in the Heavy Mineral Unit - UMP, in San Francisco de Itabapuana, RJ, Brazil. In URA it was spent 9 days. 79 students were trained in 6 classes (average 13 pupils per class). Each group spent 9 hour of training, for a total of 54 hours of training given. There was no disapproval, and the grade average of the students was 9.2, with the lowest grade 7.5 and the highest 10.0. In UTM, it was spent 9 days. 200 students were trained in 9 classes (an average of 22 students per class). Each class spent 9h of training, totaling 81 hours. There were 18 deprecations, due to the the lack of education of the students. The overall average of the grades was 8.8, with lower note zero and higher 10.0. In UTM 158 people were trained in 5 classes, with an average of 31 students per class.It is concluded that in classes with few students (7 to 12) there were few parallel discussions. In classes with many students (over thirty) there was a scattering of ideas, which interfered in the progress of training. As proposal for upcoming classes can be suggested an average 20 people per class. The division of classes in groups working together was beneficial, giving a unit, which allowed greater freedom in questions, increasing parallel content taught. The classes have evaluated positively the initiative of the work done, which will be extended to other units of DRM, and subsequently all of the INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries

  9. School-industry partnership - Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1995-01-01

    'Mere are several well-known obstacles to tolerance of nuclear power such as wastes and risks of accident. However, there is a single underlying factor which is, indeed, poorly understood by the general public, namely ionizing radiation. Radiation is one of those natural phenomena not taught to everybody in school. That is why IVO decided to co-operate with schools and teachers, and arrange lessons about radiation. Considering that some parents of pupils follow closely what their children are taught in school, this school-industry partnership may indirectly inform some adults about radiation, too

  10. School-industry partnership - Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuskanen, Antti [IVO Group (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    'Mere are several well-known obstacles to tolerance of nuclear power such as wastes and risks of accident. However, there is a single underlying factor which is, indeed, poorly understood by the general public, namely ionizing radiation. Radiation is one of those natural phenomena not taught to everybody in school. That is why IVO decided to co-operate with schools and teachers, and arrange lessons about radiation. Considering that some parents of pupils follow closely what their children are taught in school, this school-industry partnership may indirectly inform some adults about radiation, too.

  11. Industrial applications of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Sunil

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, radiation processing has emerged as an alternative to conventional technologies such as thermal and chemical processing for many industrial applications. The industry is expanding at a fast rate all over the world. The actual industrial benefits on commercial basis, however, depends on the need of the individual society and may vary from country to country. In India, the applications of radiation technology have been found in areas of health care, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie 60 Co and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam irradiation for surface treatment, radiation processed membranes for a variety of applications and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology is reviewed. (author)

  12. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  13. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  14. Industrial applications of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the past one decade, Radiation Technology applications utilizing gamma radiation and high energy electrons have made a big way into the Indian industry bringing quality and value-added products in a more environment-friendly way. While radiation sterilization of health care products, hygienization of food materials, modification of polymer materials etc. are established as successful processes world wide including India, new applications are emerging especially in the field of environmental remediation. Two types of installations viz. gamma irradiators and high energy electron accelerators are in use right now to carry out such applications. The aim of the talk is to put forward before the audience about the potential applications developed in India and abroad, role of Department of Atomic Energy and current status of radiation processing for industrial utilization

  15. Technological Interfaces of the Brazilian Shipbuilding and Offshore Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Cherubini Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent challenges of the Brazilian naval and offshore industry have generated a unique opportunity for studies on technological innovation and economic development. This paper presents the recent developments and future prospects of this industry under the theoretical framework of ‘technological interfaces’. Technological interfaces are defined as the thread of knowledge and technology necessary for establishing a transaction between two or more agents. It is both a theoretical construct and a tool for better understanding industrial coherence and dynamics. The development project of ship and platform construction in Brazil, unveils a potential dynamic similar to large national projects, such as the U.S. space project in the 50s. By establishing scientific parameters of analysis for the study, it is possible to generate a broader diagnosis of the technological interface matrix of the industry, but mainly it is possible to map the framework of operational gaps and the needs for technical-scientific development.

  16. Is Industry-University Interaction Promoting Innovation in the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, Julia; Hasenclever, Lia

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses industry-university interaction and its characteristics in the Brazilian pharmaceutical system of innovation, taking account of the relevance of company strategies, the approach of the universities and the actions of government. By analysing primary and secondary data the authors show that, for as long as corporate investment…

  17. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  18. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  19. Experience of improving quality assurance in the Brazilian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1986-04-01

    The growing participation of local engineering companies and industry in nuclear power plant implementation programs is highly important to developing countries which have decided for such programs. This participation is quite necessary and important on a political, economic and operational basis. Politically, two aspects should be taken into account; firstly, no country should develop a large and unforeseable dependence upon foreign sources for its power supply, and secondly, services and supplies which can be provided locally should not be purchased abroad. Regarding to the economic aspects, it would be very difficult to import complete nuclear power plants, taking into account the limited foreign currency unavailability to the country. As for the plant operation, if one considers the need for maintenance and repair throughout plants service life time, it would not be wise to have to fall back on foreign supply whenever a problem arises in a plant. This paper deals only with local industry participation in the construction of nuclear power plants. The first and foremost actions to be taken toward such participation should be identifying those industrial companies which have potential qualifications to participate in the construction program, and detecting the difficulties and shortcomings which must be overcome for the qualification of the various industrial companies. The difficulties for local industry participation are mainly of economic and technical nature. Economic difficulties refer to economy of scale and the amount of investments to be made by the industry in order to become qualified to participate in the program. These issues are connected with the cost of equipment to be manufactured and therefore with plant cost. As regards to the technical difficulties to be faced one has to consider the know-how for technical specifications and standards, product engineering, manufacturing procedures and above all quality assurance. The Brazilian experience

  20. Synchrotron radiation and industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamental studies on the properties of many different materials are of prime importance to most industrial concerns. For Unilever, solids (crystalline and amorphous), soft solids and complex fluids are the materials of primary interest. Synchrotron radiation has proved of great value for the analysis of a variety of such materials, because the intense and highly collimated radiation source has enabled us to obtain structural information rapidly as well as in time-resolved mode. In this paper are outlined the types of materials problems faced, and how we use different techniques to elucidate structure (both short and long range order) in zeolites, amorphous solids, as well as in biomaterials such as skin and hair containing lipid phases. Both equilibrium and time-resolved studies are described. (orig.)

  1. Implementation of the Brazilian radiation metrology network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Araujo, Margareth M. de

    1998-01-01

    The ever increasing need for calibration of survey, personal, and contamination meters in Brazil are not completely satisfied by the two operating laboratories. To overcome this deficiency a radiation metrology network is being implemented with the support of IAEA. In a near future this network will count other three calibration laboratories which are being installed in different regions of the country, and accredited through INMETRO. (author)

  2. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  3. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  4. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  5. Solar radiation in the Brazilian northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru [Federal University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The significant increase in recent years of the number of rural electrification systems (some thousands of them do exist) using photovoltaic technology installed in the Northeast of Brazil (1,500,000 km{sup 2}, approximately 42 million people) used for illumination or water pumping, calls for an improvement on the design procedures in order to reduce the burden of capital costs per unit of generated power. Such objective can be accomplished as long as a better knowledge about the solar resource is achieved, considering how much these applications depend on it. The sources of information on solar radiation in Brazil are quite varied at both institutional and publication level. At institutional Meteorology (INMET), State Departments of Agriculture, research institute, universities and electric power generation and distribution utilities. Progress reports or scientific and technical journals are the main publishing vehicles where this information can be found. This way, data quality varies considerably, showing, spatial and temporal discontinuities, in addition to the fact that measurement instruments and physical units of registered data are not standardized. The Solarimetric Atlas of Brazil was recently published and it contains that information, which is grouped, evaluated, qualified, and presented in a standardized way. It is one of the best currently existing sources of information, and in certainly consists of almost the entirety of the existing information on the solar resource (data on solar radiation and sunshine hours) in Brazil. By using this database, simultaneous records of solar radiation (measured with pyranoghaps or pyranometers) and sunshine hours with heliographs were obtained in 35 different places in the Northeast region. Coefficients a and b were calculated for those different places using Angstrom's correlation. Using the geostatistical interpolation method known as kriging, the values of a and b were placed on contour maps, the coverage of

  6. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  7. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  8. Ion chambers compliance results of Brazilian radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joana, G; Salata, C; Leal, P; Vasconcelos, R; Couto, N do; Teixeira, F C; Soares, A D; Santini, E S; Gonçalves, M

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (cnen) has been making a constant effort to keep up to date with international standards and national needs to strengthen the status of radiological protection of the country. The guidelines related to radiation therapy facilities have been revised in the last five years in order to take into consideration the most relevant aspects of the growing technology as well as to mitigate the accidents or incidents observed in practice. Hence, clinical dosimeters have gained special importance in this matter. In the present work, we discuss the effectiveness of regulation and inspections to the enforcement of instrument calibration accuracy for the improvement of patient dosimetry and quality control. As a result, we observed that the number of calibrated instruments, mainly well chambers, is increasing each year. The same behavior is observed for instruments employed in technologically advanced radiation treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, volumetric therapy and stereotatic radiosurgery. We ascribe this behavior to the new regulation.

  9. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Paulo César de Sousa; Lisboa, João Veríssimo de Oliveira; Augusto, Mário Gomes; Almeida, Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  10. Strategic Management at Mormaii - the Brazilian Surf Industry Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abilio Bosquetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sport of surfing has been growing rapidly in popularity worldwide and Brazil is among the countries with the largest surfing population, behind the United States and Australia, however, multinational surf companies are rushing in emerging markets like Brazil to find new opportunities for growth. This paper intends to provide insights on how local companies in these markets can overcome and even take advantage of differences with global competitors by re-thinking their core competencies and business models. Therefore, empirical research applying qualitative case study methodology was developed to investigate the role of strategy in the surf industry - a fairly unexplored research topic. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with the founder and CEO and the executive directors at the Brazilian surf industry leader - Mormaii, were conducted to understand how the 4-decade local company found its way to success. Although the theories: RBV, Core Competencies, and Dynamic Capabilities complement each other and help to explain firms’ performance and strategic choices, in empirical studies strategy has been analyzed only by one or another theory. Therefore, the simultaneous use of these three theories intended to fill this gap in the literature and bring more consistency to the discussion of this case study. As a result, this empirical study illustrates the RBV perspective, which stems from the principle that the source of firms’ competitive advantage lies in their internal resources and capabilities, rather than simply evaluating environmental opportunities and threats in conducting business. It also highlights the role that core competence and dynamic capabilities play in the company’s virtuous circle of sustainable growth and provides practitioners clues for re-thinking their strategies.

  11. The industrial applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report presents all industrial applications of ionizing radiations in France, for food preservation, radiosterilization of drugs, medical materials and cosmetic products, for radiation chemistry of polymers. This report also describes the industrial plants of irradiation (electron, cobalt 60). Finally, it explains the legal and safety aspects

  12. Radiation processing: a versatile technology for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of x-ray in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can modify the chemical, physical and/or biological properties of materials. However, it was only in the late 50's, when large radiation sources become available, has this unique property of radiation found industrial applications in radiation processing. Today, radiation processing has been used by industry in such diverse applications, such as radiation sterilization/decontamination of medical products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and their raw materials; radiation cross-linking of wire and cable insulation; production of heat shrinkable materials and polymer foam; and radiation curing of coatings, adhesives and inks on a wide variety of substrates. In addition to being a clean environment-friendly technology, radiation processing can also be used for the conservation of the environment by such processes as radiation treatment of flue gases to remove SO 2 and NO x and disinfection of sewage sludge. Because of the many advantages offered by radiation processing, industry is showing strong interest in the technology as evidenced by the growing number of industrial radiation facilities in many countries. (author)

  13. Industrial application of radiation curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials.

  14. Industrial application of radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Sasaki

    1993-01-01

    The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials

  15. Outsourcing of logistics transport: A Brazilian leather industry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Domingos Antoniolli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the transport sector in Brazil and the criteria for outsourcing of business transport through a case study in a Brazilian industry of leather sector, which outsourced its transport distribution process. As a result of this process, this company could save 60% of its transport costs and improved its service level, which generated an additional 3.5% on its revenue. These research findings are relevant in terms of transportation outsourcing decision criteria, being a strategic decision in operations; thus, in managerial terms, this outsourcing process could make the company’s distribution transportation capability more flexible and agile. RESUMEN: Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el sector del transporte en Brasil y los criterios de subcontratación de transporte comercial a través de un estudio de caso, en una empresa brasileña del sector de cuero que subcontrató su proceso de transporte de distribución. Como resultado de este proceso, la empresa pudo ahorrar 60% de sus costes de transporte y mejoró su nivel de servicio, lo que generó un 3.5% adicional en sus ingresos. Estos resultados de la investigación son relevantes en cuanto a los criterios de subcontratación de transporte, como una decisión estratégica en las operaciones; así, en materia de gestión, este proceso de subcontratación podría hacer el transporte de distribución de la empresa más flexible y ágil.

  16. Radiation protection in thorium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation doses in a monazite processing plant (thorium production cycle) aiming to getting information on the exposure levels to beta and gamma radiation, is discussed. It is observed that, excluding places where monazite is stored,or during transportation, or in silos, or waste deposits, or in places where high activity materials are stored or treated, the externa exposure stay below the maximum pemissible limit. Some recommendations are made based on the results found and according to radiation protection standards

  17. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  18. Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

  19. Isotopes and radiation for modern industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Yuan, H.C.; Sevastyanov, Y.G.

    1983-01-01

    Brief information is given on the industrial use of isotope and radiation technology in the following fields: radiosterilization of medical supplies, non-destructive testing by radiography, wear and corrosion studies, on-line controls, exploration and recovery of minerals

  20. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Claudio Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  1. Transport of cobalt-60 industrial radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Gibson, Wayne

    This paper will deal with safety aspects of the handling of Cobalt-60, the most widely used industrial radio-isotope. Cobalt-60 is a man-made radioisotope of Cobalt-59, a naturally occurring non radioactive element, that is made to order for radiation therapy and a wide range of industrial processing applications including sterilization of medical disposables, food irradiation, etc.

  2. Optical absorption study of radiation and thermal effects in Brazilian samples of spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Fujii, A.T.; Antonini, R.; Furtado, W.

    1988-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical absorption spectra of five varieties of Brazilian spodumene is presented. The samples were submitted to heat treatments and irradiated with gamma rays, x radiation, electrons and ultraviolet light. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Some aspects of the development of the Brazilian Synchroton Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, J.

    1987-01-01

    The history and development of the Brazilian Synchroton Radiation Project are presented. Several aspects of this project may serve as a guide to achieve success in North-South cooperation. (M.W.O.) [pt

  4. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  5. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  6. Radiation exposure in monazite industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.

    1979-04-01

    The monazite present in the beach sands of Kerala and Tamil Nadu (India) is separated in the mineral separation plants at Manavalakurichi and Chavara, operated by M/s Indian Rare Earths Ltd. The physical and chemical processing of the sand involves radiation hazards due to the presence of thorium, uranium and their daughter products in monazite. The paper reviews present status in the light of past experiences and analyses the dose apportionment in different work catagories. The problem of internal contamination and environmental radiation levels are also discussed with the help of the recently available data. Radiation fields in the physical processing of monazite at different stages are presented. Apportionment of doses at different stages of the chemical operation involving 10 tonne lots of monazite is presented in a tabular form. The changing trend in external exposure reflected in the man-rem/t of monazite over the years is illustrated in a graph.

  7. Radiation Emergency Planning in Petroleum Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; El-Naggar, M.A.; Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Gomaa, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Similar to all industrial activities utilizing radiation sources, or dealing with radioactive materials in its operations, petroleum industry requires the organization of a Radiation Emergency Plan. This plan should be based on a comprehensive and subtle understanding of the extensive multidisciplinary operations involved in petroleum processing and the dangers that threaten human health, environment and property; both from ordinary emergency situations common to petroleum industry activities and also from radiation emergency events. Radiation emergencies include radiological source accidents involving occurrence of high dose exposures. Radioactive contamination or spill are also major problems that may cause low dose exposures and environmental radioactive contamination. The simultaneous occurrence of other industrial emergency events such as fires or structural collapses will add to the seriousness of the emergency situation. The essential aspects of Radiation Emergency Planning include notification, assessment of situation, foresight, definition of roles and responsibilities including health safety and environmental concepts. An important contribution to the Emergency Planning is the proper intelligent medical response. Another essential parameter is the training of personnel that will undertake the responsibility of executing the emergency procedures according to the various emergency situations. The main features of the radiation Emergency Plan in Petroleum industry is presented in the text

  8. IONIZING RADIATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREWIN, R B

    1964-01-04

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection.With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine.The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized.

  9. Ionizing Radiation as an Industrial Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, R. B.

    1964-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection. With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine. The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized. PMID:14105012

  10. Supply Chain Management in The Brazilian Automobile Industry: Bottlenecks for Steadier Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Sorte Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Lean Production System as the reference model, this paper analyses the supply chain management approach and the relationship between private and public sectors in the Brazilian automobile industry. Through a case study conducted from October 2006 to October 2008 in a private owned automaker, two bottlenecks in this Brazilian industrial sector are identified: (1 Emphasis on coordination rather than integration in supply chain management; and (2 Insufficient channels of communication between private and public sectors, resulting in inefficient policies to nurture automakers with low production volume.

  11. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  12. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Sousa Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy and management capabilities. However, the relationship between technologic capabilities and differentiation strategy was not statistically significant. The existence of an inter-relationship between generic strategies of focus, cost leadership and differentiation indicates the use of combined strategies. Concerning the firms' financial performance, the results show that management capability and market performance have a statistically significant relationship with financial performance.

  13. Recommendations for prevention of radiation accident in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Industrial Gammagraphy plays an important role in the quality control of various materials and components. It is classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 2, due to its radiation risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. This risk is based on the harmful consequences of human health, described in some accidents in the world, due to failures. In 2012, the 'Brazilian National Workshop on Accident Prevention in Industrial Gammagraphy' was carried out by DIAPI/CNEN, with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiation accidents. At the time, the IRD/CNEN-RJ carried out a survey with the 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, in order to select the 10 most voted. A statistical study, using the 'Frequency Distribution' method, was performed to define 10 recommendations. The percentage and vote results were obtained by category of the participants and the 10 most important recommendations were defined to prevent radiation accidents. The recommendation that came in first place was 'Always use an individual monitor with alarm during all work'

  14. The Brazilian Aerospace Industry: A Cast Study of the Technological Impact of Offset Agreements in a Recipient Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    sector, the most important development was the creation of the Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial (STI) of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIC...political and financial problems, Brazil’s space program, called Brazilian Complete Space Mission, Missdo Espacial Completa Brasileira - MECB, continues to...Pesquisa Espacial - INPE, also located in S&o Jos6 dos Campos’". It is responsible for the design and construction of satellites󈧼. The other activities

  15. Radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In many industrial applications radiation processing has proven to be a technology of choice either because of its economic competitiveness or its technical superiority. Although the chemical effects of ionizing radiation have been known for more than a century, its industrial applications became possible only after the availability of reliable gamma sources and powerful electron accelerators during the last couple of decades.The programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in radiation processing are implemented through the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications and the Department of Technical Co-operation. The IAEA has been active in this field for many years, contributing to new developments, training, promotion and transfer of technology. In September 1997, the IAEA held an international symposium in Zakopane, Poland on the 'Use of radiation technology for the conservation of environment' where the status of current developments and of applications of radiation processing in the control of environmental pollution was reviewed (IAEA-TECDOC-1023, 1998). Recent developments and achievements in various aspects of radiation processing have been assessed continuously through the organization of consultants meetings, advisory group meetings and research co-ordination meetings. Worldwide growing interest in the use of radiation technology in various new industrial applications, as exemplified by the reports and presentations made at these meetings, has led the IAEA to organize a symposium to cover every aspect of radiation processing and, exclusively, the emerging industrial applications of radiation technology. The International Symposium on Radiation Technology in Emerging Industrial Applications was convened in November 2000 in Beijing, China. Its main purpose was to bring scientists,technologists, industrialists and regulatory authorities together with a view of exchanging information and reviewing the status of current developments and

  16. Radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    In many industrial applications radiation processing has proven to be a technology of choice either because of its economic competitiveness or its technical superiority. Although the chemical effects of ionizing radiation have been known for more than a century, its industrial applications became possible only after the availability of reliable gamma sources and powerful electron accelerators during the last couple of decades.The programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in radiation processing are implemented through the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications and the Department of Technical Co-operation. The IAEA has been active in this field for many years, contributing to new developments, training, promotion and transfer of technology. In September 1997, the IAEA held an international symposium in Zakopane, Poland on the 'Use of radiation technology for the conservation of environment' where the status of current developments and of applications of radiation processing in the control of environmental pollution was reviewed (IAEA-TECDOC-1023, 1998). Recent developments and achievements in various aspects of radiation processing have been assessed continuously through the organization of consultants meetings, advisory group meetings and research co-ordination meetings. Worldwide growing interest in the use of radiation technology in various new industrial applications, as exemplified by the reports and presentations made at these meetings, has led the IAEA to organize a symposium to cover every aspect of radiation processing and, exclusively, the emerging industrial applications of radiation technology. The International Symposium on Radiation Technology in Emerging Industrial Applications was convened in November 2000 in Beijing, China. Its main purpose was to bring scientists,technologists, industrialists and regulatory authorities together with a view of exchanging information and reviewing the status of current developments and

  17. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  18. Industrial application of radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakladnoj, G.A.; Men'shenin, A.I.; Pertsovskij, E.S.; Salimov, R.A.; Cherepkov, V.G.; Krsheminskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    One of the main reasons for grain losses during storage is its damage by pest insects. Chemical methods widely used at present for grain decontamination have some shortcomings. In this connection a radiation method for grain disinfestation is developed and introduced in industry. First in the world experimental-industrial disinfestator on the base of electron accelerators is put into operation at Odessa port elevator

  19. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Koshcheev, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  20. Annual and activity report 2005 - INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries. Nuclear fuel: technology for the essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reports the activities of Brazilian Nuclear Industry company during 2005 as follows: uranium isotope enrichment; production of nuclear fuel; mineral resources; finance and administration; planning and sales; quality, safety and environment, communication and social action; economic and financial management

  1. Securitization in the Brazilian Banking Industry: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbelina Cravo Teixeira Lagioia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Securitization is a modality of structured finance which allows a company to raise funds based on its receivables through capital markets. In Brazil, securitization was developed mostly in the form of mutual funds -- the FIDC, which raise money by issuing senior quotas for qualified investors, and subordinated cotes, usually bought by the company that originated the receivables. This paper evaluates the risk and return for both kinds of investors through a stochastic model with two main variables: interest rates and default rates. The model is still sensible to the characteristics of the fund, like the amount of subordinated cotes, the type of asset being securitized; and the amount of receivables in relation to the assets. Regarding the case of senior cotes, the risk of returns under the basic level of interest rates is highly improbable; and in the case of subordinated cotes, the risk of returns under the basic interest rate may be considered still low, due to the high spreads observed in the Brazilian financial market. The simulations indicated that under historically mean interest rate volatility the default rates are the main component of the total risk. Accordingly to the developed analysis of international standards of regulation, the Brazilian Central Bank imposes very strong capital requirements to banks that securitize their assets and purchase the corresponding subordinated cotes.

  2. Federal radiation protection regulations: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harward, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations and standards to protect the public and workers from ionizing radiation have been in transition for a number of years, although most of the basic limits in use have remained essentially unchanged over the past 25 years or so. Legislation, political changes, new scientific data, advances in scientific concepts, and finally, public perception and resulting pressures have all been factors in the modifications that have been implemented or considered for radiation protection regulations in recent years. During this period, radiation exposures to both the public and the work force have been reduced through program management and improved technology. Based on activities of the AIF Subcommittee on Radiation Protection, this paper reviews pertinent NRC and EPA regulations, standards and guidance as well as NCRP recommendations and provide some analyses of these in terms of their potential effect on nuclear industry operations. Comments include suggestions where minor changes in Federal agency approaches to radiation regulation might be made for the public benefit

  3. Ionizing radiations in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Tata, A.

    1999-01-01

    Foodstuffs treatment by ionization is able to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food borne diseases control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main process goal is to ensure the hygienic quality and the wholesomeness of products to be marketed, in order to limit food borne diseases originated mainly through the cross contamination process. In fact several products may contain pathogenic agents or bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Campylbacter in poultry meat), whose associated pathologies are world-wide increasing. At present, over 40 countries provide clearances for the treatment of about 45 different types of foodstuffs and in over 20 of them the ionizing process is already industrially utilized for spices, poultry, shrimps and vegetables. As it refers to process economic aspects, market researches have shown cost figures ranging from few tens to some hundreds Lit/kg, depending on the dose to products. The costs are competitive with alternative treatments, beyond the recovery of economic productivity reduction caused by food borne diseases

  4. Radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.

    1996-01-01

    Ionising radiation is widely used in medicine, industry and education. Most people are familiar with medical applications for diagnosis and treatment of disease. However, the public at large is probably not aware just how commonly it is used in industry. Such uses include: the measurement and control of various processes - e.g. liquid levels in bottling and canning plants and the thickness and density of a wide range of materials, the examination of metallic structures for defects and the sterilisation of medical products. Educational applications range from demonstrating the basic laws of radiation physics to sophisticated studies of chemical and biological processes using chemical compounds which have been labelled with suitable radioisotopes. Furthermore many pieces of laboratory equipment, for example X-ray diffractometers and X-ray fluorescence analyses, incorporate a source of radiation. The safety record of the use of radiation, when compared with many other industrial processes, is generally good. However, serious accidents can and have occurred. While most accidents involve small numbers of people, a few have had widespread consequences. These include accidents where large numbers of patients undergoing radiotherapy received the incorrect dose and where the inadvertent disposal and scrapping of radiation sources lead to widespread contamination of persons, property and the environment. This paper will discuss the hazards associated with particular applications and outline the causative factors identified. These include, equipment faults, simple but serious errors in dose calculations and loss or incorrect disposal of radioactive sources. The lessons that have, or should have been learned, from the past events are also considered. The paper describes the regulatory system in Ireland for controlling the use of radiation. The description shows how regulations are established within the framework of the European Commission Directives on radiation protection

  5. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  8. Industrial radiation protection: what it is happening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the standard NE-06.04 of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Brazil) about open and close industrial radiography installations licensing. This review does not substitute CNEN-6/73 resolution, only specificy in details, how those installations must actuate with reference to the company radiation protection plan. (C.M.) [pt

  9. Medical and industrial application of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, I.R.

    1999-01-01

    While dosimetry is not a radiation application, accurate dosage of radiation of utmost importance for all radiation applications. For both therapeutic and industrial applications it can be matter of life and death. For this reason, great efforts have been made to ensure that radiation dosages given to patients and used in all industrial applications are as near as possible to those prescribed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the IAEA, together with many National Standard Laboratories and with the International Bureau of Weight and Measures, have been very active and successful during the last 20 years in ascertaining that normal cobalt-60 therapy unit. For this purpose, 63 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories have been established of which more than half are in developing countries. FRPS houses one of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. As accurate dosimetry is a prerequisite in radiotherapy, so it is in industrial exposures and all laboratories responsible for dosimetry have to make frequent intercomparisons with one of the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. The SSDL at FRPS hopes to commence this as soon as our new Harshaw 6600 TLD reader arrives. This has already been approved by the IAEA. Much high doses of radiation are used for some industrial applications, as discussed in a previous lecture, such as sterilization of rubber, and food preservation and newly developed techniques are being used for the assurance of the prescribed dose. IAEA provides assistance in this area also through the secondary standard dosimetry laboratories. The IAEA has a broad programme of assistance which includes the calibration of all instruments in the laboratories of the participants, be it for radiation protection, or high dose measurements

  10. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  11. Radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hone, C [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    Ionising radiation is widely used in medicine, industry and education. Most people are familiar with medical applications for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Industrial uses include: the measurement and control of various processes - e.g. liquid levels in bottling and canning plants and the thickness and density of a wide range of materials, the examination of metallic structures for defects and the sterilisation of medical products. Educational applications range from demonstrating the basic laws of radiation physics to sophisticated studies of chemical and biological processes using chemical compounds which have been labelled with suitable radioisotopes. Furthermore many pieces of laboratory equipment, for example X-ray diffractometers and X-ray fluorescence analyses, incorporate a source of radiation. The safety record of the use of radiation, when compared with many other industrial processes, is generally good. However, serious accidents can and have occurred. While most accidents involve small numbers of people, a few have had widespread consequences. These include accidents where large numbers of patients undergoing radiotherapy received the incorrect dose and where the inadvertent disposal and scrapping of radiation sources lead to widespread contamination of persons, property and the environment. This paper will discuss the hazards associated with particular applications and outline the causative factors identified. These include, equipment faults, simple but serious errors in dose calculations and loss or incorrect disposal of radioactive sources. The lessons that have, or should have been learned, from the past events are also considered. The paper describes the regulatory system in Ireland for controlling the use of radiation. The description shows how regulations are established within the framework of the European Commission Directives on radiation protection. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  13. Strategic Implications of Water Usage: an Analysis in Brazilian Mining Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schoproni Bichueti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the practices of water use management and the business performance in industries in the Brazilian mineral sector. To this end, a descriptive and quantitative study was developed, using the survey method, in industries associated with the Brazilian Mining Institute – IBRAM. The water use management practices were identified based in a model addressing the following aspects: water accounting, risk assessment, direct operations, supply chain, and stakeholders engagement. The business performance was measured from a model involving the following dimensions: economic, environmental and social. Among the results, the risks assessment involved and the direct operations practices stand out, in order to reduce the amount of water used and waste discharges. The need for greater engagement of industries with the stakeholders and the supply chain, through a more integrated and collaborative management, was also evident.

  14. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection norm and ICRP recommendations published in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Campus Pocos de Caldas; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Mortagua, Valter, E-mail: Valter@inb.gov.br [Usina de lnterlagos (USIN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao

    2013-07-01

    In the year 2007, ICRP published a set of recommendations (The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103), which changed some important concepts. This work aims to compare the Brazilian radiation protection basic norm with the new ICRP recommendations, by checking the existing differences. The main difference between ICRP publication 60 and ICRP publication 103 is the changing of the concept of protection based on process, by using the concepts of practice and intervention, to the protection based in the exposition situation, by using the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existing situation. Other important difference lies in the values of the radiation and tissue weighting factors, in the quantities equivalent and effective dose, and updating the radiation detriment based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. At last, the demonstration of the environment radiation protection must be clear, and this concept is not found in Brazilian nuclear legislation. Also some similarities were found. The fundamental principles of the Brazilian norms are the same as that of ICRP 103, which are the justification principle, the optimization principle and the application of dose limits. The individual effective dose limit of Brazilian norm is the same of the ICRP 103, established as 20 mSv per year. In order to adequate the Brazilian norm it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation and tissue weighting, and updating the radiation detriment, besides making clear the concept of protection of the environment. It is important to notice that although the Brazilian norm is not in complete agreement with all international recommendations, it must be completely followed as the norm which is in use in the country. (author)

  15. Radiation ionization is an underestimated industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial radiation ionization requires electron beams coming from an accelerator or gamma radiation from a radioactive source (Co 60 ). The energy deposed in the irradiated material modifies its chemical bounds or kills micro-organisms. This process is used in medical material sterilization, in disinfestation of stored and packaged food products, in the production of plastic, in the coloring of glass, in the hardening of electronic components and in the modification of the properties of semi-conductors. For 40 years radiation ionization has been investigated, UNO (United Nations Organization) and WHO (World Health Organisation) recommend it for food processing. With a growing rate of 15% per year for the last 15 years, radiation ionization is now widely used. More than 170 gamma irradiation facilities are operating throughout the world. (A.C.)

  16. Application of radiation and isotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzej, G. Chmielewski

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A vast variety of nuclear techniques is available for industrial, environmental, medical and research applications. Sealed or open radioisotope sources are applied as radiotracer in the system, in nucleonic gauges, in non destructive testing and in nuclear analytical techniques. Beside of isotopes X-ray tubes and accelerators operated in e-/X mode as a source of radiation are applied as well. These methods are used for process and material control, non-destructive evaluation of wells, castings and assembled machinery help to make industrial processes safer and more cost effective. For natural resource exploration radiotracers (RTT), sealed sources and nucleonic gauges (NCS) are used in the oil industry, in mineral processing and waste water treatment plants. Radioisotopes make important contributions in several sectors of economic significance including medicine industry, agriculture, structural safety and research. They are generally produced in research reactors or cyclotrons. More than 150 different radioisotopes in different forms are in use for various applications. Non-destructive testing (NDT) is essential for quality assurance of various products in diverse industries and construction projects apart from well established NDT protocols for industrial components, machinery and chemical pipelines, new techniques and applications, such as digital radiography for ecological safety, online inspection of concrete structures and pipe corrosion, are being developed. The new applications concern cargo inspection where Co 60 or e-/X sources are used. Radioisotopes are applied as radiotracers in industry and environment. Oil fields and refineries, chemical and metallurgical industries and wastewater purification installations are the end users benefiting from radioisotope techniques. Radioisotope techniques (radiotracers, gamma scanning, tomography and single particle tracking) are extensively used to identify and quantify multiphase reactors (phase hold

  17. Overview of Industrial Synchrotron Radiation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen S.

    1996-03-01

    Relevant, reliable and accessible synchrotron radiation methods can play an important role in industrial activities. To date, the application of synchrotron radiation based materials characterization methods by industrial concerns has followed the path of laboratory based x-ray methods: early adoption, continuous improvement, and a high degree of specialization to meet specific goals, which may change over time. Like all x-ray methods, their applicability to segments of the biotechnology, chemical, electronics, medical and metallurgical industries arises from a need to develop sophisticated processes for precisely controlling microstructures. An increasing number of those processes are being developed in ways which can, in principle, be more effectively studied if synchrotron radiation based analyses are performed. Technical limitations confined the efforts of early synchrotron radiation users to long-range research investigations. Nowadays, progress in data collection methods, analysis algorithims, accelerator performance, and worker training, have removed many constraints. However, commercial technologies are being improved at steadily higher rates, shortening the time between research, development and manufacturing and, in many cases, blurring their distinctions. Certainly, rapid rates of innovation increase the opportunities for synchrotron radiation techniques to bring competitive advantage since they can be used to shrink development times, to maintain yields and, perhaps, as part of advanced manufacturing. At the same time, rapid rates of innovation also impose stringent criteria on the reliability and timeliness of the supporting methods. Successful conventional x-ray methods have resulted from efforts to create useful new capabilities that effectively balance such forces. Currently, synchrotron radiation users throughout the world are pursuing analogous goals.

  18. Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Yusof Mohamad Ali

    1987-01-01

    There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

  19. Windows of opportunities and technological innovation in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Paulo Bastos; Nascimento, Caio Victor Machado França do; Costa, Laís Silveira

    2016-11-03

    The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry is heavily dependent on external sources of inputs, capital, and technology. However, the emergence of technological opportunities and the development of biotechnology and the decline of the patent boom and resulting advances by generic drugs have opened windows of opportunities for the local industry. The article examines the Brazilian industry's innovative behavior vis-à-vis these opportunities, showing that although the industry as a whole invests little in innovation, a few large Brazilian companies have expanded their market share and stepped up their investments in research and development, supported by public policies for innovation. Resumo: A indústria farmacêutica brasileira caracteriza-se pela grande dependência de fontes externas de insumos, capital e tecnologia. O surgimento de oportunidades tecnológicas, associadas ao desenvolvimento da biotecnologia e ao fim do boom das patentes com o consequente avanço dos medicamentos genéricos, entretanto, vem abrindo janelas de oportunidades para a indústria local. Este artigo examina o comportamento inovador da indústria brasileira à luz dessas oportunidades, revelando que, embora o conjunto da indústria mantenha baixos níveis de investimentos em inovação, um pequeno grupo de grandes empresas nacionais vem ampliando sua participação no mercado e intensificando seus investimentos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, apoiados por políticas públicas de inovação.

  20. Promoting safety culture in radiation industry through radiation audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing and promoting effective radiation safety program. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. This program is known as radiation safety audit and is able to reveal where and when action is needed to make improvements to the systems of controls. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as the sole requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. As a result safety culture, which has been a vital element on safety in many industries can be improved and promote changes, leading to good safety performance and excellence. (author)

  1. Applications of Radiation Processing in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing has long been known as commercially viable technology that can be beneficially used to enhance the characteristics of many materials. Several gamma irradiators and electron beam accelerators are operating worldwide which are utilized for various established industrial applications. These could be used for the following processes: a) radiation crosslinking e.g. crosslinking of wires and cables, heat shrinkable film and tube productions, manufacture of plastic bags and tubings for medical products, pre-curing of automobile tire components, curing of polymeric coatings, etc. b) radiation degradation e.g. Scrap Teflon (Polytetraflouroethylene) to form powders, disinfestations and pasteurization of agricultural products, sterilization of medical products, etc.; and c) radiation grafting e.g. grafted non-woven fabrics for metal adsorbent. Emerging applications for radiation processing include grafted membranes for fuel cell, electrodes, cell sheet for tissue engineering, nanoparticle production, polymer composite synthesis, and fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production. Current researches at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute consist of crosslinking of natural and synthetic polymers for medical application e.g. wound dressing, hemostats, and bioimplants for vesicouretal reflux (VUR); grafting of natural and synthetic fabrics for metal adsorbents; and radiation degradation of carrageenan as plant growth promoter. (author)

  2. Sizing for the apparel industry using statistical analysis - a Brazilian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelassi, C. H.; Carvalho, M. A.; El Kattel, C.; Xu, B.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the body measurements of Brazilian women used the Kinect Body Imaging system for 3D body scanning. The result of the study aims to meet the needs of the apparel industry for accurate measurements. Data was statistically treated using the IBM SPSS 23 system, with 95% confidence (P 0,58) and from the Hip-to-Height Ratio - HHR (bottom portion): Small (HHR 0,68).

  3. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhaes, Elbia; Santana, Edvaldo de

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  4. Technical potential for developing natural gas use in the Brazilian red ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca; Henriques, Mauricio Jr.; Szklo, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The red ceramic industry in Brazil, consisting of over 7000 companies, requires large amounts of thermal energy, currently being met mainly by native fuelwood, which causes serious deforestation and soil erosion problems. The use of firewood does not allow achieving good energy performance in industrial ceramic kilns, causing high energy losses, low productivity and low quality products (bricks and roof tiles). Thus, to implement higher added value products, besides mitigate environmental problems caused by deforestation, the use of natural gas by the sector seems to be a promising alternative. Brazil's natural gas market has grown at a fast pace in recent years. Its share in the country's primary energy consumption increased from 3.7% to 9.3% between 1998 and 2007, compared to almost 21% in the world. The development of the Brazilian natural gas industry was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with Bolivia from where natural gas is imported, together with fiscal incentives for promoting the demand. This paper estimates that the natural gas market that could be developed in the Brazilian red ceramic industry corresponds to less than 5% of the total industrial natural gas consumption, meaning that a major technological transformation of the country's red ceramic industry will not severely affect the natural gas market equilibrium, contributing to reduce the country's high rates of deforestation. (author)

  5. Radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with organic substrates to produce useful physical and chemical changes is the basis of the radiation processing industry for plastics. Electron beam (EB) accelerators dominate the industry; however, there are a few small applications that use gamma radiation. The five general product categories that account for over 95% of the worldwide EB capacity used for plastics production are the following: wire and cable insulation; heat-shrinkable film, tubes and pipes; radiation-curable coatings; rubber products; and polyolefin foam. A total of 6.1% of the yearly production of these products in the United States is EB treated. The United States accounts for 59% of the total worldwide EB capacity of 20.5 MW (1984), followed by Europe (16%) and Japan (15%). There are 469 to 479 individual EB units worldwide used for the production of plastics and rubber. The average annual rate of growth (AARG) for the EB processing of plastics in Japan, from 1977 to 1987, was 13.3%. The AARG for Japan has decreased from 20% for 1977 to 198, to 6.4% for 1984 to 1987. Radiation cross-linking, of power cable insulation (cable rating ≥75 kV), thick polyolefin and rubber sheet (≥15 mm), and thick-walled tubing is one fo the potential applications for a 5- to 10-MeV EB system. Other products such as coatings, films and wire insulation may be economically EB-treated using a 5 to 10 MeV accelerator, if several layers of the product could be irradiated simultaneously. Two general product categories that require more study to determine the potential of high-energy EB processing are moulded plastics and composite materials. 32 refs

  6. Brazilian Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ): Report 2000-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and has eight chapters: 1) history; 2) main designations and attributions; 3) metrology and assays; 4) conformity evaluation; 5) assistance to radiological and nuclear emergencies; 6) capacity and training; 7) infrastructure of information technology and 8) operational indicators

  7. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  8. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, T.D. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the ''enemy''. Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. (author).

  9. Ionizing radiations: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, H.

    1994-01-01

    Medical diagnosis with X-rays is the best known use of ionizing radiations on account of its wide diffusion (about 57 500 units in France). Other medical applications of artificial radionuclides involving a smaller number of installations are also well known, i.e. gamma teletherapy (167 units), brachytherapy (119 units) or therapy using unsealed sources (257 units). The industrial uses of ionising radiation, the diversity of which is very large, are generally less well known. The use of X- and gamma rays for non-destructive testing or food preservation and the use of tracers have some notoriety, but few people know that radioactive sources are involved in the measurement of parameters controlling industrial processes. The number of persons authorized to hold, use and/or sell artificial radionuclides amounts to about 4 800, all applications included. Approximately 650 of them are involved in therapy and 500 in medical research. The aim of this paper, which is not exhaustive, is to review a few typical applications of radionuclides both in the medical and industrial fields. It also supplies data both on the number of people authorized to use each technique and the radionuclides involved. (author). 10 tabs

  10. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct

  11. Stability of contracts in the Brazilian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of contracts between wineries and grape growers are observed in Brazil. This study addresses the concept of coordination of food chains, particularly the stability of contractual relationships. A qualitative analysis of industry-farmers contracts is presented, followed by a quantitative analysis testing transaction cost economics-based hypothesis. Scale, location, age of vineyard, and the cooperative organizational form are addressed in terms of the effect on the stability of contracts. Vertical and horizontal coordination are addressed. Data come from a sample of 139 grape-growers that supplied 10 major wineries. The results show that more stable contracts or vertical integration are characteristic of high quality wine production, where the need for strict contractual coordination is more relevant, i.e. risk of hold up losses is larger. We test the hypothesis that site specificity and quality-related specific investments are associated with more stable contractual architectures. Farmers' cooperatives present poorer performance but tend to hold more stable relationships with their members, possibly the result of adverse selection, since specialized farmers prefer to maintain contracts with investor-owned wineries, instead of farmers' cooperatives. Conclusions are presented in the final part.

  12. Applications of radiation within the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.J.; Moran, G.; Boreham, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to test the feasibility of taint removal in industrial wines through the use of radiation. The process used the cobalt-60 source in the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. When wine, composed mainly of water (∼87%), alcohol (∼10%), acid (∼2%), and anthrocyanins/tannins (∼0.1%), is irradiated, water molecules are hydrolyzed generating free radicals in solution. These free radicals are oxidizing agents that will oxidize other molecules in the wine. The focus has been a specific taint introduced into 2000-2001 vintages by the Asian lady-bird beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) whose population has increased dramatically of late. This taint - thought to be a methoxy-pyrazine - is detectable by taste in 1-2 parts per trillion (ppt). Preliminary sensory evaluation has shown that radiation dramatically improves tainted wines by eliminating the lady beetle taint. Chemical tests have indicated that radiation is acting as an oxidizing agent, reducing levels of SO 2 (introduced into wines to prevent oxidation) by nearly 40-70%. Research ongoing involves the detection of the taint (the implicated methoxy-pyrazine) by mass spectrometry as a taint assessment tool, and an indicator that radiation has removed the taint

  13. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2013-04-01

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  14. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R. [IBA Industrial, Inc., 151 Heartland Boulevard, Edgewood, NY 11717 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  15. Radiation hazard control in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    In view of the wide circulation of the first edition, the revised edition has been designed to assist in the training of industrial radiographic personnel for certification according to Canadian General Specifications Board Standard 48-GP-4M. It is not designed for use by management and, consequently dose not include management function which are required by regulations pertaining to the use of radiation. Instead, it is intended for the man in the field and is written with his welfare and the safety of the general public as its primary goals

  16. Opportunities to improve the private capital in Brazilian electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.A. de.

    1993-08-01

    The Brazilian electricity supply industry has passed substantial changes in the last fifty years. In the 50's was almost completely controlled by foreign companies. In the 70's, it turned to be almost exclusively ruled by Federal and State Enterprises. In the 80's the electricity supply sector started a financial and institutional crises. Some changes, already in course, indicate new changes of it for the next years. This study give emphasis to: the reasons that lead to a fast and well succeeded State intervention in the post-war; the multiple reasons of the recent crisis in sector, trying to insert it in the general context of the country; the alternative that have being formulated to overcome the obstacles created by the crisis; and the main factors for an efficient re-structure of the Brazilian electricity sector for the next years, included privatisation. (author)

  17. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira, E-mail: fraupp@puc-rio.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Industrial

    2013-07-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  18. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  19. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Antonio Luiz; Luedtke, Diogo Seibert; Schneider, Paulo Henrique; Andrade, Leandro Helgueira; Paixao, Marcio Weber

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  20. Radiation curing technology progress and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)

  1. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  2. Decomposing Brazilian manufacturing industry dynamics in the mid-2000s: Macroeconomic factors and their sectoral impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Paulo Domingues

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry's loss in participation, phenomena called “deindustrialization”, has been observed for the Brazilian economy for a while and seems to have intensified from mid-2000s. However, the literature has not developed a consistent or integrated analysis of this process. We have used a detailed simulation model to identify how macroeconomic factors (such as exchange rate, labor costs, and household consumption have contributed to manufacturing dynamics. Our results indicate that the macroeconomic scenario explains a large portion of the manufacturing industry's participation loss. The rise in households consumption and investment, important factors in this period, were responsible for dampening of the pressures coming from the currency appreciation and the workforce costs, benefiting some industrial sectors, but not avoiding the manufacturings participation loss. Keywords: Manufacturing, Growth, Development, Simulations, JEL classification: O14, C68, D58

  3. Co-evolution of industry strategies and government policies: The case of the brazilian automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, R.G. (Roberto Gonzalez); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and

  4. Drivers of multidimensional eco-innovation: empirical evidence from the Brazilian industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rabêlo, Olivan; de Azevedo Melo, Andrea Sales Soares

    2018-03-08

    The study analyses the relationships between the main drivers of eco-innovation introduced by innovative industries, focused on cooperation strategy. Eco-innovation is analysed by means of a multidimensional identification strategy, showing the relationships between the independent variables and the variable of interest. The literature discussing environmental innovation is different from the one discussing other types of innovation inasmuch as it seeks to grasp its determinants and to mostly highlight the relevance of environmental regulation. The key feature of this paper is that it ascribes special relevance to cooperation strategy with external partners and to the propensity of innovative industry introducing eco-innovation. A sample of 35,060 Brazilian industries were analysed, between 2003 and 2011, by means of Binomial, Multinomial and Ordinal logistic regressions with microdata collected with the research and innovation department (PINTEC) from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). The econometric results estimated by the Logit Multinomial method suggest that the cooperation with external partners practiced by innovative industries facilitates the adoption of eco-innovation in dimension 01 with probability of 64.59%, 57.63% in dimension 02 and 81.02% in dimension 03. The data reveal that the higher the degree of eco-innovation complexity, the harder industries seek to obtain cooperation with external partners. When calculating with the Logit Ordinal and Binomial models, cooperation increases the probability that the industry is eco-innovative in 65.09% and 89.34%, respectively. Environmental regulation and innovation in product and information management were also positively correlated as drivers of eco-innovation.

  5. The association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of food items among Brazilian industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Melo, Ione M F; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m² of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50-76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits.

  6. Co-evolution of Industry Strategies and Government Policies: The Case of the Brazilian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and interdependence between industry and the country’s economy. To this end, we draw upon literature on institutions and co-evolution to understand the industry footprint over a 50-year period, as well as its relationship with changes in government policies. This study generates new insights on institutional and co-evolution political perspectives by showing that the rules of the game are not only the making of the government, but are also the result of interdependencies between industry and government.

  7. Developing competition while building up the infrastructure of the Brazilian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mello Sant Ana, Paulo Henrique; De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto; Valdir Bajay, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    For the last 20 years, countless countries have been carrying out structural reforms in the natural gas industry, trying to achieve efficiency and economic rationality with the introduction of competition. The objective of the paper is to present an approach to the development of competition and infrastructure of the Brazilian natural gas industry. This approach is based on a market projection to 2011, on the international experience and on the characteristics of the Brazilian market, infrastructure and regulatory framework. Possible impacts of the proposed measures are also provided. According to the market projection carried out in this paper, in 2011 there will be a possible surplus of natural gas in the country, which includes a dependence diminishing of the Bolivian gas supply. This gas surplus, allied to an upcoming Gas Law and the trade liberalization in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, can stimulate the development of competition, if some changes that proposed in this paper are made in the current Gas Bills. The approach proposed herein seeks to stimulate non-discriminatory open access, focused on information transparency and tariff regulation to help the development of infrastructure and competition. (author)

  8. The use of VMI to manage inventory in the Brazilian footwear industry: developing a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato de Sousa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to offer a model to apply the VMI to manage purchasing and inventory in the Brazilian footwear industry as this industry’s is inserted in a rising product diversity environment, with shorter product lifecycle while facing heavy, international competitive pressures. The model that is being proposed is also related to establishing minimum inventory levels and the ideal inventory replenishment cycle for industrial operations, and it also classifies materials according to their financial impact and to how critical their provision is. This research, which is defined as an exploratory and qualitative one, addresses a case study of a Brazilian footwear company to gather fundamental information associated with operations history, strategic operational characteristics in the purchasing area, and purchasing management systems, all performed by means of an in-depth interview. When data was analyzed, it showed that among the various materials used by a footwear company, the use of VMI would be needed for materials that were classified as being non-critical components and competitive components, that is, those with a low degree of uncertainty regarding to offer and both high and low financial impact, respectively.

  9. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Chaul, Luíza Toubas; Corassin, Carlos Humberto; Barancelli, Giovana Verginia; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Gram, Lone; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in dairies and retail products emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of this pathogen in the Brazilian dairy industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating and interpreting a common stochastic component for the Brazilian industrial production index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Picchetti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a state-space formulation to model a common stochastic component in four different series that constitute the aggregate index of industrial production in Brazil. This estimated common component is then interpreted as a measurement of behavior of fundamentals in the brazilian economy and compared to the actual aggregate index.A partir de uma formulação em espaço de estado, modelamos um componente estocástico comum para quatro séries distintas que compõem o índice agregado de produção industrial calculado pelo IBGE para o Brasil. Esse componente estocástico comum estimado é então interpretado como uma medida do comportamento de fundamentos da economia brasileira, e comparado com o índice agregado efetivo.

  11. Evaluation of radiological safety in industrial gammagraphy services during the construction of Bolivia-Brazil gas transmission lines (GASBOL), by regulatory inspections from brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto O. de; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da; Leocadio, Joao Carlos; Pinho, Adaugoberto S. de; Souza, Luiz Antonio C. de; Lourenco, Manoel J.; Nicola, Marcello S.; Melo, Ivan F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the Brazilian Regulatory Authority's (National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN) action about safety control on industrial radioactive installations. It shows some specific radiation safety inspections that were done during the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Transmission Line (GASBOL). In this GASBOL work, it was used industrial radiography sources for weld quality control. During two years were done thirty regulatory safety inspections in these movable installations that use gamma radiography devices. As final result, it was noticed that the national system of inspection to control the safe use of radioactive sources in industrial activities is really efficient because none overexposure was detect and every CNEN's recommendations were applied by the operators. Some result about the gamma devices and violations are also showed. (author)

  12. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matias Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.

  13. Empresariado industrial e a educação profissional brasileira Industrial businessmen and the Brazilian professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as mudanças políticas e econômicas transcorridas na sociedade brasileira na última década do século passado, marcadas, entre outros fatos, pela ascensão da ideologia neoliberal e por mudanças no setor produtivo, além da ênfase discursiva de governo e de setores empresariais sobre a necessária reformulação do sistema educacional visando o alcance de uma economia competitiva, objetiva-se analisar o papel que o empresariado industrial reserva à educação profissional visando a consecução do seu projeto de desenvolvimento econômico. Foram utilizados como fontes primárias documentos técnicos da Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI e da Federação das Indústrias do Estado de São Paulo (Fiesp, além de depoimentos das lideranças dessas instituições em diversos periódicos brasileiros. Concluiu-se que embora o empresariado brasileiro tenha enfatizado o investimento na educação básica e na educação profissional, tal ênfase busca ajustar a educação brasileira aos interesses econômicos e não considerá-la um direito social a ser garantido pelo Estado a todos cidadãos brasileiros. As análises e proposições do empresariado para a educação estruturam-se em bases semelhantes às proferidas pelo Banco Mundial, o qual segue enfaticamente a Teoria do Capital Humano. Afirma-se também que suas proposições concernentes ao desenvolvimento econômico e à política educacional foram incorporadas na agenda do governo central brasileiro no transcorrer da década de 1990.Considering the political and economical changes that took place in the Brazilian society during the last decade of the 20th century, characterized as they were, among other facts, by the rising of the neoliberal ideology and by changes in the productive sector, apart from the professed emphasis government and business sectors have placed on the necessary reform of the education system aimed at achieving a competitive economy, the objective

  14. Gamma radiation damage in crotamine (venom of Brazilian rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations is able to change the biological properties of the macro-molecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in concentration of 2 mg/ml of NaCl 0,85% with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 250 Gy, 500 Gy, 1000 Gy and 2000 Gy (dose rate = 1,19.10 3 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: presence of free SH groups, proteic concentration,SDS-PAGE and immunodifusion. Preliminary results showed an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearence of protein aggregates that proportional to the dose increasing. The immunodiffusion data showed no modification of the immunochemical activity against theButantan anti - sera. (author) [pt

  15. Patterns of energy use in the Brazilian economy: Can the profile of Brazilian exports determine the future energy efficiency of its industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the integration of the Brazilian economy in the global economy as a determining factor for the energy efficiency of its industry. Depending upon the profile of a country's exports (i.e., depending upon the share of energy-intensive exports out of total exports), different quantities of energy are required to produce the country's exported goods, which may counterbalance efforts made elsewhere to improve the overall energy efficiency of the country's industry. Different scenarios for the energy embodied in the industrial exports of Brazil are considered for the period 1995--2015. These scenarios are a combination of different shares of energy-intensive goods in the total exports of the country with different assumptions for gains obtained in industrial energy efficiency over time. For all scenarios the same fundamental hypothesis of liberalization of commerce and economic growth are assumed. Results for the year 2015 show that the total energy embodied in industrial exports varies from 1,413 PJ to 2,491 PJ, and the total industrial use of energy varies from 3,858 PJ to 6,153 PJ, depending upon the assumptions made. This is equivalent to an average industrial energy intensity variation ranging from 13.8 MJ to 22.0 MJ per US$-1985. The authors conclude that any policy aimed at improving Brazil's overall industrial energy efficiency should concentrate not only on the reduction of the energy intensity of particular industrial sectors, but also (and, perhaps, more importantly) on rethinking the very strategy for the integration of the country's economy in the global market in the future, with respect to the share of energy-intensive goods out of total exports. The focus is not incidental, for the ongoing structural changes in Brazilian exports alone may come to offset any efficiency improvements achieved by the national industry as a whole

  16. European cooperation in radiation protection in NORM-industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Pepin, Stephane [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium). Section Surveillance of the Territory and Natural Radiation; Wiegers, Rob [IBR Consult BV, Haelen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-01

    Noturally occurring radioactive materials, abbreviated NORM, have been incorporated into the European legislative framework of radiation protection With Directive 96/29/Euratom. Title VII of this directive pointed out that radiation protection has to be applied to ''work activities not covered by Article 2 [1] within which the presence of natural radiation sources leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or of members of the public which cannot be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view''. This new legal framework resulted in challenges for non-nuclear industries which process, treat or otherwise handle natural radiation sources. The natural radiation sources in these industries differ from the man-made radiation sources used in technical applications of radioactivity. In the non-nuclear industry, large volumes of raw materials with generally low activity concentration are processed.

  17. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  18. The Liability of Corporate Social Influence in Brand Image: A Study in Brazilian Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluate the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in brand image (BI and corporate reputation (CR analyzing Brazilian companies in the cosmetics industry. The empirical investigation explores the perception of two large Brazilian brand cosmetic companies interviewing undergraduate students belonging to highincome classes. The objective was to compare the perceptions and the differences between the two companies that publish social reports with GRI methodology. The development of this study occurred in two stages: the first stage involved a literature review, verifying theories and published research on corporate social responsibility, IM and CR. The second stage involved collecting data through a survey. The results demonstrate that the CSR has a positive influence on the IM, but such effect demonstrated only significant for one of the brands studied, and moderately to the second. Among the contributions of this work are to review the literature on the subject, identified the influence of variables of CSR in BI and RC and the differences in consumer perception for each of the brands studied, as well recommendations for future studies.

  19. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  20. Radiation protection program of Petrobras in industrial radiography area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorini, M.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial hygiene has as main purpose the preservation of employees physical integrity when exposed to certain agressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area it was developed the ''Radiologic Protection Program'' which also deals with specific actions in industrial radiography jobs. These actions are hereinafter presented. (C.M.) [pt

  1. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Haji-Saeid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre-commissioning benchmarking. Gamma

  2. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Haji-Saeid, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre

  3. Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Brazilian biomes: new insights into biodiversity and industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beato, Felipe B.; Bergdahl, Basti; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from the barks of three tree species located in the Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil were genetically and physiologically compared to laboratory strains and to strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry. Although...

  4. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PORT OF SALVADOR IMPROVEMENTS ON THE BRAZILIAN COTTON INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial price equilibrium model of the international cotton sector was used to analyze the impacts of the Port of Salvador improvements on the Brazilian cotton industry and world cotton trade. The port of Salvador is undergoing relevant improvements in its facilities and physical structure. As a result of these improvements, the port of Salvador is expected to become more competitive and attract ocean shipping companies which are willing to export products directly to Asian importing markets. Scenarios with different reduction in export cost for the port of Salvador were examined. For all scenarios, the new direct ocean shipping lines were found to be important for the cotton exporters in Brazil, especially for the producers in the state of Bahia. In addition, results suggested that the state of Bahia would have the potential of becoming the largest cotton exporting state in Brazil.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxaran, Virginie; In Lee, Sarah Hwa; Chaul, Luiza Toubas

    2017-01-01

    the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly...... reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being...... a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L...

  6. Potential for energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions in the Brazilian cement industry through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.B.; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The cement industry is characterized by intensive energy consumption throughout its production stages which, together with the calcination of its raw materials, accounts for significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 1996, the Brazilian cement industry consumed 4.3% of the energy required by the industrial sector, contributing over 22 Mtons (Million of tons) of CO 2 . The prospects for growth in this sector in Brazil indicate rising demands for fossil fuels, with a consequent upsurge in emissions. The purpose of this article is to present the prospects for energy conservation in the Brazilian cement industry through to 2015, taking into account the introduction of new production technologies in this sector, the use of waste and low-grade fuels, cogeneration, the use of additives, and other measures, based on a technical and economic energy demand simulation model

  7. Industrialization drive of radiation processing for economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1996-12-01

    The transfer of research and development achievements of radiation processing to routine industrial applications in China is reviewed. While making a brief survey of historical background, the paper indicates the different roles that various domestic organizations played in the industrialization drive of radiation processing. Among them the Government's role is the most important one. In accordance with recent growth of the number of industrial radiation facilities (e.g. cobalt-60 irradiators and electron beam accelerators) and current application of radiation processing in main fields in different parts of the country, it can be said that a new radiation processing industry is shaping up in its developing stage to satisfy the growing requirements for economic booming in China. (16 refs.)

  8. The industrial radiography service in Brazil concerning to the radiation protection aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A study about the industrial radiography situation in Brazil, concerning to the radiation protection aspects is shown. With this purpose it was made an inventory, with utilization of the file of facilities officially registered in industrial application from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). It was evaluated the quantity of accelerators), radiation monitors and radiation workers (health physics, operator). As quality and performance indicators of radiation protection the mean doses and the collective doses were used, and their variation from 1987 to 1990. As deficiency signals of radiological protection programs and procedures were utilized the 175 abnormal event occurred (radiological accident and emergency situation) from 1976 to 1992, after an analysis of their causes. The results showed that, for around 2000 monitored workers, the mean dose equivalent was between 0.83 to 2.70 mSv, and the collective dose, between 1.54 and 6.18 Sv.man, from 1987 to 1990. In this period, it was verified a tendency for reduction of means dose and collective dose values. It indicates a possible improvement of radiation protection services or an influence of economical situation of the country. From 175 abnormal events analysed, 456 persons were exposed, with 7.2% of them receiving doses above 50 mSv. These results were compared with those from others countries, such as United Kingdom and united States. (author). 76 refs, 16 figs, 24 tabs

  9. STRATEGIES FOR NEW INTERNATIONAL VENTURES IN THE BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF ETH BIONERGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carrilho Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify cases of new international ventures in the Brazilian sugarcane industry, specifically as regards ethanol production, i.e., companies that are established from start to have an international profile. The paper explores the case of one such enterprise in the light of the theories addressed. In the last few years, a rising number of companies with this profile have appeared. This runs contrary to the main classical theories of internationalization, which present this process as evolutionary. As for the sugarcane industry, it has expanded considerably in recent years, which led many groups to invest in this segment. This study is a descriptive, qualitative piece of research and is based on the case study of a company recently established in this sector. Analyzing the chosen organization and comparing it to the studied theories, the authors concluded that there is, indeed, a type of organization with the profile of a new international venture. Key-words: Internationalization. New international ventures. Sugarcane industry. Brazil.

  10. PERCEPTION OF UNCERTAINTY AND OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF THE BRAZILIAN INDUSTRY FROM 2007 TO 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sambiase Lombardi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article poses to explore the relationship between the manager´s perception of uncertainty and the Brazilian industry´s operational performance during the period from 2007 to 2009. This timeframe was chosen because it comprised both positive and negative cycles of the global economic panorama, and thus capable of interfering in the manager´s perception of uncertainty and consequent business strategies. Periods of market fluctuations and more dynamic and complex business environments clearly demonstrate that managerial models which are applicable to static or predictable scenarios, become fragile and of dubious applicability; that is, practices adopted and described in business administration bibliographies might not produce expected results.  A key factor for sound performance is the positioning of companies in relation to future planning (Knight, 2002, the latter defined as actions taken by the entrepreneur given a certain degree of uncertainty, inherent to the management activity.  The relationship between uncertainty and corporate performance has been studied, at least, ever since Knight in 1921. The author affirmed that we live in a world of change and in a world of uncertainty. The level of entrepreneur trust from the National Industry Confederation represented the perception of uncertainty, whilst operational performance was formed as of industrial production and employment IBGE indexes. Results demonstrate that both constructs have equivalent movements during the course of the period, presenting a positive correlation. Key-words: Uncertainty. Operational performance. Trust. 

  11. Corporate Culture and Productive Restructuring in Brazilian industry: The Lupo Case S / A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carvalho de Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 1921, the company currently known as Lupo S/A is one of the most ancient textile and clothing industries in Brazil. In this article we aim to describe the general lines of the trajectory of this family company, currently producing socks, nightwear and sports articles. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of some strategies used by the company along its formation and development process, and, particularly, the way these strategies made possible the productive restructuring associated to the overcoming of the strong crisis which began in the end of the 80's and early 90's, contributing to its recent consolidation in the clothing industry. The leading hypothesis of the study is that pioneering connected to a strong organizational culture that has been formed and constructed since its foundation and that was reestablished in a more recent management were the factors which were responsible for the advances able to generate an innovation environment in products as well as in processes and management. The theoretical reflection selected to subsidize the cognitive construction of the study of the company is based on the historical approach of the development of the textile industry in Brazil and in studies about the importance of the action of the entrepreneur, in the role of the organizational culture and LORENZO, H.C. & CAÍRES, A.C.R. of innovation to choose strategies in companies. The research involved the analysis of documents and data of the company, as well as interviews with directors and employees. The results show a traditional company model, but also show the presence of a very advanced entrepreneurial dynamic. Modern world – known as a fordist industrial model – could already be noticed in the company when this production pattern was not clearly defined yet in the Brazilian industry. Nowadays, the company faces the challenge of globalization and the open competition in the international market which brings the rivalry

  12. The Brazilian nuclear industries - INB - in the field of the rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, Victoria

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB is responsible for the execution of part of the cycle of uranium as nuclear reactor fuel for alternative energy generation. Soon INB shall increase the participation in this cycle, through the implantation of the line of powder and pastille. INB is also the successor of the monazite processing industries. The last one was NUCLEMON that was incorporated by INB. The connection of INB with this area is due to the presence of the strategic elements uranium and thorium in the monazite. The know-how was and continues to be developed by a chemical team of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) with the collaboration of the technical team of INB. The ever wider applications of the individual Rare Earth in the most different fields of the electrical, electronics, communication, optical, metallurgical, catalysis and other industries, as well as INB incessant inquire for the economical workability, brought INB to appraise the position regarding to the industrial production of the Rare Earth. The choice is bringing to the separation and commercialization of the individual elements and/or in groups containing a reduced number of Rare Earth, instead of the production and commercialization of the mixture of monazitic Rare Earth. This paper illustrates through quantitative information some aspects regarding to reserves, mining and physical separations of the monazite, as well as projections about INB resuming its industrial activities with insertion of technical improvements in both, the chemical treatment of the monazite and the Rare Earth separation. In this field, there will be presented in this paper the qualitative and quantitative results recently reached in a large dimension pilot plant. These results add to the technical conquest reached in the late years by the foregoers of INB, and that will be also presented. The paper contains also some appreciations regarding to the perspectives of INB's ingression in the field of

  13. Analysis of causes of radiation overexposures for radiation workers in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, J.M.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    About 5500 radiation workers are monitored from industrial institutions in our country out of which 3600 radiation workers are working in industrial radiography institutions. These workers have a higher potential of receiving overexposure (equivalent dose 3 10 mSv) due to their nature of work. This paper presents analysis of overexposures and their causes for radiation workers working in industrial radiography institutions during the last seven years. (author)

  14. Prospect of radiation application in industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2007-01-01

    The prospect of radiation application in industry and agriculture are described. In industry, the radiation-induced crosslinking of polymers and radiation-induced graft polymerization improved many chemical and physical properties and new functional materials were created using ion beams. In agriculture, the food irradiation improved the food hygiene and killed insect pest of fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, the sterile insect technique, mutation breeding of plants, positron imaging system for plant, sterilization of medical products, environmental conservation due to purification of flue gas and wastewater, and upgrading of natural polymer (polysaccharide etc.) have been performed. Radiation process is a clean one without use of chemical reagents. The electron beam radiation is expected to reduce the cost of radiation process compared with the gamma-ray radiation. (M.H.)

  15. Ionizing radiation on Industry in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1999-08-01

    This report contains a nuclear gauges classification and radioactive sources used in industry, radioprotection measurement and emergency planning. It also shows equipment schemes and radioprotection graphics. (The author)

  16. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation techology in cable making industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourim, P.; Vokal, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electron accelerators are used in radiation cross-linking of elastomer and thermoplastic layers of cable insulation and sheathing. Another application is cross-linking of insulation bands and moulded products to achieve thermal contractibility. Ionizing radiation is used for curing insulation lacquers on winding leads. In Czechoslovakia, problems of radiation curing of silicone rubber have been studied since 1973. Instrumentation has been installed including accelerators. The feasibility has also been studied of radiation cross-linking of insulation and semiconductor cable cores of hose-type trailing cables. Polyethylene mixes have been designed and prepared which are suitable for radiation cross-linking aimed at increasing thermal resistance above 100 degC. (M.D.)

  18. Radiation safety in nuclear industry in retrospect and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 years have passed since the starting up of nuclear industry in China from the early 1950's. Over the past 30-odd years, nuclear industry has always kept a good record in China thanks to the policy of 'quality first, safety first' clearly put forward for nuclear industry from the outset and a lot of suitable effective measures taken over that period. Internationally, there is rapid progress in radiation protection and nuclear safety (hereafter refereed to as radiation safety) and a number of new concepts in the field of radiation protection have been advanced. Nuclear industry is developing based on the international standardization. To ensure the further development of nuclear utility, radiation safety needs to be further strengthened

  19. Application of radiation in industrial processes (Paper No. IT-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.

    1990-02-01

    The application of radiations both from gamma irradiation sources and electron beams has immense potential in diverse fields of industry and public health care programmes. The technical and economic effectiveness of radiation technology has been well demonstrated in different parts of the world and in India over last few years. The major applications for using this technology favourably considered all over the world include radiation sterilisation of medical products, hygienisation of sewage sludge, radiation processing of wood plastic composites, vulcanisation of natural rubber latex, cross linking of wires and cables using radiation, production of bio materials and drugs release systems and treatment of flue gases. Some of the areas which have been successfully exploited on an industrial or semi industrial scale in India and the current status of this programme is high lighted in this paper. (author). 9 refs

  20. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the fruits for culinary purposes. When the sale of fresh fruits is reduced, they produce and commercialize fruit preserves, and liqueur products, as well as extract the oil. Harvesting of mature fruits after falling from the tree while keeping some fruits at the plant is the best way for its sustainable production. The internal mesocarp contains from 36 to 66% dry weight of oil having traditional culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. This oil has 60% of oleic acid and 35% palmitic acid, thus suitable for industrial fat hardstocks. The presence of the triacylglycerols POO and POP makes the oil of interest for cosmetic and food industries. Both pulp and kernel oils have been studied for their health effects. By physical, enzymatic or chemical modification, the oil has shown potential uses as cocoa butter substitute and zero trans fat product.

  1. Applications of radiation technology and isotopes in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the current status of applications of radiation technology and radioisotopes in industries, environmental conservation and medical products. The topics discussed are radiation processing - features and advantages, radiation sources, polymeric products, radiation cross-linking and grafting of polymers, radiation curing of surface coating, new developments; sterilization of medical products, applications for environmental protection i.e. cleaning the flue gases, disinfection of sewage and its recycling; nucleonic control system (NCS); major mechanisms of implementation of the Agency`s programme for technology transfer - research contract programme, model projects and technical cooperation projects.

  2. Applications of radiation technology and isotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of applications of radiation technology and radioisotopes in industries, environmental conservation and medical products. The topics discussed are radiation processing - features and advantages, radiation sources, polymeric products, radiation cross-linking and grafting of polymers, radiation curing of surface coating, new developments; sterilization of medical products, applications for environmental protection i.e. cleaning the flue gases, disinfection of sewage and its recycling; nucleonic control system (NCS); major mechanisms of implementation of the Agency's programme for technology transfer - research contract programme, model projects and technical cooperation projects

  3. Centralized radiation protection in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    At Novartis the so-called ''ZSS'' department (''Zentraler Strahlenschutz'') respectively (''central radiation protection'') administrates all in-house data concerning radiation. When the time for a contemporary and thus more flexible software solution had come, the heterogenous company had many demands to be met - for example reorganizational ability, multi-client capability, device-specific scalability as well as customizability and individual data entries concerning all employees exposed to ionized radiation. A customized software-solution was then developed and build by Sirius Technologies AG from Basel. The application is composed modularly and therefore adapts well to miscellaneous data sets of various working areas, devices, radiation sources, factories, partners, approvals, isotopes etc. The conception even contains future enhancement and supplementation. (orig.)

  4. THE ROLE OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES IN THE PROBLEM OF RADIATION DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Кіхтенко, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    Subject of research – the relevance of radiation damage at modern development of industry and medicine. In the world of radiation sources used in different fields of practice and their application in the future will increase, which greatly increases the likelihood of injury in a significant contingent of people.Research topic – the definition of the role of nuclear energy and the industrial use of ionizing radiation sources in the problem of radiation damage. The purpose of research – identif...

  5. Radiation protection in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesser, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of the use of ionizing radiation in research in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries will be discussed, the emphasis being placed on the handling of open radioactive materials in research laboratories. The compliance with official regulations and the preparation of company internal radiation protection regulations are described. 1 tab., 9 refs

  6. Concepts of radiation processes selection for industrial realization. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    For selection of radiation processes in industry the processes usually are analyzing by technological and social effects, power-insensitivity, common efficiency. Technological effect is generally conditioned with uniqueness of radiation technologies which allow to obtain new material or certain one but with new properties. Social effect first of all concerns with influence of radiation technologies on consumer's psychology. Implementation of equipment for radiation technological process for both the new material production and natural materials radiation treatment is related with decision of three tasks: 1) Choice of radiation source; 2). Creation of special equipment for radiation and untraditional stages of the process; 3) Selection of radiation and other conditions ensuring of achievement of optimal technological and economical indexes

  7. The evolution of and challenges for industrial radiation processing—2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.; Cleland, M.R.; Walo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from Roentgen's discovery of X-radiation in 1895 by following the development of high current, electron beam accelerators (EB) throughout the twentieth century. Although Becquerel soon followed Roentgen with his discovery of what became to be known as radioactivity, electrical sources for ionizing radiation dominate industrial processing with there being more than ten times as many industrial installations using high current EB equipment than the facilities relying upon large concentrations of radioactive isotopes. In the 1950s, the discovery that ionizing radiation would enhance the value of what has become the world's largest volume commodity plastic, polyethylene (PE), opened the way for full scale commercial use of high current EB equipment. While the crosslinking of the PE insulation on wire became one of the first major industrial applications, other uses of EB processing soon followed. In the 1970s, low-energy, self-shielded EB equipment made the surface curing of inks, coatings and adhesives more industrially viable. In the early part of the twenty-first century, new market applications involving the low-energy EB surface decontamination of packaging materials emerged. This new area poses challenges for the metrology needed to control industrial processes, in that there is limited EB penetration into what have been used as dosimeters by industry. Major industrial use of radiation process is now over 50 years old. Because of the diversity of end-uses and the fact that the use of ionizing radiation in industry is a process technique, it is hard to quantify the value-added to numerous commercial products that benefit from this energy efficient process. It may be in excess of a trillion Euros in value-added to articles of commerce. In this milieu, there are some broad-based opportunities for research which are noted. - Highlights: ► The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from

  8. Application of low doses of ionizing radiation in the Brazilian fruit tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Araujo, Leandro Moreira; Gody, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Pacheco, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    The tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.) is a native fruit of Amazonia, occurring mainly in the state of Para, but also found in the Brazilian northeast states and in the Brazilian central-western states. The tucuma is considered an excellent source of carotenoids with a very high concentration of β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A. In addition to carotenoids it is an important source of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in fruits. This study aimed to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional value of tucuma. The fruits were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy irradiator with a source of cesium 137. The carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry. The analysis of α and β-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The β-carotene accounts for 80% of total carotenoids in tucuma, and with a dose of 2 kGy, it showed the highest reduction of β-carotene, about 7.5% in relation to the control. The tucuma fruit showed high levels of riboflavin from 0.183 to 0.222 μg 100 g -1 , and maintained stability after the gamma radiation process. However, it had low levels of thiamine from 0.050 to 0.033 μg 100 g -1 , and irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy showed significant reductions of thiamine, about 34% in relation to the control. (author)

  9. Use of MODIS Images to Quantify the Radiation and Energy Balances in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MODIS images during the year 2012 were used for modelling of the radiation and energy balance components with the application of the SAFER algorithm (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving in the Brazilian Pantanal area. Pixels from the main sub-regions of Barão de Melgaço (BR, Paiaguás (PA and Nhecolândia (NH were extracted in order to process microclimatic comparisons. In general, the net radiation (Rn relied much more on the global solar radiation (RG levels than on water conditions and ecosystem types, in accordance with the low Rn standard deviation values. The fraction of the available energy used as latent heat flux (λE were, on average, 65, 50 and 49% for the BR, PA and NH sub-regions, respectively. Horizontal heat advection, identified by the negative values of sensible heat flux (H, made several pixels with λE values higher than those for Rn in the middle of the year. Taking the evaporative fraction (Ef as a surface moisture indicator, the Tree-Lined Savanna (TLS was considered the moister ecosystem class, with 58% of the available energy being used as λE, while the driest one was the modified ecosystem Anthropogenic Changes (AC, presenting a λE/Rn fraction of 0.46. According to the spatial and temporal consistencies, and after comparisons with other previous point and large-scale studies, the SAFER algorithm proved to have sensibility to quantify and compare the large-scale radiation and energy balance components in the different ecosystems of the Brazilian Pantanal. The algorithm is useful for monitoring the energy exchange dynamics among the different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types throughout the seasons of the year.

  10. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  11. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  12. The 10 recommendations for prevention of radiation accidents in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luana Silva de

    2015-01-01

    The Industrial Gamma Radiography, as part of Industrial Radiography, stands out as the most widespread and plays an important role in the quality control of different materials and devices. However, IAEA classifies industrial gamma radiography in the Category 2 as very dangerous due to the radiological risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. In March, 2012, a Brazilian Workshop on Prevention of Industrial Gamma Radiography Accident was performed by DIAPI/CNEN with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiological accidents with radioactive sources in this application. During this Workshop, IRD/CNEN conducted a survey with 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, aiming to select the most voted. This present work aims to perform a detailed statistical study to define the Top 10 Recommendations for industrial gamma radiography operator avoids radiological accidents and to prepare a brochure with these top 10 recommendations to be distributed to all industrial gamma radiography radiation workers. Data analysis was performed using the statistical method 'Frequency Distribution', among the 75 participants categorized as General, RPO, and Other Workers of the area. The results were obtained for each category, accounting for the total of 22 recommendations in its percentage and number of votes, and the top 10 recommendations were defined to prevent radiological accidents. The first place and most important recommendation is 'Always use a personal alarm monitor throughout the work'. One of the conclusions is that the brochure with the Top 10 Recommendations shows to be understandable and useful for dissemination and training of radiation workers to avoid radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography. (author)

  13. The convergence of the natural gas industry and electric power industry: the Brazilian case; Convergencia entre a industria do gas natural e a industria de energia eletrica: o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the convergence between power (electric sector) and natural gas industries in Brazil. It also shows how this convergence happens in the USA market and its applicability in the Brazilian market. At the end some conclusions and suggestions are presented to satisfy the Brazilian market, which behaves in a different way as the USA market, i.e. the Brazilian market does not follow seasonal pattern but an aleatory pattern in thermoelectric plants. (author)

  14. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A.

    1996-01-01

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis

  15. Testing for heterogeneous business practices across firms in developing countries: The case of the Brazilian soft drink industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural model of the Brazilian carbonated soft drink industry to test the claim that the observed low prices of low-end entrants owe to marginal cost advantages over the large, established brands, allegedly stemming chiefly from tax evasion. Such entrants, numbering in the hundreds, are typically small-scale operations, with limited geographic reach and no advertising. In addition to the low-cost hypothesis, advocated by the incumbent duopolists, the model allows for...

  16. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  17. Industrial, agricultural, and medical applications of radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Photon and particle radiations (gamma rays, X-rays, bremsstrahlung, electrons and other charged particles, neutrons) from radioactive isotopes, X-ray tubes, and accelerators are now widely used in gauging, production control, and other monitoring and metrology devices where avoidance of mechanical contact is desirable. The general principles of radiation gauges, which rely on detection of radiation transmitted by the sample, or on detection of scattered or other secondary radiations produced in the sample, are discussed. Examples of such devices currently used in industrial, agricultural, and medical situations are presented, and some anticipated developments are mentioned. (author)

  18. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  19. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  20. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in … shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  1. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  2. Radiation protection programme in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essien, E. C.

    2014-04-01

    The oil and gas industry uses many radiation sources in various radiation based technologies which are of great benefit to the industry, this includes nucleonic gauges, multiphase flow meters, well logging etc. Inappropriate use of these equipment and installations and uncontrolled activities associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) can contaminate the environment resulting in occupational and public exposures. The objective of this work is to develop a Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) for the oil and gas industry which when implemented by the operating organisation will keep doses to the workers and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), maximize the benefits while minimizing the hazards associated with the use of radiation based technologies. In order to achieve the aim of this work, review of previous works on radiation sources in nucleonic gauges, well logging and waste management processes of NORMs was carried out. Some recommendations were stated, which if strictly implemented would improve the scope of radiation protection in the oil and gas industries. (au)

  3. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - a brazilian case study of industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2001-01-01

    In may 2000, an operator of industrial gammagraphy, during a work of maintenance of a cobalt source irradiator, suffered a radiological accident which caused serious consequences for its left hand. Specialists who work in the Group of Overexposure Analysis (GADE/IRD/CNEN), began the reconstructive dosimetry for estimate the radiation dose. The objective was to determine the real dose received by the operator and to make possible the medical evaluation and to prescribe the medical procedures for the involved victim's treatment. This work presents the reconstructive dosimetry done by theoretical, experimental and computation methods for determining the radiation doses of the operator. Related to the computation method a program was used for external dose calculation based on Monte Carlo's Method and a human body simulator composed by voxels. It is also showed values of the effective and equivalent doses that caused serious lesions in the operator's hand. (author)

  4. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2002-01-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a 60 Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry performance of natural Brazilian topaz exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, R.; Souza, D. N.; Valerio, M. E. G.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has become the technique of choice in many areas of dosimetry. Natural materials like topaz are available in large quantities in Brazil and other countries. They have been studied to investigate the possibility of use its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for dosimetric applications. In this work, we investigate the possibility of utilising the OSL properties of natural Brazilian topaz in dosimetry. Bulk topaz samples were exposed to doses up to 100 Gy of beta radiation and the integrated OSL as a function of the dose showed linear behaviour. The fading occurs in the first 20 min after irradiation but it is <6% of the integrated OSL measured shortly after exposure. We conclude that natural colourless topaz is a very suitable phosphor for OSL dosimetry. (authors)

  6. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  7. Control measures in industrial and medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment; additionally the use of human made radiation is widespread. Sources of radiation are essential to modern health care, disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease, radiology is a vital diagnostic tool and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Nuclear techniques are in growing use in industry, agriculture, medicine and many fields of research, benefiting hundreds of millions of people and giving employment to millions of people in the related occupations, Irradiation is used around the world to preserve and reduce wastage and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds and detect cracks and help prevent the failure of engineered structures. It is also known that exposure to ionizing radiation can result to injuries that manifest themselves in the individual and his descendants. It is therefore imperative that the use of radiation sources be accompanied with the methods necessary for the prevention of the harmful effects of the radiation. These methods are referred to as control measures. Control measures that have been applied in establishments can be classified into physical control measures and administrative control measures. Physical control measures involve the technical aspects while administrative control measures augment physical measures. The guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials are provided through legislative and regulatory controls

  8. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1996-01-01

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  9. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Seguridad radiologica en la radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  10. Progress in radiation application to industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of radiation in Japan has been actively promoted by various agencies including the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI (presently Japan Atomic Energy Agency: JAEA). The JAEA-Takasaki was established in April 1963 for the purpose of promoting research and development (R and D) activities with gamma rays and electron beams. The JAEA-Takasaki's activities were addressed principally to industry and agriculture. In Japan, purpose of utilization of radiation is aiming at increasing welfare and quality of life of our peoples. (author)

  11. The Western Australian mineral sands industry: radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The need for radiation protection in the mineral sand industry derives from the production and handling of monazite, a rare earth phosphate which contains 6 to 7% thorium. The purpose of this booklet is to outline the complex and detailed radiation protection surveillance program already in place. It is estimated that the quality of radiation protection has improved in recent years with respect to reporting and recording-keeping dust sampling procedures, analytical determination, training and instruction, as well as to a corporate commitment to implement dust reduction strategies. 15 figs., 2 tabs., ills

  12. Radiation microbiology relevant to the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destruction or inactivation of most microbial cells takes place at relatively low doses of gamma irradiation, making 'pasteurising' treatment of several food commodities in the dose range of 1 to 10 kGy a feasible decontamination method. Several factors may influence the effectiveness of an irradiation process, and should be taken into account when radurisation of foods is practised. Damage to microbes is enhanced in the presence of oxygen and at low pH levels, whereas substances such as sulfhydryl compounds tend to act as protectors. Living organisms may be arranged in the order of increasing resistance to ionising radiation, as follows: higher animals, insects, vegetative bacteria, yeasts and fungi, bacterial endospores and viruses. Most food spoilage organisms as well as food-borne pathogens (D 10 -values for the majority ranging between 0,08 and 0,5 kGy) are sensitive to relatively small irradiation doses. Although several bacterial endospores may survive in radurised foods (D 10 -values ranging between 1,5 and 5,0 kGy), additional safety factors (e.g. low pH, refrigeration, reduced Eh, reduced a w , preservatives) may contribute to the shelf stability of a given food

  13. The industrial radiography service in Brazil concerning to the radiation protection aspect; O servico de radiografia industrial no Brasil sob o aspecto da protecao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M M

    1994-12-31

    A study about the industrial radiography situation in Brazil, concerning to the radiation protection aspects is shown. With this purpose it was made an inventory, with utilization of the file of facilities officially registered in industrial application from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). It was evaluated the quantity of accelerators, radiation monitors and radiation workers (health physics, operator). As quality and performance indicators of radiation protection the mean doses and the collective doses were used, and their variation from 1987 to 1990. As deficiency signals of radiological protection programs and procedures were utilized the 175 abnormal event occurred (radiological accident and emergency situation) from 1976 to 1992, after an analysis of their causes. The results showed that, for around 2000 monitored workers, the mean dose equivalent was between 0.83 to 2.70 mSv, and the collective dose, between 1.54 and 6.18 Sv.man, from 1987 to 1990. In this period, it was verified a tendency for reduction of means dose and collective dose values. It indicates a possible improvement of radiation protection services or an influence of economical situation of the country. From 175 abnormal events analysed, 456 persons were exposed, with 7.2% of them receiving doses above 50 mSv. These results were compared with those from others countries, such as United Kingdom and united States. (author). 76 refs, 16 figs, 24 tabs.

  14. Radiation protection and personnel safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Due to availability of a variety of radioisotopes from BRIT, a considerable number of industrial organizations have come up in India which employ radiation sources in one form or the other. More such organizations may come up in the near future due to the 'Make in India' policy of the Government. All ionizing radiations, whether electromagnetic (gamma- ã ) or corpuscular (particles of alpha-á, or beta-â-), and neutrons (0n1) are harmful to the human body. The damage done by radiations is sinister as human senses are not capable of detecting even lethal doses of radiation. The dose of radiations absorbed by human body which take into account the biological effectiveness of different types of radiations as noted above. The overall outcome of exposure to radiation is initiated by damage to the cells of the organism. The effects of radiation may be deterministic or stochastic, early or late, of somatic or genetic type. The somatic effects (physical) can either be immediate or delayed when the whole body is acutely irradiated with radiation doses. All countries including India have brought their national laws/standards on ionizing radiation in line with the ICRP codes. The conditions for registration, transport, storage, protection and use of radiation sources have been laid down in regulations. The purpose of practical protection against radiation is to prevent any individual receiving a harmful dose. Radiation measurement Instruments like dose meter, pocket dosimeter, NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and recording instruments such as film/TLD badge have been briefly described

  15. [The occupational radiation-induced cataract in five industrial radiographers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti Mezni, A; Loukil, I; Hriz, N; Kallel, K; Mlaiki, N; Ben Jemaâ, A

    2012-04-01

    The industrial uses of ionizing radiation in Tunisia are expanding, especially in industry and most particularly in the nondestructive testing of welds. Thus workers operating in the non-destructive testing of welds may develop a radiation-induced cataract varying in time to onset depending on the dose. To describe the characteristics of the radiation-induced cataract in patients exposed to ionizing radiation, determine the risk factors of radiation-induced cataracts. This was an anamnestic, clinical, and environmental study of five cases of radiation-induced cataract in workers employed in non-destructive testing of welds. This series of five cases had a mean age of 30.2 years and 5.53 years of work experience, ranging from 14 months to 15 years. All the patients were male and industrial radiographers specialized in nondestructive testing of welds. The average duration of exposure to ionizing radiation was 5.53 years. None of the patients had worn protective gear such as eye goggles. The ophthalmic check-up for the five special industrial radiographers showed punctuate opacities in three cases, punctiform opacities in one eye in one case, and phacosclerosis with bilateral lens multiple crystalline stromal opacities in a case of micro-lens opacities in both eyes with opalescence of both eyes in one case. These cataracts had been declared as occupational diseases. The value of a specialized ophthalmologic surveillance among these workers and the early diagnosis of lens opacities must be emphasized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of radiation overexposures for radiation workers in industrial institutions during 1991-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, J.M.; Raman, N.V.; Massand, O.P.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation Standards and Instrumentation Division (RS and ID) conducts country wide personnel monitoring service for external exposures of a total of about 41,000 radiation workers. Out of these, there are about 5300 radiation workers in industrial institutions alone. The analysis of overexposure cases (more than 10 mSv during a monitoring period) of these radiation workers has been presented for the period 1991-1995. The paper describes how the reporting, investigations and follow-up of these cases helps in obtaining effective control of doses to the radiation workers in the country keeping in view the dose limits stipulated by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. (author)

  17. Sources of ionizing radiation in industry: licensing and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented several methods, which the Inspection on the Safe Use of Atomic Energy applies for the control on the use of sources of ionizing radiation in industry. It reviews some problems, which we have to solve during our inspections. An analysis and assessment of them is done. The prescribed safety ensuring measures are discussed. (author)

  18. Risks derived from the industrial uses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A

    1981-01-01

    The industrial uses of ionizing radiation are clasified according to its importance in the surveillance and control of industrial processes, the possibility of modifying properties of materials under irradiation and the liberation and transformation of nuclear and desintegration energy into other useful forms. Within that framework, the industrial uses of radiation in Spain are presented together with an indication of the amount and classification of responsible operating personal. The basic concepts of risk and benefit are analyzed to show that the public perception of nuclear risk is greater that the real one. To bring both together, it is important to show a good operating experience and to develop a complete and precise set of rules and regulations. The situation in Spain on this later concept is presented in some detail.

  19. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION... Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. The RSO shall ensure that radiation safety activities...

  20. Credence goods and market power: an econometric study on the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P. S. Fiuza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the market failures pointed out by the economic literature and following the international empirical evidence, and based on original micro data of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry in the late 1990s, this article attempts to relate empirically drug prices in Brazil to some explaining variables. We find that, similarly to previous U.S. estimations, leading branded drugs accommodated share growth of the followers, turning towards a more inelastic market segment and raising their prices. On followers, in turn, a fall of the concentration index in a market had ambiguous effects: if due to reduced leader power, followers raised their relative prices; if due to a tougher competition within the fringe, their relative prices tended to go down.No presente artigo procuramos, tendo em mente as imperfeições de mercado apontadas pela literatura e pela experiência internacional, e com base em dados originais da indústria farmacêutica, relacionar empiricamente o preço de medicamentos no Brasil com algumas variáveis explicativas. Encontramos que, consoante com estimações anteriores da experiência norte-americana, os medicamentos líderes no Brasil, antes da lei que instituiu o medicamento genérico, acomodavam o avanço de produtos similares (do mesmo princípio ativo, porém sem o teste de bioequivalência e se recolhiam a segmentos inelásticos do mercado, elevando seus preços. Os similares, ao contrário, ao perderem mercado, reduziam seus preços em relação ao líder, de modo que uma redução no índice de concentração do mercado total de um princípio ativo tem efeitos ambíguos sobre seus preços, dependendo se a causa é uma queda da participação do líder ou um rearranjo dentre os seguidores.

  1. New approaches to energy efficiency programs in the Brazilian industry; Novas abordagens para programas de eficiencia energetica na industria brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    A modern approach often used in international literature says that the government has the role to create favorable conditions for improving energy efficiency in industry, either through policies, programs or actions. This article's main objective is to describe the main programs for promoting energy efficiency in industry in Brazil and in other countries, for later to propose a new approach for the management and development of energy efficiency programs for the Brazilian industry. The creation of an executive agency, connected to the MME and with strong ties to ELETROBRAS and PETROBRAS, could manage effectively the enormous resources that are needed to mobilize the energy efficiency programs as real alternatives to programs for additional expansion in energy supply. The creation of energy assessment centers, along with an energy efficiency program for energy-intensive industry, would help in promoting energy efficiency in industry. These actions would likely bounce in other industries, and would assist in achieving optimal management standards in the energy industry, consistent with ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, used in countries like the USA and Sweden. (author)

  2. Catching up and Falling behind: An Appraisal of Brazilian Industrial Policy in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kasahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amidst analyses of industrial policy’s renaissance in Latin America, Brazil is often hailed as the paragon of this movement. The mix of old and new institutions and instruments would constitute a unique effort in promoting industrial development in the post-neoliberal period. However, this experience has been followed by middling results of industrial performance. Reviewing an emerging literature about the institutionalization and results of the Brazilian industrial policy, we argue that important aspects of path-dependency have been ignored. Organizational and ideational resistance have led to a much more traditional and conservative industrial policy than would be expected. Grounded historical analysis about intra-government conflicts, combined with studies about policy and sectoral developments, could give us elements to better assess the failures and achievements of the Brazilian case. Resumen: Avances y retrocesos: Una evaluación de la política industrial brasileña en el siglo XXI A la luz de diversos análisis sobre el renacimiento de la política industrial en América Latina, Brasil es frecuentemente alabado como el país arquetipo de la mencionada coyuntura. La combinación de instituciones e instrumentos antiguos y modernos constituiría un singular esfuerzo para promover el desarrollo industrial en el periodo post-neoliberal.  Sin embargo, la consecución de dicha experiencia fueron mediocres resultados de actividad industrial. Habiendo efectuado un examen de reciente literatura sobre la institucionalización y los resultados de la política industrial brasileña, sostenemos que, en dicho material, han sido ignorados importantes aspectos de la dependencia de la trayectoria (path-dependency. Resistencia organizativa y de formación de ideas han conducido a la implementación de una política industrial mucho más tradicional y conservadora de lo que se hubiera esperado. Un profundo análisis histórico acerca de conflictos

  3. Nuclear and radiation applications in industry: Tools for innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Iyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of nuclear and radiation technologies have been contributing to industrial efficiency, energy conservation, and environmental protection for many years. Some of these are: Manufacturing industries: Radiation processing technologies are playing increasing roles during manufacturing of such everyday products as wire and cable, automobile tires, plastic films and sheets, and surface materials. Production processes: Other techniques employing radioisotope gauges are indispensable for on-line thickness measurements during paper, plastic, and steel plate production. Processing and quality checks are made using nucleonic control systems that are common features of industrial production lines. Sterilization of medical products using electron beam accelerators or cobalt-60 radiation is better than the conventional methods. Industrial safety and product quality: Non-destructive examination or testing using gamma- or X-ray radiography is widely used for checking welds, casting, machinery, and ceramics to ensure quality and safety. Additionally, radiotracer techniques are unique tools for the optimization of chemical processes in reactors, leakage detection, and wear and corrosion studies, for example. Environmental protection: An innovative technology using electron beams to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) has been under development. The electron beam technology is very cost competitive and its byproduct can be used as agricultural fertilizer

  4. Standardization of ionizing radiation in industry and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    In this account a new standardization system is described. This system is intended for the protection of environment, people and employees against the harmful consequences of ionizing radiation. This new system is based upon the actual knowledge of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and joins to the starting points and objectives of the environment- and industry-protectional policies and is explained for both policies separately. The starting points and objectives are presented of the actual environment- and industry-protectional policies and of the radiation-protection policy pursued up till now. The harmful effects of radiation, the importance of the of the most recent scientific developments and the results of the investigation performed in the framework of this account, are described. Conclusions about these harmful affects are given. The systematics of the standardization are described. Subsequently are considered the radiation sources, their classification, the risk limits for regular situations and for large accidents, the justification principle and the ALARA-principle, emission- and product requirements, objectives for environment quality, standards for combat of the consequences of accidents, the policy with regard to 'building and dwelling' and finally standards for protection of employees. The consequences of the systematics of standardization, which are described in this account, are indicated for environment- as well as industry-protectional policy. Per radiation-source category the corresponding risks are indicated and at which term which continuation activities are necessary. The consequences for the set of instruments and some international aspects are considered. Finally the activity list gives a survey of the continuation activities and the terms at which these have to be carried out. (H.W.). 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang; Ouyang Qiongli

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. There are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the restrictions of capacity and inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  6. Use of radiation processing technology gradually expands in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes and radiation is expanding in the fields of industries and medicine with a high potentiality of the application to environmental protection. The technology transfer on the use of isotopes and radiation is progressing in the framework of international cooperation. But the industry has maintained wait and see attitude on the commercialization of food irradiation. Such present features were the highlight in the 19th Japan Conference on Radiation and Radioisotopes held on November 14-16. 72 papers from 19 countries were presented and discussed in 13 sessions. The progress of accelerator technology has contributed to the expansion of radiation processing market. The importance of the application of isotopes and radiation to environmental protection has been gradually acknowledged, and the electron beam treatment of flue gas for acid rain abatement and the elimination of chlorinated ethylene from drinking water were discussed. Drastic change has not been seen in the climate of food irradiation, however there are several positive indicators which support the prediction of slow but steady progress in the commercialization of the process and the trade of irradiated foods. (K.I.)

  7. The industrial doctor and radiation hygiene at ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpaij, W.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The organisation of the health service department of the Netherlands Energy Research Centre where a nuclear reactor is maintained in operation, is divided in three working groups: (1) the occupational health service, (2) the radiation inspection service, and (3) the safety control service. Next to these, there are three groups which also render services to outsiders, viz. the analytical, the instrumentation, and the biological control services. The task and place of each of these is elucidated. The industrial doctor's main task is the supervision of the medical surveillance of all personnel members, counseling of the radiological workers, and treatment of radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  8. From research to industry - the establishment of a radiation processing industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1983-01-01

    In the late sixties the South African Atomic Energy Board in pursuing its objectives to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy in general, established a research group with the specific purpose of investigating and developing radiation processing as a new technique. During the early years it was realised that the economic and technological facets of establishing a new industry were equally important and, in addition to fundamental research, strong emphasis was placed on the necessity of marketing this new technology. Although the initial emphasis was put on gamma sterilization, and today still forms the backbone of the radiation processing industry, the promising fields of polymer modification and food irradiation hold a lot of promise in the radiation processing industry. Following ten years of successfully introducing and providing a radiation service, the South African Atomic Energy Board in 1980 decided to transfer its service to the private sector. These developments in South Africa are a good sample of how a small country, through initial government involvement, can acquire a sophisticated new private industry. (author)

  9. Environmental aspects of the brazilian petroleum industry; Panorama ambiental da industria do petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, Roberto Carrilho; Amaral, Sergio Pinto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1989-12-31

    This paper shows the efforts made by the Brazilian Petroleum Company to insert into its activities the environmental variable, in order to accomplish the law requirements, from 1986 january to nowadays, mainly in adoption of studies and environmental impacts assessments 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Radiation in industrial processes;Applications reviewed at Warsaw Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  11. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  12. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  13. Comparison for air kerma from radiation protection gamma-ray beams with Brazilian network: 2016/2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Silva, C.N.M. da, E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, C.M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silveira, R.R. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Khoury, H.; Saito, V. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernandes, E. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas; Cardoso, W.F.; Oliveira, H.P.S. de [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (Eletronuclear), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, J.C.; Pires, M.A. [MRA Comércio de Instrumentos Eletrônicos Ltda, SP (Brazil); Amorim, A.S. de; Balthar, M. [Centro Tecnológico do Exercito (CTEx), RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for {sup 137}Cs and 0.7% for {sup 60}Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO / IEC 17025. (author)

  14. Comparison for Air Kerma from Radiation Protection Gamma-ray Beams with Brazilian Network - 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, TS; da Silva, CNM; Potiens, MPA; Soares, CMA; Silveira, RR; Khoury, H.; Saito, V.; Fernandes, E.; Cardoso, WF; de Oliveira, HPS; Pires, MA; de Amorim, AS; Balthar, M.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in 137Cs and 60Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for 137Cs and 0.7% for 60Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  15. Industrial radiation and radioisotope gauging techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation and radioisotope gauging industry in the United States has primarily followed a path of development solely by the private sector. It has remained highly proprietary in nature, which is opposite to the path taken by many other countries. In other countries radiation gauge development has been controlled in large part by government-sponsored research and development, which has spawned many more publications in the open literature. Historically, some of the leaders have been Great Britain, Poland, France, Russia, and Australia. This has possibly led to the misconception that the development of this technology is being dominated by countries outside the United States. This is not a healthy situation-it would be good to see our industry begin to publish more in the open literature and to sponsor more research at universities. In efforts to promote more open-literature publication, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) sponsored a topical meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications (IRRMA) in 1988 that was held again in 1992

  16. Radiation exposure dose on persons engaged in radiation-related industries in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Bong Sik

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the status of radiation exposure doses since the establishment of the 'Regulations on Safety Management of Diagnostic Radiation Generation Device' in January 6, 1995. The level of radiation exposure in people engaged or having been engaged in radiation-related industries of inspection organizations, educational organization, military units, hospitals, public health centers, businesses, research organizations or clinics over a 5 year period from Jan. 1, 2000 to Dec. 31, 2004 was measured. The 149,205 measurement data of 57,136 workers registered in a measurement organization were analysed in this study. Frequency analysis, a Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test, and ANOVA was used for data analysis. Among 57,136 men were 40,870 (71.5%). 50.3% of them were radiologic technologists, otherwise medical doctors (22.7%), nurse (2.9%) and others (24.1%). The average of depth radiation and surface radiation during the 5-year period were found to decrease each year. Both the depth radiation and surface radiation exposure were significantly higher in males, in older age groups, in radiological technologists of occupation. The departments of nuclear medicine had the highest exposure of both depth and surface radiation of the divisions of labor. There were 1.98 and 2.57 per 1,000 person-year were exposed more than 20 mSv (limit recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection) in depth and surface radiation consequently. The total exposure per worker was significantly decreased by year. But Careful awareness is needed for the workers who exposed over 20 mSv per year. In order to minimize exposure to radiation, each person engaged in a radiation-related industry must adhere to the individual safety management guidelines more thoroughly. In addition, systematic education and continuous guidance aimed at increasing the awareness of safety must be provided

  17. Innovation Networks: the Contribution of Partnerships to Innovative Performance of Firms in the Brazilian Electrical-Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvye Ane Massaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation networks have been identified in the literature as a way to complement firms’ innovative capabilities through collaboration with other partners. To provide empirical evidence for this assertion, this paper investigates the contribution of partners established in innovation networks for innovative performance of firms in the Brazilian electricalelectronics industry. For this purpose, we carried out an exploratory and descriptive survey among 185 companies. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. As the main findings, we observed that the establishment of collaborative relationships with customers, competitors and universities/research institutions can contribute to organizational and process innovation. However, despite obtaining some significant results concerning the contribution of different partners in the network, electrical-electronics industry companies also attach great importance to internal activities to develop their innovations.

  18. The 10 recommendations for prevention of radiation accidents in industrial gamma radiography; As 10 recomendacoes mais importantes para prevencao de acidentes radiologicos em gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luana Silva de

    2015-07-01

    The Industrial Gamma Radiography, as part of Industrial Radiography, stands out as the most widespread and plays an important role in the quality control of different materials and devices. However, IAEA classifies industrial gamma radiography in the Category 2 as very dangerous due to the radiological risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. In March, 2012, a Brazilian Workshop on Prevention of Industrial Gamma Radiography Accident was performed by DIAPI/CNEN with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiological accidents with radioactive sources in this application. During this Workshop, IRD/CNEN conducted a survey with 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, aiming to select the most voted. This present work aims to perform a detailed statistical study to define the Top 10 Recommendations for industrial gamma radiography operator avoids radiological accidents and to prepare a brochure with these top 10 recommendations to be distributed to all industrial gamma radiography radiation workers. Data analysis was performed using the statistical method 'Frequency Distribution', among the 75 participants categorized as General, RPO, and Other Workers of the area. The results were obtained for each category, accounting for the total of 22 recommendations in its percentage and number of votes, and the top 10 recommendations were defined to prevent radiological accidents. The first place and most important recommendation is 'Always use a personal alarm monitor throughout the work'. One of the conclusions is that the brochure with the Top 10 Recommendations shows to be understandable and useful for dissemination and training of radiation workers to avoid radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography. (author)

  19. Perspective on radiation from the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for estimating the risk of radiation induced cancer mortality to members of the public are outlined for each element of the nuclear power industry - reactor accidents, routine releases from nuclear plants, transport, mining and milling of uranium, and escape of buried radioactive waste (high level and low level). The results are compared with mortality risks from the air pollution and chemical carcinogens released into the ground in generating the same amount of electricity by coal burning - the latter are thousands of times larger. Radiation from nuclear power is also 1,000 times smaller than that from radon in homes. The amount of money spent to avert a death from nuclear power radiation is in the billion dollar range, whereas lives could be saved from radon in homes for 0.00001 times that cost. Medical screening and highway safety programs can save lives for a similarly low cost

  20. Present status of industrial utilization of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotopes, such as Co-60 and Cs-137, and accelerators for electrically generating radiations are widely used as radiation sources for industrial radiation exposure applications. It is estimated that about 100 electron accelerators are in use in Japan as of 1985 in the industrial and R and D fields while about 300 - 400 accelerators and more than 130 Co-60 irradiation systems have been installed over the world. In the field of materials development, accelerators are currently utilized for production of cross-linked, high-temperature resistant cable cladding, production of heat-shrinkable polymer materials, pre-crosslinking of rubber sheet for tier, production of expanded polyethylene, graft copolymerization for producing diaphragms for battery, electron-beam surface coating, and lithography for semiconductor manufacturing. In the field of environmental protection, accelerators are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from gas emission, sterilization and composting of sludge, and electron treatment of water. Radiations are also used for sterilization of medical instruments. In addition, high-energy ion beam irradiation has already come into practical use in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and metallic surface treatment. (Nogami, K.)

  1. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  2. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise. (author)

  3. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, E S [Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise.

  4. Recommendations for prevention of radiation accident in industrial gammagraphy; Recomendações para prevenção de acidentes radiológicos em gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Industrial Gammagraphy plays an important role in the quality control of various materials and components. It is classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 2, due to its radiation risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. This risk is based on the harmful consequences of human health, described in some accidents in the world, due to failures. In 2012, the 'Brazilian National Workshop on Accident Prevention in Industrial Gammagraphy' was carried out by DIAPI/CNEN, with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiation accidents. At the time, the IRD/CNEN-RJ carried out a survey with the 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, in order to select the 10 most voted. A statistical study, using the 'Frequency Distribution' method, was performed to define 10 recommendations. The percentage and vote results were obtained by category of the participants and the 10 most important recommendations were defined to prevent radiation accidents. The recommendation that came in first place was 'Always use an individual monitor with alarm during all work'.

  5. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel; Antoniassi Rosemar; de Faria-Machado Adelia Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the...

  6. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  7. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  8. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alexandre R.; Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F.; Silva, Francisco C.A. Da

    2015-01-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  9. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  10. The competent person in radiation protection: practical radiation protection for industry and research - unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, H.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)

  11. Fugitive emission inventory from Brazilian oil and gas industry (2000-2005) and discussion of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni, Flavia A.; D' Avignon, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Centro Clima

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate current emissions of GHGs within the Brazilian oil and gas industry, specifically the fugitive emissions arising from exploration and production. Besides, projects for mitigating these emissions and opportunities for the national industry are investigated. Results show that N{sub 2}O contributes little to fugitive emissions from the oil and gas industry, principally from gas sector. NMVOC emissions are significant, principally from the oil sector. In relation to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions, the oil sector emits more CO{sub 2} while the gas sector contributes more to CH{sub 4} emissions. In both sectors flaring is the activity that emits most CO{sub 2}. In relation to CH{sub 4} the principal contribution to emissions are from exploration and production onshore, although offshore activities as a whole play a greater part in the national industry. The results make it clear that the use of gas from flaring activity is a great opportunity for emission mitigation projects. From a business point of view, methane emissions could mean lost opportunities in selling natural gas. The Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation actions, provide the opportunity to stimulate investments in projects for reducing flaring and venting of associated gas. (author)

  12. The Brazilian equipment for photovoltaic systems industry: current concepts; A industria brasileira de equipamentos para sistemas fotovoltaicos: panorama atual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira Martins; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: fkv@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada], e-mail: lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The use of renewable alternative sources of energy in the world has been growing in the last few decades due to concerns about dependence on fossil sources and to environmental reasons, related to climatic change and its effects on mankind. Tax and/or financial incentives have been instituted for the population, to have access to renewable source technologies, and for the local equipment industry, to develop more quickly. In Brazil, the PV (photovoltaic) equipment to convert solar into electricity is more often used in low income rural communities, located distant from the grid network. However, since there is no currently specific regulatory incentive mechanism for this source in the country, the Brazilian PV equipment industry has not made great advances and the market is largely dominated by multinationals. Against this background, this work has as objective to analyze the current PV equipment industry in Brazil, in such way that the obtained information can aid in a future elaboration of a national program development to promote the use of this technology, stimulating the domestic industry and reducing the dependence on imported equipment. (author)

  13. Green house gas emissions reduction in Brazilian industry; Reducao das emissoes de gases causadores do efeito estufa na industria brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The recent crisis in electricity supply raised in all Brazilians the necessity in improving energy resources. The expansion of generation capacity cannot be seen as the unique solution: optimise what is available already is at least so important than to expand. The rational use of energy resources brings additional benefits as reduced environmental impacts, replacement of equipment and following incentives to industry and employment. Promote coordinated actions has been challenging in several places. In Brazil, GERBI Program aims to address several market barriers, developing activities in different fronts: service suppliers' qualification, preparation of financial agents and, mainly, engage industrial end users for improved solutions. The paper presents GERBI Program structure as an incentive to rational energy use in industrial facilities, focused on GHG emissions reduction. The Program is structured in three main components: energy efficiency projects development, supporting industries to implement better practices and efficient technologies, development of CDM candidate projects, making use of 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions, and training and qualification. (author)

  14. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  15. Health effects of radiation exposure and protection from radiation through an industrial health management angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Gen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines fundamental knowledge, health risks, and protection related to radiation in order to carry out appropriate industrial health management to reduce great public anxiety caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident developed by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Radiation generally causes damage to DNA such as generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, which are also created by exposures of various kinds of physical and chemical factors. This suggests that as well as applying 5 basic measures for industrial health management in the work place, common public health measures and disease prevention, such as keeping good sanitary conditions, healthy lifestyles, home discipline, social supports, efficient health education, etc. are important for us to prevent radiation-related cancer manifestation. Improvement of early detection and treatment for cancer is also important to eliminate the public anxiety. (A.O.)

  16. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  17. The strategic value of industrial radiation manufacturing and processing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappas, W.J.; Silverman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Planned and projected budget cuts over the next many years will reduce the number of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and the diversity and quantity of their armaments and systems. Consequently, there is a requirement for the deployment of more effective defense equipment and their more efficient operation. Concomitant with this challenge is an opportunity for innovative technologies that can, at a lower cost, produce new, stronger, more durable materials-and do so with less environmental impact. Radiation processing offers this potential for (a) creating significant cost savings and performance advantages in a broad range of defense materials; (b) destroying and detoxifying dangerous chemicals, ordnance, and rocket propellants; (c) cleaning noxious gaseous effluents; and (d) purifying contaminated water. Radiation technology has the potential to immediately affect defense materials and, in the short and long terms, US industrial international competitiveness

  18. Radiation protection optimization in the CAETITE industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Py Junior, D.; Figueiredo, N.; Dos Santos Dias, P.L.; Mantovani Lima, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents, briefly, the radiation protection aspects of process, project and operation of the Caetite Industrial Complex, CIC. Planing priorities were to minimize Environmental Radiological Impact and Occupational Radiological Risk - Based on previous experiences, the process and the project were optimized, in order to minimize environmental impact and allow simultaneous natural environment restoration and operation. Technical, practical and economical advantages became evident during all project fazes, from the initial project development to the conclusion of all decommissioning steps. Planing, conducts. adequate working methods and workers training, together, turned out to be the most efficient way for occupational radiological risk reduction. This efficiency was proved during operational tests and initial operation of the Complex. Radiation Protection optimization is achieved by worker's responsibility, turning safety corrections interference less frequents, rising consequently, minimizing environmental impact. (author)

  19. Radiation and applications: Technical innovation made by industrial irradiation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The innovation represented by irradiation as a means of industrial process technology lies in the very special way in which energy is introduced into some object in which it initiates reactions. This is based on the penetrating capability of ionizing radiation, which can produce reactive species, especially radicals, inside an object without requiring the whole object to be subjected to such conditions as, e.g., high temperatures or pressures, which would otherwise be needed to initiate the corresponding reactions. This unique advantage of triggering off reactions by means of ionizing radiation results in possibilities of process technology no other procedure can offer. An aspect becoming more and more important is the possibility to replace expensive materials hard to process by cheaper materials brought into a specific form more easily. Irradiation processes can assign to these materials at least some of the properties and combinations of properties, respectively, of higher-grade materials. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  1. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures

  2. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  3. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  4. Global value chains: an analysis of the overflow effect of the Brazilian auto industry for the years 2000 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Leite de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to map, analyze and compare the production multipliers and the overflow effect related to the manufacturing sector of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers to 43 countries plus the rest of the world - focusing on Brazil - for the years of 2000 and 2014. For this purpose, a theoretical and empirical discussion was held that contemplates theories about the Global Value Chains and a retrospective of the Brazilian automobile industry. The work used the global input-output analysis to estimate the production multipliers based on data available from WIOD (2017. As the main result the research indicates an increase of the multipliers of global production, occurring the same for this sector in Brazil. Another important result was the reduction of the overflow effect for Brazil going against the global effect, that is, this sector, which is supported by the State, decreased its external dependence

  5. Stress tolerance and growth physiology of yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Bianca, B E; Gombert, A K

    2013-12-01

    Improved biofuels production requires a better understanding of industrial microorganisms. Some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from the fuel ethanol industry in Brazil, present exceptional fermentation performance, persistence and prevalence in the harsh industrial environment. Nevertheless, their physiology has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a first systematic evaluation of the widely used industrial strains PE-2, CAT-1, BG-1 and JP1, in terms of their tolerance towards process-related stressors. We also analyzed their growth physiology under heat stress. These strains were evaluated in parallel to laboratory and baker's strains. Whereas the industrial strains performed in general better than the laboratory strains under ethanol or acetic acid stresses and on industrial media, high sugar stress was tolerated equally by all strains. Heat and low pH stresses clearly distinguished fuel ethanol strains from the others, indicating that these conditions might be the ones that mostly exert selective pressure on cells in the industrial environment. During shake-flask cultivations using a synthetic medium at 37 °C, industrial strains presented higher ethanol yields on glucose than the laboratory strains, indicating that they could have been selected for this trait-a response to energy-demanding fermentation conditions. These results might be useful to guide future improvements of large-scale fuel ethanol production via engineering of stress tolerance traits in other strains, and eventually also for promoting the use of these fuel ethanol strains in different industrial bioprocesses.

  6. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C

    1997-12-31

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author) 2 graphs, 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1996-01-01

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author)

  8. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C

    1996-12-31

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author) 2 graphs, 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The use of ICT tools to support collaborative product development activities: evidences from Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Valle Enrique

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims This paper aims to understand the relationship between Information & Communication Technology (ICT, collaborative New Product Development (NPD and customer satisfaction (NPD performance. Originality We target the relationship between ICT, collaborative NPD and NPD performance. ICT is assessed as a set of specific tools adopted by the companies. Research method We test the mediating role of collaborative practices in the effect of ICT tools on customer satisfaction (as NPD performance by means of a survey of 105 Brazilian firms. Main findings Collaboration with customers and suppliers has an important role for customer satisfaction and the use of ICT has significant effect on NPD performance through the mediating role of collaborative practices. Implications for theory and practice Implementing only ICT tools is not enough to achieve higher level of success in NPD. Managers should first strength the relationship between stakeholders and then adopt ICT tools to support the cooperation.

  10. Estimation of annual radiation dose received by some industrial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ajay; Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Radon and its progeny in the atmosphere, soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, enhanced interest exhibited in tracking its concentration is thus fundamental for radiation protection. The combustion of coal in various industrial units like thermal power plants. National fertilizer plants, paper mill etc. results in the release of some natural radioactivity to the atmosphere through formation of fly ash and bottom ash or slag. This consequent increases the radioactivity in soil, water and atmosphere around thermal power plants. Keeping this in mind the measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentration in the environment of some industrial units has been carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The specially designed twin cup dosimeter used here consists two chambers of cylindrical geometry separated by a wall in the middle with each having length of 4.5 cm and radius of 3.1 cm. This dosimeter employs three SSNTDs out of which two detectors were placed in each chamber and a third one was placed on the outer surface of the dosimeter. One chamber is fitted with glass fiber filter so that radon and thoron both can diffuse into the chamber while in other chamber, a semi permeable membrane is used. The membrane mode measures the radon concentration alone as it can diffuse through the membrane but suppresses the thoron. The twin cup dosimeter also has a provision for bare mode enabling it to register tracks due to radon, thoron and their progeny in total. Therefore, using this dosimeter we can measure the individual concentration of radon, thoron, and their progeny at the same time. The annual effective doses received by the workers in some industrial units has been calculated. The results indicate some higher levels in coal handling and fly ash area of the plants. (author)

  11. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  12. The Brazilian national para-petroleum industry and the role played in the competitiveness of the Brazilian 'petroleum diamond'; A industria para-petroleira nacional e o seu papel na competitividade do 'diamante petroleiro' brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Maria Regina Macchione de Arruda

    1999-07-01

    The author uses the Michael Porter framework, (from the University of Harvard), about the 'Competitive Advantage of Nations', as a theoretical instrument to analyze the Brazilian oil industry. The document studies, specifically, the related and supporting industries, one of the four determinants that, according to the author, promote the creation of national competitive advantages; the others are: the factors conditions; the demand conditions; and the firm strategy, structure and rivalry. The study aims at building a general view of competitiveness for the so called supply industries to the oil sector, which have a fundamental role in this model. Although Brazil has developed, with the leadership of PETROBRAS, a complex industrial system, this structure of related and supporting industries will have to face new challenges, having to improve efficiency, reduce costs and redefine its global strategies. (author)

  13. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract: Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships, and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines.

  14. Evaluation of the nutritional status of workers of transformation industries adherent to the Brazilian Workers' Food Program. A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid W Leal Bezerra

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess whether the Brazilian Workers' Food Program (WFP is associated with changes in the nutritional status of workers in the transformation industry. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study, based on prospectively collected data from a combined stratified and two-stage probability sample of workers from 26 small and medium size companies, 13 adherent and 13 non-adherent to the WFP, in the food, mining and textile sectors. Study variables were body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and dietary intake at lunch obtained by 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed with nested mixed effects linear regression with adjustment by subject variables. Sampling weights were applied in computing population parameters. The final sample consisted of 1069 workers, 541 from WFP-adherent and 528 from WFP non-adherent companies. The groups were different only in education level, income and in-house training. Workers in WFP-adherent companies have greater BMI (27.0 kg/m2 vs. 26.0 kg/m2, p = 0.002 and WC (87.9 cm vs. 86.5, p = 0.04, higher prevalence of excessive weight (62.6% vs. 55.5%, p<0.001 and of increased WC (49.1% vs. 39.9%. Workers of WFP companies have lower intake of saturated fat (-1.34 g, p<0.01 and sodium (-0.3 g, p<0.01 at lunch. In conclusion, this study showed that workers of companies adherent to the Brazilian WFP have greater rates of excessive weight and increased cardiovascular risk-a negative finding-as well as lower intake of sodium and saturated fat-a positive finding. Therefore, the WFP needs to be revisited and its aims redefined according to the current epidemiological status of the target population of the program.

  15. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  16. Medical and industrial radiation sources as radiological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, T.; Fischer, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The execution of attacks with radiological weapons are well within the capabilities of both local terrorist groups and transnational terrorist networks. In a research project, plausible attack scenarios have been developed, based on medical and industrial radioactive sources widely used in Germany. Special emphasis was put on how such sources could be obtained applying criminal tactics. To this end, working procedures in hospitals and companies have been analyzed. Furthermore, by means of simulations, the consequences of a terrorist attack using such sources were estimated. None of the scenarios we investigated led to doses at the site of the explosion which might cause acute radiation effects. However, in some scenarios, an attack would result in the necessity of a potentially very costly clean-up of large urban areas. Therefore, improvements in sources security are recommended. (orig.)

  17. Provision of radiation safety at the designing of the industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, S.Yu.; Sevastyuk, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the basic principles and criteria of the radiation safety provision, organization of the radiation control system, and dose calculation for the staff irradiation at the construction and operation of the Industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

  18. Industrial applications of radiation chemistry; Perspectives industrielles de la chimie sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Jean Rene [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de chimie-physique, CEN de Saclay (France)

    1959-07-01

    The status of industrial applications of radiation chemistry as it stands 6 months after the second Geneva international conference is described. The main features of the interaction of ionizing radiations with matter are briefly stated and a review is made of the best studied and the more promising systems of radiation chemistry. The fields of organics, plastics, heterogeneous catalysis are emphasized. Economies of radiation production and utilization are discussed. Reprint of a paper published in Industries atomiques - no. 5-6, 1959.

  19. Occupational exposures in industrial application of radiation during 1999-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Suresh Shantaram; Baburajan, Sujatha; Pawar, Suresh Ganpat; Nalawade, Shailesh Krishna; Sapra, Balvinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Radiation sources are used in various industrial applications like industrial radiograph, industrial irradiation, industrial fluoroscopy, nucleonic gauges, well logging etc., Gamma, beta X-ray as well as neutron sources are used for various applications. Number of radiation workers in this field has increased over the years. Due to operating conditions prevailing during the exposure as well as the strength of the sources used in some of the applications, radiation protection plays an important role in this field. Analysis of doses received by radiation workers in industry provides information on trends of doses as well as adequateness of radiation protection practices followed in this sector. In India, National Occupational Dose Registry System (NODRS) of Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RPAD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) maintains personnel dose information of monitored radiation workers in the country. Analysis of occupational dose data of industrial radiation workers for last 10 years, i.e., 1999-2008 has been presented in this paper. It is observed that even though there is an increase in monitored radiation workers, percentage of persons receiving radiation exposure has come down during this period. There is also a decrease in the average annual dose as well as the collective dose. Further analysis of sub-categories shows that industrial radiography operations are the main contributor for collective dose (about 77%) followed by well logging and industrial X-ray operations (about 8% each). Thus, in addition to industrial radiography attention is also to be given to operations in these areas. (author)

  20. INMETRO products analysis program: impact on quality of the brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Borges

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to proceed a detailed analysis of the Products Analysis Program of Inmetro, evaluating its contribution to the suppliers of products and services. The relevance of this program - a governmental initiative financed with public resources that relates several sectors of the society – as a factor of incentive to the competitiveness of the national industry, can be evidenced by the research of the impact generated by this activity, translated in improvement actions to the analyzed products and services that aim at the correction of eventual non-conformity to the criteria set in standards and technical regulations related to health and safety. Several sectors in industry have been benefited with the creation or revision of standards, implementation of industry quality programs, voluntary or mandatory conformity assessment programs, and others. The consequences include, beyond the protection of the consumers, the increase of national industry competitiveness and domestic market strength, and the warranty of loyal competition between the suppliers. Key-words: Product Analysis, Quality, Inmetro.

  1. The importance of the industrialization of Brazilian shale when faced with the world energy scenario; A importancia da industrializacao do xisto brasileiro frente ao cenario energetico mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marilin Mariano dos; Matai, Patricia Helena Lara dos Santos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], Emails: marilinsantos@usp.br, pmatai@usp.br

    2010-10-15

    This article discusses the importance of the industrialization of Brazilian shale based on factors such as: security of the national energy system security, global oil geopolitical, resources available, production costs, oil prices, environmental impacts and the national oil reserves. The study shows that the industrialization of shale always arises when issues such as peak oil or its geopolitics appear as factors that raise the price of oil to unrealistic levels. The article concludes that in the Brazilian case, shale oil may be classified as a strategic resource, economically viable, currently in development by the success of the retorting technology for extraction of shale oil and the price of crude oil. The article presents the conclusion that shale may be the driving factor for the formation of a technology park in Sao Mateus do Sul, due to the city's economic dependence on PETROSIX. (author)

  2. Self-Control, Self-Management and Entrepreneurship in Brazilian Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Bendassolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creative entrepreneurship has gained ground in recent years with the advent of creative industries. The capabilitiesto set targets and individually self-regulate have been indicated as predictors of entrepreneurship. This study aims to identify validity characteristics of a self-regulation scale and to test if score differences are related to whether or not one is an entrepreneur, personalcharacteristics, or the activity sector. A total of 596 professionals from creative industries in Brazil participated in this study. The self-control and self-management scale (SCMS has been applied; it has been translated and adapted to Portuguese. Cross-validation analysis has been done. The results support the three-factor structure of the scale. Entrepreneurs tended to indicate higher means in the self-evaluation factor than non-entrepreneurs. Activity sector, gender and schooling demonstrated a significant difference in the self-monitoring factor.

  3. Energetic consumption in the Brazilian fertilizers industry; Consumo energetico na industria brasileira de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The main production processes in the fertilizers industry are presented and their energy consumption are presented and discussed. The energetics used in these processes are presented. The consumption per sector is presented and a brief historic of its evolution is also presented and discussed. The energetic policies which concern this energy intensive sector are presented and discussed. Finally, the future trends for the sector are presented and discussed 6 tabs.

  4. Energetic consumption in the Brazilian fertilizers industry; Consumo energetico na industria brasileira de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The main production processes in the fertilizers industry are presented and their energy consumption are presented and discussed. The energetics used in these processes are presented. The consumption per sector is presented and a brief historic of its evolution is also presented and discussed. The energetic policies which concern this energy intensive sector are presented and discussed. Finally, the future trends for the sector are presented and discussed 6 tabs.

  5. Phosphorus migration analysis using synchrotron radiation in soil treated with Brazilian granular fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Melo Benites, Vinícius de; César Teixeira, Paulo; Anjos, Marcelino José dos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil type red Oxisol treated with three different forms of granular fertilizer. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was applied to determine the concentration of P at different distances from granular fertilizer application point. The results showed that most of the P from fertilizers tends to concentrate in a region of up to 10 mm around the place of the fertilizer deposition. - Highlights: • Phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil. • Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was applied to determine the concentration of P. • Fertilizers used monoammonium phosphate and polymer coated monoammonium phosphate.

  6. Sources of institutional pressure: reflections on legitimacy in the Brazilian hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Pusch Wilke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rules and regulations created and consolidated in society make up a set of institutional forces that press organizations seek legitimacy in their industry (Oliver, 1988; Deephouse, 1996. Although the literature has dismissed efforts to identify the forces that contribute to the isomorphism of the organizations belonging to the service sector, such as hospitals and social services, there are still gaps to be filled specifically as it relates to the hospitality industry. In this sense, the aim of this study has centered on establishing reflections on the legitimacy in the hotel industry and the factors that determine its occurrence. Methodologically, we raise the seminal studies and recent contributions on institutional theory and strategy in hospitality. Conclusively, our premises that the main sources of institutional legitimacy of hospitality organizations, the use of managerial and technical expertise, the abide by legal requisites – imperative and optional – and the imitation organizational success, in fact originate, circumstantially, from one or from the combination of the above mentioned forces.

  7. Occupational exposures in industrial application of radiation during 1999-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Baburajan, Sujatha; Pawar, S.G.; Nalawade, S.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Application of radiation in industry, medicine and research sector has increase significantly over the years. In industry main applications are industrial radiography, industrial fluoroscopy, radiation processing, luminizing, nucleonic gauges. Since the strength of the source used is generally high compared to other applications as well as the operating conditions prevailing during the exposure, radiological protection plays important role in this sector. Analysis of dose data, available with National Occupational Dose Registry of RPAD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, provides some insight into trends in occupational exposures received by industrial radiation workers. This helps in providing information on adequateness of radiation protection practices followed in the industry. This paper presents the trends in occupational exposure received by radiation workers in the industry during past 10 years (1999 to 2008). It is observed that there is a gradual increase in the occupational radiation workers during the period. The number of persons monitored as well as exposed is highest in industrial radiography compared to other sub-categories. Major contribution to collective dose is also from industrial radiography. The highest annual average as well as exposed average doses are contributed by industrial radiography. The monitored persons receiving dose d 5 mSv is 96.9% industry

  8. Beyond the low-skill equilibrium? A case study of the local content policy in the Brazilian oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis wishes to explore the labor market in the Brazilian oil and gas industry during the peak years of the oil boom, seen from Norwegian multinational companies (MNC) point of view. The theoretical perspective applied in the analysis is the hierarchical market economy (HME) typology, deriving from the varieties of capitalism (VOC) framework. In HMEs, the low-skill equilibrium is a prominent feature, in which none of the actors involved has incentives to invest in education and ...

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  11. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Ibañez, Nelson; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana

    2016-11-03

    Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships), and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines. Resumo: As inovações tecnológicas jogam papel decisivo no processo de desenvolvimento das sociedades, visto que contribuem para gerar crescimento econômico e bem-estar da população. O Estado possui grande importância e centralidade nesse processo, pois pode induzir fortemente o comportamento, as estratégias e as decisões relativas à inovação. O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar a atual política de desenvolvimento produtivo em saúde no Brasil e seus reflexos sobre a capacitação dos laboratórios públicos nacionais. Para essa finalidade, contextualiza os diferentes ciclos de interação entre a política de saúde e a sua base produtiva, discute a estratégia do governo brasileiro para o desenvolvimento, a transferência e a absorção de tecnologia na área da saúde (as parcerias para o desenvolvimento produtivo) e apresenta duas parcerias vigentes envolvendo laboratórios públicos para a produção de medicamentos e vacinas.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus in Some Brazilian Dairy Industries: Changes of Contamination and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza T.; Lee, Sarah H. I.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0.......8% of strains being sensitive to all antibiotic classes and no Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were found. The enterotoxin-encoding genes involved in food-poisoning, e.g., sea, sed, see, and seg were targeted by PCR. The two toxin-encoding genes, sed and see, were not detected. Only three strains...... contamination....

  13. STRUCTURING AND FINANCING OF BRAZILIAN FILM INDUSTRY: THE AMBITION OF A SELF-SUSTAINING PATH

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREA DE MELO CASSINELLI

    2012-01-01

    O desenvolvimento e consolidação da atividade cinematográfica enquanto indústria resultou de um processo longo e complexo de ações por parte de agentes tanto privados como governamentais do mundo todo, no intuito de encontrar um equilíbrio industrial, financeiro e social para esta atividade altamente onerosa e arriscada, porém estratégica para a maioria dos países. Com o advento das novas mídias no início do século XX e consequente aparecimento de uma nova indústria, mais complexa e abrangent...

  14. THE GENERIC DRUGS LAUNCH AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE DAVID COHEN

    2004-01-01

    O propósito deste estudo é analisar o advento dos genéricos e verificar seu impacto nas estratégias competitivas implementadas por empresas da indústria farmacêutica brasileira. Este trabalho adota como base o estudo de Michael Porter sobre tipologias, identificando as estratégias relevantes e os grupamentos existentes nesse segmento industrial, buscando também relacionar o posicionamento estratégico assumido pelos laboratórios ao desempenho observado. O método ...

  15. Applications og gamma radiation to the forestry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotomayor, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Chile is a country with forestry attributes, which have been developed by government policies to the point where this sector is now the country's second source of export income, at around US$ 2 billion annually. Forestry plantations are providing the market with growing product volumes and by 2010 the availability of timber is estimated to be double that of 1996. Wood is a heavily used product worldwide, with characteristics such as durability, working ease, resistance to abrasion, and low density compared to other alternative products, putting it in demand for many applications. Nevertheless, it also has a series of limitations that restrict its field of application, the most important being dimensional instability, anisotropy in resistance properties and subject to insect and fungus attacks. The wood industry in Chile has been affected by phytosanitary restrictions imposed by the U.S.A. Around 2015 the fumigant MeBr will be prohibited by international sanitary regulations because of damage to the ozone layer. Given the big harvest that Chile will have in the coming decade, the country will have a greater need to access export markets, so it must find a technology to help it confront these prohibitions. The remanufacturing industry must also look for new markets, new products and products with greater added value, in order not to increase its exports of chips. This is the least manufactured product and has the least added value of anything that our forest can sell. Among the alternatives is the possibility of differentiating local production by generating new products from the species that are available in the country. There are nuclear techniques for improving wood properties, which have been analyzed by the CCHEN in order to meet the need of the local forestry industry. An internationally developed technique is the fabrication of wood-plastic composits, topic that has been analyzed and worked with INTEC-CHILE and privately owned companies have become interested

  16. Genetic effects of radiation in man: a critical analysis of methodology with examples from three surveys among Brazilian physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, N.

    1978-01-01

    Information obtained through three different surveys (two via mail and one through personal interviews) made among Brazilian physicians in presented. Data have been classified according to survey, medical speciality, protection used and pregnancy order. Events under consideration are abortions, stillbirths, neo-natal mortality, infant-juvenile mortality (under two criteria) and sex ratio. A number of statistically significant diferences have been found in the direction expected according to the radio-genetics theory and a few ones against it. Two of the surveys reveal an effect of the pregnancy order an abortions which was larger in the exposed samples than in the control ones. This fact could be due to radiation-induced genetic damage, especially chromosome aberrations [pt

  17. The application of radiation technology in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvermann, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a general survey of current applications for radiation processing such as sterilization of biological and medical supplies, crosslinking of polymers, production of durable press fabrics, radiation-cured coating, production of wood-plastic composites, radiation degradation and chemical synthesis. The adoption of radiation processing on large scale by Western Electric is presented. The trend in costs and the environmental problems has a profound effect on the future of radiation processing. (M.S.)

  18. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [es

  19. Brazilian industrial growth financing: are the sources adequate to the sectoral technological regimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyzing the relationship between the type of financing resources and growth of the manufacturing sectors, grouped according to technological regimes, and to relate this relationship to its degree of adequacy of the sources to the sectoral technological opportunities. Thus, panel data analysis was performed in order to asses the relationship between financial deepening and innovation. We gathered detailed data for each industrial sector, grouped according to its technological regimes, and ran a Granger causality test in panels. Results found report that more innovation-intense sectors, which boosted aggregated economic growth rather steeply, present inadequate financing dynamic to its own growth. Therefore, considering sectors with high technological opportunities and strong innovation persistence, it was observed a bank-based type of financing, whilst the ideal for its growth would be the market-based one. On the other hand, less innovative sectors are found in better situation of financing and better growth conditions. These (non-satisfactory requirements present themselves in (higher lower growth rates and industrial production share.O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a relação entre o tipo de financiamento e o crescimento dos diversos setores da indústria de transformação e ligá-la ao maior ou menor grau de adequação das fontes às oportunidades tecnológicas setoriais. Para tanto, faz-se uma avaliação em painel de dados da relação entre aprofundamento financeiro e inovação, utilizando dados desagregados para os setores industriais, agrupados de acordo com regimes tecnológicos, fazendo um exercício de Granger-causalidade em painéis. Os resultados encontrados mostram que os setores mais inovativos, que impulsionariam o crescimento da economia agregada de forma mais acentuada, apresentam dinâmicas de financiamento inadequadas ao seu crescimento. Assim, para setores com altas oportunidades tecnológicas e

  20. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva de acidentes radiologicos - estudo de um caso brasileiro de gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi [ARCtest - Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: protecao@arctest.com.br

    2002-07-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a {sup 60}Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand.

  1. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  2. Radiation curing--new technology of green industries facing 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianguo; Teng Renrui

    2000-01-01

    The development of radiation curing was simply reviewed and the mechanism of UV curing and EB curing, the equipment and materials used in the radiation curing were also introduced. Compared with ordinary curing, the radiation curing has advantages of energy saving, high effectiveness and little pollution. It is a new technology of green industries facing the 21st century

  3. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  4. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C.; Rosário Filho, Nelson A.; Grassi, Marco T.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO 2 ; SO 2 ; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at

  5. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosário Filho, Nelson A. [Department of Pediatric, Div. of Allergy and Pneumol, Federal University of Paran Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Grassi, Marco T. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Department of Chemistry Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO{sub 2}; SO{sub 2}; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of

  6. Peroxidase of Brazilian Cerrado grass as an alternative for agro industrial waste treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pinheiro Reis Souza Ramalho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination of wastewater continues to be a challenge for society and the scientific community. Despite the availability of various materials for study, enzymes stand out due to their specificity for decomposition and biodegradability for disposal. New sources of enzymes may represent efficient and low-cost alternatives compared to routinely used techniques. In this survey, the peroxidase profile from Echinolaena inflexa fruits was studied for possible applications in the treatment of wastewater. The protein content was found to be 5.33 mg g-1. The optimum reaction conditions were: 50°C, pH 7.5 at 0.1 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer for 15 min. The enzyme was inactivated after 5 min at 94°C and was inhibited when incubated with ascorbic acid at 10 mmol L-1. In tests using phenols and agro industrial waste, the peroxidase was able to oxidase 87.5% of catechol, 67.8% of pyrogallol, 39.1% of resorcinol and still presented 29.1% of the degradation capacity of raw wastewater phenolic compounds. The results showed that the Echinolaena inflexa peroxidase, a new source of enzymes, is a potential alternative to wastewater treatment.

  7. Combined zero-valent iron and fenton processes for the treatment of Brazilian TNT industry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Silva, Flavio T.; Paiva, Teresa C.B.

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impact caused by the production of explosives made from nitroaromatic compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is currently a major concern, mainly due to their toxic nature, a fact that makes these compounds highly harmful. This work evaluated a continual system treatment reactor (CSTR) consisting of column zero-valent iron and a system to promote a fenton reaction in order to create possible definitive routines for treating effluents originating from the TNT production process. The spectrophotometric results demonstrated that this combination of processes was highly efficient in promoting the removal of all the absorbed species at 290 nm and the visible region of the specter. The results also revealed that the combination of treatments was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly COD (95.5% reduction) and TNT concentration, whose total was converted into nitrous and phenolic compounds and, additionally, the acute toxicity was also significantly reduced (95%). These results indicate that the strategy can serve as an efficient option for effluent treatment, for release into the receiving body, or eventually for use as industrial reuse water.

  8. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobo, J.

    1985-01-01

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing. (author)

  9. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D´, J.

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless, radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing.

  10. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  11. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  12. Country of origin image attributes as a source of competitive advantage: study in international brazilian fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to understand which attributes of the country of origin image are source of international competitive advantage in the context of Brazilian fashion. From the theoretical framework related to competitive advantage, country of origin image, Brazilianness and their attributes in fashion, we conducted exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The results suggest that the image of Brazil is understood by the international fashion market in accordance with the attributes of the literature. However (i in fashion, market still does not have a steady concept on the image of Brazil, (ii Brazilianness attributes in fashion can be a source of competitive advantage in international trades if they are communicated, promoted and understood by the international market; finally, (iii among the eight Brazilianness trendy attributes identified in the literature, four were highlighted as differentiators: shape and volumes, colors, prints and lifestyle.

  13. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Abdullah

    1996-01-01

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  14. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities involved in the program are: production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; radiation detectors and nuclear instrumentation; radiation protection and dosimetry; education and training of human resources; applied research and new technologies. The guiding and actions that the section will adopt to attend the growing necessities of Brazilian society, considering technological powers, management, available substructure and associated difficulties are defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Applications of the interaction of the radiations ionizations with the matter in medicine and industry.

    CERN Document Server

    Fornaro, L

    2000-01-01

    When the ionizing radiation interact with the matter different effects happen on the radiations and on the matter. Many of these effects have been used with very different ends giving place to applications in several fields, among those that stand out the applications in medicine and industry. Basically, two different dispositions exist: one in that the radiation crosses or retrodisperse in the material and another in that the radiation acts on and it modifies the material.

  16. Applications of the interaction of the radiations ionizations with the matter in medicine and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2000-01-01

    When the ionizing radiation interact with the matter different effects happen on the radiations and on the matter. Many of these effects have been used with very different ends giving place to applications in several fields, among those that stand out the applications in medicine and industry. Basically, two different dispositions exist: one in that the radiation crosses or retrodisperse in the material and another in that the radiation acts on and it modifies the material

  17. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  18. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  19. An overview of equivalent doses in eye lens of occupational radiation workers in medical, industrial and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da; Hunt, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Some epidemiological evidences were recently reviewed by the ICRP and it was suggested that, for the eye lens, the absorbed dose threshold for induction of late detriments is about 0.5 Gy. On this basis, on 2011, the ICRP has recommended changes to the occupational dose limit in planned exposure situations, reducing the eye lens dose equivalent limit of 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year, on average, during the period of 5 years, with exposure not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. Following the ICRP recommendation, the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) adopted immediately the new limit to the eyes lens. This study aimed to show an overview about the doses in eye lens of occupational radiation workers in situations of planned exposures in the medical, industrial and nuclear areas, emphasizing the greatest radiological risks applications. It was observed that there are some limitations, such as example, to use individual monitor calibrated on Hp(3), to assess the equivalent dose in the eye lens. This limitation obstructs some experimental studies and monitoring of the levels of radiation received in the eye lens of radiation workers. Recent studies have showed that the lenses of eyes monitoring of workers, mainly in the planned exposure, must be follow-up. However, such researches were obtained only in medical exposures, mainly in interventional medicine procedures. Studies with planned exposure on nuclear and industrial areas are really needed and will be very important due to the new recommended by ICRP dose limits. (author)

  20. New requirements embodied in expert knowledge regulations for industrial radiation protection officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    Expert knowledge standards and certification requirements of health physics responsible persons or radiation safety officers in industry or in health care are laid down in Germany in administrative regulations. Now the new Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) contains a specific section exclusively devoted to all aspects of expert knowledge in industrial radiation protection, which inter alia demonstrates the special significance of education and further training of radiation protection specialists. It is expected that the forthcoming new X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) will contain a similar amendment. The article explains the implications of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance for the education and further training of industrial radiation protection officers, but does not address specific aspects of nuclear engineering. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Developing a training program for radiation protection officers in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinda, R.

    2013-04-01

    Non-Destructive Testing employs a variety of techniques which are used to test objects e.g. pipes, vessels, welded joints, castings and other devices for imperfections without interfering with their physical structure. The common methods of testing include magnetic particle, ultrasound, dye penetrant and industrial radiography using gamma emitting radiation sources and electronic x-ray emitting devices. Other methods used are acoustic emission testing, acoustic resonance testing, electromagnetic testing, infrared testing and leak testing. This project work focuses on training of RPOs in the areas where radiation is used, as improper use may lead to high radiation exposure. In order to ensure adequate protection and safety of staff and the public, the Radiation Protection Officers need to be thoroughly trained. With proper training the Radiation Protection Officer will have the ability to interpret legislative instruments and understand the requirements. The RPO will also be able to develop a Radiation Protection Plan and train fellow staff on radiation safety issues. A number of companies currently specialize in Industrial Radiography and this number is growing on a yearly basis. Since the increased use of radiation sources cannot be curbed, training Radiation Protection Officers will improve the radiation safety standards within these companies and promote the safe use of the radiation sources. Therefore this project covers the fundamental elements required to train Radiation Protection Officers in Industrial Radiography. (author)

  2. Utilization of radiation in industrial, agricultural and medical fields and its perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    2008-01-01

    The current status for the utilization of radiation in Japan was given from the view point of the economic scale. The topics which will be developed in near future such as lithography, radiation processing, radiation analysis in the industry, mutation breeding, sterile insect technique, food irradiation in agriculture, and radiation diagnosis, radiation therapy in medical field were presented. The important techniques for the further development of utilization of radiation will be the techniques related to the fabrication of semiconductor, developments of small accelerators and compact neutron generators. (author)

  3. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry; Catalise assimetrica no Brasil: desenvolvimento e potencialidades para o avanco da industria quimica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Antonio Luiz, E-mail: braga.antonio@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Luedtke, Diogo Seibert; Schneider, Paulo Henrique [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Andrade, Leandro Helgueira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Paixao, Marcio Weber [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  4. Regulatory and legal aspects in industrial mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Maisa Haiidamus

    2016-01-01

    The regulation between the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN performance and the mineral industries that produces NORM is presented. Besides the legal aspects, some comments from the point of view of the supervisory and licensing body about their performance in the radiation protection area are pointed out

  5. Development of a training programme for radiation protection officers in industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumuni, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources establish the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. One important aspect of the Safety Standard is education and training of all personnel involved in the activities of radiation and radioactive sources. According to the BSS a Radiation Protection Officer is an individual technically competent in radiation protection matters relevant for a given type of practice who is designated by the registrant or licensee to oversee the application of the requirements of the standards. By this assigned role, radiation protection officers for industrial irradiators should be adequately trained since these facilities involve very high dose rates during irradiation, such that a person accidentally exposed can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds and fatalities can occur. This training among others things will enable the radiation protection officers to understand practical application of the IAEA Safety Standard to industrial irradiator facilities, understand the requirements for safety assessments and emergency plans, be able to develop a radiation protection programme for irradiators, be familiar with the different types of industrial irradiators and their applications and understand the safety philosophy and design requirements for industrial irradiators. (author)

  6. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection

  7. Survey of radiation protection, radiation transport, and shielding information needs of the nuclear power industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; McGill, B.L.

    1976-04-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) is engaged in a program to seek out, organize, and disseminate information in the area of radiation transport, shielding, and radiation protection. This information consists of published literature, nuclear data, and computer codes and advanced analytical techniques required by ERDA, its contractors, and the nuclear power industry to improve radiation analysis and computing capability. Information generated in this effort becomes a part of the RSIC collection and/or data base. The purpose of this report on project 219-1 is to document the results of the survey of information and computer code needs of the nuclear power industry in the area of radiation analysis and protection.

  8. Radiation effects on electronic equipment: a designers'/users' guide for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Garlick, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Designers'/Users' Guide to the effects of radiation on electronics is published by the Radiation Testing Service of AEA Technology. The aim of the Guide is to document the available information that we have generated and collected over some ten years whilst operating as a radiation effects and design consultancy to the nuclear power industry. We hope that this will enable workers within the industry better to understand the likely effects of radiation on the system or plant being designed and so minimise the problems that can arise. (Author)

  9. Radiation safety consideration in uranium industry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; El-Assaly, F.M.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection measures are essential in mining and milling of uranium and thorium. The basic concept of radiation protection is that all exposures should be kept as low as it is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Most potential hazards arise from exposures to radioactive gases of radon and thoron and their daughter products. Thus new limits were derived by the ICRP integrating both the internal and external exposures to radon daughters. The present study evaluates the radiation protection measures carried out at three Egyptian mines (Massikat, Aradia North and South). Different recommendations were presented complying with optimization of radiation protection in accordance with the ICRP system of dose limitation

  10. The acute radiation syndrome in the 137Cs Brazilian accident, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Cordeiro, J.M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao Mello, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with the most severe degreed of bone marrow impairment are studied. Case descriptions are limited to manifestations and complications related to the 'Acute Radiation Syndrome' (ARS). Medical facilities, exams and therapeutic management are discussed. (MAC) [pt

  11. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, H.

    1991-07-01

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  12. Potential applications of radiation technology in meat industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.; Rao, M.S.; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Microbial load determines shelf-life and safety of meat products. Radiation technology is an effective tool in eliminating spoilage and pathogenic microbes in meat products. Radiation processing of meat can work in synergy with traditional preservation methods to enhance shelf-life and safety of meat products. (author)

  13. Radiation protection in uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The first phase of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is exploration for uranium and the next is mining and milling of uranium ore. This phase is mostly characterised by low levels of radioactivity and radiation exposure of the workers involved. Yet it is a paradoxical truth that incidence of cancer among the work force, especially miners, due to occupational radiation exposure (from radon and decay products) has been proved only in uranium mines in the entire Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Of course such incidence occurred before the detrimental effect of radiation exposure was realised and understood. Therefore it is important to familiarise oneself with the radiation hazards prevalent in the uranium mining and milling facilities so as to take appropriate remedial measures for the protection of not only the workers but also the public at large. There are both open cast and underground uranium mines around the world. Radiation hazards are considerably less significant in open cast mines than in underground mines unless the ore grade is very high. By default therefore the discussion which ensues relates mainly to radiation hazards in underground uranium mines and associated milling operations. The discussion gives a brief outline of typical uranium mine and mining and milling operations. This is followed by a description of the radiation hazards therein and protection measures that are to be taken to minimise radiation exposure. (author)

  14. The performance of ELETROBRAS, through PROCEL, in the energy efficiency of Brazilian industries; Atuacao da ELETROBRAS, atraves do PROCEL, na eficiencia energetica de industrias brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C A; Perrone, F P.D.; Moreira, M A.R.G.; Oliveira, H L; Pinto, A B.A.; Sobral, A S; Motta, B R; Moya, C H; Spera, M R; Vilela, L C.T.; Goes, R.R. de A.; Teixeira, M V.P.; Sobral, R.L. [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: carlosaparecido@eletrobras.com

    2009-07-01

    The technical part of this paper defends the idea of accomplishing systemic instead of punctual analysis in motor driven systems at industries, since the energetic efficiency potentials increase when all elements of the motor driven system is analyzed and not only the electrical motor. The institutional part of this paper presents the strategies of PROCEL Industria, executed by ELETROBRAS/PROCEL. The actions of this PROCEL sub program consist, basically, on activities with industrial state federations and universities so as to reduce the electrical energy consumption of motor driven systems in industries, which consumes almost 30% of the total Brazilian electricity consumption. This paper also presents results, experiences and future actions of PROCEL Industria. (author)

  15. Determination of possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in West Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.

    1979-04-01

    A study was made in Malaysia under an IAEA research contract on the possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in Malaysia. The study comprised of the measurement of external radiation levels in various mines, gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of various samples from mines, and measurements of radon and radon daughters concentrations. For radon daughters modified Tsivoglou and Kusnetz methods were used. The study showed that there is, in general, no radiation hazard associated with the tin mining industry in West Malaysia. However, the only likely source that might pose some external radiation hazard is the amang upgrading plant which invariably concentrates either or both 232 Th and 238 U in the final products of the upgrading process. A quantitative and thorough investigation of radiation levels in the amang upgrading industry is necessary to determine the degree of hazard. No significant radon or radon daughters concentrations were noted in the underground mines

  16. Brazilian oil and gas supply and service industry's: context and perspectives; Contexto e perspectivas do segmento para-petrolifero brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Ricardo Pimentel de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the goods and services supply oil segment, as different than the oil companies segment itself. It points to the transformations in the goods and services supply segment from the 1980s until now. At that time with low international oil prices, the oil companies induced the goods and services firms to assume a major role in development of technology. Inside the country here, the goods and services segment had high local content performance but it was associated to low technology intensity or to branches of large multinational firms installed in the Brazilian market. The paper points the French approaching on this same oil segment and its applicability to the Brazilian case, giving one example of financial R and D resources for supporting such a target. Otherwise than in France some specific obstacles can be found here in that development purpose. As alternative some others scenarios were finally explored in the paper for further suggestions for institutional approaching in this Brazilian industrial oil segment. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  18. Association of workplace and population characteristics with prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian industry workers: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Chaves Junior, Hilton de Castro; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Ione M F; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to risk factors for hypertension may be influenced by the characteristics of the workplace, where workers spend most of their daily time. To evaluate the association between features of the companies, particularly the presence of facilities to provide meals, and of population characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, taking into account individual risk factors for hypertension. This multilevel analysis was based on a cross-sectional study with individual and company data from the SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria-Social Service of Industries) study and population-based data from the national census statistics. Workers aged ≥15 years were randomly selected from small (20-99), medium (100-499) and large (≥500 employees) companies per state using multistage sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between hypertension and individual, workplace and population variables, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) adjusted for three-level variables. 4818 Workers from 157 companies were interviewed and their blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Overall, 77% were men, aged 35.4 ±10.7 years, with 8.7 ±4.1 years of schooling and mostly worked in companies with a staff canteen (66%). Besides individual characteristics-being male, ageing, low schooling, alcohol abuse and higher BMI-a workplace with no staff canteen (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52), small companies (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) and living in cities with higher economic inequality (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) were associated with a higher risk for hypertension. Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. These three-level characteristics help to interpret differences in the prevalence of hypertension between regions or countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  19. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  20. Measurement X radiation > 30 KeV in the Brazilian magnetic anomaly with omnidirectional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Junior, O.; Gonzalez-Alarcon, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C. de; Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Pinto, I.R.C.A.; Pereira, A.E.C.; Senador, R.

    1982-07-01

    Atmospheric X-Rays measurements, with energies > 30 KeV, were performed at Sao Jose dos Campos-Brazil (23 0 S, 46 0 W Geographic) on April 14 and December 19, 1981, using omnidirectional NaI (Tl) scintillation counters on board stratospheric balloons. The main purpose of these measurements is to study the dynamics of precipitating electrons at the Brazilian Magnetic Anomaly. Studies on similar measurements during the previous decade seemed to show the existence of approximately 100 KeV precipitating electrons, possibly related to a coulomb scattering with the atmosophere. The studies on the recent measurements try not only to confirm such indications, but also to show further features of the dynamics of precipitating electrons, mainly during magnetically active time intervals. During such intervals, more energetic electrons (up to approximately 1000 KeV) also seem to precipitate, probably due to resonant wave-particle interactions at the low latitude inner magnetosphere. The collected data during the recent measurements seem to indicate the existence of such interactions. (Author) [pt

  1. Existing designs and feasibilities in radiation industrial introscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial radiation introscopes for material quality control are considered. Data on introscope sensitivity, resolution limit and other characteristics and prospects of their development are given. Attention is paid to radiation-television equipment. Possibilities for combining optoelectronics with digital processing of images are considered. Main problems of radiation introscopy such as the development of digital and television system having 1250 lines in raster with a simultaneous broadening of a band up to 25 MHz, automatic decoding of shadow pictures, sensitivity improvement, using intensive X-ray devices, etc. are given

  2. Radiation protection and safety aspects in the use of radiation in medicine, industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    While ionizing radiations have significant and indispensable uses in several fields, it must be borne in mind that it may be harmful to the radiation workers and public if used indiscriminately and without due caution. Radiation doses received by these individuals should be kept well within the recommended limits through good work practices. It is therefore necessary to ensure safety of radiation workers, patients undergoing radiation diagnosis and treatment, public and environment so that maximum benefit is derived from the use of radiation with minimum and acceptable risk. General principles of radiation protection and safety in various applications of radiations are discussed

  3. Implementation of radiation protection programme in industrial radiography centers in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevband, M. [Radiation Protection Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiassi Negad, M. [Radiation Protection Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borhan Azad, S. [Radiation Protection Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, M. [Esfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Industrial radiography is one of the essential methods in the modern technology to guarantee the quality control of many types of devices, pieces and machines operation, and usually involves intense radiation sources, which can expose people at work to significant amounts of radiation. According to the reports of United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR 2000), the average occupational effective dose in this field is 3.37 mSv/y. The level of dose received by industrial radiographers was assessed in more than 1300 radiation workers in 120 industrial radiography companies. The level of radiation safety regulations and radiation protection programme implemented in Iranian industries was also studied. The results indicated that the average effective dose to the radiographers and collective effective dose are 1.65 mSv/y and 2.43 Man.Sv respectively. The results also showed that 88% of radiographers have received less than 5 mSv/y and only 1% received the annual dose more than 20 mSv. The lack of emergency instruction was found in 47% of companies and in 35% of companies there was not found any compatible emergency instrument. Suitable temporary storage and transportation facility was no also found in 30% of companies. Based on the results found in this study, the enforcement of the radiation protection low and industrial radiography code of practice for responsible persons and health physics officers are recommended. (authors)

  4. Implementation of radiation protection programme in industrial radiography centers in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deevband, M.; Ghiassi Negad, M.; Borhan Azad, S.; Tavakoli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Industrial radiography is one of the essential methods in the modern technology to guarantee the quality control of many types of devices, pieces and machines operation, and usually involves intense radiation sources, which can expose people at work to significant amounts of radiation. According to the reports of United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR 2000), the average occupational effective dose in this field is 3.37 mSv/y. The level of dose received by industrial radiographers was assessed in more than 1300 radiation workers in 120 industrial radiography companies. The level of radiation safety regulations and radiation protection programme implemented in Iranian industries was also studied. The results indicated that the average effective dose to the radiographers and collective effective dose are 1.65 mSv/y and 2.43 Man.Sv respectively. The results also showed that 88% of radiographers have received less than 5 mSv/y and only 1% received the annual dose more than 20 mSv. The lack of emergency instruction was found in 47% of companies and in 35% of companies there was not found any compatible emergency instrument. Suitable temporary storage and transportation facility was no also found in 30% of companies. Based on the results found in this study, the enforcement of the radiation protection low and industrial radiography code of practice for responsible persons and health physics officers are recommended. (authors)

  5. Assessing unregulated ionizing radiation exposures of U.S. populations from conventional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    During the latter twentieth century, the public learned to fear perceived threats from emerging technologies. Concern about ionizing radiation became a persistent fear, causing protracted and often pointless debate. The twenty-first century offers new opportunities for this fear to cause public and political upset. Citizens and politicians know little about 'normal' radiation exposures caused by conventional industries. This paper summarizes ionizing radiation exposure assessments of several such industries, showing they deliver multiples of background radiation annually to millions of people, with even higher subpopulation doses due to lognormally distributed exposures. Such information may be useful in educating the public and in supporting comparative assessments or other forms of research on potential sources of public radiation exposure in the twenty-first century. By exposing people to information about normal radiation, we may hope to avoid some unfortunate policies and unnecessary regulatory responses, while abating needless public fear during this technologically challenging century

  6. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyadi Rachmad; Muhammad Fathoni; Topo Suprihadi, PY.; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Eri Hiswara; Alatas, Zubaidah; Dahlan, Kgs.; Muhammad Isnaini

    2003-03-01

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  7. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow-up. A sign...

  8. Industrial applications of ionizing radiation in France; Zastosowanie przemyslowe promieniowania jonizujacego we Francji promieniowania jonizujacego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icre, P [CORFAR S.A., (France)

    1997-10-01

    The review of industrial applications of ionizing radiations in France has been done. The special attention has been paid on irradiation of minerals, polymers and biological materials.The perspectives of radiosterilization have been also discussed.The review of radiation sources commonly used in irradiation plants has been performed as well.

  9. Radiation resistivity of pure silica core image guides for industrial fiberscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Tsuji, Yukio; Hayami, Hiroyuki; Ishitani, Tadayoshi; Akutsu, Takeji; Suzuki, Koichi.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial fiberscopes incorporating pure silica core image guides have been extensively used for remote visual inspection in radiation fields including nuclear power plants, owing to their superior radiation resistivity. The authors have been intensively conducting R and D on improving radiation resistivity of pure silica core image guides. This paper reports the results of experiments to compare the effects of core materials on radiation resistivity and to investigate the dependence of radiation resistivity on total dose, does rate, and support pipe material. The results confirmed the superior radiation resistivity of the core material containing fluorine at any irradiation condition and indicated the existence of a critical dose rate at which radiation-induced deterioration was stabilized. No difference in radiation resistivity attributable to support layer material was observed. (author)

  10. Experiences in the monitoring of radiation workers in industry and hospitals in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, A.J.

    1976-08-01

    The task of monitoring of radiation doses among radiation workers employed either in industry and hospitals in the Philippines is presently being undertaken by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. These radiation monitoring devices cover not only radioactive materials or sources but also x-ray machines. The most common dosimetry used is the film badge. This paper presents some of the experiences gained in the use of the film badge and other dosimeters

  11. The design and qualification of radiation tolerant equipment for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.; Pater, L.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has many demands for equipment tolerant to the damaging effects of radiation. The wide variety of applications, including components handling, tooling, monitoring and communications, means that a systematic evaluation of the effects of radiation on materials and components used for equipment in radioactive facilities is often required. This paper describes the various effects of radiation on equipment, and discusses how to manage them when using and designing equipment. (Author)

  12. Radiation effects and hardness of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, R.; Friant, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief review of industrial and nuclear specificity and radiation effects in electronics components (semiconductors) the need for a specific test methodology of semiconductor devices is emphasized. Some studies appropriate for nuclear industry at D. LETI/DEIN/CEN-SACLAY are related [fr

  13. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya

    2015-01-01

    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  14. Industrial workshop on LASL semiconductor radiation-detector research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, M.

    1978-11-01

    An Industrial Workshop on LASL Semiconductor Radiation Detector Research and Development was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the spring of 1977. The purpose was to initiate communication between our detector research and development program and industry. LASL research programs were discussed with special emphasis on detector problems. Industrial needs and capabilities in detector research and development were also presented. Questions of technology transfer were addressed. The notes presented here are meant to be informal, as were the presentations

  15. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W. [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  16. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy: Brazilian Nuclear Program behind the scenes and the reflections in the national society and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear energy in the world, the Brazilian nuclear program, the industrial and social risks of nuclear segment, 20th century and the radiation accidents, the ionizing radiation effects in living beings, radioactive wastes, the Earth Letter and a list of CNEN regulations are presented

  18. Health check on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry using Todai Health Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takehiko; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Sudo, Seiji; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, the plants are located far from urban areas and the working environments are generally separate from each other for radiation protection purposes. The health investigation on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry was carried out using the Todai Health Index questionnaire in 1982, 1983 and 1984. As a control study non-radiation workers on the other several working fields were investigated in the same manner. The results showed that the status of radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry is similar to that of the workers in the other working fields and the THI questionnaire is useful to know health and working status of a group of workers. (author)

  19. Radiation safety training for industrial irradiators: What are we trying to accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation safety training at an industrial irradiator facility takes a different approach than the traditional methods and topics used at other facilities. Where the more routine industrial radiation users focus on standard training topics of contamination control, area surveys, and the traditional dogma of time, distance, and shielding, radiation safety in an industrial irradiation facility must be centered on preventing accidents. Because the primary methods for accomplishing that goal are engineering approaches such as safety system interlocks, training provided to facility personnel should address system operation and emergency actions. This presents challenges in delivering radiation safety training to an audience of varied educational and technical background where little to no commercially available training material specific to this type of operation exists

  20. Strategies for Industry Internationalization Brazilian Pulp and Paper the Perspective of Eclectic Paradigm: A Case Study of Pulp and Paper Company Suzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  1. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-01-01

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  2. Atoms in industry: Radiation technology supports development [Foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2015-01-01

    Cutting-edge industrial technologies underpin the success of strong economies, in developed and developing countries alike. Nuclear science and technology, in particular, can make a major contribution to economic growth and competitiveness, and have an important role to play in support of sustainable development. The IAEA helps to make nuclear science and technology available to enable countries to pursue wider development objectives in areas including human health, agriculture, natural resource management and environmental protection. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights some of the ways in which the technology is being put to effective use in industry.

  3. New radiation protection concept as important safety factor of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a method for non destructive testing of homogeneity of various materials based on different absorption of radiation in different material. X and γ radiation are the most often used. Detrimental effects of radiation are observed since its discovery. In order to prevent harmful effects of radiation without unduly limitations of its use, International Commission on Radiological Protection in collaboration with International Atomic Energy Agency have developed International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No 115, adopted in 1996. based on ICRP recommendations from 1991. Besides a lot of changes in radiation protection concept and philosophy, decrement of annual dose limits for occupational exposure from 50 to 20 mSv. (author)

  4. Determination of alpha constant value for brazilian reality aiming de radiation protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Pedro Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    This work aims to present a methodology for the calculation of the alpha constant taking into account the actual conditions in Brazil. This constant is used for the minimization of the worker doses meaning the optimization of radiation protection. The alpha constant represents a monetary value to establish the health detriment associated to the stochastic effects for unit of collective dose, and is directly related to the value of the human life. Along the years, several methods have been developed to obtain the most appropriate value for the alpha constant. These methods will be objects of analysis of this work. This work presents two methods for determination of the alpha constant: 'human capital' that is based on GDP of the country and 'willingness-to-pay' that is established for the value that the population would be willing to pay for the safety of the nuclear and radioactive facilities. A new methodology for the calculation of the alpha constant has been proposed in this study, that is the combination of two method previously mentioned, and recommends a new value of US$ 16,000.00 per man-sievert. Currently the value established by CNEN is US$ 10,000.00 per men sievert. This work also presents, in full details, the main mathematical tools for the elaboration of the optimization of the radiation protection: cost-benefit analysis, extended cost-benefit analysis and multi attribute utility analysis. An applied example, for an uranium mine radiation protection optimization was used to compare those two values of the alpha constant. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Medical and Dosimetric Monitoring of the Personnel Exposed to Ionizing Radiations in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammou, A.; Ben Hariz, N.; Ben Omrane, L.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of the ionizing radiations in industry, in particular in the field of the non destructive testing (NDT) exposes the operators to low radiation doses. Therefore Radiation protection measures in this field are needed. We report the results of a survey carried out on a sample of 50 workers in NDT in Tunisia; Our purpose is to evaluate the professional training levels in radiation protection of the operators, to determine their exposure dose rate. In case of over-exposure, to determine the causes, to evaluate the medical follow-up, and to propose adequate recommendations

  6. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition); Surete radiologique en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in Horizontal-Ellipsis shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  7. Lyoluminescence dosimetry of the radiation in industrial doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigna Filho, E. del.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays lyoluminescence (LL) dosimetry study is presented. The basic principles involved, both in the method and radiation dosimetry, the equivalence between water and lyoluminescent materials, apparatus, irradiation technique and calibration method are discussed. The LL response dependence with environmental conditions are presented. These were temperature, humidity, storage time and the dependence on dissolved mass. A pre-reading thermal treatment was developed to overcome previous difficulties. The developed technique was applied to dose intercomparisons. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Study of radiation portal monitor and its application to metal recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Lara-Calleja, S.; Suarez-Navarro, M. J.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The industry of the iron and the steel in one of the most important sectors in Spain for its economic development. the recycling of metallic materials as well as the import of metallic scrap is very significant. Several reports on accidental dispersion or smelting of radioactive sources in metal recycling industries confirm the possibility that radioactive material might be mixed with scrap. In consequence, this type of accident shows the necessity of a rigorous and specific radiation control of the sector. The control of these materials with radioactive content can be carried out with radiation portal monitors installed at the entrance of these industries. The detection of radioactive materials presents special features as the continuous background acquisition or the minimisation of the relatively large number of innocent/nuisance detections. In the present work, we study a radiation portal monitor, the FHT-1388-T Thermo-Eberline. This is one of the usual radiation portal systems installed at the entrance of the metal recycling industry. Se study the characteristics and parameters of this portal monitor to optimise its use. furthermore, we propose some rapid tests for radiation portal systems in metal recycling industry. (Author) 16 refs

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  10. Developing a training programme for radiation protection officers at industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davor, P.

    2013-04-01

    A training programme for staff of irradiation facilities especially radiation safety officers at industrial irradiation facilities has been developed. The programme focused on technical and administrative basis for ensuring radiation safety at the practices. It consists of thirteen modules ranging from fundamentals of radiation, biological effects of ionizing radiation as well as the technical and administrative issues pertinent to radiation safety of the sources. The overall objective of this programme was to build competence in the area of radiation protection and raise the confidence level of staff of industrial irradiation facilities. The modules are structured in a manner that attempts to give a good understanding to participants on safety features of irradiators and use of radiation monitoring equipment. Each module has specific objectives and expected outcome and the course content is also stated under each module. The duration of the whole programme is sixteen weeks and the participants are expected to have some working knowledge in radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. (au)

  11. Safety regulations of radiation sources in industry in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, A M [Licensing and Evaluation Section, Nuclear Regulations Licensing and Safeguards Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1992-12-31

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission established in 1958. This report aims to share the experiences of the PNRI on licensing and regulating the safe use of radioactive materials in industry, particularly in industrial gamma radiography, nuclear gauges and radioactive tracers. It enumerates the licensing and enforcement procedures. Some common problems encountered in the licensing and enforcement activities and comments of future plans to resolve the problems were also discussed. (Author).

  12. Safety regulations of radiation sources in industry in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission established in 1958. This report aims to share the experiences of the PNRI on licensing and regulating the safe use of radioactive materials in industry, particularly in industrial gamma radiography, nuclear gauges and radioactive tracers. It enumerates the licensing and enforcement procedures. Some common problems encountered in the licensing and enforcement activities and comments of future plans to resolve the problems were also discussed. (Author)

  13. The use of gamma radiation to control two serious pests of Brazilian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Aguilar, J.A.D.; Wiendl, F.M.; Wiendl, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of nuclear techniques to control two of the most important Lepidopteran insects pests in Brazil: Diatraea saccharalis, the sugarcane borer, and Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm. All experiments had the objective of finding the dose of gamma radiation capable of causing sterility in the first and second generations by irradiating the parental generation. For D. saccharalis, five day-old pupae were irradiated with doses of 100, 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was reduced to 15% when moths were treated with 100 Gy and no egg hatch was recorded at 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was 4.3% and 10.9% in the F 1 generation and was 9.5% and 25.5% in the F 2 generation, when treated males were mated to normal females and treated females were mated to normal males, respectively. The results of our research suggest a possible alternative tactic to control or even eradicate sugarcane borer from Brazil. For S. frugiperda, five day-old pupae were treated with doses of 50, 100, 125, 150 and 175Gy. Moths of the F 1 and F 2 generations were obtained only from parents treated at 50Gy. When higher doses were used, only the crosses where irradiated males were mated to normal (untreated) females produced moths of the F 1 and F 2 generations. Irradiation of the parental generation induced different sterility levels in the offspring. Female fall armyworm were more radiosensitive than males, and substerilizing doses of gamma radiation did not affect the life cycle of the first and second filial generations in this species. The level of sterility in the F 1 and F 2 generations was higher than the sterility of the parents irradiated at the same dose. These results are encouraging and indicate that inherited sterility might be used for control of this insect in Brazil. Large field experiments should be conducted to confirm the laboratory findings. (author)

  14. Radiation protection in uranium mining and metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie.

    1988-01-01

    The main radioactive contaminants in uranium mines are radon and its daughters, while in uranium plants the dust produced in crushing operation is the main source of contamination. In this paper the radiation protection levels and the problems present in China's uranium mines and plants are described and analyzed. 15 protective measures are presented by the auther. The main measurements are: to increase mechanization and automation levels in technology, to reduce the direct contact of man's body with radioactive materials, to strongthen the ventilation for removing radon, to establish a complete ventilation system, and so on

  15. Non-destructive testing and radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, C; Ashby, P.

    2001-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a little known discipline which uses non-invasive and passive techniques to investigate the condition of materials and structures. Some of these techniques employ the use of radioisotopes. The penetrating radiations produced by these materials are applied in various ways to obtain the required information. This presentation is an overview of the application of radioisotopes within the scope of NDT. Notwithstanding the well established use of traditional materials, new forms of radioisotopes are being developed which will extend their capabilities

  16. Formulation and practice of standards for radiation protection of γ-ray industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rifeng; Wang Jue; Chen Weimin; Li Ping

    2009-01-01

    There are many differences between industrial CT and industrial radiography, such as imaging principle, inspection time, radiation dose and the requirements for operators etc. The national standards for radiation protection of industrial detection are not applicable to the requirements of protection and safety for γ-ray industrial CT to some extent now. In order to standardize the production and use for γ-ray industrial CT, protect the safety of operators and the public, and to promote the popularization and application of γ-ray industrial CT, it is significant to establish the national standards for radiation protection of γ-ray industrial CT as soon as possible. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the contents of this standard, and specify some important terms. Then there is a brief discussion on the existing problems during establishing such standards. At last, the paper summarize the practice of the standards passed over the past one year, which provides practicable experience for the further implementation. (authors)

  17. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  18. Industry's demand for the BESSY synchrotron radiation (SR): approaches towards interlinking basic scientific research activities and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhals, R.; Schmoch, U.; Nick, D.; Pilorget, L.; Ritschel, C.; Walter, G.H.

    1994-08-01

    In Germany, industry's demand for synchrotron radiation (SR) is very limited, due to the current macroeconomic situation and the corporate strategy of potential SR users in industry. This is in contrast to the conditions in the USA (and Japan), where industrial enterprises more readily invest in and run their own long-term basic research projects for exploration of potential commercial applications according to their demands, with research goals pursued there and in Germany overlapping to a large extent. It cannot be expected that demand for SR from industry in Germany will ever come up to the level seen in the USA. In Germany, non-university research institutes are most likely to become an important group of potential users of SR. Substantially boosting the demand for SR from industry will need a change of macroeconomic framework conditions affecting the corporate strategy to the effect that industry will more strongly commit itself to and take up responsibility for application-oriented fundamental research and the corresponding technology transfer. This can be achieved by a policy providing both for institutional means and financial incentives. As to near-market, strategic technological developments, establishment of structures allowing direct cooperation of science and technology, for instance in the form of joint ventures, or underwriting agreements and corresponding supervisory boards, seem to be promising. As to basic-research-oriented promotion of research, a technology screening might lead to the selection of technology-relevant research goals, and corresponding financial support from a special fund. Such incentives for cooperative action by technology, science and the government will create novel types of research-industry interfaces in Germany between ''historical'' spheres of autonomy of research of industry and the scientific community. (orig.) [de

  19. Study of influence on harvesting point in Brazilian Tommy Atkins mangoes submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Cruz, J.N.; Rela, P.R.; Broisler, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is a great producer of tropical fruits including mangoes. Among several purposes gamma radiation can be applied as phytosanitary treatment. This is well studied in scientific papers and more recently demonstrated through commercial advances like bilateral protocols established between India and USA. The whole experiment evolved two parts where each of them used fruits from different maturity stages (stages 2 and 3). This experiment was carried out with around 300 fruits in each part of the study. The main objective was to get the experience close to commercial conditions. The irradiation was realized in Multipurpose Cobalt-60 source belonging to IPEN-CNEN/SP (developed in house by own technology). The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75 kGy. After irradiation all fruits were kept at 12 o C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days. After this period the fruits were brought to environmental conditions (25 deg. C) for around 14 more days of duration. These conditions were established to simulate the exportation conditions from Brazil to distant countries. Physical-chemical analysis (pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids ( o Brix) and texture) as well as visual observation (mass loss, rotting, internal and skin color) were evaluated. The results from this experiment could demonstrate that the characteristics of the mangoes are more dependent on time and temperature storage rather than irradiation.

  20. Study of influence on harvesting point in Brazilian Tommy Atkins mangoes submitted to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Cruz, J. N.; Rela, P. R.; Broisler, P. O.

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is a great producer of tropical fruits including mangoes. Among several purposes gamma radiation can be applied as phytosanitary treatment. This is well studied in scientific papers and more recently demonstrated through commercial advances like bilateral protocols established between India and USA. The whole experiment evolved two parts where each of them used fruits from different maturity stages (stages 2 and 3). This experiment was carried out with around 300 fruits in each part of the study. The main objective was to get the experience close to commercial conditions. The irradiation was realized in Multipurpose Cobalt-60 source belonging to IPEN-CNEN/SP (developed in house by own technology). The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75 kGy. After irradiation all fruits were kept at 12 °C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days. After this period the fruits were brought to environmental conditions (25 °C) for around 14 more days of duration. These conditions were established to simulate the exportation conditions from Brazil to distant countries. Physical-chemical analysis (pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids (°Brix) and texture) as well as visual observation (mass loss, rotting, internal and skin color) were evaluated. The results from this experiment could demonstrate that the characteristics of the mangoes are more dependent on time and temperature storage rather than irradiation.

  1. Industrial potential for application of radiation curing in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    Potential applications of radiation curing of coating are in the field of wood and wood products, drying of printing inks, ceramics (roof and floor tiles) and textiles. Pakistan a 'timber deficit' country needs to improve her wood, plywood, hardboard and particle board to make for shortage of quality wood. Imports of wood and wood products are in excess of 3000 million rupees. Radiation curing can be applied and itexcels over heat treatment. Whereas costs of high energy units (500 KeV) with scanning type are rather high, low energy (100-175 KeV) flat beam self-shielded units costing 200,000 US$ are available. For developing countries ultraviolet (UV) curing is ideally suited because of its low price, flexibility and simplicity in handling. Alternately, multipurpose bunker type facility such as 500 KeV current mA can be utilized in carrying out heat-shrinkables production, irradiation of cable and wire and curing of coatings on wood and wood products. (author)

  2. Possibilities of radiation technique application in machine-building industry of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Avramov, D.; Kostov, St.

    1979-01-01

    In last ten years, in development of machine-building industry, tendency has been outlined for creation of machines and constructions having minimum weight and elevated reliability from one side due to improvement of design and technology of production and from the other side due to application of materials with improved parameters. Solution of these problems is closely connected with application of the radiation methods. State-of-art of the radiation technology application in the machine-building industry is analyzed and mainly for investigation of wear resistance of friction machineparts. Use of spatial radioactive labelling in investigation of materials and application of radiation methods for optimization of technological processes in metallurgy, foundry and so on is considered. Estimation is give of perspectives of further growth of introduction of radiation methods in Bulgaria [ru

  3. Recommendations for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources in industry, medicine, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiation sources of various types and activities is widespread in industry, medicine, research and teaching, and is increasing yearly. The safety record has been admirable, although incidents have occurred where loss of control of radiation sources has given rise to unplanned exposures to workers, medical patients and members of the public, sometimes with fatal results, while in other situations exposure may not have been as low as reasonably achievable. This publication is intended as a practical aid for all concerned with operational radiation protection connected with the use of radiation sources in industry, medicine, research and teaching, from the point of view of both the user of such sources and the regulatory bodies. Refs, figs

  4. Radiation chemical technology of industrial polymer reagents development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.; Nurkeeva, Z.; Mun, G.; Sigitov, V.; Maltzeva, R.; Petukhov, V.; Tchekushin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the technology of producing of polymeric reagents from the raw materials of Kazakstan for application in medicine, agriculture, enhanced oil recovery and ecology. To achieve the objectives the next technological lines or operations (Blocks) should be realized: 1. Rectification column and distilling apparatus for purification of monomers and solvents including analytical equipment to control the quality of the final product; 2. Irradiation of reaction mixture by either gamma-irradiation source Co-60; 3. Purification of polymer reagents; 4. Producing of commercial products. It is supposed that the power irradiation devices for producing of hydrogels will be mounted on the research atomic reactor of the Almaty Branch of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center. There are high qualification personal which has much experience in radioactive materials operating. Irradiation technologies will provide the low cost of hydrogels, approximately 250-300 US$ per 1 ton. Expected results. One can expect that the realization of this project allows to produce hydrogels in industrial scale to cover partly the requirements of medicine, agriculture, oil industry and ecology

  5. Natural gas perspectives of diffusion on the brazilian structural ceramics industry; Perspectivas de difusao do gas natural na industria brasileira de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluates the perspectives of the natural gas (NG) used by the Brazilian structural ceramics industry (BSCI), according to technological, economic and environmental aspects. It identifies the advantages of using NG, as well as the barriers faced by this energy source. Considering the amount of NG required by the thermal demand of the BSCI processes and the average energy specific use of the furnaces in operation in Brazil, the total consumption of NG will be nearly 12.06 Mm{sup 3/}day. However, the existence of few technical and economical adequate conversion conditions for ceramics furnaces (4% of continuous furnaces) limits the previous potential to only 0.67 Mm{sup 3/}day. In addition, considering the geographic intersection of the ceramics production clusters with the natural gas distribution grid of the Brazilian states, the estimated potential is lowered to 0.28 Mm{sup 3/}day. Yet, the perspective of the NG diffusion in the BSCI in the medium to the long term is more positive, owning to the increasing implementation of large scale production furnaces and cogeneration systems. Also worthwhile to this positive perspective are: the improving demand for certified structural ceramic products, with more quality and value added, and the expanding investment in low income classes dwelling programs. (author)

  6. Views from the japanese nuclear industry and radiation protection professionals on the draft ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Muto, S.; Oda, K.; Ishiguchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The views of the Japanese nuclear industry, radiation protection professionals, and medical professionals on the concepts of the draft recommendations were presented. Specific concerns and suggestions were expressed in each of these fields based on practical considerations and experiences in operational radiation protection. It was noted that there is no need to complicate the current system, in particular without effectively expressed and rational reasoning. However, in general, speakers and participants in these discussions showed an understanding of ICRP publications. (authors)

  7. Modernization of safety system for the radiation facility for industrial sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drndarevic, V.; Djuric, D.; Koturovic, A.; Arandjelovic, M.; Mikic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Modernization of the existing safety system of the radiation facility for industrial sterilization at the Vinca Institute of nuclear science is done. In order to improve radiation safety of the facility, the latest recommendations and requirements of IAEA have been implemented. Concept and design of the modernized system are presented. The new elements of the safety system are described and the improvements achieved by means of this modernization are pointed out. (author)

  8. Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Titanium Dioxide and Related Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1), together with Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim)), set out the principles and basic requirements for radiation protection and safety applicable to all activities involving radiation exposure, including exposure to natural sources of radiation. The Safety Guides on Occupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.6) and Management of Radioactive Waste from the Mining and Milling of Ores (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. WS-G-1.2) provide guidance on the control of exposure of workers and members of the public to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in industrial activities involving the exploitation of minerals. This guidance applies irrespective of whether the minerals are exploited for their radioactivity content. The titanium dioxide and related industries constitute one of several industry sectors for which the radioactivity content of the minerals and raw materials involved is too small to be of commercial value but is large enough to warrant consideration by the regulatory body concerning the possible need to control exposures of workers and members of the public. This Safety Report has been developed as part of the IAEA's programme to provide for the application of its safety standards in the field of radiation, transport and waste safety. It is a compilation of detailed information on the processes and materials involved in the titanium dioxide and related industries and on the radiological considerations that need to be taken into account by the regulatory body when determining the nature and extent of radiation protection measures to be taken. This is consistent with the graded approach to regulation, in terms of which the application of the requirements of the safety standards is

  9. Radiation applications in industry and medicine: DAE fostering availability, quality and safety of products and service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear and radiation applications play a significant role in aiding industrial process management, food security and safety, health care practices, manufacturing and value-addition to certain materials, treating pollutants/waste, etc. Most of these applications have contributed to improving the quality of life and industrial efficiency. India is among the large-scale producers cum users of radioisotope products and radiation technology applications over the past nearly five decades, thanks to the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and its various units pioneering the development and deployment of the above-mentioned applications in our country

  10. Use of EMW radiation in the building industry at defects in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobotka Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses theory and application of microwave radiation and experimental optimization of microwave radiation to eliminate moisture content in wood elements. It will be appreciated that the rising moisture leaking into the structure, resulting in defects and structures of the buildings themselves. Owing to its properties, microwave radiation has been used in the construction industry in modern times, in particular to dry wet masonry of buildings. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on building structures lead to relatively sharp decreases in moisture content from damp building structures or elements. The influence of electromagnetic radiation on building structures lead to oscillation of water molecules contained in the material, which cause a phase transformation of water into vapour. Consequently, the vapour evaporates from the moist material, thereby drying the element exposed to radiation. The article describes experiments carried out at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the Faculty of Technology in Brno that demonstrate successful decrease of water content in building materials using microwave radiation. First, the understanding of microwave radiation will be discussed. Following an analysis of research results an optimum intensity of microwave radiation sources as well as the necessary length of the irradiation of microwave radiation have been determined with respect to the particular type of building material and the success rate of elimination of moisture.

  11. Effects of radiation on wastewater from textile industries in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbe, S.A.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater samples from three textile industries in Ghana were progressively irradiated in a gamma irradiator of dose rate 7.8 kGy/h. Gamma irradiation alone was done, and also in combination with hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide and ferrous ammonium sulphate. Preliminary work involved irradiation of model aqueous solutions of six textile dyes commonly used in Ghana. The dyes were Cibacron Yellow 6G, Cibacron Violet 2R, Basilen Blue P 5R, Basilen Brown P 2R, Solidazol Red RB, Acramin Green FB. Colour and pH of the wastewater and dye solutions were found to decrease with irradiation. Decolouration of the wastewater improved further when irradiation was carried out in combination with the chemical agents. Ferrous ammonium sulphate showed the most improved decolouration. Values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater were found to decrease with irradiation. (author)

  12. Risk evaluation of medical and industrial radiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Cunningham, R.E.; Rathbun, P.A.

    1994-03-01

    In 1991, the NRC, Division of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety, began a program to evaluate the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in regulating medical devices. This program represents an initial step in an overall plant to evaluate the use of PRA in regulating the use of nuclear by-product materials. The NRC envisioned that the use of risk analysis techniques could assist staff in ensuring that the regulatory approach was standardized, understandable, and effective. Traditional methods of assessing risk in nuclear power plants may be inappropriate to use in assessing the use of by-product devices. The approaches used in assessing nuclear reactor risks are equipment-oriented. Secondary attention is paid to the human component, for the most part after critical system failure events have been identified. This paper describes the risk methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), initially intended to assess risks associated with the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma stereotactic radiosurgical device. For relatively new medical devices such as the Gamma Knife, the challenge is to perform a risk analysis with very little quantitative data but with an important human factor component. The method described below provides a basic approach for identifying the most likely risk contributors and evaluating their relative importance. The risk analysis approach developed for the Gamma Knife and described in this paper should be applicable to a broader class of devices in which the human interaction with the device is a prominent factor. In this sense, the method could be a prototypical model of nuclear medical or industrial device risk analysis

  13. On the state of the radiation safety in the atomic energy and nuclear industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The general aspects of the activity of organs of government in the field of human radiation protection and some other problems of nuclear industry connecting with the new economic and politic situation in Russia have been discussed. There are present information about the organs of government relating to the questions of radiation safety and the major directions of governmental policy in this fields. Some problems of the elimination of the consequences of the accidents in NPPs (Chernobyl, Chelyabinsk), the programs of the radiation safety improvement of population and the information about new normative nuclear safety documents have also been written in this report. (author)

  14. Processing line for industrial radiation-thermal synthesis of doped lithium ferrite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Galtseva, O. V.; Vasendina, E. A.; Vlasov, V. A.; Nikolaev, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper considers the issues of industrial production of doped lithium ferrite powders by radiation-thermal method. A technological scheme of the processing line is suggested. The radiation-thermal technological scheme enables production of powders with technical characteristics close to the required ones under relatively low temperature annealing conditions without intermediate mixing. The optimal conditions of the radiation-thermal synthesis are achieved isothermally under irradiation by the electron beam with energy of 2.5 MeV in the temperature range of 700-750 0C within- 120 min.

  15. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources; Otimizacao dos trabalhos envolvendo radiacao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A. [SAMARCO Mineracao S.A., Mariana, MG (Brazil). Mina de Germano

    1996-12-31

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Application of ionising radiation to the pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, E.

    1975-01-01

    Pharmacons, commonly called 'Drugs', are subject to a many-sided procedure of development before they are released on the market and reach the patient. Again and again they are submitted to controls for safety reasons and at least seven (sometimes nine or ten) years pass before the active substance has made its way from chemistry through many trials with animals in experimental pathology and through the laboratories of the biochemistry department. Ionising radiation is used in each field of drug research as an additional method for obtaining information. In chemistry the structure of molecules can be detected by X-ray diffraction, and the active component elucidated. In the teratology section of experimental pathology the foetus just before delivery and newborn animals are X-rayed. This is in order to find out skeletal malformations that might have occurred during feeding of the substance in question during gestation. In biochemistry the pharmacon is labelled with a suitable radioactive isotope. Its way through the body can then be followed by measuring absorption rate, distribution, binding and elimination. It is also important to explore the influence of the drug on the organism and the reverse - how the pharmacon is influenced by the organism. This means examining the metabolites of the drug and the mechanism of action by means of serial auto-radiography and clearance or excretion studies. Gamma rays are employed for sterilisation of ointment tubes and vials just before filling. Sterilisation of the pharmacon is discussed. (author)

  17. Eye exposure to optical radiation in the glassblowing industry: an investigation in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriowo, O M; Chou, B R; Cullen, A P

    2000-01-01

    To investigate if the levels of optical radiation hazards in glassblowing are well classified according to the hazard types defined in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standard for industrial eye protectors. We carried out radiometric measurements, and questionnaire survey in 4 university glassblowing laboratories, and 3 private studios. There is exposure to low levels of UV and IR radiation in all glassblowing operations. A supra-threshold IR radiation level exists in the craft glassblowing. The use of eye protectors is based on past experience regardless of the level of ocular exposure. Optical radiation hazards exist in both craft and scientific glassblowing. There seems to be an inadequate understanding about radiation types encountered by glassblowers.

  18. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  19. Consideration of sky-shine radiation effects for the development of Korean regulatory guidance about industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Ki Chi; Bokyun Seo; Wantae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Although most of the sky-shine radiation levels in industrial radiography are below regulatory limits, sky-shine radiation could make a valuable contribution to the total radiation level near shielding facility with little shielding and open field without shielding. Therefore sky-shine radiation should be thoroughly predicted and supervised with the ALARA principle. In this study, we simulated sky-shine radiation for mobile irradiators using MCNP and newly suggested the equation for calculating sky-shine radiation. Also these results were applied to developing Korean regulatory guidance about industrial radiography and to recommending the requirement of the facility design, controlled or supervised area at work places. (author)

  20. Radiation Synthesis of Some Copolymers and their Potential Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced rapidly in the recent years. Much attention has been focused on the research and developments of polymer for biomedical applications. One of the most promising classes of materials for biomedical applications seems to be the hydrogels. In this connection, the first part concern with preparation of various types of hydrogels by using gamma irradiation for possible Industrial uses. Novel super absorbent hydrogels were prepared successfully from carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and acrylamide (AAm) due to their good biocompatibility. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to study the surface morphology of the hydrogel and it verifies that the synthesized hydrogels have a porous structure then the synthesis of silver (AAm/CMC) nano composite hydrogel from the prepared (AAm/CMC) hydrogel has done and characterized using UV-visible, XRD, EDX, SEM and TEM which confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles and determined its particle size. Their equilibrium swelling ratio in distilled water and different physiological fluids were evaluated. Moreover, the hydrogels exhibited smart swelling and shrinking in different aqueous solutions that could be controlled by changing CMC content. The second part concern with the synthesis of grafting polymers using γ-rays and the factors affect on the grafting process onto LDPE, HDPE and PP films by binary comonomer GMA:NVIm such as solvent, concentration, composition and dose were investigated. The grafted films were characterized by enough number of techniques. Afterwards, the grafted films were treated by many chemical reagents such as Isonicotinamide, 4(6) Aminouracil, Sulpha methoxy di azine and Guanidine hydrochloride at different interval times, respectively. The prepared hydrogels are promising for the applications in the biomaterials area and the applicability of grafted films to be

  1. Conceptual model for decision support in mining industry NORM - aspects of environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Rocio Gloria dos

    2012-01-01

    Mining like many other industries can cause environmental impact. One of aspects that is in focus in many countries concerns to quantify the impact and establish requirements or improve the existing regulation about naturally occurring radioactive material - NORM. By a suitable management of the activities in these industries, there is an effort to minimize the waste production, minimize the environmental impacts and, consequently, the exposure of members of the public and workers. This study developed a conceptual model, a tool to assist in the decision making process for managers of mining and industrial facilities that deal with NORM. To develop this model, the Brazilian regulations were confronted with the regulations of countries where the NORM subject is important and with those that are being established by the principal institutions of radioprotection. The need of updating the Brazilian regulations was observed. Some recurring themes that are relevant to the management of NORM industries were surveyed, which resulted in the insertion of non-human biota risk assessment and the participation of stakeholders in the proposed model. The model was applied to a real case, the phosphoric acid and uranium plant of Santa Quiteria, in the Ceara state, with the aim of identifying the main critical points of the facility from the perspective of the environmental radiological impact and evaluating the adequacy of model, in addition to providing subsidies for its improvement. By the assessment of the process, it was found that the main source would be the phosphogypsum stack, which "2"2"6Ra activity concentration might exceed the level established for its use in agriculture and cement industry. The impact assessment was carried out in three different scenarios: 1) the critical group located in the facility borders, 2) the critical group located on the stack, after the closure of the area and 3) workers. In all cases, the exercise pointed out the exceeding of the adopted

  2. Optimization of the workers radiation protection in the electro nuclear, industrial and medical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference is devoted to the radiation protection and the best way to optimize it. It reviews each area of the nuclear industry, and explores also the medical sector. Dosimetry, ALARA principle and new regulation are important points of this meeting. (N.C.)

  3. Selected finelings on current research into applications of ionizing radiation in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of research of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry, mainly for the inhibition of potato and onion germination and for radappertization of soft fruits. Current laws governing the irradiation of food are described and the current knowledge of the practical application of the new technology is indicated. (author)

  4. Investigating the effect of ionizing radiations on humoral immune system in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Fariedeh.

    1993-01-01

    A general review of radiobiology, immunology system,mechanism of biological effect of radiation and their biological damaging on cells and organs and specifically radiation effects on humoral immune system are given. The purpose is investigating the side effects of occupational exposures caused by ionizing radiation, and reviewing the decreasing probability of humoral immune responses in industrial radiographers. Generally, it measures the following humoral factors of industrial radiographers by value of different exposures: 1-Measuring immunoglobulins serum which consist of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. 2-Electrophoresis of serum proteins to investigate gamma globulins changes and also the changes occur in serum globulins after exposure. 3-Investigating the titration of isohem glutins serum (or natural immunoglobulins) that is mostly from IgM. 4-Measuring the above experiments on health control personnel who have not exposed to occupational or biological radiation effects. 5-Comparing the results of the two groups by statistical analysis. 6-Trying to relate the exposure to the information obtained from the above experiments. 7-Finally, to obtain this response whether mutation as low dose of radiation as investigated in this project is a threatening factor to the health and immunity of industrial radiographers

  5. New development in the certification of a component radiation protection officer in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari; Azwar, M.H.; Mohd Pauzi, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The appointment of a Radiation protection Officer (RPO) by companies for activities related to the use of Atomic Energy, including Industrial Radiography is mandated under regulation 23 of the Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standards) Regulations 1988. The regulations categorically requires the appointment of a competent person to help ensure radiation safety at work. Definition of competency has been spelt out in the regulations and this is translated to include having been trained and tested through examination by the AELB and be able to carry out the duties and responsibilities prescribed by the Act and Regulations. This paper discusses the development in the certification of RPO in the field of industrial radiography and what the new RPO certification scheme together with the Certification of RPO standard (LEMI/TEK/44) will do to increase competency as well as the market value of future RPOs. (Author)

  6. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  7. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  8. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution

  9. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-10-06

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.

  10. The United States Atomic Energy Commission programme on isotopes and radiation development and its industrial impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E E [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Isotopes Development, Washington, DC (United States)

    1965-02-01

    The US Atomic Energy Commission isotopes development programme is directed towards (a) encouraging development of beneficial applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology, particularly those designed to meet problems of urgent public interest; (b) accelerating the potential contribution of radioisotopes and radiation applications to the national economy and welfare, and (c) contributing to world development in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The programme is administered by the Division of Isotopes Development. The programme objectives are being achieved through a multiphase research and development programme including the following major elements: (1) Radiation pasteurization of food, involving development of technology for low dose radiation processing of representative fruit and fishery products to extend their refrigerated shelf life; (2) Process radiation development, directed to fostering development of a broad technology leading to productive use of mega curie quantities of fission products and other radioisotopes for process radiation purposes; (3) Radioisotope technology development, directed to creating a broad base of new and improved technology required for extending and speeding up the application of radioisotopes in science and technology; (4) Radioisotope production and separation technology, directed to insuring availability of radioisotopes to meet the changing needs of advancing science and technology in the USA; (5) Isotopic power and heat sources development, aimed at the development and production of isotopic fuels and fuel forms for a broad spectrum of thermal applications, including SNAP auxiliary electrical power devices; (6) Analysis and applications, whose objective is to identify and analyse radioisotope and radiation research and development activities in the United States of America and abroad; to establish channels of communication with science, government, and industry, and to encourage broad dissemination and productive

  11. The application of radiation technology in industrial processes: current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of nuclear power has been responsible for many by-products, among them radioactive fission products. In the late 1940's and early 1950's considerable efforts were made to develop industrial processes that could make use of the fission products in large quantities. Although some fission products are utilized today, the scale does not approach the quantities that will be produced in a nuclear economy. The efforts have not been a failure, however, and the research to develop industrial processes has created markets, not for the fission products as one had hoped, but for the radioisotope Cobalt-60 produced by neutron capture in a nuclear reactor, and for accelerators - machines that produce radiation in a controlled manner. Success in finding uses for the major fission products may yet come, as research continues in the radiation chemistry and radiation biology fields. Radiation processing is now a vigorously expanding area because of sharp increases in the reliability of electron beam generators, sharp drops in the unit cost of both electron beam power and electron beam energy, significant advances in radiation chemistry leading to lower dose requirements and increased engineering knowledge and practical experience. he principal reasons for its bright future promise arise from expectations of further sharp decreases in the unit cost of electron beam energy and from the recent successful adoption of radiation on a large scale for cross linking of telephone wire insulation in the United States. (author)

  12. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  13. Loss reduction in industrial motor systems: the structure of the Brazilian program structure focusing the autosustainability (optimization of industrial motor systems); Reducao de perdas em sistemas motrizes industriais: a estrutura do programa brasileiro com foco na autosustentabilidade (otimizacao de sistemas motrizes industriais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vanda Alves dos; Soares, George Alves; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Ferreira, Carlos Aparecido; Oliveira, Humberto Luiz de; Motta, Braulio Romano; Silva, Humberto Reis Braga da [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenvolvimento de Projetos Especiais. Div. de Projetos Setoriais de Eficiencia Energetica]. E-mails: vandaas@eletrobras.com; georgesoares@eletrobras.com; carlosaparecido@eletrobras.com; humberto.oliveira@eletrobras.com; brauliorm@eletrobras.com; hhbraga@eletrobras.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the achievements and goals of the Industrial Motor System Optimization Project as developed by the PROCEL INDUSTRIA -Brazilian Energy Efficiency Industrial Program, within the scope of PROCEL - National Program for Electric Power Conservation, carried out ELETROBRAS since 1985. Its main objective is to minimize losses in the motor driven systems already installed in the Brazilian industry. In order to implement this program, ELETROBRAS is continuous making agreements with the state industry federations aiming to develop mechanisms and to manage energy efficiency implementation projects looking forward its self supporting. PROCEL INDUSTRIA aims to reduce the waste of electric energy in the industrial sector, to increase the industries competition, by reducing their costs and to contribute to the preservation and cleanness of environment. (author)

  14. Abilities for radiological protection supervisor in the ionizing radiation for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, G.M., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.b [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sahyun, A., E-mail: gian@atomo.b [ABENDI - Associacao Brasileira de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos e Inspecao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andreucci, R., E-mail: zzricardo.zzandreucci@Voith.co [Voith Hydro Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.G. [Multiend Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The authors of this paper, has introduced an industrial training program for the R.P.E - Radiation Protection Expert to comply with contents of CNEN Standard NN 3.01 'Basic Guideline of Radiation Protection'. The 'training program' has been divided in four steps, based on: professional R.P.E work, knowledge level to perform his activities, education program and detailed basic bibliography. In the last congress we have presented a paper about the content of radiation protection training program. In this paper we will discuss the abilities that the supervisor need to obtain to perform the radiation protection report. We discuss the number of abilities for each one of the disciplines mentioned in the last paper and we provide some particular abilities. (author)

  15. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  16. Radiation protection at industrial radiography in Germany exposures and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Haeusler, U.; Frasch, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered. The analysis of these events reveals their causation and allows this conclusions on avoidable errors. In this paper, a special insight is given into events in the field of gamma radiography which is a technical application of ionising radiation for non destructive testing of materials. Conclusions from analysis are drawn. In addition, the occupational radiation exposure of workers is presented taking into account that industrial radiography is performed under particular working conditions with different risks. (orig.)

  17. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  18. Construct a procedure to verify radiation protection for apparatus of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem Xuan Long; Trinh Dinh Truong; Dinh Chi Hung; Le Ngoc Hieu

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus for industrial gamma radiography include an exposure container, source guide tube, remote control hand crank assembly and other attached equipment. It is used a lot in inspection and evaluation of projects. In Vietnam, there are now more than 50 companies in radiography field and more than 100 apparatus are being used on the site. Therefore, the verification and evaluation is very necessary and important. This project constructs a procedure to verify a radiation protection for apparatus in the industrial gamma radiography for its application in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  20. Desafios e perspectivas para a cadeia brasileira do tomate para processamento industrial Some challenges for the Brazilian chain of processing tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César T. de Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo descrever alguns dos desafios para maximização da eficiência técnica e socioeconômica da cadeia do tomate para processamento industrial no Brasil. Na década de 1990 observou-se um expressivo desempenho deste setor. Entretanto, no âmbito dos sistemas de produção, observam-se uma série de fatores limitantes à otimização da produção. Dentre esses, cultivares inadequadas à colheita mecanizada e suscetíveis às doenças e pragas que depreciam a qualidade industrial dos frutos, causando quebra na relação matéria prima/massa processada. Ocasionalmente, observam-se ocorrência de fungos na polpa concentrada, extratos e em outros derivados, que poderiam ser evitados com manejo cultural, como maior eficiência das técnicas de irrigação (sistema convencional com pivô central e irrigação por gotejamento, níveis de adubação, rotação de cultivo, preparo do solo e dos canteiros adequados ao transplante e à colheita mecanizados, controle de plantas daninhas e manejo ecológico de pragas e doenças.The purpose of this work is to provide information about technological problems that constitute challenges to the maximization of technical and the economic efficiency of the Brazilian chain of tomato processing. In the 90's the Brazilian chain of the processing tomato showed expressive performance. However, there are several factors involved in the tomato production systems that still impair the optimization of the processing tomato production. Among those factors we detected not well adapted tomato cvs. to mechanical harvest besides being susceptible to diseases and insects, depreciating the fruits quality for processing causing decline indexes in the relationship matter/ processed products. In addition, the presence of fungus was observed in the concentrated pulp, tomato extracts and in other tomato derived products. These problems could be solved through better cultural practices, including

  1. Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry, a global industry operating in many Member States, makes extensive use of radiation generators and sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, some of which are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment if not properly controlled. In addition, significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) originating from the reservoir rock are encountered during production, maintenance and decommissioning. The oil and gas industry operates in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety and control - this includes the need to maintain control over occupational exposures to radiation, as well as to protect the public and the environment through proper management of wastes that may be radiologically and chemically hazardous. The oil and gas industry is organizationally and technically complex, and relies heavily on specialized service and supply companies to provide the necessary equipment and expertise, including expertise in radiation safety. This training manual is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering its training course on radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry. Enclosed with this manual is a CD-ROM that contains the presentational material used in the training course, the course syllabus and additional notes for course presenters. The course material is based principally on IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 34 Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry, published by the IAEA in 2003. The training course is aimed at regulatory bodies; oil and gas field operators and support companies; workers and their representatives; health, safety and environmental professionals; and health and safety training officers. A pilot training course was held in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2000 as

  2. Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry, a global industry operating in many Member States, makes extensive use of radiation generators and sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, some of which are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment if not properly controlled. In addition, significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) originating from the reservoir rock are encountered during production, maintenance and decommissioning. The oil and gas industry operates in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety and control - this includes the need to maintain control over occupational exposures to radiation, as well as to protect the public and the environment through proper management of wastes that may be radiologically and chemically hazardous. The oil and gas industry is organizationally and technically complex, and relies heavily on specialized service and supply companies to provide the necessary equipment and expertise, including expertise in radiation safety. This training manual is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering its training course on radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry. Enclosed with this manual is a CD-ROM that contains the presentational material used in the training course, the course syllabus and additional notes for course presenters. The course material is based principally on IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 34 Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry, published by the IAEA in 2003. The training course is aimed at regulatory bodies; oil and gas field operators and support companies; workers and their representatives; health, safety and environmental professionals; and health and safety training officers. A pilot training course was held in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2000 as

  3. Diagnosis of the Market for Ideas and the Role of Industrial Associations as Intermediaries in the Brazilian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusberti, Tomoe Daniela Hamanaka; Bretas, Arthur Chafim

    2018-01-01

    Markets for technologies and ideas depend on the flow of knowledge and technology from one company to another or from universities and research institutes to industry. These markets are driven by the process known as open innovation. In recent years, the literature has emphasized the need to analyse the market for ideas through its constituent…

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good ...

  5. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  6. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  7. Radiation protection in the mineral sands industry in New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Coundouris, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    The mineral sands industry in New South Wales (NSW) mines and concentrates the heavy minerals ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite; principally for export. Mineral sands concentrates contain small quantities of thorium and uranium series radionuclides and therefore are radioactive. The protection of workers, the public and the environment is a responsibility of mine operators. NSW Government Departments administer legislation, grant approvals and specify conditions for radiation protection. A summary of the history and current size of the industry is presented, together with current legislative and licensing activities. The paper reviews available literature on radiation measurements in the East coast mineral sands industry and re-interprets the earlier data in the light of the contemporary methodology of dose assessment. Some unpublished information and the results of some new surveys are also presented. A comparison is made with results that have been reported from Western Australia. Procedures for reducing radiation exposures are discussed and areas of future information needs are suggested. 17 refs., 6 refs., 3 tabs

  8. IAEA Conference on Large Radiation Sources in Industry (Warsaw 1959): Which technologies of radiation processing survived and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA has organized in Warsaw an International Conference on Large Radiation Sources in Industry from 8 to 12 September 1959. Proceedings of the Conference have been published in two volumes of summary amount of 925 pages. This report presents analysis, which technologies presented at the Conference have survived and why. The analysis is interesting because already in the fifties practically full range of possibilities of radiation processing was explored, and partially implemented. Not many new technologies were presented at the next IAEA Conferences on the same theme. Already at the time of the Warsaw Conference an important role of economy of the technology has recognized. The present report selects the achievements of the Conference into two groups: the first concerns technologies which have not been implemented in the next decades and the second group which is the basis of highly profitable, unsubsidized commercial production. The criterion of belonging of the technology to the second group, is the value of the quotient of the cost of the ready, saleable product diminished by the cost of a raw material before processing, to the expense of radiation processing, being the sum of irradiation cost and such operations as transportation of the object to and from the irradiation facility. Low value of the quotient, as compared to successful technologies is prophesying badly as concerns the future of the commercial proposal. A special position among objects of radiation processing is occupied by radiation processing technologies direct towards the protection or improving of the environment. Market economy does not apply here and the implementation has to be subsidized. (author)

  9. Radiation protection principles applied to conventional industries producing deleterious environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the radiation protection standards, for the population at large, with the conventional pollutants ambient standards, reveals differences in basic principles which result in more relaxed ambient standards for conventional pollutants and consequently, the penalization of the nuclear industry, due to the increased cost of its safety measures. It is proposed that radiation protection principles should be used as a prototype for pollutants having harmful environmental effects and that radiation health physicists should be active in the application of these principles of population protection. A case study of atmospheric release of SO 2 , under different conditions, is analyzed, to emphasize the importance of consideration of the size of the exposed population. (H.K.)

  10. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  11. Development of regulatory technologies of key issues of radiation sources in the medical and industrial fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Byung Soo; Ku, Bon Chul

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this research is to provide with rational bases to address the key issues raising up during the expansion of RI/RG usage in the medical and industrial fields, thus eventually contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of national regulatory systems. Related key issues that are introduced in the medical and industrial fields are analyzed and some outcomes are produced. The following results are attained. - Estimation Methodology Development of Regulatory Effects for the Use of Radioactive Substances, - Survey on Domestic Status of Nuclear Materials and Review on Domestic/Foreign Regulatory System for Nuclear Materials Regulation, - Comparative Analysis of KSTAR and Fusion Facilities of Advanced Countries, - Radiological Characteristics of Proton Therapy and Analysis of Foreign Cases and Systems, - Detection and Safety Analysis of Leak Radiation of High Energy Medical Generators, - Survey and Analysis on Usage and Requirements of Sealed Sources, - Incidents/Accidents Reporting System for RI-related Facilities, - Development of Audio-Visual Education Materials for Radiation Workers, - Development of Major Safety Procedures for Portable RIs, - Expansion of Existing DB for Radiation Devices including New Domestic Ones, - Survey of Foreign Status of Quality Maintenance System for Radiation equipment

  12. Utilization of Radiation for Industrial Purposes, Environmental Protection and Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes utilization of gamma-rays, electron beam and X-rays in industry, environment and public health in developed countries and in Indonesia. At Present (1995), 160 of Gamma Irradiations in 45 countries around the world and 280 of Electron Beam Machines mostly in Japan, United States of America and French have been operated to support industrial development. Two Gamma Irradiators and two Electron Beam Machines have been operated by BATAN for research and development and one of Gamma Irradiator is operated for industrial purposes by a private company in Jakarta. To support environmentally sustainable development, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as BATAN increase their activities in recycling of liquid and solid waste as well as flue gas by using radiation technology. (author)

  13. Concrete Shielding For Radiation Safety And Unexpected Dangerous Inside Cobalt-60 Industrial Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshk, A.B.; Aly, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study shows a proposed destruction inside one of three cobalt-60 industrial irradiators to determine and reduce the negative results, to improve and modify emergency plan to face terrorism works. The results show the performance of concrete shielding (walls and ceiling) contains the bad effect of dynamic pressures. The explosion forces are prevented to destructive by performance of their concrete shielding, which will contain the most components of devastated systems inside each irradiator after explosion. Shield penetration like electrical cable tunnels, pushers holes, hole with removable plug, product boxes openings, lens opening and ozone duct are affected badly by destruction. Through probability of transporting, some of devastated parts of broken radioactive cobalt- 60 pencils from inside radiation concreter room to outside (surrounded environment) are maintained and causing very danger radiation exposure by gamma rays outside irradiator. A necessity needs to modify emergency plan to prevent any explosive materials to enter inside the main building (irradiation sale) and also discovering any explosive materials which are placed inside the product boxes before passing to inside irradiator. The minimizing radiation exposure (2 mrem/h) inside underground radiation shelters are maintained by reducing radiation dose exerted from a nuclear explosion of 20 kT about 1 km away to a safe value, and calculating the protective factors of radiation main building basements are more than 40 (safety factor) as they are located under ground level, are surrounded by sandy soil and are constructed by concrete. The study shows the proposed basements of the main building maintain success to use as under ground safe radiation shelter (during emergency) with separate safe radiation trace. It begins from the main opening of irradiation sale and leads to underground proposed shelter through modified main stair

  14. Ecotoxicological water assessment of an estuarine river from the Brazilian Northeast, potentially affected by industrial wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Gurgel, Piatã; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; do Amaral, Viviane Souza

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution generated by industrial effluents discharge is a threat to the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems and human development. The Jundiai River estuarine, located in Northeast Brazil, receives an industrial pretreated effluent load from the city of Macaíba/RN/Brazil. The present study aimed to assess the water quality of this water reservoir through i) physicochemical characterization, ii) quantification of metal concentration and iii) by an ecotoxicological assessment carried out using Mysidopsis juniae and Pomacea lineata. The study was performed throughout the period comprising May to September 2014. Physicochemical variables such as chloride, total solids and electrical conductivity presented values in the waste discharge point, significantly different with those located out of the waste releasing point. Apart from that, metal concentration showed variable behavior throughout the monitored period. Levels of Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Ag were over the considered guidelines. Both natural and anthropogenic sources seem to be involved in the resulting environmental scenario. A reduction in the fecundity rate (using Mysidopsis juniae) along with an increase in mortality rate (in both species) was observed ratifying the presence of toxic substances in this water reservoir. Moreover, a correlation analysis stated an association of the aforementioned toxicological effects with the delivery of industrial waste products. The ecotoxicological assessment performed highlighted the presence of toxic substance/s in water from the Jundiai River. Especially as a consequence of industrial activity, a fact that might threaten the bioma and, therefore, the human health of the population settled in the studied region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Kelecom, A.; Pereira, J.R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection

  16. Does foreign direct investment cause higher levels of productivity or do higher levels of productivity attract foreign direct investment? A study in transforming brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Campos Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n35p82   With this research, it was aimed to investigate the factors that determine the investment decision of foreign investors in the Brazilian industry. Evidence shows that foreign investors are attracted not only by more productive and best performing sectors, but depending on the adopted strategy, they may choose investment projects in sectors that have lower performance levels which offer the potential for growth and the and improvement of efficiency levels and capacity. Granger causality test indicated that not only foreign investment gives more productivity gains, but also this productivity induces more foreign investment inputs. Foreign investors are also attracted by those sectors, which use their assets in an inefficient way in order to generate profits. These sectors may be attractive to foreign investors that want to invest in a more aggressive growth policy in order to get advantages on the availability of inefficiently used assets. These sectors may be also attractive targets to investors who seek to compete directly in relatively less competitive sectors.

  17. Condição ocular entre trabalhadores de uma indústria metalúrgica brasileira Ocular condition in a brazilian ironmaster industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Zamudio Igami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição ocular em população de trabalhadores de uma indústria metalúrgica paulista. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 2516 funcionários de uma fábrica na cidade de São Paulo foi submetida a uma avaliação oftalmológica como exame ocupacional periódico. Foi aplicado um questionário e realizado o exame de acuidade visual (Snellen e teste de Ishihara. Os funcionários com acuidade visual menor que 0,7 ou com diferenças maior que duas linhas ou que apresentassem alguma queixa ocular, passaram por avaliação complementar (biomicroscopia, refração, tonometria e fundo de olho. Prescreveu-se óculos conforme indicação. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (62,5% e faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos (41%. A maioria não apresentava antecedentes oculares (97,6% ou sistêmicos (96,6%.A acuidade visual estava acima de 0,7 em 95,5% dos olhos e 84% não utilizavam correção. O diagnóstico final foi exame normal em 55% dos casos, presbiopia em 13.6%, astigmatismo miópico em 10% e hipermetrópico em 7,7% dos indivíduos. Baixa visão foi encontrada em 2,4%, cegueira unilateral em 0,4%, não havendo casos de cegueira ou de deficiência visual entre os trabalhadores. As principais causas de baixa visão foram erros refrativos e ambliopia. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos funcionários da indústria pesquisada apresentava exame oftalmológico normal e nenhum deles apresentava cegueira bilateral.PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular condition in a brazilian ironmaster industry. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted in 2516 employees from an ironmaster brazilian industry in São Paulo city, Brazil. A questionnaire was applied and visual acuity and Ishihara test were performed in every individual. A complete ophthalmic evaluation (slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, tonometry and refractometry was done when the visual acuity was worse than 0.7 or when the worker had a greater diference between the eyes (more than two lines or when there were

  18. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  19. SBBN 2010: 7. Congress of the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Biosciences. Radiations in biosciences: advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Advance and new perspectives related to the use of ionizing and no ionizing radiations in nuclear biosciences are presented. Multidisciplinary approach, including radiopharmacy, radioprotection and dosimetry, cytogenetic, biosafety, radioecology, environmental toxicology are studied. Topics of Nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and image diagnosis, such as computerized tomography, PET scan, phantoms, biomedical radiography, are reported. Use of radioisotopes, evaluation of radiation dose rates, radiation dose distribution, radiation monitoring is considered. Environmental impact of radiation are also in human beings, animals and for several purposes are analyzed. (MAC)

  20. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO 2 emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO 2 is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. The Brazilian national para-petroleum industry and the role played in the competitiveness of the Brazilian 'petroleum diamond'; A industria para-petroleira nacional e o seu papel na competitividade do 'diamante petroleiro' brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Maria Regina Macchione de Arruda

    1999-07-01

    The author uses the Michael Porter framework, (from the University of Harvard), about the 'Competitive Advantage of Nations', as a theoretical instrument to analyze the Brazilian oil industry. The document studies, specifically, the related and supporting industries, one of the four determinants that, according to the author, promote the creation of national competitive advantages; the others are: the factors conditions; the demand conditions; and the firm strategy, structure and rivalry. The study aims at building a general view of competitiveness for the so called supply industries to the oil sector, which have a fundamental role in this model. Although Brazil has developed, with the leadership of PETROBRAS, a complex industrial system, this structure of related and supporting industries will have to face new challenges, having to improve efficiency, reduce costs and redefine its global strategies. (author)

  2. 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 10: industrial applications of radiation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document includes 7 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP (Mexico) on technological specialties in the field of industrial applications of radiation and control. (Topic 10). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  3. Radiation Treatment for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater for Industrial Usage - Biological and Irradiation Treatment of Mix Industrial Wastewater in Flood Mitigation Pond at Prai Industrial Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Sharif, Jamaliah; Selambakkanu, Sarala; Ming, Ting Teo; Isnin, Natsha; Osman, Hasnul Nizam; Azmi, Khasmidatul Akma M.K; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Yahya, Nasehir khan Em [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    In this research, activated sludge system and E-Beam was used to treat mixed industrial waste water from mitigation pond A. The objectives are to study the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in activated sludge and effect of absorbed dose, current and energy to the characteristic of mix industrial wastewater and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) added in the wastewater. DEPH is a type of plasticizer and quantified by GC-MS. Microbe identification in activated sludge was also carried out in this study. At 48hrs HRT, percentage reduction for COD, color, suspended solid were 62.3%, 36.7% and 67.1% respectively. While at 24hrs HRT, COD, color and suspended solid were reduce by 26.0%, 14.9% and 61.3% respectively. Microbial analysis showed six bacteria present in the activated sludge based on 16SrRNA gene sequences. Mixed industrial wastewater was irradiated using electron beam at 1Mev, 5mA and 10mA in a batch system with 3, 6, 8,10 and 12kGy doses. COD, color and suspended solid reduced with the increasing of absorbed dose. Mixed industrial wastewater added with DEPH in the second batch was irradiated with dose up to 300kGy. Concentration of DEHP also reduced with increasing of dose and more effectively decreased in acidic and aerated condition. (author)

  4. Radiation Treatment for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater for Industrial Usage - Biological and Irradiation Treatment of Mix Industrial Wastewater in Flood Mitigation Pond at Prai Industrial Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Sharif, Jamaliah; Selambakkanu, Sarala; Ming, Ting Teo; Isnin, Natsha; Osman, Hasnul Nizam; Azmi, Khasmidatul Akma M.K; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Yahya, Nasehir khan Em

    2012-01-01

    In this research, activated sludge system and E-Beam was used to treat mixed industrial waste water from mitigation pond A. The objectives are to study the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in activated sludge and effect of absorbed dose, current and energy to the characteristic of mix industrial wastewater and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) added in the wastewater. DEPH is a type of plasticizer and quantified by GC-MS. Microbe identification in activated sludge was also carried out in this study. At 48hrs HRT, percentage reduction for COD, color, suspended solid were 62.3%, 36.7% and 67.1% respectively. While at 24hrs HRT, COD, color and suspended solid were reduce by 26.0%, 14.9% and 61.3% respectively. Microbial analysis showed six bacteria present in the activated sludge based on 16SrRNA gene sequences. Mixed industrial wastewater was irradiated using electron beam at 1Mev, 5mA and 10mA in a batch system with 3, 6, 8,10 and 12kGy doses. COD, color and suspended solid reduced with the increasing of absorbed dose. Mixed industrial wastewater added with DEPH in the second batch was irradiated with dose up to 300kGy. Concentration of DEHP also reduced with increasing of dose and more effectively decreased in acidic and aerated condition. (author)

  5. Controlling Radiation Degradation of Natural Polymers for Industrial and Agricultural application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2O2 to natural polymers such as chitosan and Na-alginate during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated chitosan, and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper application. (author)

  6. BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION-CURABLE ADHESIVES IN THE COATED AND LAMINATED SUBSTRATE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of barriers to the use of radiation-cured technology in the coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry. t presents information gathered from radiation-curable coating and equipment suppliers as well as technical publications....

  7. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  8. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Service contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling. Following a market survey carried out among 34 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2769/SL/LEP) was sent on 13 March 2000 to seven firms and three consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from three firms and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH), NFI (SE) and ISS GEBÄUDESERVICE (DE), the lowest technically qualified bidder, for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling for a total amount of 990 792 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-59%, DE-26%, SE-15%.

  9. Control of radioactive sources in industry through regulatory inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.; Pinho, A.S.; Lourenco, M.M.J.; Nicola, M.S.; D'Avila, R.L.; Melo, I.F.; Cucco, A.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, the applications of ionizing radiation in industry are accomplished about 900 radioactive facilities, which handle approximately 3.000 radiation sources. The control of radioactive sources used in industrial installations authorized by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is accomplished by Servico de Radioprotecao na Industria Radiativa (SERIR) of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. This service carries out regulatory inspections in the practices of industrial radiography, nuclear gauges, industrial irradiators and oil wells logging. The frequency of inspections depends on the type of practice, ranging from a year to 5 years, depending on the risk involved. This paper presents a brief description of the situation of radiation safety in the use of radioactive sources in the industries of the country. The results obtained with regulatory inspections at industrial installations demonstrate that the conditions of safety and radiation protection in these facilities are satisfactory when compared with the technical regulations, both national and international

  10. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  11. The social costs of production and the structure of technology in the Brazilian ethanol industry: A cost-benefit analysis and an infant industry evaluation, 1978-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rask, K.N.

    1991-01-01

    Only one country, Brazil, has developed an economy-wide liquid fuel industry which directly substitutes for gasoline. The experience of sugar-cane-based ethanol production in Brazil provides an important case study in the economic efficiency of this petroleum substitute. Partial equilibrium cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate the net social benefits of ethanol production over the decade beginning in 1978. Ethanol production from the southern region of Brazil is found to be an economically efficient substitute for petroleum when world oil prices are over $20 per barrel. Ethanol production in the northern Brazil has never been economic and will not be until oil prices rise above $40 per barrel. The second half of this thesis uses applied production analysis to determine the source of the ethanol unit cost reductions. For sugar-cane production, a modified symmetric generalized McFadden cost function which includes fixed factors of production is estimated. There is little evidence of technical progress and no evidence of increasing returns to scale in sugar-cane production

  12. Radiation Field Forming for Industrial Electron Accelerators Using Rare-Earth Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A. N.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Yurov, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the radiation field forming system for industrial electron accelerators, which would have uniform distribution of linear charge density at the surface of an item being irradiated perpendicular to the direction of its motion. Its main element is non-linear quadrupole lens made with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials. The proposed system has a number of advantages over traditional beam scanning systems that use electromagnets, including easier product irradiation planning, lower instantaneous local dose rate, smaller size, lower cost. Provided are the calculation results for a 10 MeV industrial electron accelerator, as well as measurement results for current distribution in the prototype build based on calculations.

  13. Societal applications of isotope/radiation technology in industry and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurusharan

    2012-01-01

    Besides generation of electricity from nuclear fuels, one of the objectives of the Atomic Energy Programme in India is development and promotion of applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology in all major fields of human endeavor. The applications of isotopes both as stable and as radioactive and electronic radiation sources is increasing at a rapid pace in all major fields of human endeavor. These applications expanded greatly when it became possible to produce a variety of radioisotopes artificially in nuclear reactors and by bombardment of the targets with high energy particles. With the recent developments in the supporting technologies such as compact electronics, high resolution detectors, fast computers, small reliable neutron tubes, dedicated computer modeling codes and better data interpretation, one can now satisfy the longstanding demand for immediate, accurate and detailed information about the test specimen. As a result of the radioisotope programme, the country has a strong infrastructure in various fields including applications in industry. One major area of industrial applications of radioisotopes is their use as sealed radioactive sources and as radioactive tracers for troubleshooting, process control and process vessel design modification. These applications are mostly online, nondestructive and noninvasive. Radioisotope techniques can perform many tasks better, easier, quicker, relatively simply, cost effectively than alternative methods and have no substitutes in many applications, and are used extensively in all areas of industry, research, medicine and agriculture. Sealed source techniques of radioisotope applications provide valuable, non destructive and noninvasive insight to the process and plant problems. These are either supplementary to or more convenient than tracer techniques. These applications do not require much preparation time and hence can be carried out at short notice. The use of these techniques is growing steadily

  14. Radiation safety practice in Sudan with respect to industrial radioisotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.D.; Hassan, B.A.; Zeada, D.O.M.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Salih, S.A.; Hassan, M.S.

    2008-06-01

    The use of radioisotope technology in petrochemical industry in Sudan started in 2003, since then gamma scanning for distillation columns and tracer applications for leak detection was performed 6 times at a refinery 60 Km away from Khartoum, by Sudan Atomic Energy Commission II T group. This paper focuses on safety and radiation protection for this practice, also describes safety requirements, the emergency plan and evaluation of dose worker value which was done on these missions. The assessment of worker's doses performed showed that they are within an acceptable range. Recommendations are made to even bring them lower. The paper also sheds light on some problems raised and suggests remedial actions.(Author)

  15. Potential exposure to natural radiation inside dwellings, due to phosphogypsum use in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Roosevelt

    1997-01-01

    The interest of building industry to improve the standardization of building processes result in a increasing tendency of using the gypsum as boards, and as a projected gypsum mortars. On the other hand, the need of reuse industrial wastes to avoid environmental impact resulting of their deposition and to reduce the management costs, indicates the building industry as an important user of large quantities of industrial wastes, mainly that generated in the ore milling The industry of phosphate fertilizers is a typical example of this interaction. The phosphate rock milling through the wet process, reacting phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, produces substantial quantities of calcium sulfate as a by-product known as phosphogypsum, that are stored in stockpiles. The phosphate rock contains radionuclides of the U and Th decay series. During the chemical attack these radionuclides are distributed in different proportions between the phosphoric acid and the phosphogypsum. This work presents the radiological characterization phosphogypsum, produced by two national fertilizers industries. A methodology to quantify the radiation exposure, in a reference dwelling , due the use of phosphogypsum considering different scenarios, was established. The external irradiation and the inhalation of radon and thoron and their decay products in indoor air were considered. The values of individual effective dose equivalent ranged from 0.12 to 1.95 mSv.a 1 , depending on the phosphogypsum origin and the scenario considered. About 80% of the dose rises from the inhalation of thoron and its decay products. The results show the importance of Th series radioactive disequilibrium in the assessment. Depending on the phosphogypsum origin and scenario of use, the dose values justify the control of this practice. The general conclusion is that this practice have to be considered case by case and the proposed methodology is suitable to assess the dose and the radioactive disequilibrium consequences

  16. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  17. Potential reduction of CO2 emissions and low carbon scenario for the Brazilian industrial sector for 2030; Potencial de reducao de emissoes de Co2 e cenario de baixo carbono para o setor industrial brasileiro para 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], email: mauricio.henriques@int.gov.br; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], email: roberto@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This study discusses the potential for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use by the Brazilian industrial sector in a low-carbon scenario over a horizon until 2030. It evaluates the main mitigation measures, the quantities of this gas avoided and the respective abatement costs. In relation to a benchmark scenario projected for 2030, the reduction of CO2 emissions estimated here can reach 40% by adopting energy efficiency measures, materials recycling, cogeneration, shifting from fossil fuels to renewable or less carbon content sources, and eliminating the use of biomass from deforestation. The set of measures studied here would bring cumulative emissions reductions of nearly 1.5 billion tCO2 over a period of 20 years (2010-2030). This would require huge investments, but the majority of them would have significant economic return and negative abatement costs. However, in the cases there would be low economic attractiveness and higher abatement costs, thus requiring more effective incentives and a collective effort, from both the public and private sectors. (author)

  18. The potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in the Brazilian industrial sector; Potencial de reducao de emissao de gases de efeito estufa pelo uso de energia no setor industrial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Junior, Mauricio Francisco

    2010-05-15

    This study seeks to quantify the reductions that can be achieved in CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fuels by Brazilian industries in a long-term low-carbon scenario. We model two horizons, for 2030 and 2050, and also for each sector quantify the abatement costs and other economic parameters and the main technological options applicable, namely: enhanced energy efficiency; replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources or ones with a smaller carbon footprint; elimination of the use of biomass from deforestation; and cogeneration. In the low-carbon scenario for 2030, a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of some 40% can be achieved that year, or approximately 1.5 billion tCO{sub 2} over the period from 2010 to 2030. These reductions would require substantial investments, but in most cases they would be economically attractive, with low or negative abatement costs. For 2050, we modeled a more aggressive scenario, through faster implementation of some specific measures and introduction of new technologies. Despite the possibility of favorable economic results, companies have been reluctant to adopt several of the mitigation measures examined. We discuss some policies, including granting incentives, to overcome the barriers and difficulties to wider adoption of mitigation measures. (author)

  19. O surgimento da comissão brasileiro-americana de educação industrial (CBAI - The rising of the brazilian-american committee of industrial education (CBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lopes Amorim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O trabalho procura compreender o contexto em que se situa a cooperação estadunidense na formação dos professores brasileiros de ensino industrial, com o objetivo de formá-los para atuar junto a seus alunos na perspectiva de preparação destes para a atividade industrial, pela aplicação de métodos específicos para tal, evidenciando seu caráter de racionalização produtiva. Desta forma, a disciplinarização pelo trabalho permanece na ordem do dia, ao lado da divulgação dos ideais do "american way of life" e da crescente influência estadunidense no Brasil, sob vários aspectos. Por fim, somando-se a isto o discurso, cada vez mais presente, da urgente necessidade da preparação de técnicos para atender as demandas do setor secundário da economia, cuja qualificação, além de permitir-lhes a garantia de emprego e de ascensão social, possibilitar-lhes-ia um papel fundamental na busca de superação da condição de país subdesenvolvido, até então ostentada pelo Brasil. Palavras-chave: CBAI; história da educação profissional; americanização; ensino industrial.   THE RISING OF THE BRAZILIAN-AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION (CBAI Abstract This research looks for to understand the context where if it points out the american cooperation in the formation of the Brazilian professors of industrial education, with the objective to form them to act together its pupils in the perspective of preparation of these for the industrial activity, for the application of specific methods for such, evidencing its character of productive rationalization. Of this form, the discipline for the work remains in the order of the day, to the side of the spreading of the ideals of "american way of life" and of the increasing american influence in Brazil, under some aspects. Finally, adding it this the speech, each more present time, of the urgent necessity of the preparation of technician to take care of the demands of the secondary

  20. Development of a radiation protection training system and professional skills model in a multinational oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection

  1. Development of a radiation protection training system and professional skills model in a multinational oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R. [ENI S.P.A. exploration and production division, Radiation Protection Department, Via Emilia 1, 20097 San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection

  2. Radiation litigation and the nuclear industry--the experience in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, W J; Wakeford, R

    2001-12-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 places a "strict" statutory duty on the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure that any exposure to radiation resulting from operations does not cause injury or damage. A claimant does not have to prove fault to receive compensation under the Act, only causation. The 1965 Act has been fundamental in shaping litigation involving the nuclear industry in the UK. Civil law cases brought under the Act will be heard before a single judge (with no jury or technical assessor) who must present his or her decision in a reasoned judgment. This process leads to a considerable volume of expert evidence being presented to the court and extensive cross-examination of witnesses. The expense and uncertain outcome of cases involving claims by nuclear workers that occupational exposure to radiation had caused the development of cancer has led to employers and trade unions setting up the voluntary Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases as an alternative to litigation. This Scheme has worked well and is held up as a model of alternative dispute resolution. However, a few cases concerning personal injury or damage to property have come before the courts when the defendant nuclear operator considered that the claims were technically unjustified and where settlement was not a policy option. As anticipated, these cases were lengthy, complex, and expensive. The radiation doses assessed to have been received by the individuals who were the subject of claims, whether workers or members of the public, have been crucial to the outcome. The technical expertise of health physicists and allied specialists has been vital in establishing defensible estimates of dose, and this contribution can be expected to remain of high importance in radiation litigation in the UK.

  3. A new possibility of separate the natural and industrial components of the ambient radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purghel, L.; Valcov, N.; Celarel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The ambient radiation background, sometimes considered as a gamma-ray background, is actually composed by a natural radiation field and an industrial radiation field, produced by nuclear facilities. This work presents a possibility to separate and to measure simultaneously both components by using the statistical discrimination method. As the statistical discrimination method is able to measure mixed radiation fields, characterized by essentially different statistical factors k = σ 2 / I (I - the mean value and σ 2 - the variance of the ionization current), this basic assumption of the method is checked, for the natural background and the gamma-ray checked, for natural background and the gamma-ray fields. The obtained value of the ratio k B / k γ = 9 has confirmed the validity of the statistical discrimination method as well as the assumption of a small contribution of the gamma-ray field to the ambient radiation background. Some estimations of the statistical uncertainties, associated with the measurement of two components of the ambient background field have been made. For a 10 liters, atmospheric pressure air - filled ionization chamber (or its equivalent, i.e. 2 liters, 5 atmospheres air -filled chamber) and a 30 s integration time constant, the minimum detectable absorbed dose rate of gamma-rays, for a 0.1 μ Gy / h natural background absorbed dose rate, is equal to 0.02 μ Gy / h. The statistical relative uncertainty of measurement for a 0.5 μ Gy / h absorbed dose rate gamma-ray field, corresponding to the admissible value of the equivalent dose rate of 0.6 μ Sv / h, for non-professional population is about 4 %. (authors)

  4. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  5. Gamma radiation effect on agar viscosity for use in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio J.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    1999-01-01

    The application of food radiation processing is increasing worldwide mainly because of its efficiency in the industrial decontamination of packaged food products. Indeed, the process neither introduces any undesirable elements nor increases the temperature, thus allowing the preparation of ready-to-use products which remain stable for long periods at room temperature. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on the viscosity of agar. This hydrocolloid derived from seaweed is a galactose polymer with a high hysteresis capacity (great difference among melting and gelification temperature) which is extremely important when used as additive for the food industry. Commercial agar was irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Proper dilutions were prepared and the viscosity was measured in a Brookfield model LVDVIII viscosimeters. The relationships viscosity/dose for the temperatures of 45 deg C and 60 deg C were established. The decrease of the viscosity was 71.4% and 49.6% respectively when the applied dose was 10 kGy. The implications of the use of this additive in food irradiation are discussed. (author)

  6. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, D.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards due to cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Abdel Halim, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Assiut cement and other local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured by using γ-ray spectrometry. From the measured γ-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for other countries. The average values obtained for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. The obtained results show that the averages of radiation hazard parameters for Assiut cement factory are lower than the acceptable level of 370 Bq kg -1 for radium equivalent Ra eq , 1 for level index Iγr, the external hazard index Hex ≤1 and 59 (nGy h -1 ) for absorbed dose rate. The manufacturing operation reduces the radiation hazard parameters. Cement does not pose a significant radiological hazard when used for construction of buildings.

  8. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  9. Regulation of the natural gas distribution sector: a comparison of Brazilian and Colombian industries; Regulacao do setor de distribuicao de gas natural: uma comparacao dos casos brasileiro e colombiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Mariana Peralva; Ferraro, Marcelo Colomer [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Bolivia oil industry nationalization in 2006 and the high price of oil on the international market called the public and government attention to the problems of the natural gas industry regulation in Brazil. Recently, the establishment of a specific law for the natural gas industry had been debated in academic circles and in government institutions. In Brazil, the absence of an integrated energy policy and the absence of a homogeneous regulatory framework interfere with natural gas industry development, especially in distribution. Thus, the objective of the work will be contrast the Colombia distribution natural gas regulatory structure sector to the Brazilian natural gas regulatory framework. The comparison of the Brazilian regulatory framework and the Colombian natural gas regulation shows that the existence of different kinds of concession contracts in distribution is one of the explanations for the different levels of investment in Brazil. The contract with exclusive right to explore the distribution service in geographic territories also contributes to explain the low coverage rate of public distribution companies. Thus, the rapid expansion of the natural gas distribution network in Colombia after the regulatory reforms shows the importance of the establishment of a regulatory structure to push private investment. The Colombian case can be considered a good model for other countries in South America, especially to the natural gas distribution regulation. (author)

  10. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy; Experiencia regulatoria argentina en gammagrafia industrial en materia de radioproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [Spanish] La gammagrafia industrial siempre fue responsable de los mayores indices de accidentes radiologicos en casi todo el mundo. Esto se debe principalmente a las altas actividades de las fuentes radiactivas utilizadas, las cuales son transportadas constantemente en los equipos que las contienen entre el deposito y las areas de trabajo, y a presiones de carga de trabajo que pueden inducir a descuidos en el seguimiento de los procedimientos de operacion, si no existe una Cultura de la Seguridad arraigada. El proposito de este trabajo es presentar los aspectos principales de la reglamentacion argentina en materia de radioproteccion para controlar esta practica y de esta manera contribuir a reducir los riesgos asociados. Asimismo, se describen algunos incidentes ocurridos en argentina durante los ultimos anios, las causas que condujeron a dichos sucesos y su relacion con el incumplimiento

  11. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  12. Guidelines for industrial radiation sterilization of disposable medical products (Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This IAEA document is aimed at providing necessary guidance on standards and criteria and assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in their attempts to properly set up facilities for industrial radiation sterilization of duly-manufactured medical products by exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation. The contents of the guidelines have therefore been designed, as far as practicable, to reflect the practices and procedures currently employed in the processing of the majority of the radiation-sterilized medical products being produced worldwide. Consequently, this document has attempted to present to its users, for information and for action, all the relevant features of the standard criteria as are currently in existence under the auspices of the various authoritative national and/or regional Codes or Guides. The potential user(s) from Member States are expected to freely decide which of the various standards as enumerated in the Guidelines document should be considered for inclusion or exclusion either partially or totally in the context of the formulation of their own nationally-acceptable guidelines. Refs and tabs

  13. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  14. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  15. Synthesis of Radiation Grafted Polymer Matrices for Separation and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Y K; Virendra, K; Goel, N K; Sarma, K S.S.; Sabharwal, S [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Grafting of acrylonitrile onto non-woven porous polypropylene fibre sheet using electron beam was carried out by post-irradiation grafting. Grafting extent of {approx}125% was achieved. The grafted nitrile groups were amidoximated and studied for uranium uptake from sea water and heavy metal ions (Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+}) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption and elution of adsorbed ions in suitable eluents was studied. The grafting process was upgraded to pilot scale to obtain 1x1 m{sup 2} sheets. Mutual radiation grafting technique was used for grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, [2- (methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride and [2-(acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride onto cotton cellulose substrate. The grafted matrices showed significantly higher water uptake and good water retention properties. The antibacterial efficacy of the grafted products was found to be a function of extent of grafting and the type of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus). PVBT-g-cotton was studied for its protein adsorption behaviour in continuous column process using Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Mutual radiation grafting technique was used to graft acrylic acid on micrometer thick micro-porous polypropylene membrane. Contact angle measurement studies showed that initial grafting as well as radiation treatment of poly(propylene) in aqueous medium and in presence of Mohr's salt enhances its affinity towards the grafting solution. The enhancement in the polar component of surface energy of treated polypropylene membrane is the primary cause of grafting enhancement. The membranes grafted to an extent of {approx}20% were found to perform comparably with the battery separator presently being used by battery industry. Acrylic acid was grafted to Teflon scrap by mutual radiation grafting technique. The grafting extent decreased with increasing dose rate and

  16. A cytogenetic bio-monitoring of industrial radiographers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation by using CBMN assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Changizi, Vahid; Zakeri, Farideh; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Industrial radiography is the process of using either gamma-emitting radionuclide sources or X-ray machines to examine the safety of industrial materials. The average annual effective dose in industrial radiography is one of the highest among radiation workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 industrial radiographers and 40 non-exposed individuals as the control group by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Totally, the frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) were significantly higher in the industrial radiographers than in the controls (p = 0.000). The mean MN frequency per 1000 binucleated cells in the industrial radiographers with last 5-y radiation dose of >100 mSv was significantly higher than those with ≤100 mSv (34.81 ± 12.70 vs. 26.33 ± 7.940, p = 0.024). The effect of age was observed in the control group and subjects with the age of >30 y showed significantly higher MN frequency compared with the subjects with the age of ≤30 y (9.45 ± 3.710 vs. 6.81 ± 3.050, p = 0.02). No obvious trend of increased MN as a function of either duration of employment or age or smoking status was observed in the industrial radiographers. The results show the increased levels of cytogenetic damages in the industrial radiographers. Even the workers exposed to the permissible doses are subjected to elevated frequencies of DNA damages. These findings confirm the importance of cytogenetic bio-monitoring program beside physical dosimetry, surveying radiation safety of equipment and periodic training of workers for improvement of safety and radiation protection. (authors)

  17. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  18. Brazilian competition advantages in the petroleum and natural gas area. Suitability of a national policy for the sector; Vantagens competitivas brasileiras no setor de petroleo e gas natural. Conveniencia de uma politica industrial para o setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Regina; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Werneck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1998-07-01

    Albeit it is recognized the economic benefits that nay follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which should experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private capitals, this work tries to discuss about the capacity of Brazil to sustain this growth and obtain the maximum economic development out of the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. Starting from the concept of National Competitive Advantage, according to Michael Porter's model, from the University of Harvard, it is analyzed some necessary aspects for Brazil to develop a healthier and more competitive oil nad natural gas industry. The work discussed on the convenience of developing a new industrial policy, allowing to the country to protect its national interests without creating old forms of obsolete protectionism. (author)

  19. Avaliação quantitativa de cardenolídeos no cultivar experimental de Digitalis lanata do maciço do itatiaia e perspectivas de seu emprego industrial Quantitative evaluation of cardenolides in a brazilian digitalis lanata cultivar and perspectives of its industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernão Castro Braga

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of digoxin and lanatoside C (jointly quantified, lanatoside A, lanatoside B, glucoevatromonoside, odorobioside G, glucogitoroside, glucoverodoxine, glucodigifucoside and digitalinum verum was determined by HPLC in Digitalis lanata harvested in Brazil, as well as in clones industrially employed for the production of cardenolides. The Brazilian plants presented greater variation in the contents of cardenolides than the analyzed clones. Lanatoside C and digoxin concentrations were higher in the clones (6120±640 nmol/g dry leaf than in the Brazilian plants (1820±900 nmol/g dry leaf. The concentrations of these glycosides were found to be within the range described for native species and also were similar to an European cultivar, what makes possible its industrial use for the cardenolides production.

  20. Radiation protection measurement techniques and the challenges encountered in industrial and medical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays everybody is concerned by the use of ionizing radiations for diagnostic and therapy purposes. Radiation protection regulatory requirements are becoming more and more constraining and have an impact on the performance criteria required for measurement systems. The measurement of some radiation protection data requires the use of complex and costly devices, leading to hardly manageable constraints for the users. Do they have to be systematically implemented? How is it possible to reduce, control and optimize the medical exposures using new methodological approaches? During this conference the participants have shed light on some concrete situations and realisations in the environmental, nuclear industry and medical domains. The document brings together 34 presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - Environmental monitoring and measurement meaning (P.Y. Emidy (EDF)); human radiation protection and measurement meaning (A. Rannou (IRSN)); Eye lens dosimetry, why and how? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); critical and reasoned approach of the ISO 11929 standard about decision threshold and detection limit (A. Vivier (CEA)); Samples collection and low activities measurement in the environment (D. Claval (IRSN)); Dosemeters calibration, what is new? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); Appropriateness of measurement means for radiological controls (P. Tranchant (Techman Industrie)); Pulsed fields dosimetric reference for interventional diagnosis (M. Denoziere (CEA)); Pulsed complex fields dosimetry (F. Trompier (IRSN)); DOSEO: a tool for dose optimization in radiological imaging (C. Adrien (CEA)); Eye lens dosimetry (R. Kramar, A. De Vita (AREVA)); Eye lens dosimetry - workers exposure and proper radiation protection practices (I. Clairand (IRSN)); Individual neutrons dosimetry - status of existing standards (F. Queinnec (IRSN)); Complex field neutron spectroscopy: any new tool? (V. Lacoste (IRSN)); Photon mini-beams dosimetry in radiotherapy: stakes and protocols (C. Huet (IRSN)); Reference and

  1. The relevance of thermoelectricity for the development of the Brazilian natural gas industry; A importancia da termoeletricidade para o desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the capacity of the 'inflexible production', by state-owned Brazilian company PETROBRAS at its natural gas-based thermo-electrical generation stations, to promote in a increase in the use of the Brazil- Bolivia Gaspipe (Gasbol), which is the natural gas transport pipe related to 90,66% of the Brazilian natural gas imports. As the contract is a 'take or pay' contract, Brazil ends up paying for such a large volume of gas that the country does not effectively consume, since the consume of natural gas in Brazil has not come to the expectations which were prevailing when the import contract was signed. Last but not least, this article addresses the future possibilities for the increase of the share of natural gas in the total Brazilian energy consumption. (author)

  2. Aspects of radiation safety in the tin mining and processing industries in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, M S

    1987-04-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Malaysian nuclear regulatory authorities with the following objectives: to examine the individual steps in the mining, beneficiation, by-product treatment and smelting of tin-bearing minerals so as to highlight possible radiation safety effects and radiological environmental impacts; to make preliminary measurements on operations which are representative of the various steps in the processing of these minerals so as to determine the type and extent of future radiological survey programs; to examine the need for specific measurement techniques with a view to determining future training requirements. A representative operation of each of the steps in the tin mining and processing industry was visited, measurements were made and samples were collected to assess both the in-plant safety and offsite environmental effects of the operation. The results of measurements of gamma dose-rates, radon daughters-in-air, thoron daughters-in-air and radioactive respirable dusts are presented.

  3. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations

  4. Radiation control of food and forest industry production in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, I.P.; Barabashkin, A.V.; Kondrat'ev, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Service of the Ministry of Health ( 151 radiology laboratories ) and The Ministry of Agriculture ( 1330 radiology laboratories ) carry out the permanent control of the content of radionuclides in food. Last years there was no case registered of drinking water with the content of radioactive substances exceeding the permissible level. Radiation control of food and agricultural raw products is carried out in several stages: at the place of production, during reprocessing and a control of ready made product. The fact that there was no case of delivery of the products with the content of radionuclides higher than permissible level for sale says about the reliability of the system of the control. The permissible levels of the content of radionuclides are presented for food, drinking water, products of forest industry and agricultural production. 1 tab

  5. Adsorption of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastes Using Membranes Prepared by Radiation Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E. A.; Kamal, H.; Maziad, N.; Dessouki, A.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation of synthetic membranes using simultaneous radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and styrene (Sty) individually and in a binary monomers mixture onto polypropylene (PP) has been carried out. The effect of preparation conditions such as irradiation dose, monomer and inhibitor concentration, comonomer composition on the grafting yield was investigated. The thermal stability and mechanical properties were also investigated as a function of degree of grafting. Accordingly the possibility of its practical use in industrial waste treatment is determined. The prepared cation-exchange membranes possess good mechanical properties, high thermal stability and good characteristics for separation processes. These membranes have also good affinity toward the adsorption or chelation with Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , and Cd 2+ ions either in a mixture or exists alone in the solution

  6. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations.

  7. Effects of gamma-radiation on the degradiation of substituted aromatics and of industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation induced degradation of non-biodegradable organic compounds is demonstrated on chlorophenoles and 4-chlorocresole. The oxidation in aqueous solution (c=10 -3 mole/l) with air at doses up to one Mrad results in a complete dechlorination. The organic chlorine is converted to chloride. The influence of inorganic salts (c=10 -1 mole/l) on the irradiation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenole was investigated. The following organic compounds have been identified in the case of 4-chlorocresole as oxidation products: oxalic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, mesoxalic acid, glyoxal, mesoxalic acid semialdehyde. In addition to this, two types of industrial waste water were irradiated, one containing 2,4-dichlorophenole and 4-chlorocresole and another anthrachinonic dye. To oxidize 200 ppm of organic ompounds with a TOC and COD reduction of 50 - 70% 1 Mrad is needed. To eliminate 20 mg COD/1/0,2 Mrad on an average 20 mg oxygen have been consumed. (author)

  8. Use of gamma radiation in floriculture industry for development of new varieties through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear radiation (gamma rays) can create changes in genetic make up of plant material through mutation. Gamma ray induced mutation is now an established method for crop improvement. It is well known that the crops which are propagated vegetatively are very suitable for the application of mutation breeding methods. In floriculture industry there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour and shape are the most important components of novelties. Gamma rays have been most successfully use to produce quite a large number of new promising,varieties in different ornamental (Bougainvillea - 4, Perennial portulaca-6, Chrysanthemum-43, Hibiscus-1, Rose-16, Tuberose-2, Lantana depressa-3 etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research. Institute, Lucknow, India. Research carried out covers radiosensitivity, selection of materials, methods of exposure to gamma rays, suitable dose of gamma rays, detection of mutants, isolation of mutants and commercial exploitation of mutants. A good number of mutant varieties have been well accepted in the floriculture industry. The mutant varieties are with new flower colour and shape. More than three decades of applied mutation breeding work has now established beyond doubt that mutation breeding will constitute an excellent supplement to the conventional methods for development of new varieties . Detection of somatic, mutations in flower colour/shape in different vegetative generations (M 1 V 1 , M 1 V 2 , M 1 V 3 and even in later vegetative generations), mutation frequency and spectrum relationship with dose of gamma radiation have been precisely determined. Studies have clearly proved that mutation breeding technique can be exploited for the creation of new and novel ornamental cultivars of commercial importance by inducing genetic variation in already adapted, modern genotypes and can also enrich the germplasm of ornamental horticulture

  9. 4. S.F.R.P. days on the optimization of radiation protection in the electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    These days are dedicated to the implementation of the radiation protection optimization in the activities of the electronuclear sector, of the industrial sector, the medical sector, the laboratories and the centers of research and the university sector. All the aspects of the practical application of the radiation protection optimization of the workers, the public and the patients will be approached. The oral communications and posters concern the following subjects: foundations of the optimization principle, new statutory context, transmission of ALARA principle, operational dosimetry, conception, operating and maintenance of the installations, the construction sites of dismantling, industrial radiology, radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  10. IAEA advisory group meeting on dosimetry for high doses employed in industrial radiation processing, Vienna, 17-21 November 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 1977 the IAEA established a programme on High-Dose Standardization and Intercomparison with the aim of developing a world-wide service for dosimetry assurance in Industrial and Research Radiation Processing Facilities. The complete proceedings of the first Advisory Group meeting held within this programme have recently been published in the IAEA Technical Reports Series (No. 205) under the title ''High-Dose Measurement in Industrial Radiation Processing''. This report of the second Advisory Group meeting provides a brief review of the state of the programme at the present time. (The full proceedings of the meeting will not be published)

  11. Occupational radiation exposure trends in the nuclear industry of NEA/IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.; Horan, J.R.; Franzen, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    After various introductory statements on current occupational radiation exposure trends in nuclear facilities, the authors briefly discuss the problems involved in the application of the ICRP principle of optimization of radiological protection to the design and, in particular, the operation of nuclear plants, with the aim of comparing present exposure trends. To assemble an adequate data base for supporting the technical studies required to optimize radiological protection, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have launched a survey aimed at collecting information on the levels and trends of occupational radiation exposure in the nuclear industry. The features of this study, based on the answers of NEA/IAEA Member States to a questionnaire, are described. The first results of the survey, regarding the situation and time trends of the average individual dose equivalents and collective dose equivalents for different plant types and for several countries, are also given. A preliminary analysis of the data collected allows certain considerations to be made relating to the influence of size, age and plant type, as well as of different national practices in plant operation and maintenance. (author)

  12. NIST Accelerator Facilities And Programs In Support Of Industrial Radiation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, F.B.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Hudson, L.T.; Coursey, B.M.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Seltzer, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    NIST's Ionizing Radiation Division maintains and operates three electron accelerators used in a number of applications including waste treatment and sterilization, radiation hardness testing, detector calibrations and materials modification studies. These facilities serve a large number of governmental, academic and industrial users as well as an active intramural research program. They include a 500 kV cascaded-rectifier accelerator, a 2.5 MV electron Van de Graaff accelerator and a 7 to 32 MeV electron linac, supplying beams ranging in energy from a few keV up to 32 MeV. In response to the recent anthrax incident, NIST along with the US Postal Service and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) are working to develop protocols and testing procedures for the USPS mail sanitization program. NIST facilities and personnel are being employed in a series of quality-assurance measurements for both electron- and photon-beam sanitization. These include computational modeling, dose verification and VOC (volatile organic compounds) testing using megavoltage electron and photon sources

  13. No nuclear mining industries and the increase to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, Monica Aquino

    1999-01-01

    Mining and processing activities dealing with mineral ores containing associated uranium and thorium series elements can make these radionuclides available in their products, byproducts and in the environment, leading to the enhancement of the exposure of the public to natural radiation. In the present study, niobium, phosphate, coal and gold mining plants have been selected as case studies, aiming to identify possible radiological impact sources during and after ceasing the operation on these units. In order to achieve that, the radiological characterization of samples from ore processing, drainage water and other liquid emissions was carried out. The potential environmental radiological impact was quantified by means of estimating the effective dose equivalent, H E , for present and future scenarios considering the use of the environment in the vicinities of the units and future tailing storage sites. The results confirm these mining industries as activities potentially enhancing exposure to natural radiation. The possible use of solid wastes, abandoned at the end of operation, represents a long term radiological concern. The acid drainage, as well as the chemical processing of mineral ores constitute relevant impact factors for present and future scenarios. Thus, the legislation for environmental licensing must be reviewed in order to take into account the potential environmental radiological impact caused by these units, as well as the establishment of remediation procedures for waste storage areas in the existing sites. (author)

  14. Planning research on the next strategical project through the trend analysis on radiation fusion technology, industry and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Choi, Jae Hak; Kim, Tak Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Ο The planning research for establish a detailed implementation strategy to serve as small, but a strong institution leading national radiation research and resolving the pending issues related to using radiation - Now is a time when it needs a implementation strategy to achieve it's unique mission as the sole radiation-specialized research institute leading to promote the radiation industry. Ο The main background of this study is to build the planning of a new paradigm for research and development to cope with the changing domestic and international environment for sustainable growth - As the domestic regional radiation field is getting more competitive and the cooperative group expands, it needs to adapt to the global trend such as technology convergence and acceleration etc.. - The need for establish basic database to make a new strategy in order to narrow the technology gap in the radiation fusion technology comparing to the developed country and cope with emerging country's advancement in technology Ο The use to build basic database to spearhead the project and set aside a budget effectively - It's to be used as a reference to set aside a budget through planning strategy industry field to forecast the industrial demand and variation of the future policy and create blue ocean and niche markets

  15. Numerical simulations of industrial processes involving fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrocq, J [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1998-12-31

    Moving out of the scientific community research laboratories, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages are now allowing industrials to analyse and optimize industrial processes involving the use of gases, liquids and even some two-phase fluids. Their attractiveness and their impact stems out from the opportunity they offer to bring insight into an existing unit, or even at the design stage, by displaying the spatial distribution of process relevant variables such as temperature, concentration. The filling of the spacing in between a two-layer window is a simple example. This new opportunity of visualisation is at times an unique way, when the process environment is an opaque one, such as liquid metal flowing into a tundish or when measurements of flows may be a long and tedious work, such as flows within water treatment basins. This environment we are to investigate in order to optimize can also be a harsh one, due to its high temperature level for example. Such are burners. But then pure fluid flow analysis, such as cold flow water models, has too many shortcomings. The description of combustion processes and of radiation become a necessary feature in order to describe thermal heat transfer or to locate `hot spots`. Such numerical models showing our oxycombustion expertise in glass melting will be presented. (author)

  16. Numerical simulations of industrial processes involving fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrocq, J. [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1997-12-31

    Moving out of the scientific community research laboratories, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages are now allowing industrials to analyse and optimize industrial processes involving the use of gases, liquids and even some two-phase fluids. Their attractiveness and their impact stems out from the opportunity they offer to bring insight into an existing unit, or even at the design stage, by displaying the spatial distribution of process relevant variables such as temperature, concentration. The filling of the spacing in between a two-layer window is a simple example. This new opportunity of visualisation is at times an unique way, when the process environment is an opaque one, such as liquid metal flowing into a tundish or when measurements of flows may be a long and tedious work, such as flows within water treatment basins. This environment we are to investigate in order to optimize can also be a harsh one, due to its high temperature level for example. Such are burners. But then pure fluid flow analysis, such as cold flow water models, has too many shortcomings. The description of combustion processes and of radiation become a necessary feature in order to describe thermal heat transfer or to locate `hot spots`. Such numerical models showing our oxycombustion expertise in glass melting will be presented. (author)

  17. The selection of radiation tolerant electrical/electronic components for gamma radiation environments in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report briefly describes the mechanisms, units and effects of 1 MeV range gamma radiation on electrical/electronic components and materials. Information is tabulated on the gamma radiation tolerance of a wide range of components and materials. A radiation testing service, based at Harwell, is described. Lists of interested manufacturers and organisations are given. (author)

  18. Constitutional issues of Brazilian tax system in the biodiesel industry; Aspectos constitucionais do regime tributario aplicado a industria brasileira do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Monica Medeiros; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent insertion of biodiesel derived from oily vegetables in the Brazilian genetic matrix calls for the analysis of some aspects that belong to it. This study begins with an introduction to 'sustainable development' definition, it goes through the concept of biodiesel and a brief historical, the paper analyzes it's advantages - social, economic and environmental - related to the fossil fuels predominantly used. With the purpose to look into the 'Programa Nacional de Producao e Uso de Biodiesel - PNPB' created by the Federal Government in 2004, this study searches about the Brazilian regulating legislation on this subject, fundamental for the comprehension of the plans and objectives sought by the Brazilian Government with the encouragement to the production of the biodiesel. This study also investigates the role of the 'Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - ANP' in the regulation of the activities involving this biofuel. In this manner, from the analysis of the related legislation of this new energy source, the present article aims to delineate a view of the the tax system for this new market according to Constitution and pointing out the economic impacts of the biodiesel insertion in the Brazilian national energetic matrix. (author)

  19. Constitutional issues of Brazilian tax system in the biodiesel industry; Aspectos constitucionais do regime tributario aplicado a industria brasileira do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Monica Medeiros; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent insertion of biodiesel derived from oily vegetables in the Brazilian genetic matrix calls for the analysis of some aspects that belong to it. This study begins with an introduction to 'sustainable development' definition, it goes through the concept of biodiesel and a brief historical, the paper analyzes it's advantages - social, economic and environmental - related to the fossil fuels predominantly used. With the purpose to look into the 'Programa Nacional de Producao e Uso de Biodiesel - PNPB' created by the Federal Government in 2004, this study searches about the Brazilian regulating legislation on this subject, fundamental for the comprehension of the plans and objectives sought by the Brazilian Government with the encouragement to the production of the biodiesel. This study also investigates the role of the 'Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - ANP' in the regulation of the activities involving this biofuel. In this manner, from the analysis of the related legislation of this new energy source, the present article aims to delineate a view of the the tax system for this new market according to Constitution and pointing out the economic impacts of the biodiesel insertion in the Brazilian national energetic matrix. (author)

  20. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  1. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. MCNPX dosimetry and radiation-induced cancer risk estimation from 18F-FDG pediatric PET at Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-FDG has increased significantly in pediatric patients. PET with 18 F-FDG has often been applied in oncology. Cancer induction is one of the main stochastic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation of 18 F-FDG. Radiation-induced cancer risk estimation due to medical exposures is an important tool for risk/benefit assessing. The objective was to perform dosimetry and estimate the risk of cancer induction due to pediatric use of 18 F-FDG. MCNPX Computational dosimetry was performed to estimate organ absorbed doses resulting from 18 F-FDG pediatric use. Two voxelized phantoms, kindly provided by the GSF - Helmholtz Zentrum, were used: 'Child' - 7 years child and 'Baby' 8-week-old infant. ICRP-128 publication provided the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution of F-18. Tables containing organ absorbed dose and effective dose per unit of injected activity for the two phantoms were obtained. The injected activities were estimated according to data provided in the literature. Images of the absorbed dose distribution were generated from both models. The BEIR VII methodology was used to calculate the risk of cancer induction. The risk of cancer induction (per imaging procedure) for the seven-year-old child was (0.09% ♂ and 0.15% ♀) and for the eight-week old baby was (0.11% ♂ and 0.21% ♀). The 18 F-FDG absorbed dose distribution in the children and infants showed some divergences in comparison to adult data. Probably, the biokinetic data used to children and infants is the main reason for this disconnection. (author)

  4. MCNPX dosimetry and radiation-induced cancer risk estimation from {sup 18}F-FDG pediatric PET at Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br, E-mail: tcff@cdtn.br, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares

    2017-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 18}F-FDG has increased significantly in pediatric patients. PET with {sup 18}F-FDG has often been applied in oncology. Cancer induction is one of the main stochastic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation of {sup 18}F-FDG. Radiation-induced cancer risk estimation due to medical exposures is an important tool for risk/benefit assessing. The objective was to perform dosimetry and estimate the risk of cancer induction due to pediatric use of {sup 18}F-FDG. MCNPX Computational dosimetry was performed to estimate organ absorbed doses resulting from {sup 18}F-FDG pediatric use. Two voxelized phantoms, kindly provided by the GSF - Helmholtz Zentrum, were used: 'Child' - 7 years child and 'Baby' 8-week-old infant. ICRP-128 publication provided the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution of F-18. Tables containing organ absorbed dose and effective dose per unit of injected activity for the two phantoms were obtained. The injected activities were estimated according to data provided in the literature. Images of the absorbed dose distribution were generated from both models. The BEIR VII methodology was used to calculate the risk of cancer induction. The risk of cancer induction (per imaging procedure) for the seven-year-old child was (0.09% ♂ and 0.15% ♀) and for the eight-week old baby was (0.11% ♂ and 0.21% ♀). The {sup 18}F-FDG absorbed dose distribution in the children and infants showed some divergences in comparison to adult data. Probably, the biokinetic data used to children and infants is the main reason for this disconnection. (author)

  5. Progress report of the Radiation Technology and Industrial Applications Section, Isotope Group for the period ending August 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, A.D.; Roy, A.N.; Majali, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Radiation Technology and Industrial Applications Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, for the period ending August 1977 are reported. Major highlights are: (1) completion of studies and design engineering for an economic scale cobalt-60 based irradiator for the radiation sterilisation of medical products, (2) taking up the work of setting up the cobalt-60 irradiation facilities for sources up to 300,000 Ci level, (3) development of radiation processed wood-polymer composite and practical demonstration of its superiority for application in industries - a cobalt-60 facility specifically for this purpose is being installed, (4) development of a commercially viable design of a smoke alarm system based on radioisotopes and (5) production and supply of irradiation units such as gamma chambers, radiography cameras, etc. (M.G.B.)

  6. Study of ozone gas formed in the industrial radiation process with cobalt-60 and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzueli, Daniel Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The radiation processing is present in various products such as foods, medical disposable, electrical cables, gems, among others. This process aims to improve the properties, sterilize or sanitize irradiated products. In industrial irradiators facilities, electromagnetic radiation (gamma and X-rays) or electrons before they interact with the products in processing, there are a layer of air. To interact with this air layer, it causes radiolytic effects on the molecules present in the ambient atmosphere, and the main interaction are with the oxygen molecules that have their bonds broken, separating them into two highly reactive atoms that recombine with the other molecule of oxygen to form ozone gas. In this work it was studied the formation, decay and dispersion of ozone in industrial gamma irradiators facilities that use cobalt-60 as a source of radiation. The monitoring of ozone concentration was performed by optical absorption method in a commercial monitor. (author)

  7. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  8. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  9. Evaluation of uncertainties in X radiation metrologic chain in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory/IRD-Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Coelho, B.C. da.

    1987-01-01

    The equipment to measure ionizing radiation used in medicine needs appropriate technical qualifications to comply with their purposes and regular calibrations to assure the correct evaluation of associated quantities. By legal requirements, the annual calibration of users' dosemeters is to be done in a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), andthe SSDL'S standard dosemeters are refered to a Primary Standard Dosimetry (PSDL), establishing a rigourous metrological network. The SSDL network. The SSDL needs to maintain, regularly, a quality control program for short and Long term stability of standard dosemeters. The purpose of the work was to determine the uncertainties associated to technical procedures of X-rays calibration at the SSDL/IRD/IRD. To evaluate the influence of the nine main parameters that can give origin to uncertainties, specific procedures and methods are established, according to international requirements and recomendations. The methods are based on the comparison of the behaviour of the users' dosemeters, with a standard dosemeter in the many measuring conditions set up for the secondary standard used as a reference. The total uncertainty obtained was 1,81% usig a conservative procedure, to protect the users and patients. When needed to transfer the calibration factor and their uncertainty, the procedure used was to determine the uncertainty under the worsst possible operating conditions of the equipment, to obtain a superestimated value. This represents an excellent result for an SDDL of IAEA Network. (autor) [pt

  10. Regulatory inspection: a powerful tool to control industrial radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da; Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    An important contribution for Brazilian development, especially for the quality control of products, is the use of radiation sources by conventional industries. There are in Brazil roughly 3,000 radioactive sources spread out among 950 industries. The main industrial practices involved are: industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, industrial accelerators, well logging petroleum and nuclear gauges. More than 1,800 Radiation Protection Officers (RPOs) were qualified to work in these practices. The present work presents a brief description of the safety control over industrial radioactive installations performed by the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, i.e. the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This paper also describes the national system for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure and the national inventory of industrial installations. The inspections are based on specific indicators, and their periodicity depends on the risk and type of installation. The present work discusses some relevant aspects that must be considered during the inspections, in order to make the inspections more efficient in controlling the sources. One of these aspects regards the evaluation of the storage place for the sources, a very important parameter for preventing future risky situations. (author)

  11. Industry Funding Among Leadership in Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Stella K; Ahmed, Awad A; Ileto, Jan; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Deville, Curtiland; Holliday, Emma B; Wilson, Lynn D; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R

    2017-10-01

    To quantify and determine the relationship between oncology departmental/division heads and private industry vis-à-vis potential financial conflict of interests (FCOIs) as publicly reported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database. We extracted the names of the chairs/chiefs in medical oncology (MO) and chairs of radiation oncology (RO) for 81 different institutions with both RO and MO training programs as reported by the Association of American Medical Colleges. For each leader, the amount of consulting fees and research payments received in 2015 was determined. Logistic modeling was used to assess associations between the 2 endpoints of receiving a consulting fee and receiving a research payment with various institution-specific and practitioner-specific variables included as covariates: specialty, sex, National Cancer Institute designation, PhD status, and geographic region. The majority of leaders in MO were reported to have received consulting fees or research payments (69.5%) compared with a minority of RO chairs (27.2%). Among those receiving payments, the average (range) consulting fee was $13,413 ($200-$70,423) for MO leaders and $6463 ($837-$16,205) for RO chairs; the average research payment for MO leaders receiving payments was $240,446 ($156-$1,234,762) and $295,089 ($160-$1,219,564) for RO chairs. On multivariable regression when the endpoint was receipt of a research payment, those receiving a consulting fee (odds ratio [OR]: 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22-13.65) and MO leaders (OR: 5.54; 95% CI: 2.62-12.18) were more likely to receive research payments. Examination of the receipt of consulting fees as the endpoint showed that those receiving a research payment (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.23-13.99) and MO leaders (OR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.21-8.13) were more likely to receive a consulting fee. Leaders in academic oncology receive consulting or research payments from industry. Relationships between oncology leaders and

  12. Problems of radiation protection at continuous service of industrial full-screen-X-ray-installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, K.

    1979-01-01

    A lot of usual product of high automatisized full-screen-X-ray-installations prove very susceptible to trouble when used in continuous 3-shift-working. Normal safeguards by rough industrial continuous use mostly abruptly lose their efficiency without announcement; this mainly by vibration, disadjustment, aerosols, dirts and thermal stress. The author explains this by illustrated samples of practice. Since for those installations neither physical controls of persons nor dose-alarm-systems are prescribed by law, the needed security regarding radiation protection seems not to be guaranteed. Therefore it is proposed to order the following by technical and legistical rules: 1. Screening has to be constructed and mounted resistant in mechanical and termical regards. 2. Safety-switches must work by constraint and in an primary way. 3. The reaching of the legally allowed dose-limit has to be recognized in an unmistakable way by alarm signal. These protections are the most urgent, since the continuous service of those X-ray-installations normally works without any further screening admist other production installations and operation is done by semiskilled operators who are not subjected to any physical or medical control. (author)

  13. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Iridium-192 ( 192 Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m 2 , some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  14. Radiation doses to lungs and whole body from use of tritium in luminous paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudran, K.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation dose to persons exposed to tritium in the luminous paint industry is reported. The biological half-life of labile tritium is observed to be 7 to 10 days. There is evidence of exposure of lung tissue from tritium labelled polystyrene deposited in the pulmonary region and of soft tissue from organically bound tritium. Delayed excretion of labile tritium in urine following removal of the individuals from tritium handling, presence of tritium in organic constituents of blood and urine, and presence of non-volatile tritium in faecal excretion have been verified. From in vitro studies using fresh bovine serum, solubilisation half-life of tritium from the labelled paint is estimated to be 35 to 70 days after the initial fast clearance. Probable annual doses to the whole body, soft tissue and lungs under the prevailing working conditions have been estimated from the urinary and faecal excretion data. It is revealed that the actual values thus estimated are likely to exceed the values estimated by the conventional technique based on urine analysis for tritiated water. (author)

  15. A cytogenetic biomonitoring of industrial radiographers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation by using cbmn assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Zakeri, Farideh; Changizi, Vahid; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-15

    Industrial radiography is the process of using either gamma-emitting radionuclide sources or X-ray machines to examine the safety of industrial materials. The average annual effective dose in industrial radiography is one of the highest among radiation workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 industrial radiographers and 40 non-exposed individuals as the control group by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Totally, the frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) were significantly higher in the industrial radiographers than in the controls (p = 0.000). The mean MN frequency per 1000 binucleated cells in the industrial radiographers with last 5-y radiation dose of >100 mSv was significantly higher than those with ≤100 mSv (34.81 ± 12.7‰ vs. 26.33 ± 7.94‰, p = 0.024). The effect of age was observed in the control group and subjects with the age of >30 y showed significantly higher MN frequency compared with the subjects with the age of ≤30 y (9.45 ± 3.71‰ vs. 6.81 ± 3.05‰, p = 0.02). No obvious trend of increased MN as a function of either duration of employment or age or smoking status was observed in the industrial radiographers. The results show the increased levels of cytogenetic damages in the industrial radiographers. Even the workers exposed to the permissible doses are subjected to elevated frequencies of DNA damages. These findings confirm the importance of cytogenetic biomonitoring program beside physical dosimetry, surveying radiation safety of equipment and periodic training of workers for improvement of safety and radiation protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Avaliação da capacidade de regeneração in vitro em tomateiro industrial Evaluation of the in vitro regeneration capacity in Brazilian industrial tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKLÓS FÁRI

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a capacidade de regeneração das cultivares de tomateiro industrial (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill IPA-5 e IPA-6, utilizando quatro composições de meio de cultura descritos na literatura e cinco variações de inoculação. Foi testada uma nova variação de inoculação, denominada cotilédone fendido. A maior freqüência de formação de gemas vegetativas foi 100% no caso de IPA-5, e 65% no caso de IPA-6. Para induzir o alongamento de brotos, foram necessários três subcultivos dos explantes apresentando gemas. No caso de IPA-5, o número de brotos obtidos foi maior quando a indução de gemas foi realizada em meio contendo BAP (2,5 mg L-1 e AIA (0,2 mg L-1 seguido de três subcultivos, em meio como zeatina (0,5 mg L-1. Usando esse protocolo, a cultivar IPA-5 produziu uma média de 5,45 brotos alongados a partir do cotilédone fendido. Essa capacidade excedeu significativamente o cotilédone aparado, que produziu 4,4 brotos alongados por explante. No caso de IPA-6, a melhor combinação de meios e método de inoculação produziu 0,87 broto alongado por explante. Os brotos alongados foram enraizados e transferidos para casa de vegetação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the regeneration capacity of the IPA-5 and IPA-6 Brazilian industrial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cultivars using four compositions of culture media described in the literature and five inoculation methods. A new variation of inoculation, the split cotyledon method, was also tested. The largest frequency of shoot bud formation was 100% in the case of IPA-5 and 65% in the case of IPA-6. To induce shoot elongation, it was necessary to accomplish three subcultures of the explants presenting shoot buds. In the case of IPA-5, the number of the obtained shoots was higher when the induction of shoot buds was accomplished in culture medium containing BAP (2.5 mg L-1 and IAA (0.2 mg L-1 followed by three subcultures on

  17. Competitividade internacional da indústria brasileira exportadora de papel de imprimir e escrever à luz da cadeia de valor Printing and writing paper export Brazilian industry international competitiveness by the value chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luiz da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar o posicionamento estratégico das principais empresas exportadoras mundiais e brasileiras de papel de imprimir e escrever a partir do estudo da cadeia de valor. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa tipo aplicada, de nível explicativo e de caráter qualitativo. A amostra foi selecionada por tipicidade e a pesquisa aconteceu em duas etapas. A primeira etapa foi uma pesquisa indireta, a fim de conhecer o posicionamento competitivo dos principais exportadores mundiais, que representam 35% da produção mundial. Na segunda etapa a pesquisa foi direta, por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com as quatro principais empresas exportadoras do Brasil, além de um agente de financiamento, uma consultoria desta atividade e a associação de classe. A análise por meio da cadeia de valor mostrou que a vantagem absoluta baseada na dotação de recursos naturais e o seu desenvolvimento não garantem a competitividade na indústria brasileira.This article aims at analyzing the strategic positioning of international and Brazilian Printing and Writing Paper companies based on the value chain analysis. To that end, we carried out a two-step explanatory and qualitative applied research, choosing the samples according to their types. The first step consisted in an indirect research aimed at knowing the competitive position of the main world exporters which account for 35% of the world production. The second step consisted in a direct research carried out through semi-structured interviews with the four main Brazilian export companies, a financing agent, a consultancy on that activity and its class association. The value chain analysis allowed us to reach the conclusion that the absolute advantage based on natural resources endowment and development does not guarantee the Brazilian industry competitiveness.

  18. Workers radiation protection. Solutions accommodate new needs. The tool box of radiation protection expands itself. Industrial radiology: workers aware of risks. To design a shielded enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Alain; Billarand, Yann; Scanff, Pascale; Etard, Cecile; Sage, Julie; Jolivet, Patrick; Israel, Sylvain; Caplin, Helene; Couasnon, Olivier; Cordelle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of developments in the field of workers radiation protection. This development is notably motivated by the future dismantling works. It can be noticed that some other issues are considered as more important than radiation protection in the medical field even though radiation protection is a matter of concern for radiology manipulators. Radiation protection is also an issue for workers performing luggage X-ray controls in airports. As revealed by some measurements, artificial radioactivity should be controlled. Radiation protection is planned in relationship with an exposure scenario. The Belgium example is evoked with the development of centralised data and statistics in order to compare workers profiles. A second article comments the evolution of the activity of radiation protection with its new documents, methodologies (notably for operating rooms), and practical studies. While indicating how much the number of specialised workers increased, and how much dose control has been developed in the medical sector, and in terms of workers wearing a ring- or wrist-dosimeter between 2006 and 2015, and also indicating the distribution of controlled workers among sectors, the article outlines that a computation tool is shared between professionals, and how sheets on radionuclides are published and shared. The third article briefly addresses industrial radiology to outlines that workers are always more aware of risks. The last article briefly describes how a shielded enclosure is designed to limit workers exposure

  19. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F., E-mail: s_kudo@rea.or.jp [Instituto of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, 1-9-16 Kajicho, Chiyoda-ku, 101-0044 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  20. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)