WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian greenhouse gas

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  2. Greenhouse gas contributions from deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year's clearing of forest and savanna in the Brazilian Amazon is now contributing to the atmosphere 270 x 106 MT of carbon. This figure is almost 3 times as much as Brazil's use of fossil fuels. The fate of this biomass carbon and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is discussed in this chapter

  3. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that farmer

  4. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders; M.A.J. Huijbregts

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian soy

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Brazilian Semiarid Region: Environmental, Climate and Social Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Mata, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions. Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established. In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use (LUC) in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by LUC in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country, and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the

  6. Conceptual model for calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon and other greenhouse gases like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). The estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. This project aims to estimate carbon emissions from land use changes in Pernambuco State, Brazil, by using the INPE-EM model. The model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study

  7. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  8. Land cover changes and greenhouse gas emissions in two different soil covers in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Kelly; Sousa-Neto, Eráclito Rodrigues de; Carvalho, João Andrade de; Sousa Lima, José Romualdo de; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; Duarte-Neto, Paulo José; da Silva Guerra, Glauce; Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Baulbaud

    2016-11-15

    The Caatinga biome covers an area of 844,453km(2) and has enormous endemic biodiversity, with unique characteristics that make it an exclusive Brazilian biome. It falls within the earth's tropical zone and is one of the several important ecoregions of Brazil. This biome undergoes natural lengthy periods of drought that cause losses in crop and livestock productivity, having a severe impact on the population. Due to the vulnerability of this ecosystem to climate change, livestock has emerged as the main livelihood of the rural population, being the precursor of the replacement of native vegetation by grazing areas. This study aimed to measure GHG emissions from two different soil covers: native forest (Caatinga) and pasture in the municipality of São João, Pernambuco State, in the years 2013 and 2014. GHG measurements were taken by using static chamber techniques in both soil covers. According to a previous search, so far, this is the first study measuring GHG emissions using the static chamber in the Caatinga biome. N2O emissions ranged from -1.0 to 4.2mgm(-2)d(-1) and -1.22 to 3.4mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and they did not significantly differ from each other. Emissions were significantly higher during dry seasons. Carbon dioxide ranged from -1.1 to 14.1 and 1.2 to 15.8gm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively. CO2 emissions were higher in the Caatinga in 2013, and they were significantly influenced by soil temperature, showing an inverse relation. Methane emission ranged from 6.6 to 6.8 and -6.0 to 4.8mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and was significantly higher only in the Caatinga in the rainy season of 2014. Soil gas fluxes seemed to be influenced by climatic and edaphic conditions as well as by soil cover in the Caatinga biome. PMID:27453133

  9. Policies for improving the efficiency of the Brazilian light-duty vehicle fleet and their implications for fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, energy security issues and competition for land use are putting pressure on governments and policymakers. However, these three subjects are not usually treated in integrated form. This paper shows that the implementation of energy efficiency policies combined with policies to encourage use of biofuels can help reduce greenhouse gases emissions while easing land use competition from sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. By adapting the ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator) software to evaluate vehicle efficiency, and by estimating the Brazilian light-duty vehicle market share based on historical data, this paper estimates the possible levels of GHG emissions and area planted with sugarcane in 2030 in the country. The findings indicate that reductions from 8% to 20% in greenhouse gas emissions and 0.9-1.8 million ha in sugarcane planted area are possible with no significant technological breakthroughs over the horizon to 2030 in comparison with a baseline scenario. - Highlights: → We simulated energy efficiency policies combined with Brazilian biofuels policy. → Vehicle efficiency programs helps for energy saving, reducing GHG and planted area. → Alternative scenario indicate that sugarcane expansion could be 24% less in Brazil.

  10. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production—a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P. M.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  11. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D P M; Barford, C C [Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Ramankutty, N [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Foley, J A, E-mail: zaks@wisc.ed [Institute on the Environment (IonE), University of Minnesota, 1954 Buford Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO{sub 2}e, while 120 TgCO{sub 2}e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  12. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  13. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  15. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  16. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  17. Accounting greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses four European and American regulatory schemes designed for accounting lifecycle GHG emissions in relation to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. The objective is to critically examine the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes for calculating GHG emissions, and to explore methodological convergences. The issues related to direct lifecycle and indirect land use change emissions have been addressed. It is found that there are commonalities between the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) and the UK's Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (UK-RTFO), but the US-EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard (US-EPA) and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard of the California Air Resources Board (CA-CARB) vary greatly not only among themselves, but also in relation to the European regulations. Agricultural practices (especially soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics), co-product credits from surplus electricity and uncertainties around economic modeling approaches for indirect land use change are the major areas where methodological divergences exist. Incorporation of domestic agricultural practices, sugarcane mills operations, and realistic modeling of indirect impacts of land use change using regional models could provide more coherence in estimations of GHG emissions. Furthermore, the Brazilian trend of novelty in all phases of sugarcane bioenergy systems should be considered when projecting GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► This study analyses the methodological divergences for estimating GHG emissions. ► The lifecycle assessment of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is examined. ► N2O emissions, co-product credits, and iLUC are the main factors on the divergences. ► GHG estimates of biofuels pathways needs further attention in regulatory schemes.

  18. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  19. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  20. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Greenhouse Gase Widget allows the user to view greenhouse data in several geospatial and graphical formats for individual facilities or groups of facilities...

  1. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  2. Leaking gas in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom could be significantly reduced by replacement of old and leaking gas mains. Such a programme could even be cost-effective for the utility concerned. Calculations of gas leakage rates and the costs of saving emissions in terms of tonnes CDE (carbon dioxide equivalent) are given. (UK)

  3. Methane: A Neglected Greenhouse Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Wolf-Peter Schill

    2009-01-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that gets far less public attention than carbon dioxide. This is entirely unwarranted. Being 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in trapping heat in the atmosphere, methane accounts for about one-sixth of all anthropogenic (i.e. human-induced) greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is also overlooked when it comes to taking concrete measures for climate protection, despite the fact that reducing methane emissions is potentially cheap. Major sources of methane emiss...

  4. Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions: the importance of agriculture and livestock Emissões de gases do efeito estufa do Brasil: importância da agricultura e pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clemente Cerri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the 1990-1994 period presented in the "Brazil's Initial National Communication" document indicated that the country is one of the top world greenhouse gas (GHG emitters. A large majority of Brazil's GHG emissions come from deforestation mainly of the Amazon biome for agriculture and livestock land uses. This unique inventory is now out of date. Thus, the aims of this review were (i to update estimates of the GHG emissions for the Brazilian territory, (ii to estimate the sinks to provide calculations of the GHG net emissions for the 1990-2005 period, (iii to calculate the actual and estimate shares of agricultural and livestock activities, and (iv to discuss in light of the new figures and patterns the best mitigation options for Brazil. Total emissions in CO2-eq increased by 17% during the 1994-2005 period. CO2 represented 72.3% of the total, i.e. a small decrease, in favour of non-CO2 GHG, in relation to 1994 when its share was 74.1%. The increase of all GHG excluding Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF was 41.3% over the period 1994-2005. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT - World Resources Institute (WRI estimated a higher increase (48.9% that classified Brazil at the 69th position. Using our estimates Brazil will fall to the 78th position. But in both cases Brazil increased in clearly lower values than the tendency calculated for China and India, two major emitters, with increases of 88.8% and 62.1%, respectively. Brazil's increase is less than those presented for some countries in Annex 1 that are submitted to a quota of reduction, e.g. Spain with 55.6% of increase and New Zealand with 45.8%. Brazil also is below the average increase shown by non-Annex I countries, estimated to be 61.3%, but above the world average (28.1%. Besides the effort to curb emissions from the energy and deforestation sectors, it is now a top priority to implement a national program to promote mitigation efforts concerning the agricultural and livestock

  5. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  6. Gas leaks and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is mostly methane, one of the greenhouse gases. Minimizing the amount of gas that leaks from the supply system contributes both to public safety and to reducing the environmental impact of gas supply. Gas use emits lower quantities of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, than using other fossil fuels, and the gas industry is a relatively minor source of atmospheric methane. British Gas has a continuing programme of replacing older gas mains and lays new mains and transmission pipelines in materials which are less prone to leakage. British Gas is carrying out innovative research to provide the first reliable data on the actual amount of leakage from gas mains. (author)

  7. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  9. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in Brazil for land-use change, livestock and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. C.,; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Maia, S. M. F.,; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Costa, Ciniro Junior,; Feigl, B. J.,; Frazao, L. A.; Mello, F. F. D.,; Galdos, M. V.; Moreira, C. S.,; Carvalho, J. L. N.,

    2010-01-01

    National inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (implementation of the National Communications) are organized according to five main sectors, namely: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) and Waste. The objective of this study was to review and calculate the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in Brazil for the Agricultural and LUCF. The first step consisted in an analysis of Brazilian official and unofficial document...

  11. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  12. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  13. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  14. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...

  16. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO2 than the equivalent CO2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix

    2008-01-01

    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  18. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG em...

  19. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  20. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  2. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  3. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen;

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emission Curb Favors China's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Living affluently while breathing in polluted air is not a desirable lifestyle. The longwaited Kyoto Protocol went into force on February 16, winning big applause around the globe. China, as a developing country, doesn't have to follow Kyoto Protocol and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, but China, as part of the global village, will not escape similar obligations in the future.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Inventory in the Forestry Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel V. Francisco; Quintana, Sofio

    1999-01-01

    Among the components in the inventory of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, forestry and land use are the most complex. This paper summarizes the necessary data on land use. Analysis indicates a change in the inventory/sinks done by the Philippine Forestry and Land Use Change.

  7. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  8. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  9. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Axel; Dransfeld, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO2 emissions by more than 10 million t, while a reduction of consumption of energy-rich food to 1990 le...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas int

  12. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  13. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Noel J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled “Joint Implementation,” whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a Jl project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically selfsustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

  14. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.'' Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal

  15. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    -consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution......Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... several applications of the new continuous data sets: (1) Past atmospheric mixing ratios of methane were measured along ca. 800 m of the deep ice core from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Core Drilling project (NEEM) covering almost the complete last glaciation and deglaciation. The record reveals new sub...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  17. Global initiatives to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint implementation (JI) is a provision, included in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, that allows for two or more nations to jointly plan and implement a greenhouse gas or offsetting project. Joint implementation is important environmentally for two principal reasons: (1) it provides an opportunity to select projects on a global basis that maximize both greenhouse gas reduction benefits and other environmental benefits such as air pollution reduction while minimizing cost, and (2) it creates incentives for developing countries as well as multinational companies to begin to evaluate potential investments through a climate-friendly lens. While the debate on how to establish the criteria and institutional capacity necessary to encourage joint implementation projects continues in the international community, the US government is creating new incentives for US companies to develop joint implementation pilot projects now. While delegates to the United Nations' International Negotiating Committee (INC) debate whether to permit all Parties to the convention to participate in JI, opportunities in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet states abound. The US has taken a leadership role in joint implementation, establishing two complementary domestic programs that allow US companies to measure, track and score their net greenhouse gas reduction achievements now. With a financial investment by three US utilities, the Center for Clean Air Policy is developing a fuel-switching and energy efficiency project in the city of Decin in the Czech Republic which offers a concrete example of what a real-world JI project could look like. The Decin project provides an ideal test case for assessing the adequacy and potential impact of the draft criteria for the US Initiative on Joint Implementation, as well as for the draft criteria prepared by the INC Secretariat

  18. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    Global climate change is recognised as one of the major current challenges to humanity. At the same time, climate change is human induced and we hold the opportunity to react accordingly. While global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise, emissions from agriculture and land-use change......-production, respectively. Only emissions from energy use have increased more than production. Our projected BAU scenarios suggest that emissions may be further decoupled by 20 – 55% giving absolute agricultural emissions in the range of 8.2 to 14.5 Pg CO2-eq. yr-1 by 2050; lower than most other suggest from estimates...

  20. Greenhouse gas reductions; not warranted, not beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, especially regional climate change predictions, from a sceptic's point of view. It rejects all the conventional evidence supporting claims of extreme man-made climate changes, dismissing them as alarmist and inherently uncertain. Similarly, it characterizes policy prescriptions based on this evidence as faulty and as measures which, if implemented, would do both current and future generations considerably more harm than good. Calls for energy efficiency and conservation, reliance on renewable energy sources, improved efficiency of conventional vehicles, hybrid and fuel-cell-driven cars, reducing the amount of driving, establishing greenhouse gas registries, are all dismissed as impractical, imposing higher costs on energy generally, slowing economic growth in the process, and scaring people to adopt unwise public policies by exaggerating the certainty of predictions about man-made climate change. While dismissing the arguments advanced by 'old-school' environmentalists, the report does not question the validity of the overall theory or details of the core greenhouse effect, its main targets are the anthropogenic components of the observed temperature record, and the evidence of a clear cause-and-effect link between anthropogenic forcing and changes in the Earth's surface temperature. Overall, the report dismisses the 'conventional' view of the extent of climate change, the cause of that change and the risk it poses. It emphasizes the limitations on economic freedom that proposed policies would inflict, and argues in favour of more studies to provide the foundation for a societal response based on a solid understanding of the science behind climate change, and the impact of proposed policy options. 32 refs., 2 figs

  1. The development of the brazilian amazon region and greenhouse gases emission: a dilemma to be faced!

    OpenAIRE

    Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; David, Leticia Scretas; Gutierre, Leopoldo Millan; Waisman, Caio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of possible tradeoffs between policies direct to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the ones direct to foster the development of the Brazilian Amazon Region, which is one of the poorest in the country. In order to achieve this goal, this paper uses an interregional input-output (I-O) model, estimated for the Brazilian economy for the year of 2004. The I-O model is used to make a comparison between the economical and the en...

  2. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  3. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions studies using a portable TDL gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boreal Laser company developed a portable open path gas monitor called the GasFinder. The GasFinder is based on laser technology and is an ideal tool for studying greenhouse gas emissions. The response time is one second, and the GasFinder is specific to the gas under study. In addition, it has a broad dynamic range. Very small and light, weighing only 5 kilograms, the GasFinder is permanently calibrated. The alignment of the GasFinder is easy and stable. The path length has no effect on response, enabling the GasFinder to provide a series of paths measurements in quick succession for different lengths (between 1 metre and 1000 metres). The establishment of baseline emissions and the determination of the effectiveness of process improvements for the reduction of emissions are instances where the GasFinder has already been successfully used. The authors discussed some examples concerning the detection of methane leak in natural gas production, processing and transportation and carbon dioxide measurements from both natural and man-made sources

  6. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  7. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Currently CO2 from fossil fuel combustion accounts for 57% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the strong greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) contribute with 8% and 14%, respectively (IPCC, 2007). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is mainly...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A;

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...... production. The surplus area could be used for energy production without affecting the land use necessary for food and feed production. We built a model to investigate the effect of changing nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on cropping area required for a given amount of crops. We found that an increase...... a reduction of N input is still more effective than the production of bioenergy unless mitigation effect of the bioenergy production exceeds 7 t carbon dioxide (CO2)-eq../ha. An intensification of land use in terms of N supply to provide more land for bioenergy production can only in exceptional cases...

  9. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Aoustin, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental...... specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited...... availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming...

  10. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO2. The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, but quantifying that offset is complex. We conducted a life cycle assessment of a range of bioenergy cropping systems to determine the impact on net greenho...

  13. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    The report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. The report updates and expands on the first version of the quality...... procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory....

  14. Overview of ARB's Greenhouse Gas Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Kuwayama, T.; Vijayan, A.; Herner, J.; Croes, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (or AB32) in 2006, California Air Resources Board (ARB) has established and implemented a comprehensive plan to understand, quantify, and mitigate the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source sectors in the state. ARB has also developed a robust and multi-tiered in-house research effort to investigate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gas emission sources. This presentation will provide an overview of ARB's monitoring and measurement research efforts to study the regional and local emission sources of these pollutants in California. ARB initiated the first subnational GHG Research Monitoring Network in 2010 to study the regional GHG emissions throughout the state. The network operates several high precision analyzers to study CH4, N2O, CO and CO2 emissions at strategically selected regional sites throughout California, and the resulting data are used to study the statewide emission trends and evaluate regional sources using statistical analyses and inverse modeling efforts. ARB is also collaborating with leading scientists to study important emission sources including agriculture, waste, and oil and gas sectors, and to identify "hot spot" methane sources through aerial surveys of high methane emitters in California. At the source level, ARB deploys Mobile Measurement Platforms (MMP) and flux chambers to measure local and source specific emissions, and uses the information to understand source characteristics and inform emissions inventories. Collectively, all these efforts are offering a comprehensive view of regional and local emission sources, and are expected to help in developing effective mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions in California.

  15. CF3SF5 : a ‘super’ greenhouse gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    One molecule of the anthropogenic pollutant trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (CF\\(_3\\)SF\\(_5\\)), an adduct of the CF\\(_3\\) and SF\\(_5\\) free radicals, causes more global warming than one molecule of any other greenhouse gas yet detected in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is, it has the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, and the value of its global warming potential is only exceeded by that of SF\\(_6\\). First, the greenhouse effect is described, the propertie...

  16. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO2 emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO2 equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  18. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  19. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  20. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelowa, Axel [University of Zuerich, Muehlegasse 21, 8001 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dransfeld, Bjoern [Perspectives GmbH, Sonnenredder 55, 22045 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  1. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  2. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  3. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-08-01

    greenhouse gas balance, including CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes are likely to be reduced in the near future, with data being collected from more sites, and improved up-scaling methods.

  4. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dio

  5. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...

  6. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...

  7. Distribution of stress in greenhouses frames estimated by aerodynamic coefficients of Brazilian and European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Vieira Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Widely disseminated in both national and international scenarios, greenhouses are agribusiness solutions which are designed to allow for greater efficiency and control of the cultivation of plants. Bearing this in mind, the construction of greenhouses should take into consideration the incidence of wind, and other such aspects of comfort and safety, and ensure they are factored into the design of structural elements. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pressure coefficients established by the European standard EN 13031-1 (2001 and the Brazilian standard ABNT (1988, which are applicable to the structures of greenhouses with flat roofs, taking into account the following variables: roof slope, external and internal pressure coefficients and height-span ratio of the structure. Using the ANSYSTM computer program, zones of columns and roof were discretized by the Beam44 finite element to identify the maximum and minimum stress portions connected to the aerodynamic coefficients. With this analysis, we found that, in the smallest roof slope (a equal to 20°, the frame stress was quite similar for standards adopted. On the other hand, for the greatest inclination (a equal to 26°, the stress was consistently lower under the Brazilian standard. In view of this, we came to the conclusion that the differences between stresses when applying both standards were more significant at the higher degrees of height-span ratio and roof slope.

  8. Contribution of sugarcane bioenergy to the Country's greenhouse gas emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde; Seabra, Joaquim Eugenio A.; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

    2012-07-01

    Throughout this book several alternatives to improve the sustainability of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol have been grouped into four themes, as follows: agricultural-industrial technology paths; production systems, environment and land use; certification, indicators and impacts; energy and greenhouse gas balances. The main international legislation covering the qualification of bio fuels (Renewal Fuel Standard - Sfs in USA, Low Carbon Fuel Standard - LCFS in California and the Renewable Energy Directives in the EU) and the most important bio fuel certification programs are unanimous to indicate the greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement potential of bio fuels as a key parameter and the first step in the qualification system. This is easy to understand since bio fuels are considered as ona of the mitigation alternative for GHG emissions from the transport sector, responsible today for the 14% of global emissions, and from the energy source that accounts for 25% of global GHG emissions (WRI, 2009)

  9. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  10. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  11. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  12. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities. PMID:19808731

  13. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  14. Global and regional trends in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, D; Davis, SJ; Bastianoni, S.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Following IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2006), we estimate greenhouse gas emissions related to livestock in 237 countries and 11 livestock categories during the period 1961–2010. We find that in 2010 emissions of methane and nitrous oxide related to livestock worldwide represented approximately 9 % of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global GHG emissions from livestock increased by 51 % during the analyzed period, mostly due to strong growth of ...

  15. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  16. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  17. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs)

  18. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program GWP global warming... the 2009 final Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (74 FR 56260, October 30, 2009), CAA section 114 provides... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Final Rule (74 FR 56260, October 30, 2009) available in docket number EPA-HQ-...

  19. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  20. Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important

  1. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S;

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  3. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Charabi, Yassine; Al-Rawas, Ghazi A.; Al-Maamari, Rashid; Gastli, Adel; Chan, Keziah

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, many countries are being affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Sultanate of Oman is no exception. In Oman, both oil- and natural-gas-related activities have the most important shares of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Hence, they are expected to be the primary cause of GHG emissions within the country. In this study, the greenhouse carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) released from the fossil fuels (i.e., oil and natural gas) used in the country for energy production...

  4. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  5. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory has been investigated by a tier 2 analysis in 2011. A tier 2 analysis for the greenhouse gases was also performed in 2006, and the results from that analysis is given in Sandmo (2010). The uncertainty in the Norwegian emission inventory has also earlier been investigated systematically in three reports (Rypdal 1999; Rypdal and Zhang 2000; Rypdal and Zhang 2001). The first two of these three reports focused on th...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition and a growing global food demand, it is relevant to study ways for mitigating the environmental impact of food production. The objective of this work was to identify gaps in the knowledge regarding the main factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions f...

  7. NF 3 , the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto

    OpenAIRE

    PRATHER, MICHAEL J.; Hsu, Juno

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) can be called the missing greenhouse gas: It is a synthetic chemical produced in industrial quantities; it is not included in the Kyoto basket of greenhouse gases or in national reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and there are no observations documenting its atmospheric abundance. Current publications report a long lifetime of 740 yr and a global warming potential (GWP), which in the Kyoto basket is second only to SF6...

  8. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Mette S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Currently CO2 from fossil fuel combustion accounts for 57% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the strong greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) contribute with 8% and 14%, respectively (IPCC, 2007). Agricultural activity is the dominant source of N2O, which is mainly associated with the use of nitrogen based fertilizers in agricultural production. Replacing fossil fuel-derived energy by biomass-derived energy is commonly and with increasing emphasis proposed as a ...

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Burney, J. A; S. J. Davis; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here w...

  10. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY..., 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule... outlined for calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

  11. The potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in the Brazilian industrial sector; Potencial de reducao de emissao de gases de efeito estufa pelo uso de energia no setor industrial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio Francisco

    2010-05-15

    This study seeks to quantify the reductions that can be achieved in CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fuels by Brazilian industries in a long-term low-carbon scenario. We model two horizons, for 2030 and 2050, and also for each sector quantify the abatement costs and other economic parameters and the main technological options applicable, namely: enhanced energy efficiency; replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources or ones with a smaller carbon footprint; elimination of the use of biomass from deforestation; and cogeneration. In the low-carbon scenario for 2030, a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of some 40% can be achieved that year, or approximately 1.5 billion tCO{sub 2} over the period from 2010 to 2030. These reductions would require substantial investments, but in most cases they would be economically attractive, with low or negative abatement costs. For 2050, we modeled a more aggressive scenario, through faster implementation of some specific measures and introduction of new technologies. Despite the possibility of favorable economic results, companies have been reluctant to adopt several of the mitigation measures examined. We discuss some policies, including granting incentives, to overcome the barriers and difficulties to wider adoption of mitigation measures. (author)

  12. National greenhouse gas accounts: Current anthropogenic sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides spatially disaggregated estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the major anthropogenic sources for 145 countries. The data compilation is comprehensive in approach, including emissions from CO, CH4, N2O and ten halocarbons, in addition to CO2. The sources include emissions from fossil fuel production and use, cement production, halocarbons, landfills, land use changes, biomass burning, rice and livestock production and fertilizer consumption. The approach used to derive these estimates corresponds closely with the simple methodologies proposed by the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Task Force of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The inventory includes a new estimate of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion based principally on data from the International Energy Agency. The research methodologies for estimating emissions from all sources is briefly described and compared with other recent studies in the literature. (112 refs.)

  13. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  14. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    making reporting uncertain. Reducing the methane emission is an effective way of reducing the overall greenhouse gas emission. Methane reductions can often be difficult to quantify and document, as accurate measurements methods are lacking and not commercial available. The methane emission from the waste......Methane is a greenhouse gas (GHG) and the anthropogenic emission of methane to the atmosphere contributes to global warming. There are several anthropogenic methane sources, and the quantification of methane from these emission sources are often based on emission factors and model calculations...... actions. As an example the highest emission was measured at a landfill with active methane recovery and utilization. Compared with national and European greenhouse gas reporting schemes the measurement showed a large difference, with reporting ranging a factor of 100 above to a factor of 10 below...

  15. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  16. A pilot greenhouse gas trading system: the legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.

    1996-12-31

    This publication is a plain language version of a more detailed report called `Legal issues presented by a pilot international greenhouse gas trading system` by R.B. Stewart, J.B. Wiener and P. Sands. It analyses the legal issues, and related issues of organization, procedure and implementation, presented by two possible systems for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions limitations or reductions: an allowance trading system and an emissions budget system. The analysis concludes that all these issues can in principle be resolved in a satisfactory manner and do not represent a material impediment to establishing a successful pilot trading system.

  17. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  18. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.-K.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-02-15

    This report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. This report updates and expands on the first version of the quality manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. (Author)

  19. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  20. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  1. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  2. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge As this chapter will point out, nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to gr...

  3. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of cle

  4. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of curr

  5. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava

  6. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein corre

  7. Estimated Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Representative Northeastern Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and their potential impact on global climate change have become important concerns world-wide. Livestock production systems, such as dairy farms, provide both sinks and sources for GHG emissions. Farmland can serve as a carbon sink by providing a lon...

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, P.J.; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40–50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6–7.5 GtCO2e yr–1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical m

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  10. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also re

  11. Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgen Soerensen, P.; Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Malene; Lyck, E.; Bruun, H.G.; Winther, Morten; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2005-12-15

    A plan for the quality work has to be made for the Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gas emission inventory. This report outlines the quality work in the Danish inventory. The content is fulfilling the objectives as given by the international community and suggests a general paradigm that secures a measurable quality system. (au)

  12. USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 43%, 152%, and 20% respectively since about 1750. In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), ris...

  13. Natural gas : key role in NSW greenhouse work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Established in 1996, the NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) has one main objective-to reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the State. To achieve this, the agency has implemented various programs to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy supply-including initiatives that support an uptake of natural gas, as part of a transition to sustainable energy solutions. This article outlines the initiatives, and their role in an overall distributed energy approach to achieving emissions reductions

  14. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  15. Operation plans for reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fluorocarbon Technical Committee (EFCTC) is presenting an operation project for air conditioning, refrigerating, foam, etc. industries that use fluorocarbons (CFC, HCFC, HFC), in order to market safe and high performance products, through various means: cooperation between industries and government for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (such as concerning leakage rate in refrigeration or gas inter-dependency effects), energy conservation measures, thermal insulation measures in building, and technological cooperation with developing countries

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  17. NOAA annual greenhouse gas index - (AGGI) - 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the past 30 years, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to climate assessments (e.g., the quadrennial IPCC Climate Reports). Recently, efforts to make these data more useful and available have been undertaken through release of the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of the long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network, including an international cooperative program for carbon gases. The gas samples are analyzed in the Boulder (NOAA/ESRL) laboratory using WMO standard reference gases prepared by ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. For the year 2006, the AGGI was 1.23, i.e. global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases has increased 23 % since 1990. The increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) alone was about 32 % over this time interval. Reductions in the growth rates of methane and the CFCs have effectively tempered the increase of CO2 since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60 % of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases while today it accounts for 94 % of this increase. Preliminary values for 2007 will be included in this presentation. (author)

  18. Danish greenhouse gas reduction scenarios for 2020 and 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, K.; Joergensen, Kaj. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (DK)); Werling, J.; OErsted Pedersen, H.; Kofoed-Wiuff, A. (Ea energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    The aim of the project presented in this report was to develop scenarios for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 2050. The scenarius provide a basis for estimating which technologies should be combined in order to obtain future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way. The scenarios include all emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, industry and oil extraction activities in the North Sea as well as the transport and energy sectors. Foreign air and sea carriage is not included because emissions related to such activities are not yet subject to international climate change agreements. The scenarios focus particularly on the technological possibilities and the necessary system changes in the Danish energy system and transport sector. Parallel to this, COWI has carried out analyses for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency focussing primarily on the reduction potentials in the transport sector and other emissions. COWI's results regarding agriculture and other emissions have been included in this analysis. Two timeframes are applied in the scenarios: the medium term, 2020, and the long term, 2050. For each timeframe, we have set up indicative targets that the scenarios must reach: 1) 2020: 30 and 40 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 2) 2050: 60 and 80 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990. The scenarios for 2020 focus primarily on technologies that are already commercially available, whereas the scenarios for 2050 also examine technological options at the experimental or developmental stage. This includes hydrogen technologies and fuel cells as well as CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The scenarios should be seen in connection with the EU objectives of a 20-30 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 60-80 % in 2050 compared to 1990. The EU's 30 % objective is contingent upon global efforts to reduce the world's greenhouse gas

  19. 75 FR 41452 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance (74 FR 52117) in order to establish an... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting...

  20. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance.'' 74 FR 52117, Oct. 8, 2009. The purpose of... QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting,'' is...

  1. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... started on October 16, 2012 (77 FR 63538). This document announces the extension of the deadline for... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2003 - National Inventory Report 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Goldewijk K; Olivier JGJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; Vreuls HHJ; MNP; KMD

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends

  3. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroki; Okada, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    Our study empirically investigates the effects of the Kyoto Protocol’s quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments on various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as CO2, CH4, N2O and other greenhouse gases, consisting of HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These GHG emissions are considered to be the main source of global warming issues and 39 countries approved to meet the commitments by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. Our empirical analysis is based on the STIRPAT model, the stochastic version of...

  5. Preface: Towards a full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.;

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) represent a major driver of global environmental change (IPCC, 2014). While there exists an emerging understanding on the net exchange of CO2 across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due in part to the existence of large measurement...... and modeling networks (Baldocchi et al., 2001; Friend et al., 2007; Raymond et al., 2013; Tranvik et al., 2009), similar information on the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (i.e., CH4 and N2O) is sparsely available in comparison. To date, a strong focus has been given to so-called high...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Educational Facilities and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Actions You Need to Take Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmbrand, Mitchell M.; Klotz, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    On September 22, 2009, The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reporting. The informational literature that EPA has published to support the rule clearly states that EPA believes the vast majority of smaller GHG-emitting facilities, such as educational facilities, will not be…

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub-sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector. When setting up an emissions trading scheme there are a number of design parameters that have to be analysed in order to find an appropriate system, with limited administrative and transaction costs and as small distortions as possible to competitiveness

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  10. Part III: Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVIER Jos; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2014-01-01

    CO2 emissions from fuel combustion represent the majority of anthropogenic GHG emissions. However, comprehensive analysis of emission trends considers other sources of CO2 as well as other gases, knowing that data on gases and sources other than CO2 from fuel combustion are much more uncertain. Country- specific estimates of CO2 from biomass burning and F-gas emissions are particularly difficult to ascertain. To complement work regarding the emissions of CO2 from fuel combustion, the IEA elec...

  11. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  12. Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Hasselmann, K.; Cubasch, U.; Roeckner, E.; Voss, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom). Meteorological Office; Waszkewitz, J. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    A multifingerprint analysis is applied to the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change. While a single fingerprint is optimal for the detection of climate change, further tests of the statistical consistency of the detected climate change signal with model predictions for different candidate forcing mechanisms require the simultaneous application of several fingerprints. Model-predicted climate change signals are derived from three anthropogenic global warming simulations for the period 1880 to 2049and two simulations forced by estimated changes in solar radiation from 1700 to 1992. In the first global warming simulation, the forcing is by greenhouse gas only, while in the remaining two simulations the direct influence of sulfate aerosols is also included. From the climate change signals of the greenhouse gas only and the average of the two greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol simulations, two optimized fingerprint patterns are derived by weighting the model-predicted climate change patterns towards low-noise directions. The optimized fingerprint patterns are then applied as a filter to the observed near-surface temperature trend patterns, yielding several detection variables. The space-time structure of natural climate variability needed to determine the optimal fingerprint pattern and the resultant signal-to-noise ratio of the detection variable is estimated from several multicentury control simulations with different CGCMs and from instrumental data over the last 136 y. Applying the combined greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol fingerprint in the same way as the greenhouse gas only fingerprint in a previous work, the recent 30-y trends (1966-1995) of annual mean near surface temperature are again found to represent a significant climate change at the 97.5% confidence level. (orig.) With 13 figs., 3 tabs., 63 refs.

  13. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its

  14. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems... Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... list of source categories already required to report greenhouse gas emissions. This action applies...

  15. 76 FR 80553 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... equations under EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, please see the Final CBI Deferral Rule (75 FR 53057... equations under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (76 FR 53057, Final CBI Deferral Rule). The... Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Category of the Greenhouse...

  16. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  17. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Nathan; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael; Ramig, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  18. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  19. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation. PMID:26292772

  20. Greenhouse gas balances of harvested wood products and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Soimakallio, S. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    This project is a second part of the project concerning 'Carbon sink and other greenhouse gas impacts of harvested wood products' involved in Climate Change and Technology programme by Tekes. This project included three parts of the task: (1) to develop models and to do case study analyses concerning bioenergy and biomass systems, (2) participating in the completion work of writing Chapter 3 in IPCC's Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry, and 3) participating in an international collaboration project 'Greenhouse gas balances of biomass and bioenergy systems' (IEA Bioenergy Task 38) during 2003. This report briefly presents different parts of the task involved in the project and references to publications generated in the project. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  2. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  3. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  4. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  5. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  6. Marginal Greenhouse Gas Offset for Renewable Energy in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Camilla; Chick, John; Harrison, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions associated with the generation of electricity from intermittent renewable sources such as wind, wave and tidal power is typically estimated from the average annual emissions associated with the entire power system [1-5]. However, as the UK government continues to encourage development of renewable energy generation, negative headlines are appearing in the media concerning wind farms being paid not to produce as a result of power network constrai...

  7. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  8. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bioenergy and arable crop soil, at a range of temperatures and with or without wetting/drying cycles. More detailed investigation on the underlying mechanisms focused on soil N2O emissions. I tested how biochar alter...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  10. Greenhouse gas reporting for the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Arets, E. J. M. M.; Kolk, van der, J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Lesschen, J.P.; Kramer, H; Kuikman, P.J.; Schelhaas, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a complete methodological description of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The methodologies follow the IPCC 2006 guidelines for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-Uses (AFOLU).Based on these guidelines, this report provides detailed descriptions and motivations of the used methods, activity data, and emission factors for calculation of the emissions and removals as rep...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Feddes; Robert Lagacé; Stéphane Godbout; Sébastien Fournel; Frédéric Pelletier

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were measured from three different cage layer housing systems. A comparative study was conducted to identify the housing system with the least impact on the environment. The results showed that liquid manure from deep-pit housing systems produces greater emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) than natural and forced dried manure from belt housing systems. The influencing factors appeared to be the manure removal f...

  12. Combining policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol has set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for selected countries. To comply with these reduction requirements, decision-makers may use market-based instruments on a national or international basis. This paper advocates the combining of national emission taxes with international trade of emission permits. As a numerical application, this paper analyses macro-economic impacts of such a strategy for Switzerland. (Author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equiv...

  14. Development of an autonomous greenhouse gas monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Breda M.; Fay, Cormac; Beirne, Stephen; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the designs of a first and second generation autonomous gas monitoring system and the successful field trial of the final system (2nd generation). Infrared sensing technology is used to detect and measure the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at point sources. The ability to monitor real-time events is further enhanced through the implementation of both GSM and Bluetooth technologies to communicate these data in real-time. These systems are robust...

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  16. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  17. Greenhouse-gas payback times for crop-based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshout, P. M. F.; van Zelm, R.; Balkovic, J.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Skalsky, R.; van der Velde, M.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A global increase in the demand for crop-based biofuels may be met by cropland expansion, and could require the sacrifice of natural vegetation. Such land transformation alters the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the original system, and causes significant greenhouse-gas emissions, which should be considered when assessing the global warming performance of crop-based biofuels. As an indicator of this performance we propose the use of greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT), that is, the number of years it takes before the greenhouse-gas savings due to displacing fossil fuels with biofuels equal the initial losses of carbon and nitrogen stocks from the original ecosystem. Spatially explicit global GPBTs were derived for biofuel production systems using five different feedstocks (corn, rapeseed, soybean, sugarcane and winter wheat), cultivated under no-input and high-input farm management. Overall, GPBTs were found to range between 1 and 162 years (95% range, median: 19 years) with the longest GPBTs occurring in the tropics. Replacing no-input with high-input farming typically shortened the GPBTs by 45 to 79%. Location of crop cultivation was identified as the primary factor driving variation in GPBTs. This study underscores the importance of using spatially explicit impact assessments to guide biofuel policy.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  19. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    shown a large variation in the data on greenhouse gas emissions, which would suggest that more care, should be taken in the choice of future projects by the Brazilian electrical sector. The emission of CH4 by hydroelectric reservoirs is always unfavorable, since even if the carbon has originated with natural sources, it is part of a gas with higher GWP in the final calculation. Emissions of CO2 can be attributed in part to the natural carbon cycle between the atmosphere and the water of the reservoir. Another part could be attributed to the decomposition of organic material, caused by the hydroelectric dam.

  20. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum...: EPA is proposing a supplemental rule to require reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...

  1. 76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    .... Environmental Protection Agency. FR Federal Register. GHG greenhouse gas. ICR Information Collection Request... Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule on November 30, 2010, 40 CFR part 98, subpart W (75 FR 74458... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural...

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources. (letter)

  3. Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)

    2013-10-15

    For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.

  4. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  5. 2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  6. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  7. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  8. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  9. Microalgal biodiesel and the Renewable Fuel Standard's greenhouse gas requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires 15.2 billion gallons of domestic alternative fuels per year by 2012, of which 2 billion gallons must be from advanced biofuel and emit 50% less life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum-based transportation fuels. Microalgal biodiesel, one type of advanced biofuel, has the qualities and potential to meet the RFS's requirement. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of four microalgal biodiesel production conditions was investigated using a process LCA model with Monte Carlo simulation to assess global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication, ozone depletion and ecotoxicity potentials. The four conditions represent minimum and maximum production efficiencies and different sources of carbon dioxide and nutrient resources, i.e. synthetic and waste resources. The GWP results of the four CO2 microalgal biodiesel production conditions showed that none of the assumed production conditions meet the RFS's GHG requirement. The GWP results are sensitive to energy consumption in harvesting process. Other impacts such as eutrophication, ozone depletion and ecotoxicity potentials, are sensitive to percent lipid content of microalgae, service lifetime of PBRs and quantity of hexane in extraction process, respectively. Net energy ratio and other emissions should be included in future RFS for a more sustainable fuel. - Highlights: ► Conducted a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on four different microalgal biodiesel production conditions. ► Evaluated environmental impacts using a process LCA model with Monte Carlo simulation. ► None of the investigated production conditions meets the Renewable Fuel Standard's greenhouse gas requirement. ► The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions does not always result in the reduction of other environmental impacts.

  10. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  11. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  12. Urban transport policies and greenhouse gas emissions in Brussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Frenay, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Institute of Urban and Regional Development; Favrel, V.; Hecq, W. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment

    2003-07-01

    This paper analyses the greenhouse gas emissions from private transport in the Brussels-Capital region. A system of models integrating urban development, mobility and air pollution is proposed. We consider the 2005 perspective, comparing 'business-as-usual', 'polycentric' and 'peripheral' scenarios of urban development and mobility in the city. Analysis with a focus on several important areas inside Brussels was performed to identify possible solutions and measures to integrate land-use with mobility in order to reduce air pollution. (author)

  13. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  14. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  15. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  16. Brazilian gas network computational model for reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Thomaz; Bilhim, Thiago; Ferreira, Gustavo P. D.; Pires, Luis F. G. [Dept. Eng. Mecanica, PUC-Rio (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Saker, Leonardo [PETROBRAS Gas and Energia (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline thermo-hydraulic simulation is useful to support operation, design development and reliability analysis. PETROBRAS carried reliability programs in the last years. These studies are developed to evaluate gas chain security of supply, pointing out vulnerable points and proposing optimization measures to adopt. Previously, the Brazilian gas network could be modeled using sub-networks because of the physical separation between the Northeast and the Southeast networks, but in 2010 the new GASCAC pipeline will start up and change this. The new simulation models will have to handle this new configuration. The simulations developed by the Pontifice Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro deal with steady state and transient scenarios provided by a PETROBRAS group of experts. This paper discusses the alternatives and strategies used in the thermo-hydraulic simulation of the Brazilian gas pipeline network and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and the option used to meet the demands of the reliability analysis of the PETROBRAS gas reliability management sector.

  17. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  18. The relative greenhouse gas impacts of realistic dietary choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embodied in 61 different categories of food are used, with information on the diet of different groups of the population (omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan), to calculate the embodied GHG emissions in different dietary scenarios. We calculate that the embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO2e person−1 day−1, or 2.7 t CO2e person−1 y−1. This gives total food-related GHG emissions of 167 Mt CO2e (1 Mt=106 metric tonnes; CO2e being the mass of CO2 that would have the same global warming potential, when measured over 100 years, as a given mixture of greenhouse gases) for the entire UK population in 2009. This is 27% of total direct GHG emissions in the UK, or 19% of total GHG emissions from the UK, including those embodied in goods produced abroad. We calculate that potential GHG savings of 22% and 26% can be made by changing from the current UK-average diet to a vegetarian or vegan diet, respectively. Taking the average GHG saving from six vegetarian or vegan dietary scenarios compared with the current UK-average diet gives a potential national GHG saving of 40 Mt CO2e y−1. This is equivalent to a 50% reduction in current exhaust pipe emissions from the entire UK passenger car fleet. Hence realistic choices about diet can make substantial differences to embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► We calculate the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in different diets. ► The embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO2e person−1 day−1. ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet reduces GHG emissions by 22–26%. ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet would reduce UK GHG emissions by 40 Mt CO2e y−1.

  19. Reframing the policy approach to greenhouse gas removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas removal (GGR) methods such as direct air capture, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, biochar and enhanced weathering have recently attracted attention as “geoengineering” options to reverse the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contrary to this framing, however, we argue that GGR technologies can in fact form a valuable complement to emissions control within on-going mitigation efforts. Through decoupling abatement from emissions sources, they add much-needed flexibility to the mitigation toolbox, increasing feasibility and reducing costs of meeting climate targets. Integrating GGR effectively into policy raises significant challenges relating to uncertain costs, side effects, life-cycle effectiveness and accounting. Delaying policy action until these uncertainties are resolved, however, risks missing early opportunities, suffocating innovation and locking out the long-term potential of GGR. Based on an analysis of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, we develop four policy principles to begin unlocking the potential of GGR: (i) support further research, development and demonstration; (ii) support near-term opportunities through modifying existing policy mechanisms; (iii) commit to full GGR integration in carbon accreditation and broader climate policy frameworks in future; (iv) develop sector-specific steps that lay the groundwork for future opportunities and avoid lock-out. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas removal (GGR) must be decoupled from geoengineering discussions. • GGR shares many characteristics with existing mitigation and offset measures. • GGR brings key economic value and flexibility to mitigation efforts. • Delaying action on GGR policy risks missing short and long term opportunities. • The ultimate goal should be GGR “policy parity” with emissions reduction

  20. Can fusion help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamacher, T. E-mail: hamacher@ipp.mpg.de; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.; Korhonen, R.; Aquilonius, K.; Cabal, H.; Hallberg, B.; Lechon, Y.; Lepicard, S.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Ward, D

    2001-11-01

    If measures to reduce greenhouse gas-emissions are taken and if fission will be phased out at the beginning of the 22nd century fusion has a good chance to win considerable shares of the electricity market. A detailed model of the Western-European energy system was made using the MARKAL toolkit. Scenarios were designed to understand the conditions that would make fusion a viable electricity production technique. Globally it is very likely that at least the first half of the 21st century will still be dominated by the use of fossil fuels, with a shift away from oil to natural gas. Energy and electricity demand are likely to increase over the complete 21st century.

  1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by recycling plastics and textiles into products

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Marja-Riitta; Dahlbo, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Waste management generates greenhouse gas emissions. New waste management concepts for reducing these emissions are continuously being developed. In this study the potential of material recovery to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was assessed. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase the material recovery concepts used in Finland were identified and approximate greenhouse gas emission savings calculations were conducted for some of the concepts. In the second phase two promis...

  2. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per hectare on organic farms are lower than on conventional farms, particularly in dairy farming. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of milk in organic dairy farming...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emission Factor Module: Land Use in Rural New Zealand—Climate Version 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy, Joanna; Kerr, Suzi

    2005-01-01

    Several different New Zealand economic models produce measures of rural economic activity that have greenhouse gas implications. For climate change analysis, models need to translate economic activity into greenhouse gas emissions. This document estimates functions and creates projections for land-use related greenhouse gas emissions per unit of economic activity that are simple; are based on readily available data and strong science; are consistent with the national inventory in 2002; evolve...

  4. Economic structure and strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation policy impacts the economic system directly in the short-term by altering relative prices and indirectly in the long-term by shifting the structure of the economy. There may also be adjustments to economic structure independent of policy intervention due to changes in population, consumption patterns, and global markets. The overall effectiveness of specific mitigation policy will partly depend on these indirect and exogenous changes to economic structure. This study develops a new measure linking economic development with its environmental effects. The technical cost of GHG mitigation under economic growth in an economy is calculated by combining traditional input-output (IO) analysis and a linear programming based sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to Northern Ireland (NI), producing an isoemission matrix that maps emission-neutral expansion paths for the economy. The measurement provides an indicator of the demand for technical improvement to achieve GHG mitigation at a national or regional level. The flexibility and transparency of the approach make it useful for evaluating potential GHG mitigation strategies. - Research highlights: ► This study develops a new measure linking economic structure and greenhouse gas mitigation. ► Input-output and sensitivity analysis are combined to establish a technical cost of abatement. ► Isoemission matrix maps emission-neutral expansion paths for an economy. ► The flexibility of the approach makes it beneficial to regional abatement strategy development.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Growth Rates from AIRS Hyperspectral Radiance Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strow, L. L.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Hannon, S.; Imbiriba, B.; Schou, P.

    2009-12-01

    The AIRS seven year hyperspectral radiance record provides an ideal platform for measurings growth rates of infrared active minor gases, especially carbon dioxide and methane. The largest changes in CLARREO radiances will likely be due to increasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We have produced a 5+ year record of almost cloud-free AIRS radiances, from which we have derived the radiance anomaly and linear time rate of change. The source of these radiances are the L1b radiances corrected for small frequency drifts. Growth rates of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, and CFC11 are simultaneously derived from zonal averages of these radiance rates for tropics, and mid-latitude northern and southern hemispheres. The effective linear rate of change of ~5 layers of water vapor and temperature, plus the surface temperature are also simultaneously derived with the minor gas rates. No model data or prior is needed and more than 1000 channels are used in the fit. Sampling issues may preclude the use of the mid-latitude temperature and water vapor rates for climate analysis, but possibly not for the tropics. The resulting greenhouse gas growth rates agree very well with in-situ measurements, which suggests high radiometric stability for AIRS. Radiance intercomparisons for climate analysis between IASI and AIRS will also be presented.

  6. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  7. 76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas IBR incorporation by reference ICR information... 2010 (74 FR 56260) final rules for the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases. Following the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AP99 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural...

  8. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O2-blown entrained flow, O2-blown circulating fluidised bed and air–steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air–steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO2-eq. 32 kg MWh−1 of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O2-blown entrained flow and O2-blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO2-eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh−1 of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO2-eq. 57–75 kg MWh−1 of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59–2.13 MWh MWh−1 of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37–1.51 MWh MWh−1 of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by 92% when air–steam indirect gasification

  9. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  10. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO2 eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: → We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. → We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. → Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. → Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. → We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  12. Role of natural gas in reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Italian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuels account for almost 90% of Italy's energy needs. Of these fuels natural gas is the only one with important national reserves. This is the main reason for the increased use of this gas in all sectors. Following the decision to stop producing energy from nuclear power stations natural gas has become the only real alternative to oil in Italy. This choice has had a positive effect on the environment also as far as regards greenhouse effect gas reduction because of the lower emission of CO2 and N2O per unit of energy. The possible methane losses during the production transportation and distribution cycle are not substantial enough to balance the lower emissions of the other greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the use of coal oil and natural gas are discussed in the report and an assessment is given of the lower CO2 emissions between 1970 and 1990, and the values forecast between 1990 and 2000 as a consequence of the increased use of natural gas in Italy's energy system

  13. Development and Implementation of Cgcre Accreditation Program for Greenhouse Gas Verification Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf Santos Fermam, Ricardo; Barroso Melo Monteiro de Queiroz, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    An organizational innovation is defined as the implementation of a new organizational method in the firm's business practices, organization of your workplace or in its external relations. This work illustrates a Cgcre innovation, by presentation of the development process of greenhouse gases verification body in Brazil according to the Brazilian accreditation body, the General Coordination for Accreditation (Cgcre).

  14. Emission factor of gases from the greenhouse effect for the brazilian interconnected system; Fator de emissao de gases de efeito estufa para o sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparta, A. Ricardo J. [Ecoinvest Carbon S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: esparta@iee.usp.br; esparta@ecoinvestcarbon.com; Fernandez, Pablo [EcoSecurities, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pablo.fernandez@ecosecurities.com.br; Costa, David Freire da [Econergy Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: freire@econergy.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The participation of new power generation projects of the Brazilian interconnected system in the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol demand the definition of greenhouse gases baseline emission scenarios and monitoring methodologies. The present paper describes the reasoning behind approved methodologies for capacity addition from renewable sources as well as carries out the calculation of the emission factor for the Brazilian interconnected grid. (author)

  15. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  16. Adapting a weather forecast model for greenhouse gas simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, S. M.; Neish, M.; Tanguay, M.; Girard, C.; de Grandpré, J.; Gravel, S.; Semeniuk, K.; Chan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to simulate greenhouse gases on the global domain is useful for providing boundary conditions for regional flux inversions, as well as for providing reference data for bias correction of satellite measurements. Given the existence of operational weather and environmental prediction models and assimilation systems at Environment Canada, it makes sense to use these tools for greenhouse gas simulations. In this work, we describe the adaptations needed to reasonably simulate CO2 with a weather forecast model. The main challenges were the implementation of a mass conserving advection scheme, and the careful implementation of a mixing ratio defined with respect to dry air. The transport of tracers through convection was also added, and the vertical mixing through the boundary layer was slightly modified. With all these changes, the model conserves CO2 mass well on the annual time scale, and the high resolution (0.9 degree grid spacing) permits a good description of synoptic scale transport. The use of a coupled meteorological/tracer transport model also permits an assessment of approximations needed in offline transport model approaches, such as the neglect of water vapour mass when computing a tracer mixing ratio with respect to dry air.

  17. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  18. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  19. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  20. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  1. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii. Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. (author)

  3. The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attenuation as a means of mitigating climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. < finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime. (author)

  4. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2013-01-01

    of operational input efficiency of each farmer. Likewise, potential reductions in the consumption levels of the physical inputs were determined, while estimating the environmental improvements linked to these reduction targets. Our results indicate that 46% of the farms studied operated efficient...... which burnt crop residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region.......Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the level...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider...... the nutritional value of alternative food choices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. METHODS: We created eight dietary scenarios...... with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995-2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation...

  6. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei;

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...... good. The main target group of the scenario results is the Transmission System Operators (TSOs), but the results will also be relevant for the Nordic politicians and investment decision makers in the power industry. The scenarios will among other be used for the following purposes: - Identify...... on the power system with large-scale deployment of electric vehicles. - Discuss necessary governance transformation related to the transmission grid developmentThe paper presents a scenario methodology where each scenario consists of a possible future and a strategy for how the decision maker (TSOs) can act...

  7. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine european peatlands and shrublands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Larsen, K. S.; Emmett, B.;

    2012-01-01

    , and in annual precipitation from 300 to 1300mmyr-1. The effects of climate change, including temperature increase and prolonged drought, were tested at five shrubland sites. At one peatland site, the long-term (>30 yr) effect of drainage was assessed, while increased nitrogen deposition was investigated...... shrubland where drought tended to increase soil respiration. In terms of fractional importance of each greenhouse gas to the total numerical global warming response, the change in CO2 efflux dominated the response in all treatments (ranging 71–96 %), except for NO- 3 addition where 89% was due to change...... in CH4 emissions. Thus, in European peatlands and shrublands the effect on global warming induced by the investigated anthropogenic disturbances will be dominated by variations in soil CO2 fluxes....

  8. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  9. The role of peat in finnish greenhouse gas balances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crill, P.; Hargreaves, K.; Korhola, A.

    2000-06-01

    Over the past, total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Finland, not considering land use change, forestry or peatlands, have remained between 70 000 and 80 000 Gg of CO{sub 2} equivalents. A large portion of which (84% in 1998) is from energy and energy related sources. Signatory members to the 1997 Kyoto protocol of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change convention, which includes Finland, are compelled to assess their emissions at the national level. This study was undertaken to examine the issues of the role of Finnish peatlands in the national greenhouse gas inventory specifically within the context of the utilization of peatlands for energy production. Our analysis is essentially a literature review and assessment of what has been measured from Finnish peatlands. We are particularly fortunate that there have been a series of recent Ph.D. theses published at the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu and graduate work at the University of Kuopio on carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas exchange in Finnish peatlands that have both expanded our database and our understanding of peatland processes. Chapter 1 provides a background of the role of peatlands in carbon cycling within the context of changing climate and land use. In Finland about 56 x 103 ha of peatland area were being harvested in 1997, 94% for energy. Even though this is a relatively small area, the implications, on a national scale, for GHG fluxes and carbon balance can be significant The magnitude of GHG fluxes and a qualitative assessment of extant data quality and quantity under different Finnish land use forms and activities is considered in chapter 2. CO{sub 2} fluxes derived from long term C accumulation rates indicate that 3 010 Gg CON and 9 400 Gg CO{sub 2} are sequestered annually from the atmosphere into undrained and peatlands drained for forestry, respectively. Peatlands drained for agriculture emit CO{sub 2} at a rate of 3 200-7 800 Gg annually. Peat

  10. Agriculture and greenhouse gas effect: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, this report analyses the interactions between climate and agriculture: understanding of climate changes and their global impacts, understanding of carbon and nitrogen life cycles and their relationship with anthropic greenhouse gas emissions, emissions by agriculture and impacts of climate change on agriculture, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions by agriculture. The authors address how to reduce emissions and increase carbon storage by crop management and N2O emission reduction, by breeding management and CH4 and CO2 emission reduction, and by energy CO2 emission reduction. They discuss emission reduction policies in agriculture within the international political, European and French frameworks. They also identify possible economic tools

  11. Greenhouse gas emission offsets: A global warming insurance policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While scientists work to define the nature and extent of potential climate change, policy makers debate the appropriateness of different responses. One voluntary initiative has pursued a possible response: greenhouse gas offsets. This article describes a program undertaken by The AES Corporation to attempt to offset CO2 emissions from cogeneration facilities run by the corporation. Independent investigations indicated that an extensive reforestation program might be a practical way to create sinks for CO2. This article describes some of the practical concerns of this project. It also describes efforts made to locate areas to carry out a reforestation program, groups worked with, and effort devoted to finding ways to quantify the success of any effort undertaken

  12. Modeling California policy impacts on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines policy and technology scenarios in California, emphasizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2020 and 2030. Using CALGAPS, a new, validated model simulating GHG and criteria pollutant emissions in California from 2010 to 2050, four scenarios were developed: Committed Policies (S1), Uncommitted Policies (S2), Potential Policy and Technology Futures (S3), and Counterfactual (S0), which omits all GHG policies. Forty-nine individual policies were represented. For S1–S3, GHG emissions fall below the AB 32 policy 2020 target [427 million metric tons CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) yr−1], indicating that committed policies may be sufficient to meet mandated reductions. In 2030, emissions span 211–428 MtCO2e yr−1, suggesting that policy choices made today can strongly affect outcomes over the next two decades. Long-term (2050) emissions were all well above the target set by Executive Order S-3-05 (85 MtCO2e yr−1); additional policies or technology development (beyond the study scope) are likely needed to achieve this objective. Cumulative emissions suggest a different outcome, however: due to early emissions reductions, S3 achieves lower cumulative emissions in 2050 than a pathway that linearly reduces emissions between 2020 and 2050 policy targets. Sensitivity analysis provided quantification of individual policy GHG emissions reduction benefits. - Highlights: • Developed CALGAPS, a new California greenhouse gas (GHG) policy evaluation model. • Three scenarios (plus counterfactual) developed, modeling 49 state/federal policies. • All scenarios achieve 2020 target; GHG emissions through 2030 span a factor of two. • No scenario achieves 2050 target, but cumulative emissions can be very low. • GHG impact of each policy (plus combinations) quantified in sensitivity analysis

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2000. National Inventory Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; LAE

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the 2002 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed tr

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2002. National Inventory Report 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Goldewijk K; Olivier JGJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; Vreuls HHJ; MNO; KMD

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the 2004 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed tr

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-1999. National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Thomas R; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; LAE

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the 2001 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed tr

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands: summary Report 1990-1997 (IPCC Tables 7A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Spakman J; Berg JC van den; LAE

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the Netherlands' annual greenhouse gas emission inventory submitted for 1998 according to the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Emissions of CO2 and N2O increased from 1990 to 1997 (with a

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands: Summary Report 1990-1998 (IPCC Tables 1-7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Berg JC van den; Peters JAHW; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the 1998 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory according to the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and to the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). From the inventories it can be concluded that emissio

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2001. National Inventory Report 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; Vreuls HHJ; KMD; IMP

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the 2003 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed tr

  19. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  20. Targeting Energy Management : Analysing targets, outcomes and impacts of corporate energy and greenhouse gas management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced drastically to limit global increases in temperature to the relatively safe level of maximum 2 degrees Celsius. In the coming decades, energy efficiency improvement will be the main strategy for reducing energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Energy

  1. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE m

  2. Microbial mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfill cover soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    Landfills are one of the major sources of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential (GWP) ˜23 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Although some effective strategies have been formulated to prevent methane emissions from large landfills, many landfills allow methane to be freely emitted to the atmosphere. In such situations, it is often proposed to stimulate methanotrophs, a group of bacteria that consume methane, in the cover soil to prevent fugitive methane emissions. Several factors, however, must be addressed to make such a biogenic removal mechanism effective. First, methanotrophic activity can be inhibited by nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) that are commonly found in landfill soil gas. Second, although methanotrophs can be easily stimulated with the addition of nitrogenous fertilizers, biogenic production of nitrous oxide with a GWP ˜296 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is also stimulated. To consider these issues, two general areas of research were performed. First, a dimensionless number was developed based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describes the effects of the presence of multiple NMOCs on methanotrophic growth and survival. This model was validated via experimental measurements of methanotrophic growth in the presence of varying amounts of NMOCs. Second, the effects of nutrient amendments on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide production were examined by constructing soil microcosms using landfill cover soils. Here, it was shown that the addition of ammonium in the presence of phenylacetylene stimulated methane oxidation but inhibited nitrous oxide production. Furthermore, to understand the methanotrophic community structure and activity in response to these amendments, DNA microarray and transcript analyses were performed. The results indicated the predominance of Type II methanotrophs but that Type I methanotrophs responded more significantly to these amendments. Also, substantial activity

  3. Greenhouse gas source identification and flux measurements using an optical remote sensing method and a photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties such as particle size, soil organic carbon (SOC) and moisture contents, tillage operations and crop management practices influence greenhouse gas emission or consumption patterns from agricultural lands. Greenhouse gas (GG) emissions have been measured on small field plots, although ...

  4. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  5. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. PMID:27118738

  6. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  8. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2

  9. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25–30 ppm (higher

  10. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, A.T.; Hensen, A.; Popa, M.E.; Van den Bulk, W.C.M.; Jongejan, P.A.C. [Energy research Centre of The Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-24

    Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927E, 51.971N, -0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations. The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500-700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000-2009 for CO2 of 1.90 {+-} 0.1 ppm yr{sup -1}, for CH4 of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 ppb yr{sup -1}, for N2O of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 ppb yr{sup -1}, and for SF6 of 0.27 {+-} 0.01 ppt yr{sup -1}; for CO no significant trend could be detected. The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25-30 ppm (higher value for lower sampling levels). The observed CH4 seasonal amplitude is 50-110 ppb. All gases except N2O show highest concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer, N2O

  11. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2013-03-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with altitude profiles near the coast and in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes a flask sampling system, a continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) carbon dioxide (CO2)/methane (CH4)/carbon monoxide (CO)/water vapor (H2O) analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction and present an assessment of analyzer performance over a three-year period. Overall analytical uncertainty of CRDS measurements in 2011 is estimated to be 0.15 ppm, 1.4 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, considering short-term precision, calibration uncertainties, and water vapor correction uncertainty. The stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 4 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, based on differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to deployment. This stability is not affected by variation in pressure or temperature during flight. We conclude that the uncertainty reported for our measurements would not be significantly affected if the measurements were made without in

  13. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karion

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with altitude profiles near the coast and in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes a flask sampling system, a continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS carbon dioxide (CO2/methane (CH4/carbon monoxide (CO/water vapor (H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction and present an assessment of analyzer performance over a three-year period. Overall analytical uncertainty of CRDS measurements in 2011 is estimated to be 0.15 ppm, 1.4 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, considering short-term precision, calibration uncertainties, and water vapor correction uncertainty. The stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 4 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, based on differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to deployment. This stability is not affected by variation in pressure or temperature during flight. We conclude that the uncertainty reported for our measurements would not be significantly affected if the measurements were made

  14. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  15. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering

  16. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  17. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R; Kammen, Daniel M, E-mail: anandrg@berkeley.ed, E-mail: kammen@berkeley.ed [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, Berkeley 94720-3050 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO{sub 2}- eq MJ{sup -1}, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO{sub 2}- eq MJ{sup -1}. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  18. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  19. Research Advances of Effects of Land Use Pattern on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Grassland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng; Leixing; Chen; Kelong; Wang; Shiping

    2014-01-01

    The grassland is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in China,and greenhouse gas fluxes such as CO2,CH4 and N2O play an important role in the global climate change. The differences in grazing,cultivation and management measures will affect greenhouse gas emissions in grassland ecosystem. Studies suggest that reclamation will lead to increased CO2 fluxes,and fertilization will lead to increased N2 O fluxes; no grazing in summer can reduce greenhouse gas emissions,but impacts of grazing and management measures on greenhouse gas fluxes have not yet reached the same conclusion. The different results may be related to local natural conditions,management measures and research methods. Future research should be focused on unity and standardization in these areas,making the results scientific and comparable,and finally providing the basis for emission reduction of greenhouse gases in grassland ecosystem.

  20. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our

  1. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  2. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  3. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  4. Assessment of the impact of the greenhouse gas emission and sink scenarios in Finland on radiative forcing and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of global average radiative forcing, which measures the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes of the greenhouse gases and the radiation absorption properties of the gases. It takes into account the relatively slow changes in the concentrations due to natural removal and transformation processes and also allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. In addition to the applications mentioned above, the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission histories of Nordic countries have been estimated, and the radiative forcing caused by them has been calculated with REFUGE. The dynamic impact of aerosol emissions both from the global point of view and in the context of different energy sources (coal, oil and natural gas) have also been studied. In some instances the caused radiative forcing has been examined on a per capita basis. The radiative forcing calculations contain considerable uncertainty due to inaccurately known factors at several stages of the calculation (emission estimation, concentration calculation and radiative forcing calculation). The total uncertainty of the results is typically on the order of +- 40 %, when absolute values are used. If the results are used in a relative way, e.g. to compare the impacts of different scenarios, the final uncertainty is considerably less (typically + 10 %), due to correlations in almost all stages of the calculation process

  5. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  6. The economics of biomass for power and greenhouse gas reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jay Brooker

    The power cost and optimum plant size for power plants using straw fuel in western Canada was determined. The optimum size for agricultural residues is 450 MW (the largest single biomass unit judged feasible in this study), and the power cost is 50.30 MWh-1. If a larger biomass boiler could be built, the optiμm project size for straw would be 628 MW. For a market power price of 40 MWh-1 the cost of the GHG credit generated by a straw-fired plant is 11 tonne-1 CO2. Straw was evaluated as a possible supplement to the primary coal fuel at the Genesee power station in order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. Cofiring straw at the Genesee power station does not compete favorably with other GHG abatement technologies, even the lowest cost option is estimated at 22 tonne-1 CO2. The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry is determined. The pipeline would be economical at large capacity (>0.5 M dry tonnes per year for a one way pipeline, and >1.25 M dry tonnes per year for a two way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances (>75 km (one way) and >470 km (two way) at a capacity of 2 M dry tonnes per year). Pipelining was determined to be unsuitable for combustion applications. Pipeline transport of corn is evaluated against a range of truck transport costs. At 20% solids, pipeline transport of corn stover costs less than trucking at capacities in excess of 1.4 M dry tonnes/yr when compared to a mid range of truck transport. Pipelining of corn stover gives the opportunity to conduct simultaneous transport and saccharification (STS) but would require a source of waste heat at the pipeline inlet in order to be economical. Transport of corn stover in multiple pipelines offers the opportunity to develop a large ethanol fermentation plant, avoiding some of the diseconomies of scale that arise from smaller plants whose capacities are limited by issues of truck congestion

  7. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  8. Unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions: Chinese transportation 1978-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, G. Q.

    2010-09-01

    To facilitate the aggregation of both quantity and quality of waste emissions, the concept of chemical exergy combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics is introduced for a unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gases, by a case study for the Chinese transportation system 1978-2004 with main gas pollutants of NO, SO2, CO and main greenhouse gases of CO2 and CH4. With chemical exergy emission factors concretely estimated, the total emission as well as emission intensity by exergy of the overall transportation system and of its four modes of highways, railways, waterways and civil aviation are accounted in full detail and compared with those by the conventionally prevailing metrics of mass, with essential implications for environmental policy making.

  9. 77 FR 55834 - Notice of Opportunity To Comment on a Methodology for Allocating Greenhouse Gas Emissions to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...: Proposed Approach for Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting. California Air Resources Board: Climate... AGENCY Notice of Opportunity To Comment on a Methodology for Allocating Greenhouse Gas Emissions to a... greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the steam and on the feasibility and appropriateness of using...

  10. The role of nuclear power in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to greenhouse gas reduction but only on a modest scale, replacing a portion of the electricity produced by coal fired power plants. While it has the potential to do more, there are significant resource issues that must be addressed if nuclear power is to replace coal or natural gas as a source of electricity

  11. Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, David J.; Bryan Roscoe; William A. Harrison; Lei Tao; Miller, David J.; Zondlo, Mark A.; Kang Sun; David Schaefer; Amir Khan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate compact, low power, lightweight laser-based sensors for measuring trace gas species in the atmosphere designed specifically for electronic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. The sensors utilize non-intrusive optical sensing techniques to measure atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations with unprecedented vertical and horizontal resolution (~1 m) within the planetary boundary layer. The sensors are developed to measure greenhouse gas species including carbon dioxide, wate...

  12. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  13. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles. PMID:26757000

  14. Competitiveness of terrestrial greenhouse gas offsets. Are they a bridge to the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by biological soil or forest carbon sequestration predominantly utilize currently known, readily implementable technologies. Many other greenhouse gas emission reduction options require future technological development or must wait for turnover of capital stock. Carbon sequestration options in soils and forests, while ready to go now, generally have a finite life, allowing use until other strategies are developed. This paper reports on an investigation of the competitiveness of biological carbon sequestration from a dynamic and multiple strategy viewpoint. Key factors affecting the competitiveness of terrestrial mitigation options are land availability and cost effectiveness relative to other options including CO2 capture and storage, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching, and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reductions. The analysis results show that, at lower CO2 prices and in the near term, soil carbon and other agricultural/forestry options can be important bridges to the future, initially providing a substantial portion of attainable reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions, but with a limited role in later years. At higher CO2 prices, afforestation and biofuels are more dominant among terrestrial options to offset greenhouse gas emissions. But in the longer run, allowing for capital stock turnover, options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system and biofuels provide an increasing share of potential reductions in total US greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  16. Assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokka, L.; Soimakallio, S.

    2009-12-15

    During the next decades there will be a growing demand for new land for food production due to population and economic growth. Simultaneously, global warming has been recognised as one of the most severe environmental problems of our time, and industrialised countries are negotiating on considerable emission cuts for the next decades. Biorefineries are considered by many as one solution for mitigation of climate change and improvement of the future security of food, chemical, forest and energy industries. Since increased use of biomass in biorefineries also implies increased use of land and auxiliary inputs, many have proposed to use by-products of food and forest industries in biorefineries. When assessing the global warming impacts of biorefineries, the setting of the spatial system boundary to include or exclude indirect impacts may significantly affect the results. In this paper, we discuss the life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of a hypothetical forest-based biorefinery by using two different approaches - attributional and consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) - to set the system boundary. The results imply that for those bio-based side-streams for which there presently exists use, the environmental benefits of diverting them to new uses as bio-fuel or bio-material are not straightforward and should be carefully and comprehensively studied before making decisions. (orig.)

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. Greenhouse gas dynamics in degraded and restored tropical peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jauhiainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and other land uses on ombrotrophic lowland tropical peat swamps typically lead to reduced vegetation biomass and water table drawdown. We review what is known about greenhouse gas (GHG dynamics in natural and degraded tropical peat systems in south-east Asia, and on this basis consider what can be expected in terms of GHG dynamics under restored conditions. Only limited in situ data are available on the effects of restoration and the consequences for peat carbon (C dynamics. Hydrological restoration seeks to bring the water table closer to the peat surface and thus re-create near-natural water table conditions, in order to reduce wildfire risk and associated fire impacts on the peat C store, as well as to reduce aerobic peat decomposition rates. However, zero emissions are unlikely to be achieved due to the notable potential for carbon dioxide (CO2 production from anaerobic peat decomposition processes. Increased vegetation cover (ideally woody plants resulting from restoration will increase shading and reduce peat surface temperatures, and this may in turn reduce aerobic decomposition rates. An increase in litter deposition rate will compensate for C losses by peat decomposition but also increase the supply of labile C, which may prime decomposition, especially in peat enriched with recalcitrant substrates. The response of tropical peatland GHG emissions to peatland restoration will also vary according to previous land use and land use intensity.

  19. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Pernini, Tim; Botos, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Exelis has recently developed a novel laser-based instrument to aid in the autonomous real-time monitoring and mapping of CO2 concentration over a two-dimensional area. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) instrument uses two transceivers and a series of retroreflectors to continuously measure the differential transmission over a number of overlapping lines of sight or "chords", forming a plane. By inverting the differential transmission measurements along with locally measured temperature (T), pressure (P) and relative humidity (RH) the average concentration of CO2 along each chord can be determined and, based on the overlap between chords, a 2D map of CO2 concentration over the measurement plane can be estimated. The GreenLITE system was deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions, while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe [1]. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, instrument design, and results from the deployment to the ZERT site.

  1. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-12-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear methods to derive consistent corporate target setting that keeps cumulative corporate GHG emissions within a specific carbon budget (for example, 550-1,300 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2050 for the 2 °C target). Here we propose a method for corporate emissions target setting that derives carbon intensity pathways for companies based on sectoral pathways from existing mitigation scenarios: the Sectoral Decarbonization Approach (SDA). These company targets take activity growth and initial performance into account. Next to target setting on company level, the SDA can be used by companies, policymakers, investors or other stakeholders as a benchmark for tracking corporate climate performance and actions, providing a mechanism for corporate accountability.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  3. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

  4. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  5. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  6. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few

  8. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  9. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  10. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils may reduce GHG emissions and could also create suitable conditions for return of the carbon (C sink function characteristic of undrained organic soils. In this article we expand on the work relating to rewetted organic soils that was carried out for the 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Wetlands Supplement. We describe the methods and scientific approach used to derive the Tier 1 emission factors (the rate of emission per unit of activity for the full suite of GHG and waterborne C fluxes associated with rewetting of organic soils. We recorded a total of 352 GHG and waterborne annual flux data points from an extensive literature search and these were disaggregated by flux type (i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O and DOC, climate zone and nutrient status. Our results showed fundamental differences between the GHG dynamics of drained and rewetted organic soils and, based on the 100 year global warming potential of each gas, indicated that rewetting of drained organic soils leads to: net annual removals of CO2 in the majority of organic soil classes; an increase in annual CH4 emissions; a decrease in N2O and DOC losses; and a lowering of net GHG emissions. Data published since the Wetlands Supplement (n = 58 generally support our derivations. Significant data gaps exist, particularly with regard to tropical organic soils, DOC and N2O. We propose that the uncertainty associated with our derivations could be significantly reduced by the development of country specific emission factors that could in turn be disaggregated by factors such as vegetation composition, water table level, time since rewetting and previous land use history.

  12. The urgency of assessing the greenhouse gas budgets of hydroelectric reservoirs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-08-01

    Already the largest generator of hydroelectricity, China is accelerating dam construction to increase the share of hydroelectricity in its primary energy mix to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we review the evidence on emissions of GHGs, particularly methane, from the Three Gorges Reservoir, and argue that although the hydroelectric reservoirs may release large amounts of methane, they contribute significantly to greenhouse gas reduction by substitution of thermal power generation in China. Nonetheless, more systematic monitoring and modelling studies on greenhouse gas emissions from representative reservoirs are necessary to better understand the climate impact of hydropower development in China.

  13. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  14. On the study of energy use and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in greenhouse cucumber production in Yazd province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, besides the energy issues, the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission, which is the most important cause of global warming, has received high attention. In order to have sustainable development, it is necessary to manage energy usage and GHG emissions in all production processes. This study aimed to evaluate the energy consumption and GHG emissions of cucumber production in selected greenhouses in Yazd province of Iran. The total energy input was found to be 1284 GJ ha−1 where the output energy was 125 GJ ha−1. Energy use efficiency and productivity were 0.10 and 0.12 kg MJ−1, respectively. Diesel fuel and electricity had the biggest contributions in the total energy input. Regression results showed that labor, diesel fuel, manure, electricity and chemicals had significant impact on yield. The amount of GHG emissions was calculated as 82,724 kg CO2eq ha−1 where diesel fuel had the highest emission (61%), followed by electricity (19%) and manure (14%). GWP (Global warming potential) was 0.53 kg CO2eq ha−1(kg Output)−1. The average GWP per MJ output was 0.66 kg CO2eq ha−1(MJ Output)−1, where the highest value belonged to smaller greenhouses. The results of energy analysis, GHG and GWP indicators based on different greenhouse sizes implied better performance of larger greenhouses

  15. Attractiveness of the brazilian petroleum and gas industries upstream; Atratividade do upstream da industria de petroleo e gas brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Fagundes de; Araujo, Leandro dos Reis

    2007-07-01

    This article performs an analysis on the upstream attractiveness of the Brazilian petroleum and gas industries, in accordance with the following parameters: the country risks, the sector risk, the country geologic potential, the government take, and the market potential.

  16. 78 FR 69337 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Fluorinated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Reporting Tool EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ] FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP... to Emission Equations Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule (75 FR 81366, December... published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56260). Part 98 became effective on December...

  17. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse g

  18. The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinhausen, M.; Smith, S.J.; Calvin, K.; Daniel, J.S.; Kainuma, M.L.T.; Lamarque, J.; Matsumoto, K.; Montzka, S.A.; Raper, S.C.B.; Riahi, K.; Thomson, A.; Velders, G.J.M.; van Vuuren, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the greenhouse gas concentrations for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their extensions beyond 2100, the Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs). These projections include all major anthropogenic greenhouse gases and are a result of a multi-year effort to produce new sc

  19. Determining greenhouse gas balances of biomass fuel cycles. Results to date from task 15 of IEA bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected activities of IEA Bio-energy Task 15 are described. Task 15 of IEA Bio-energy, entitled 'Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bio-energy Systems', aims at investigating processes involved in the use of bio-energy systems on a full fuel-cycle basis to establish overall greenhouse gas balances. The work of Task 15 includes, among other things, a compilation of existing data on greenhouse gas emissions from various biomass production and conversion processes, a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bio-energy systems, a bibliography, and recommendations for selection of appropriate national strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. (K.A.)

  20. The Brazilian offshore oil and gas industry: potential and market entry for Friesland Kabel

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Project submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Master in International Management The Brazilian oil and gas offshore exploration faces a high demand for advanced technology and know-how. For that reason, foreign suppliers of subsea equipment are increasingly attracted by this dynamic market. Against this background, this project develops an international strategy for the German marine cable distributor Friesland Kabel within the Brazilian offshore oil and gas supply chain...

  1. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in colombia: a preliminary analysis. ii. greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon budget

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Ian E.; Ruiz Romero, Rodrigo; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using ‘default’ or ‘most probable’ options, were...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  4. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  5. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR CONTAINER SHIPPING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shimin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the onset of the first ever Greenhouse Gas (GHG regulation for ships by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO in 2011, the container shipping industry requires the combined use of technical and operational emissions reduction measures to improve the environmental performance of its vessels. Studies show that most existing measures are cost effective with a range of emissions reduction potential. However, the level of implementation is not depicted and the potential of the measures may be over-estimated. An evaluation of the emissions reduction measures is conducted through the examination of 3 factors, namely level of implementation, emissions reduction potential and cost effectiveness. Strategies to overcome the critical barriers of implementation are suggested in this study. Lastly, recommendations for companies with regards to GHG issues are made. The strong link between cost effectiveness and level of implementation is highlighted in this study. It is also shown that there is immense potential to reduce emissions from ships given the availability of measures with significant reduction potential. However, the top barriers of implementation, namely cost of measure and lack of information, need to be addressed for a higher level of adoption. This report serves as the first step to map strategy for managing GHG in the shipping industry. The importance of cost effectiveness in decision making from a ship operators perspective prompts the adoption of measures that are the most cost effective first before measures with high emissions reduction potential. It is prudent for shipping companies to adopt a more environmentally friendly operation as green is the way forward in the shipping industry.

  8. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM and Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS and Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM and Up, IS and Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  10. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  13. Policy recommendations for Canadian municipal greenhouse gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Technical guidance on reporting greenhouse gas emissions : 2005 reporting year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the Government of Canada announced mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in an effort to support its climate change policy and obligations to measure, track and reduce GHGs. This document is intended to help reporters determine if they are required to submit a report and to present technical information regarding GHG emissions, such as GHG types and emission sources covered. Methods for calculating GHG emissions were also reviewed along with the reporting process. An electronic on-line data reporting system is expected to provide more detailed reporting instructions on how to complete and submit a report. Facilities are required to calculate their total direct emissions in carbon dioxide equivalent for calendar year 2004, for the GHG type covered under phase 1 of the reporting system. The reporting process overview is intended to determine whether the facility's emissions meet or exceed the reporting threshold. This report clarified the basic concepts for reporting emissions with particular reference to relationship with United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), key elements of calculating emissions, prioritizing efforts, and biomass emission considerations such as emissions from combustion and waste decomposition. Facilities must calculate and report their direct emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides individually. They must also disaggregate the emissions by the following source categories: stationary combustion, industrial process, fugitive, or other emissions. Emissions of hydrofluorocarbon, perfluorocarbon and sulphur hexafluoride must also be calculated and reported. The reporting facility should identify the type of estimation method or methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. They may include monitoring or direct measurement, mass balance, emission factors or engineering estimates. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2 performed by Ziehn et al. (2014 to also minimize the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to 5 new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  16. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Zaccheo, T. Scott [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Blume, Nathan [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Pernini, Timothy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Braun, Michael [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Botos, Christopher [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  17. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  18. Low Greenhouse Gas Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Sustainable Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niggli, U.; Fließbach, A.; Hepperly, P.; Scialabba, N.

    2009-01-01

    Is low greenhouse gas emission (GHG) agriculture possible? Is it, in fact, desirable? In seeking answers to these two basic but extremely relevant questions, this study examines current farming practices, and incorporates scientific databases from longterm field experiments as case studies for low GHG agriculture. Further, the study examines the changes that will be needed for low greenhouse gas agriculture systems to become a reality. It also elucidates the adaptive capacity of agro-ecologic...

  19. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Nares Chuersuwan

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs) used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF) and free water surface flow (FWS) CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p

  20. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  1. Uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections: Experiences from Mexico and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel

    This report outlines approaches to quantify the uncertainty associated with national greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections. It does so by describing practical applications of those approaches in two countries – Mexico and South Africa. The goal of the report is to promote uncertainty...... quantification, because quantifying uncertainty has the potential to foster more robust climate-change mitigation plans. To this end the report also summarises the rationale for quantifying uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections....

  2. Economic potential of biomass based fuels for greenhouse gas emission mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    U. Schneider; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion, thereby also reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. However, subsidies are needed to make agricultural biofuel production economically feasible. To explore the economic potential of biofuels in a greenhouse gas mitigation market, the authors incorporate data on production and biofuel processing for the designated energy crops--switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow--in a U.S. Agricultural Sector Model, along with data on traditional crop-live...

  3. Life cycle assessment of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Chinese pear production

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Langer, V; Høgh-Jensen, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2010-01-01

    An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in China to investigate environmental consequences of the life cycle of pears in terms of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The assessment identified activities that contributed significantly to pears’ environmental impacts from the cradle to the point of sale. Cultivation was identified as having the greatest greenhouse gas emissions in pear production chains, followed by the process of storage and transportation. The ...

  4. Nitrogen and carbon interactions in controlling terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    The increased input of N to terrestrial systems may have profound impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHGs) fluxes and, consequently, our future climate; however, fully capturing and quantifying these interactions under field conditions urgently requires new, more efficient, measurement approaches. We have recently developed and deployed a novel system for the automation of terrestrial GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scales, using the approach of 'flying' a single measurement chamber to multiple points in an experimental field arena. As an example of the value of this approach, we shall describe the results from a field experiment investigating the interactions between increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) additions on net ecosystem exchanges of N2O, CH4 and CO2, enabling the simultaneous application of 25 treatments, replicated five times in a fully replicated block field design. We will describe how the ability to deliver automated GHG flux measurements, highly replicated in space and time, has revealed hitherto unreported findings on N and C interactions in field soil. In our experiments we found insignificant N2O fluxes from bare field soil, even at very high inorganic N addition rates, but the interactive addition of even small amounts of available C resulted in very large and rapid N2O fluxes. The SkyGas experimental system enabled investigation of the underlying interacting response surfaces on the fluxes of the major soil-derived GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to increasing N and C inputs, and revealed unexpected interactions. In addition to these results we will also discuss some of the technical problems which have been overcome in developing these 'flying' systems and the potential of the systems for automatically screening the impacts of large numbers of treatments on GHG fluxes, and other ecosystem responses, under field conditions. We describe here technological advances that can facilitate the development of more robust GHG mitigation

  5. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  6. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  7. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular,...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 1990 - 1995. Methodology and data for 1994 and provisional data for 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; Amstel AR van; LAE

    1996-01-01

    The inventory presented in this report complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on all greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal protocol. This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has

  9. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  10. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    {sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{sub 2} capture on an existing air-fired CFB plant. ALSTOM received a contract award from the DOE to conduct a project entitled 'Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control', under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42205 that is the subject of this topical report.

  11. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378

  12. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer. PMID:25985667

  13. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  14. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  15. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  16. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiello, Francesco N.; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961-2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961-2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010 (up to 5.4-5.8 Gt CO2 yr-1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000-2010, the

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  18. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY14 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerichs, Kimberly Irene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL’s GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated 73,521 metric tons (MT) of CO2 equivalent (CO2e ) emissions during FY14. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s FY14 GHG inventory: • Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were

  19. Nordic regionalisation of a greenhouse-gas stabilisation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, Klaus; Rummukainen, Markku; Strandberg, Gustav

    2006-10-15

    The impact of a CO{sub 2} stabilisation on the Swedish climate is investigated with the regional climate model RCA3 driven by boundary conditions obtained from a global coupled climate system model (CCSM3). The global model has been forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations from pre-industrial conditions until today's, and with an idealised further increase until the stabilisation level is reached. After stabilisation the model integration continues for another 150+ years in order to follow the delayed response of the climate system over a period of time. Results from the global and regional climate model are compared against observations and ECMWF reanalysis for 1961-1990. For this period, the global model is found to be too cold over Europe and with a zonal flow from the North Atlantic towards Europe that is too strong. The climate of the driving global model controls the climate of the regional model and the same deviations from one are thus inherited by the other. We therefore analyse the relative climate changes differences, or ratios, of climate variables between future's and today's climate. Compared to pre-industrial conditions, the global mean temperature changes by about 1.5 deg C as a result of the stabilisation at 450 ppmv equivalent CO{sub 2}. Averaged over Europe, the temperature change is slightly larger, and it is even larger for Sweden and Northern Europe. Annual mean precipitation for Europe is unaffected, but Sweden receives more precipitation under higher CO{sub 2} levels. The inter-annual and decadal variability of annual mean temperature and precipitation does not change with any significant degree. The changes in temperature and precipitation are not evenly distributed with the season: the largest warming and increased precipitation in Northern Europe occurs during winter months while the summer climate remains more or less unchanged. The opposite is true for the Mediterranean region where the precipitation decreases

  20. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km−1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO2e emission of 156 g km−1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO2e emission of 942 g L−1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among studies

  1. Mitigation policies for energy related greenhouse gas emissions in Cyprus: the potential role of natural gas imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the possibility of introducing mitigation policies for greenhouse gas emissions in isolated areas with limited availability of alternative energy sources. The Cypriot energy system has been considered as a reference case study and it is concluded that even for an isolated economy with very high rates of growth, enough options are available to reduce significantly greenhouse gas emissions and effectively contribute to sustainable environment. The conclusions of the study are based on analysis done with ENPEP, a hybrid model that employs a market-based simulation approach to project future energy supply/demand balances and the associated air emissions, as well as to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The study also shows that one of the best long-term strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Cyprus is the introduction of natural gas via a submerged gas pipeline to Syria

  2. Peat and the greenhouse effect - Comparison of peat with coal, oil, natural gas and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth's climate is effected both by natural factors and human activities. So called greenhouse gas emissions increase the increment of the temperature of the air nearby the earth's surface, due to which the social changes can be large. The increment of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere is due to increasing energy consumption. About 50 % of the climatic changes are caused by increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Other gases, formed in the energy production, intensifying the greenhouse effect are methane and nitrous oxide. The effect of greenhouse gases is based on their ability to absorb infrared radiation coming from the earth. This presentation discusses some of the greenhouse effect caused by some peat production and utilization chains in comparison with corresponding effects of coal, oil, natural gas and wood. The instantaneous greenhouse effects and the cumulative effects of the emissions of the gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) during a time period has been reviewed. The greenhouse effect has been calculated as CO2- equivalents. (5 figs.)

  3. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; LaFranchi, Brian; Ivey, Mark D.; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Bambha, Ray

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO 2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO 2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO 2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO 2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF assimilated meteorology fields, making it

  4. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFranchi, Brian W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schrader, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michelsen, Hope A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bambha, Ray P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  5. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  6. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block rubb

  8. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  9. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that unde

  10. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  11. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2010-01-01

    Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...

  12. 78 FR 71903 - 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Final Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ..., recovering from scrap and/or alloying purchased metals. Suppliers of Industrial 325120 Industrial gas... dioxide CO 2 e carbon dioxide equivalent DOC degradable organic carbon DOE Department of Energy EAF... on Green House Gases Tool FR Federal Register F-GHG fluorinated greenhouse gas F-HTF fluorinated...

  13. Methane; the other greenhouse gas research and policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel AR van; Swart RJ; Krol MS; Beck JP; Bouman AF; Hoek KW van der

    1993-01-01

    The increase of anthropogenic activities is the main reason for the increase of methane emissions in the Netherlands. Methane is an important greenhouse gas. The most important sources in the Netherlands are landfills, cattle, manure and the exploration, transport and distribution of oil and gas. In

  14. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  15. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under-utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fired power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide-equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base.

  16. 75 FR 31513 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Greenhouse Gas GHz Gigahertz GWP Global Warming Potential HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons... each of these gases is multiplied by the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of that gas, and then summed... careful consideration of numerous public comments. On October 27, 2009 (74 FR 55292), EPA proposed the...

  17. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by recycling plastics and textiles into products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, M.-L.; Dahlbo, H.

    2007-07-01

    Waste management generates greenhouse gas emissions. New waste management concepts for reducing these emissions are continuously being developed. In this study the potential of material recovery to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was assessed. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase the material recovery concepts used in Finland were identified and approximate greenhouse gas emission savings calculations were conducted for some of the concepts. In the second phase two promising concepts were chosen as case studies for a more detailed assessment, both of which are documented in detail in this report. In the first concept plastic waste is reprocessed into plastic profiles and in the second waste textile is reprocessed into oil absorbent mats. Life Cycle Inventory (L CI) methodology was used for calculating the greenhouse gas emission savings. The emission saving potential was assessed by comparing the emissions from the product made of recycled material with the emissions from the life cycle of a reference product. The reference product is made for the same application of use but manufactured from virgin raw material. Impregnated wood was chosen as the reference product for the plastic profile and oil absorbent mat made from virgin polypropylene fibre was used as the reference product for the oil absorbent mat made from textile waste. When assessing the overall greenhouse gas emission savings from material recovery, only comparing the emissions from the recycled and the reference product life cycles is insufficient. Thus, the emissions avoided by material and energy recovery were also included in the calculations. The results show that the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of material recycling is highly case-specific and emission savings can not always be obtained. In this study recovery of textile waste showed the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, plastic waste recycling only generates greenhouse gas emission savings

  18. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Marland, Gregg; West, Tristram O.; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Canella, Lorenza

    2011-01-01

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average pra...

  19. Role of Pakistan in Global Climate Change through Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Malik; Hajra Shahid; Rabeea Zafar; Zaheer Uddin; Zafar Wazir; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Syed Shahid Ali

    2012-01-01

    The increasing concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) is warming the earth’s atmosphere and the phenomenon is known as Climate Change or Global Warming. The major factors contributing to the global climate change include polluted emissions by excessive burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Pakistan contributes very little to the overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions however it remains severely impacted by the negative effects of climate change. Pakistan, in particular is estimated to ...

  20. Environmental Accounts of the Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions by Dutch economic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Climate change is one of the major global challenges of our time. There is abundant scientific evidence that the emission of greenhouse gases caused by economic activities contributes to climate change. Accelerating emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases since the beginning of the 20th century have increased the average global temperature by about 0.8C and altered global precipitation patterns. Combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, but also specific agricultural activities and industrial processes are the main drivers of the increased emission of greenhouse gasses. Enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere will increase global temperatures by radiative forcing. Likewise, climate change has a direct impact on all kinds of economic processes. These impacts may be positive or negative, but it is expected that the overall impact will be primarily negative. In order to design effective mitigation policies, one must have a good conception of the economic driving forces of climate change. The air emission accounts can be used to analyse the environmental implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, of production and consumption patterns. Because of their compatibility with the national accounts, greenhouse gas data can be directly linked to the economic drivers of global warming. There are several frameworks for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions for a country, yielding different results. Well-known are the emissions reported to the UNFCCC (United National Framework Convention on Climate Change) in particular under the Kyoto Protocol, but also environment statistics as well as the air emission accounts provide independent greenhouse gas estimates. The differences are not the result of disputes about the accuracy of the estimates themselves, but arise from different interpretations of what has to be counted. The inclusion or exclusion of certain elements depends on the concepts and definitions that underlie

  1. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  2. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  3. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  4. Greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels, electricity and heat generation in Finland. Dealing with the uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Maekinen, T.; Ekholm, T.; Paappanen, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Pahkala, K.; Mikkola, H. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    One way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector is to replace fossil fuels by biofuels. However, production of biofuels also generates greenhouse gas emissions. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of transportation biofuels suitable for large-scale production in Finland have been assessed in this paper. In addition, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production has been considered. The overall auxiliary energy input per energy content of fuel in biofuel production was 3-5-fold compared to that of fossil fuels. The results indicated that greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape are very probably higher compared to fossil fuels. Second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be more favourable in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of raw materials in electricity and/or heat production is even more favourable. Significant uncertainties are involved in the results mainly due to the uncertainty of N{sub 2}O emissions from fertilisation and emissions from the production of the electricity consumed or replaced. (author)

  5. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. PMID:24602860

  6. Current and Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Crop Intensification and Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Gerber, J. S.; Mueller, N. D.; O'Connell, C.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Food systems currently contribute up to one-third of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and these emissions are expected to rise as demand for agricultural products increases. Thus, improving the greenhouse gas emissions efficiency of agriculture - the tons or kilocalories of production per ton of CO2 equivalent emissions - will be critical to support a resilient future global system. Here, we model and evaluate global, 2000-era, spatially explicit relationships between a suite of greenhouse gas emissions from various agronomic practices (i.e., fertilizer application, peatland draining, and rice cultivation) and crop yields. Then, we predict potential emissions from future crop production increases achieved through intensification and extensification, including CO2 emissions from croplands replacing non-urban land cover. We find that 2000-era yield-scaled agronomic emissions are highly heterogeneous across crops types, crop management practices, and regions. Rice agriculture produces more total CO2-equivalent emissions than any other crop. Moreover, inundated rice in just a few countries contributes the vast majority of these rice emissions. Crops such as sunflower and cotton have low efficiency on a caloric basis. Our results suggest that intensification tends to be a more efficient pathway to boost greenhouse gas emissions efficiency than expansion. We conclude by discussing potential crop- and region-specific agricultural development pathways that may boost the greenhouse gas emissions efficiency of agriculture.

  7. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products. PMID:26731308

  8. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  9. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    A. Karion; C. Sweeney; Wolter, S; Newberger, T.; H Chen; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with...

  10. Agriculture's role in greenhouse gas emissions and capture

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhouse Gas Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This working paper addresses changes in climate and how the rising global temperature can be partially attributed to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Six percent of all US GHG emissions, including CO2, CH4, and N2O, are released from agricultural activities. This paper offers solutions to sequester carbon and reduce the amount of GHGs that are emitted by upgrading agricultural systems and switching to more sustainable practices. A full life cycle analy...

  11. Monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural and forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ferre',

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is becoming a central issue in contemporary science as well as politics. There is a long-lasting debate about the cause of the climate change: anthropogenic activity versus the natural cycle. However, a scientific consensus is coming a conclusion that the contemporary climate change is mainly caused by anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). The main objective of the thesis is the ...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Forsythe; Grace Ding

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Intermittently Flooded (Dambo) Rice under Different Tillage Practices in Chiota Smallholder Farming Area of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, George; Wuta, Menas; Chirinda, Ngoni;

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the biggest sources of greenhouse gases. Rice production has been identified as one of the major sources of greenhouse gases, especially methane. However, data on the contributions of rice towards greenhouse gas emissions in tropical Africa are limited. In Zimbabwe, as in mo...

  14. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  15. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik;

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1......Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...

  16. Striking the balance between nutrient removal, greenhouse gas emissions, receiving water quality, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael W; Reardon, David J; Neethling, J B; Clark, David L; Pramanik, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This Water Environment Research Foundation study considered the relationship between varying nutrient-removal levels at wastewater treatment plants, greenhouse gas emissions, receiving water quality (measured by potential algal production), and costs. The effluent nutrient concentrations required by some U.S. permits are very low, approaching the technology-best-achievable performance. This study evaluated five different treatment levels at a nominal 40 ML/d (10 mgd) flow. Greenhouse gas emissions and costs increase gradually up to the technologies' best-achievable performance, after which they increase exponentially. The gradual increase is attributed to additional biological treatment facilities, increased energy and chemical use, and additional tertiary nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes. Within the limited focus of this study, the evaluation shows that a point of diminishing return is reached as nutrient-removal objectives approach the technology-best-achievable performance, where greenhouse gas emissions and cost of treatment increases rapidly while the potential for algal growth reduce marginally. PMID:24597046

  17. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO2 emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO2 emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m2 room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO2 emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    ‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...... production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction...... will be lower than indicated by our data. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from either fresh grass‐clover or whole crop maize. Here the net reduction corresponded to about 8 tons CO2 per hectare per year...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    -clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co-production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...... production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction...... will be lower than indicated by our data. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co-production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from either fresh grass-clover or whole crop maize. Here the net reduction corresponded to about 8 tons CO2 per hectare per year...

  20. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  1. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  2. What are the health and greenhouse gas implications of travel patterns in different European settings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, J.; Götschi, T.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    Modelling studies have indicated the potential for substitution of car use with walking and cycling to achieve both large health benefits and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. There is considerable variation in walking, cycling, car and public transport use between different European settings....... However, there has been limited rigorous investigation of the impact of these differences on health and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we present modelled results on what would be the health and greenhouse gas implications if a setting with high levels of car use and low levels of cycling (urban...... population in England and Wales outside London) had the same travel patterns as people in other more active European locations. These comparator locations were the Netherlands and Denmark (noted for their high cycling), Switzerland (high walking and public transport use) and London (much higher public...

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, D.C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, G.M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  5. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Animal Manure Using the Closed Chamber Method for Gas Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Călin VAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is an important source of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The livestock contributes with 37% of global CH4 emission. The sources of GHG (CO2 and CH4 are the liquid manure or slurry storage and the compact solid manure. Measurement systems of GHG emission are important for the selection of the appropriate technology. By using the closed chamber method for soil, landfills, volcanoes etc., the present study evaluates the estimation of total emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from an experimental farm in Cluj County, Romania. The investigated area covered with sheep solid manure was about 579 m2 and ~5 cm thick, for cattle was about 12 m2 and 5 m thick and for swine was about 1.5 m5 and 0.5 m thick. The total methane emission measured for sheep manure was 0.83 t CH4/year and for cattle manure was 0.185 t CH4/year. The total carbon dioxide emission measured for sheep manure was 61.3 t CO2/year and for cattle manure was 4.7 t CO2/year. The measurement for pigs manure was high and this could be due to the freshness of the manure. The estimated emissions showed that a considerable amount of CH4 and CO2 is produced also by an experimental farm and an appropriate management of manure is important for reducing greenhouse gas. In this respect, we believe that the future solution for a green economy is to use manure in biogas plants.

  6. Governance Mechanism for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Stochastic Differential Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today developed and developing countries have to admit the fact that global warming is affecting the earth, but the fundamental problem of how to divide up necessary greenhouse gas reductions between developed and developing countries remains. In this paper, we propose cooperative and noncooperative stochastic differential game models to describe greenhouse gas emissions decision makings of developed and developing countries, calculate their feedback Nash equilibrium and the Pareto optimal solution, characterize parameter spaces that developed and developing countries can cooperate, design cooperative conditions under which participants buy the cooperative payoff, and distribute the cooperative payoff with Nash bargaining solution. Lastly, numerical simulations are employed to illustrate the above results.

  7. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: some unexplored variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the so-called "carbon debt") has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt due to land use change and begin providing cumulative greenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the "payback period" and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: "direct" land use change, in which the land use change occurs as part of a specific supply chain for a specific biofuel production facility, and "indirect" land use change, in which market forces act to produce land use change in land that is not part of a specific biofuel supply chain, including, for example, hypothetical land use change on another continent. Existing land use change studies did not consider many of the potentially important variables that might affect the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. We examine here several variables that have not yet been addressed in land use change studies. Our analysis shows that cropping management is a key factor in estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use change. Sustainable cropping management practices (no-till and no-till plus cover crops) reduce the payback period to 3 years for the grassland conversion case and to 14 years for the forest conversion case. It is significant that no-till and cover crop practices also yield higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in corn fields derived from former grasslands or forests than the SOC levels that result if these grasslands or forests are allowed to continue undisturbed. The United States currently does not hold any of its domestic industries responsible for its greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the greenhouse gas standards established for renewable fuels such as corn ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set a

  8. CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the init...

  9. Farm scale greenhouse gas accounting as basis for emissions trading or financial support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture in the EU is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, being responsible for about 9 percent of total GHG emissions. However, these emissions include several gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) and a range of sources that are only partly...... under flooded conditions. N2O is produced by the microbial transformations of nitrogen (N) in soils and manures, and is often enhanced where available N exceeds plant requirements, especially under wet conditions. These greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced by lowering input intensities and thus often...

  10. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector......This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...

  11. No effect of cropping system on the greenhouse gas N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette S.; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce.......Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce....

  12. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: some unexplored variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the so-called "carbon debt") has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt due to land use change and begin providing cumulative greenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the "payback period" and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: "direct" land use change, in which the land use change occurs as part of a specific supply chain for a specific biofuel production facility, and "indirect" land use change, in which market forces act to produce land use change in land that is not part of a specific biofuel supply chain, including, for example, hypothetical land use change on another continent. Existing land use change studies did not consider many of the potentially important variables that might affect the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. We examine here several variables that have not yet been addressed in land use change studies. Our analysis shows that cropping management is a key factor in estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use change. Sustainable cropping management practices (no-till and no-till plus cover crops) reduce the payback period to 3 years for the grassland conversion case and to 14 years for the forest conversion case. It is significant that no-till and cover crop practices also yield higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in corn fields derived from former grasslands or forests than the SOC levels that result if these grasslands or forests are allowed to continue undisturbed. The United States currently does not hold any of its domestic industries responsible for its greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the greenhouse gas standards established for renewable fuels such as corn ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set a

  13. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory. (AG)

  14. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  15. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Gjerald, Eilev; Hoem, Britta; Ramberg, Simen Helgesen; Haugland, Hege; Valved, Hilde; Nelson, George Nicholas; Asphjell, Torgrim; Christophersen, Oeyvind; Gaustad, Alice; Rubaek, Birgitte; Hvalryg, Marte Monsen

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory.(eb)

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  17. Natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity as a reliability factor in the Brazilian electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity into the Brazilian generation sector can be considered as a very complex energy, economic, regulatory and institutional revision. Brazil is a country with very specific characteristics in electricity generation, as approximately 80% of the generating capacity is based on hydroelectricity, showing strong dependency on rain and management of water reservoirs. A low rate of investment in the Brazilian Electricity Industry in the period of 1995-2000, associated with periods of low rainfall, led to a dramatic lowering of the water stocks in the reservoirs. With this scenario and the growing supply of natural gas, both from within Brazil and imported, natural gas thermal electric plants became a good option to diversify the electrical supply system. In spite of the Brazilian Government's efforts to install such plants, the country was faced with severe electricity rationing in 2001. The objective of this work is to show the need to continue with the implementation of natural gas thermal electricity projects, in a manner that allows flexibility and guarantees greater working reliability for the entire Brazilian electricity sector. Taking into account the world trend towards renewable energy, the perspectives of usage of biofuels in the Brazilian Energy Matrix and in electrical energy generation are also analyzed. The very issue of electrical power efficiency in Brazil and its challenges and strategic proposals from the standpoint of Government Programs and results provided so far are presented. The technological constraints in order to put on stream the thermal electric plants are also analyzed. The article concludes with a positive perspective of the usage of natural gas as to be the third pillar in the Brazilian Energy Matrix for the years to come

  18. Uncertainties in the attribution of greenhouse gas warming and implications for climate prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Gareth S; Mitchell, John F B

    2016-01-01

    Using optimal detection techniques with climate model simulations, most of the observed increase of near surface temperatures over the second half of the twentieth century is attributed to anthropogenic influences. However, the partitioning of the anthropogenic influence to individual factors, such as greenhouse gases and aerosols, is much less robust. Differences in how forcing factors are applied, in their radiative influence and in models' climate sensitivities, substantially influence the response patterns. We find standard optimal detection methodologies cannot fully reconcile this response diversity. By selecting a set of experiments to enable the diagnosing of greenhouse gases and the combined influence of other anthropogenic and natural factors, we find robust detections of well mixed greenhouse gases across a large ensemble of models. Of the observed warming over the 20th century of 0.65K/century we find, using a multi model mean not incorporating pattern uncertainty, a well mixed greenhouse gas warm...

  19. The Strategy and Technology Selection for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-Min; FENG Yong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The emission control of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is conducive to slowing down global warming. It is also helpful in controlling environmental pollution, and beneficial in improving the local health benefits. This paper aims at six kinds of non-CO2 greenhouse gases under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). This paper analyzes the emission status and trend of China’s non-CO2 greenhouse gases, and provides some technology selections for non-CO2 emission reduction. Through strategic policy arrangements and appropriate technology choices, China can gain environmental protection and greenhouse gas control.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  1. Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Subtropical Mangrove in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D. Y. F.; Xu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of "blue carbon" has received increasing attention recently, which points to the potential role of vegetated coastal wetlands in carbon sequestration. Yet, the magnitude and controls of greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetland ecosystems, especially mangroves in the subtropical regions, are still largely unknown. In this study, we conducted chamber measurements in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve of Hong Kong at monthly intervals to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4 and N2O from mangrove soils, and examine the influence of environmental and biotic variables on greenhouse gas fluxes. We found the highest mean CH4 and N2O emissions in autumn and the highest CO2 flux in summer. Along the tidal gradient, we observed significantly higher CH4 and N2O emissions from the middle zones and landward zones, respectively, while no clear spatial variation of CO2 emissions was observed. There were significantly higher soil greenhouse gas emissions from sites dominated by Avicennia marina than those dominated by Kandelia obovata, which might be due to the presence of pneumatophores which facilitated gas transport. We found a significant, negative correlation between CH4 flux and soil NO3-N concentration, while CO2 flux was positively correlation with total Kjeldahl nitrogen content. Soil temperature was positively correlated with the emissions of all three greenhouse gases, while water table depth was positively and negatively correlated with CH4 and N2O emissions, respectively. Our findings demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from mangrove soils which could be attributed in part to the differences in environmental conditions and dominant plant species.

  2. Use of UAVs for greenhouse gas monitoring at hotspot emissions zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J. R.; Allen, G.; Mead, M. I.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Roberts, G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas emissions from individual localised sources, or "hotspots", is important for both compliance monitoring and validating the techniques used to compile national emission inventories. Frequently ground based techniques are used, such as flux chamber measurements, which suffer from issues regarding sample representativeness, and tracer release methods, which for area sources rely heavily on release site configuration. Obtaining vertically resolved data can enable the use of a mass balance method to calculate greenhouse gas fluxes. This has been achieved using remote sensing techniques, but this usually requires the deployment of expensive, bulky instrumentation. Here we evaluate the suitability of using UAVs, in conjunction with emerging miniaturised sensor technology, as a highly manoeuvrable, low cost alternative for measuring hotspot greenhouse gas emissions. We describe a case study performed at a UK landfill site, where greenhouse gas measurements made on board a fixed wing UAV were used to estimate the bulk CH4 emission rate. Details of the mass balance technique employed, along with the key uncertainties associated with it, are discussed. This work is part of an ongoing study at the University of Manchester into the application of UAVs in atmospheric research, with the rapid advancement in miniaturised sensor technology providing new opportunities for integrating trace gas measurement with existing lightweight UAVs.

  3. Tendency in the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions attributable to the Agriculture subsector in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou SABI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse effect, which contributes to the climate warning, is a mechanism that occurs in the lower atmosphere because of the presence of Greenhouse Gas (GHGs. Its reinforcement by the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases has harmful consequences on the climate. Togo, a developing country, contributes more to this reinforcement by the emissions related the socio-economic activities due to the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU area. We carried out these inventories of Greenhouse Gas in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, version 2006, using CCNUCC software for the national inventories of GHGs. In 2004, basic year selected, based on the quality of the data, the Agriculture subsector emitted 2407.88 Gg CO2-e of direct GHGs (CH4, N2O and 252,72 Gg of GHGs precursors (NOx, CO. In Togo, these emissions have a tendency to increase passing the aggregated emissions from 2085.89 Gg CO2-e in 1990 to 2526.22 Gg CO2-e in 2008. The assessment of key categories of national emissions gave the priority to the biomass of cropland remaining cropland followed by biomass of forest land converted to cropland. These estimations will enable policy makers to take right decisions in matters of mitigation and adaptation and use them as baselines for calculations of carbon credits.

  4. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints

  5. ENERGY SUPPLY OF COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSE WITH THE GAS DRIVEN HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the work is to develop energy efficient schemes of industrial greenhouse designed for year-round production of plants that requires year-round maintenance of strongly prescribed temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse. The complex "gas driven “water-air” heat pump – electric generator" (for use during the heating season as well as the "gas driven heat pump “water-air” – electric generator – desiccant - evaporative chiller" which work in the off-season. The developed system produces heat and electricity (during the heating season as well as cold and electricity (the rest of the year. Comparative analyses of greenhouse cooling by water and air cooling systems have been performed. Proposed structures have a high efficiency as compared with conventional circuits (boiler - chiller.

  6. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators, greenhouse gas emissions indicator, data sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions indicator analyzes the evolution of GHG emissions resulting from human activities in Canada, at a national, provincial/territorial and sectorial level, for the six major GHG: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. The GHG emissions data used for the development of the indicator were provided by the National Inventory Report: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada, 1990-2008 (Environment Canada 2010). Canada has to conduct and submit an inventory of anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG at a national level every year, as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The six greenhouse gases and their principal sources across Canada are described in this report. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Synthesis and Review: Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane and nitrous oxide, and sequestering carbon in the soil or in living biomass can help reduce the impact of agriculture on climate change while improving productivity and reducing resource use. There is an increasing demand for improved, low cost quantification of GHGs in agriculture, whether for national reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), underpinning and stimulating improved practices, establishing crediting mechanisms, or supporting green products. This ERL focus issue highlights GHG quantification to call attention to our existing knowledge and opportunities for further progress. In this article we synthesize the findings of 21 papers on the current state of global capability for agricultural GHG quantification and visions for its improvement. We conclude that strategic investment in quantification can lead to significant global improvement in agricultural GHG estimation in the near term. (paper)

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  9. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by catalytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic technologies for the abatement of greenhouse gases (GGs) can be an effective possibility for limiting the increasing tropospheric concentration of GGs and reducing their contribution to global warming. Two different cases are discussed: (1) reduction of anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 GGs (N2O and CH4) and (2) reduction or conversion of CO2. In methane conversion waste gases containing diluted methane can be converted at low temperature using Pd supported on titania-ceria catalysts which show also a good resistance to deactivation. Rh supported on modified zirconia-alumina catalysts are effective and stable catalysts in low temperature decomposition of N2O. The concept of reduction of CO2 back to fuels in a photo-electrocatalytic reactor is also presented

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions through cap barriers of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourc, J.P.; Staub, M.; Simonin, R. [Grenoble Univ. (France). LTHE

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the environmental impacts of landfill cap covers used to produce biogas. The sensitivity of the environmental performance of landfills on biogas collection and recovery systems as well as on cap cover characteristics was investigated. The study examined both soil and geosynthetic landfill cap covers used to maintain impermeability at landfill sites as well as to enable biogas recovery. Two types of cap cover were discussed: (1) a cover that enabled passive wetting of the landfill wastes through rainfall; and (2) an impermeable cap used to control leachate recirculation. The environmental impacts of both caps were discussed. The study showed that landfill cap covers are a significant means of sequestering greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  11. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on... a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce...

  12. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and... National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel efficiency for on-road...

  13. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  14. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  15. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Lesschen, J.P.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Kolk, van der J.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  16. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  17. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for eddy flux covariance...

  18. The Drivers of Climate Change -- Tracking Global Greenhouse Gas Trends and their Warming Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.; Tans, P. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hall, B. D.; Masarie, K. A.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Miller, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Of the National Physical Climate Indicators, two stand out as primary drivers of climate change - the Global Monthly Average of Carbon Dioxide Concentration and the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index. Both of these are products of high quality, long-term, globally distributed monitoring of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To support monitoring of the trends of these gases over decades, NOAA maintains the WMO World Calibration Scales for the major contributors to radiative forcing and its own universally accepted scales for most of the minor greenhouse gases. Maintenance of these scales over time ensures the consistency of measurements from decade to decade. Further quality control through use of internal and external comparisons of on-going measurements places tight constraints on spatial and temporal bias. By far the most influential greenhouse gas contributing to radiative forcing is carbon dioxide (CO2). Its amount at Mauna Loa is reported on-line daily and its global trend updated monthly on NOAA's global monitoring website and at climate.gov. This is one of the most closely watched records of atmospheric composition, as its accelerating rate of increase is a constant reminder that society has yet to deal successfully with its emissions of this gas. Much of CO2 emitted remains in the atmosphere for 1000s of years, which is why it is of substantial concern. But atmospheric CO2 is not alone in warming the planet and driving climate change. Many other gases contribute in a lesser way to this long-term trend and are captured along with CO2 in NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI). The AGGI is a normalized compilation of the radiative forcing (RF) of five major long-lived greenhouse gases (96% of RF) and 15 minor gases (4% of RF). Because it does not include short lived gases (living in. This presentation discusses the development of these two indexes and their national and global use.

  19. A survey of differentiation methods for national greenhouse gas reduction targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the report is to contribute to exploring the potential differentiation methods for national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) from 1997 established differentiation of targets among countries. A more systematic approach to differentiation would facilitate future negotiations. Three sources of methods or proposals are employed. The first are proposals from the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) process from 1995 until the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in December 1997, in all 17 proposals were selected. The second source is the EU`s Triptique approach for differentiation of targets among its member states. The third source is recent academic literature where 8 contributions from the period 1992 to 1998 were included. The proposals are presented in a catalogue style. Based on 4 criteria on the usefulness of proposals or methods for future negotiations we have chosen 5 proposals, a Japanese, French, Norwegian, Brazilian in addition to the EU`s Triptique approach. Some numerical illustrations for the Baltic Sea region are presented. Given the joint Kyoto Protocol reduction target for the region we compare the burden sharing consequences for the proposals. For illustrations we employ the following fairness principles as differentiation methods: 1) The Sovereignty principle. 2) The Egalitarian principle. 3) The Ability to Pay principle. With the aim to evaluate the political feasibility of the various differentiation methods we compare the results across the countries in the Baltic Sea region and divide them into OECD and EIT countries. The outcome of the Kyoto Protocol is interpreted as an example of a politically feasible differentiation scheme. On the basis of the observations we find principles 1) and 2) less interesting. A ranking of the differentiation methods according to political feasibility is made and discussed. Among the countries in the Baltic Sea region

  20. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Baas, K.; Berghe, van den A.C.W.M.; Biesebeek, te J.D.; Brandt, A.T.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Molder, te R.; Dröge, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space hea

  2. Water and greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with a transition to a low carbon transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation fuels are heavily dominated by the use of petroleum, but concerns over oil depletion, energy security, and greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum combustion are driving the search for alternatives. As we look to shift away from petroleum-based transportation fuels...

  3. Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

  4. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and process economics of the fluid milk process

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-farm activities associated with fluid milk production contribute approximately 70% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while off-farm activities arising from milk processing, packaging, and refrigeration, contribute the remainder in the form of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. W...

  5. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Austria's Long and Expensive Journey to Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the following topics are worked out, with special emphasis on Austria: past trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions, current legal situation, the cost of emission reduction, effective set of measures, the role of flexible instruments, Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism, Emission Trading and the journey ahead. (author)

  6. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries; Van Vliet, Jasper; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC's decision to replace the values c

  7. 77 FR 14507 - Revision to Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Accounting and Reporting''. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514, ``Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance'' (74 FR 52117), in order to... QUALITY Revision to Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council...

  8. 75 FR 49913 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., Energy, and Economic Performance (74 FR 52117) in order to establish an integrated strategy toward... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... and accounting procedures. On April 5, 2010, DOE-FEMP submitted the final recommendations on...

  9. Flushing meadows : the influence of management alternatives on the greenhouse gas balance of fen meadow areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of peatlands is a major and growing source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and small changes in the management of peatlands can lead to drastic changes in GHG emissions and changes in carbon storage and in the past have indeed done so. GHG emissions from peatlands an

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P.J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E.J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel-bas

  12. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  13. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is often considered to contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, also on a per unit product basis. For energy, this is supported by a large number of studies, but the body of evidence for GHGs is smaller. Dutch agriculture is characterized by relativel

  14. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and green

  15. Which is the preferable transport fuel on a greenhouse gas basis; biomethane or ethanol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Niamh M. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, Jerry D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Biomethane and ethanol are both biofuels which are generated from agricultural crops that can be utilised to meet the Biofuels Directive. In Ireland with the demise of the sugar industry 48,000 Ha of land is readily available for biofuel production, without unduly effecting food production. Which biofuel should dominate? This paper investigates biofuel production for three different crop rotations: wheat, barley and sugar beet; wheat, wheat and sugar beet; wheat only. A greenhouse gas balance is performed to determine under what conditions each biofuel is preferable. For both biofuels, the preferred crop on a weight basis is wheat, while on an area basis the preferred crop is sugar beet. Biomethane scenarios produce more gross energy than ethanol scenarios. Under the base assumption (7.41% biogas losses, and biomethane utilised in a converted petrol engine, such as a bi-fuel car, and thus underperforming on a km/MJ basis) ethanol generated more net greenhouse gas savings than biomethane. This was unexpected as biomethane produces twice the net energy per hectare as ethanol. If either biogas losses were reduced or biomethane was utilised in a vehicular engine optimised for biomethane (such as a bus powered solely on gaseous biofuel) then biomethane would generate significantly more net greenhouse gas savings than ethanol. It was found that if biogas losses were eliminated and the biomethane was used in a vehicle optimised for biomethane, then the net greenhouse gas savings are 2.4 times greater than those from ethanol generated from the same feedstock. (author)

  16. 75 FR 41173 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). \\2\\ US EPA. 2010. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...) 566-1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Jenkins, Climate Change Division, Office of... Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under its obligation as...

  17. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...

  18. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...

  19. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  20. Agricultural peatlands: towards a greenhouse gas sink - a synthesis of a Dutch landscape study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.; Kroon, P.S.; Hendriks, D.M.D.; Hensen, A.; Huissteden, van J.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally known that managed, drained peatlands act as carbon (C) sources. In this study we examined how mitigation through the reduction of the intensity of land management and through rewetting may affect the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the C balance of intensively managed, drained, ag

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands 1990-2012; National inventory report 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Baas, K.; Berghe, van den A.C.W.M.; Biesebeek, te J.D.; Nijkamp, M.M.; Huis, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from the Netherlands in 2012 decreased by approximately 1.7 per cent, compared with 2011 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (increased electricity import) and in road transport. In 2012, total direct greenhou

  2. Energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of farming systems in north Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Jafari, Ali; Keyhani, Alireza; Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    Efficient use of energy resources in crop production is an important goal in sustainable agriculture. This study compares the energy flow in farming systems across farm size with their corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - presented in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) - in the n

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands. Methodology and data for 1993 and provisional data for 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel AR van; LAE

    1995-01-01

    This report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment to comply with the European Unions Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (Council Decision 93/389/EEC). The member states of the European Community have adopted the objective of stabilising CO2 e

  4. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  5. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... the federal requirements with the same test vehicle in the course of the same test. See, e.g., 43 FR... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  7. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  8. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  9. Which is the preferable transport fuel on a greenhouse gas basis; biomethane or ethanol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomethane and ethanol are both biofuels which are generated from agricultural crops that can be utilised to meet the Biofuels Directive. In Ireland with the demise of the sugar industry 48,000 Ha of land is readily available for biofuel production, without unduly effecting food production. Which biofuel should dominate? This paper investigates biofuel production for three different crop rotations: wheat, barley and sugar beet; wheat, wheat and sugar beet; wheat only. A greenhouse gas balance is performed to determine under what conditions each biofuel is preferable. For both biofuels, the preferred crop on a weight basis is wheat, while on an area basis the preferred crop is sugar beet. Biomethane scenarios produce more gross energy than ethanol scenarios. Under the base assumption (7.41% biogas losses, and biomethane utilised in a converted petrol engine, such as a bi-fuel car, and thus underperforming on a km/MJ basis) ethanol generated more net greenhouse gas savings than biomethane. This was unexpected as biomethane produces twice the net energy per hectare as ethanol. If either biogas losses were reduced or biomethane was utilised in a vehicular engine optimised for biomethane (such as a bus powered solely on gaseous biofuel) then biomethane would generate significantly more net greenhouse gas savings than ethanol. It was found that if biogas losses were eliminated and the biomethane was used in a vehicle optimised for biomethane, then the net greenhouse gas savings are 2.4 times greater than those from ethanol generated from the same feedstock.

  10. 78 FR 68161 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Final Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Flexibility Act RICE Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines RIN Regulatory Information Number RSASTP random... removal efficiency EIA Economic Impact Analysis EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FDL field detection limit F-GHG fluorinated greenhouse gas FR Federal Register FTIR Fourier transform infrared...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  12. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  13. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from reed canary grass in paludiculture: effect of groundwater level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Audet, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Combination of rewetting and wetland crop cultivation (paludiculture) is pursued as a wider carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation option in drained peatland. However, information on the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balance for paludiculture is lacking. We investigated the GHG balance...

  14. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  15. The Dutch national system for forest sector greenhouse gas reporting under UNFCCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Wyngaert, van den I.J.J.; Daamen, W.P.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    A full account for carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas balance is presented for the Dutch forest and nature areas for 1990¿2002 at a Tier 2.5 level. The paper outlines how complex guidelines can be turned into a practical system, appropriate for a small country, making use of the best know

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  17. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  18. Extraction, drainage, rewetting, flooding - Patterns of greenhouse gas turnover in restoring temperate peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The disturbance of natural peatlands destroys carbon sink and is often associated with nitrous oxide emissions. Therefore, the general efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas sources and to create carbon sinks also include peatland restoration. The variety of peatland type (most importantly bog or fen), use (extraction or agriculture), and restoration technique (rewetting or flooding) result in specific patterns of greenhouse gas uptake or emission. Based on examples from own work, I present an overview of the greenhouse gas turnover of following sites: • Cutover peat bogs in Eastern Canada and following rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained cutover and agriculturally used peat bogs in Northern Germany and following extensive agricultural management, paludiculture, rewetting, flooding, and abandonment • Drained agriculturally used fens in Northern Germany and following flooding and paludiculture I show that rewetting, but not flooding may succeed in re-establishing long-term carbon sinks with low methane release rates comparable to the greenhouse gas turnover known from natural peatlands. Flooding risks creating, at least in the short term, extremely strong methane sources. Extensive agricultural management and paludiculture may result in low methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide release rates and could be a sensible option when aiming at reconciling peatland use and protection.

  19. Liberalisation of the natural gas market. Impact on the greenhouse sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government has concrete plans for liberalisation of the natural gas market wherein the gas price is determined by means of the Commodity Services System (CSS, or CDS, abbreviated in Dutch), developed by the Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie. The effects of the CSS on the price of natural gas for the greenhouse sector are discussed in this study. Attention is also paid to the possibilities for farmers to anticipate the revised rate structure and the effect on the possibilities for the realisation of energy savings. 16 p

  20. Future meat consumption: potential greenhouse gas emissions from meat production in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that there is mounting meat consumption which is to be met by higher meat production. As the result, higher gas emission of CO2 is expected from increasing meat production. This is led by poultry and beef production which is likely to produce most of the greenhouse gas emissions from meat production in Malaysia. It is crucial to incorporate environmental consideration into livestock policy in National Agricultural Policy 4 and Tenth Malaysian Plan.

  1. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    OpenAIRE

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that l...

  2. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O' Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  3. Challenges for a Greenhouse Gas Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tans, P. P.

    2009-12-01

    Coping with global climate change requires both adaptation and mitigation. The former requires improved prognoses of likely climate futures, including natural emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The latter includes bringing down net emissions of greenhouse gases in order to first slow down, halt, and then decrease the forcing of climate change. The task implies a complete reorganization of society's energy system, which will require investments of the order of one to several percent of global gross domestic product for several decades. The political and economic stakes are very large, which is likely to put much pressure on self-reported emissions inventories to show success. There need to be observation based tools that can provide credible and objective evidence of the degree of success of emissions reduction policies and carbon sequestration efforts at scales that are relevant to policy makers. The atmosphere itself can provide such evidence, but several developments are necessary. The current international GHG observing system of in-situ chemical measurements needs to be enhanced by intensification as well as placement near large source regions. National inventories need to become specific in where and when emissions take place, so that the expected enhancements of the GHG mole fractions can be tested against observations. Atmospheric chemical transport models, that translate emissions into expected atmospheric GHG patterns, need to be improved, especially in the area of boundary layer mixing and dynamics. The GHG abundances in the atmosphere reflect the accumulation of many years of sources and surface exchange. Therefore the signals produced by recent emissions are relatively small compared to a common global background, which translates into a requirement for very accurate measurements. The integration of satellite observations, which provide global coverage, into the GHG observing system demands very careful and ongoing comparison with independent

  4. Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate compact, low power, lightweight laser-based sensors for measuring trace gas species in the atmosphere designed specifically for electronic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. The sensors utilize non-intrusive optical sensing techniques to measure atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations with unprecedented vertical and horizontal resolution (~1 m within the planetary boundary layer. The sensors are developed to measure greenhouse gas species including carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane in the atmosphere. Key innovations are the coupling of very low power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs to low power drive electronics and sensitive multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopic techniques. The overall mass of each sensor is between 1–2 kg including batteries and each one consumes less than 2 W of electrical power. In the initial field testing, the sensors flew successfully onboard a T-Rex Align 700E robotic helicopter and showed a precision of 1% or less for all three trace gas species. The sensors are battery operated and capable of fully automated operation for long periods of time in diverse sensing environments. Laser-based trace gas sensors for UAVs allow for high spatial mapping of local greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer where land/atmosphere fluxes occur. The high-precision sensors, coupled to the ease-of-deployment and cost effectiveness of UAVs, provide unprecedented measurement capabilities that are not possible with existing satellite-based and suborbital aircraft platforms.

  5. Developing Water Resource Security in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained Context - A Case Study in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Samuelsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of drought conditions in regions such as California due to shortfalls in precipitation has brought refreshed attention to the vulnerability of our water supply paradigm to changes in climate patterns. In the face of a changing climate which can exacerbate drought conditions in already dry areas, building resiliency into our water supply infrastructure requires some decoupling of water supply availability from climate behavior through conservation, efficiency, and alternative water supply measures such as desalination and water reuse. The installation of these measures requires varying degrees of direct energy inputs and/or impacts the energy usage of the water supply infrastructure (conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater treatment). These impacts have implications for greenhouse gas emissions from direct fuel usage or impacts on the emissions from the electric grid. At the scale that these measures may need to be deployed to secure water supply availability, especially under climate change impacted hydrology, they can potentially pose obstacles for meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable utilization goals. Therefore, the portfolio of these measures must be such that detrimental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are minimized. This study combines climate data with a water reservoir network model and an electric grid dispatch model for the water-energy system of California to evaluate 1) the different pathways and scale of alternative water resource measures needed to secure water supply availability and 2) the impacts of following these pathways on the ability to meet greenhouse gas and renewable utilization goals. It was discovered that depending on the water supply measure portfolio implemented, impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and renewable utilization can either be beneficial or detrimental, and optimizing the portfolio is more important under climate change conditions due to the scale of measures required.

  6. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  7. The role of photovoltaics in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the opportunities that will arise for the Australian photovoltaic industry if external costs of energy conversion are internalized. Such external costs include local pollution, resource depletion and the emission of greenhouse gases. Generation of electricity from photovoltaic (PV) modules is now a widely accepted environmentally friendly energy conversion technology. At present, high capital costs restricts its use to the provision of small amounts of power in remote areas, where it successfully competes against small diesel generators. However, as costs continue to decline, photovoltaic systems will compete successfully with progressively larger diesel-electric systems in Australia, in a market worth more than a billion dollars. Direct competition with electricity generated by conventional means for state grids is possible after the turn of the century. The present Australian photovoltaic industry is export oriented. The market for PV systems in poor rural areas in Asia is potentially very large. The cost of supplying small quantities of electricity to millions of rural households is high, making photovoltaics a competitive option. It is concluded that the Australian photovoltaic industry is in a good position to participate in the growth in this market sector. 48 refs., 28 tabs., 18 figs., ills

  8. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands: current knowledge and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, L. M.; Wohlfahrt, G. W.

    2012-04-01

    Grassland ecosystems in a wider sense cover up to 40% of the global terrestrial surface (White et al. 2000). Knowledge about the exchange of the major greenhouse gases (GHG's, carbon dioxide - CO2, methane - CH4 and nitrous oxide - N2O) remains still limited for grasslands, while other ecosystems such as forests and peatlands (particularly systems storing large amounts of carbon) have been investigated more intensively. Here, we give an overview of the current state of GHG measurements in the alpine region of Europe (Switzerland, Austria) and the associated challenges in deriving annual GHG budgets as well as determining the abiotic and biotic variables driving the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. In particular the importance of management activities, that is fertilization and removal of above-ground biomass through harvesting and grazing, besides climate, the challenges when trying to measure small fluxes of CH4 and N2O using chamber or micrometeorological methods and the need of including winter emissions in annual balances will be stressed.

  10. Determination of cocaine in brazilian paper currency by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Di Donato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of illicit drugs such as cocaine and marijuana in US paper currency is very well demonstrated. However, there is no published study describing the presence of cocaine and/or other illicit drugs in Brazilian paper currency. In this study, Brazilian banknotes were collected from nine cities, extracted and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in order to investigate the presence of cocaine. Bills were extracted with deionized water followed by ethyl acetate. Results showed that 93% of the bills presented cocaine in a concentration range of 2.38-275.10 µg/bill.

  11. The importance of reservoir regularization in the Brazilian electric system; A importancia dos reservatorios de regularizacao no sistema eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronaldo Antonio de; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Livino, Angela; Moretz-Shon-David, Pedro Americo [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], emails: ronaldo.souza@epe.gov.br, amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br, angela.livino@epe.gov.br, pedro.david@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a quantification of benefits due to reservoirs for the Brazilian power system in terms of system regularization and also in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction because of the avoided thermal generation. The results have shown losses in firm energy for the power system, requiring other sources for power generation, which represent negatives impacts in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with different meat-free diets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The production of food is responsible for large share of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. There is a wide range of emissions associated with different food-groups. In particular the production of meat from ruminants causes higher emissions compared to plant-based food. This study compared two different types of meat-free diets (ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan) in Sweden and the emission of greenhouse gases that are connected to the aliment and beverages that are consumed in these di...

  13. Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothausen, Sabrina G. S. A.; Conway, Declan

    2011-07-01

    Water management faces great challenges over the coming decades. Pressures include stricter water-quality standards, increasing demand for water and the need to adapt to climate change, while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The processes of abstraction, conveyance and treatment of fresh water and wastewater all demand energy. Energy use in the water sector is growing, yet its importance is under-recognized, and gaps remain in our knowledge. Here we define the need to integrate energy use further into water resource management and identify opportunities for the water sector to understand and describe more effectively its role in greenhouse-gas emissions.

  14. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  15. Transportation: meeting the dual challenges of achieving energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Quanlu WANG; Hong HUO

    2009-01-01

    As the population and economy continue to grow globally, demand for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector relies solely on petroleum for its energy supply. The United States and China are the top two oil-importing countries. A major issue both countries face and are addressing is energy insecurity as a result of the demand for liquid fuels. Improvements in the energy efficiency of vehicles and the substitution of petroleum fuels with alternative fuels can help contain growth in the demand for transportation oil. Although most alternative transportation fuels - when applied to advanced vehicle technologies - can substantially reduce greenhouse emissions, coal-based liquid fuels may increase greenhouse gas emissions by twice as much as gasoline. Such technologies as carbon capture and storage may need to be employed to manage the greenhouse gas emissions of coal-based fuels. At present, there is no ideal transportation fuel option to solve problems related to transportation energy and greenhouse gas emissions. To solve these problems, research and development efforts are needed for a variety of transportation fuel options and advanced vehicle technologies.

  16. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production. PMID:26263191

  17. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week-1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 oC) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH4 Mg-1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N2O Mg-1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH4 and N2O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO2-eq. Mg-1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg-1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO2-eq. Mg-1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  19. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario......This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered......) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. In order to exploit this potential fully, however, target group specific information should be obtained and communication strategies developed, as addressed in this paper. This study further presents the limitation of reduction potential quantification...

  20. Multi-gas emission profiles for stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations: Emission implications of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees centigrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhout B; Elzen MGJ den; Vuuren DP van; KMD

    2004-01-01

    In this report we present two CO2-equivalent emission profiles leading to two different stabilised greenhouse gas concentration levels. The contribution of the various greenhouse gas emissions is expressed in CO2-equivalent emissions. These equivalent emissions are determined by using the concept of

  1. GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM

  2. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1), which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH4 and N2O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m(-2) h(-1), respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil-atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation. PMID:25918889

  3. The potential role of nuclear energy in greenhouse gas abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy plays an essential role in avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. The contribution of nuclear power to electricity supplies has grown rapidly since the 1970's. As of July 2000, 432 power reactors were in operation in 31 countries. Nuclear power provided some 2300 TWh. This is about 17% of the world's total electricity, or 7% of total primary energy. This contribution avoids the emissions of about 2300 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually, assuming that it would otherwise be provided mainly by coal-fired plants. This represents nearly one-third of the carbon dioxide presently emitted by power generation. Since electricity generation accounts for about 30% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, total emissions would be about 10% higher if it were not for nuclear power. In contrast, the objective of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized nations by 5% by 2008-12 compared to a 1990 baseline. In order for atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations to be stabilized at a sustainable level, it will be necessary to reduce emissions by around 60% from the 1990 level. Advocates of a policy of 'convergence and contraction', where developed and developing countries are to be allowed similar levels of emissions on a per capita basis, state that developed countries may have to reduce emissions by as much as 80%. Nuclear energy will make a significant contribution to meeting the world's future electricity demand while helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the scale of that contribution will be strongly influenced by the way in which this contribution is recognized in national and international policies designed to tackle climate change. The debate continues to rage over the science of climate change: is climate change the result of human intervention or is it a naturally occurring phenomenon? The majority of scientists involved in this debate would agree that enhanced global warming, as witnessed in recent

  4. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  5. Development of coal mine methane concentration technology for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahisa; UTAKI

    2010-01-01

    In coal mines in such countries as China and Russia,most of the coal mine methane(CMM) generated during mining is emitted to the atmosphere without any effective usage,because the methane concentration of CMM is relatively low and not allowed to be used as fuel for safety reasons.Methane is one of the greenhouse gases.Therefore,if it becomes possible to concentrate CMM to an acceptable level for use as fuel,this will greatly contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.With the aim of gaining approval as a greenhouse gas emission reduction of the clean development mechanism(CDM) or joint implementation(JI) project,we developed a CMM concentration system to apply the vacuum pressure swing adsorption(VPSA) technology using a high methane-selective adsorbent by Osaka Gas Co.,Ltd.The pilot-scale plant of a CMM concentration system was installed in a coal mine in Fuxin City in the northeastern China and a demonstration test was commenced in December 2008.As the result,the pilot-scale plant successfully concentrated the raw material gas with a methane concentration of 21% and a flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h to 48%,which exceeded the target of the methane concentration performance(a 25% increase).The methane recovery rate reached 93%.

  6. Nitrification Inhibitors: A Perspective Tool to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K. Malyan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields are significant contributors of greenhouse gases mainly methane and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Increasing concentrations of these greenhouse gases play significant role in changing atmospheric chemistry such as mean air temperature, rainfall pattern, drought, and flood frequency. Mitigation of greenhouse gases for achieving sustainable agriculture without affecting economical production is one the biggest challenge of twenty first century at national and global scale. On the basis of published scientific studies, we hereby assess the use of nitrification inhibitors for greenhouse gas mitigation from rice soil. Biologically oxidation of ammonium to nitrate is termed as nitrification and materials which suppress this process are known as nitrification inhibitors. Soil amendment by addition of certain nitrification inhibitors such as neem oil coated urea, nimin-coated urea; dicyandiamide, encapsulated calcium carbide, and hydroquinone reduce cumulative methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice. Firstly, these inhibitors reduce nitrous oxide emissions both directly by nitrification (by reducing NH4+ to NO3- as well as indirectly by de-nitrification (by reducing NO3- availability in soil. Secondly, methane emission from rice soil can be reduced by enhancing methane oxidation and suppressing methane production and further by reducing the aerenchymal transportation through rice plant. Application of some of the nitrification inhibitors such as calcium carbide and encapsulated calcium carbide reduce methane production by releasing acetylene gas which helps in reducing the population of methanogenic microbes in the soil. Application of nitrification inhibitors also helps to maintain soil redox potential at higher level subsequently reducing cumulative methane emission from soil. Plant derived organic nitrification inhibitors (neem oil, neem cake, karanja seed extract are eco-friendly and possess substantial greenhouse gas mitigation

  7. The second generation model of greenhouse gas emissions: background and initial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of greenhouse gas emissions has made enormous progress during the course of the past decade. We have progressed from the use of simple time-trend extrapolations to the analysis of emissions of several greenhouse gases with parallel but independent behavioral and optimization models of energy, manufacturing, agriculture, and land-use systems. But our ability to examine potential future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions is limited because modeling tools adequate to the task of integrating analyses of technologies and human activities on a global scale with regional detail, including energy production and consumption, agriculture, manufacture, capital formation, and land-use, along with the interdependencies between these categories, do not yet exist. The first generation of models were specialty models which focused on a particular aspect of the emissions problem without regard to how that activity interacted with other human and natural activities. The natural science pertaining to greenhouse warming now emphasizes the variety of gases associated with potential changes in the radiative composition of the atmosphere: CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, NOx, SO2, VOC's, chlorofluorocarbons, (CFC's) and CFC substitutes. Human activities generating the emissions of these gases are interdependent; actions taken to limit emissions from one segment of the economy will affect other segments of the economy. Policy issues such as the recycling of revenues from a carbon tax, land-use changes due to to tree-planting to sequestrate carbon dioxide or extensive development of biomass energy resources, require a more comprehensive modeling approach in which the relationship between technology, institutions, land use, economics and human activity is explicitly represented. The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the design of a model which is capable of addressing greenhouse gas emissions and the consequences of alternative policy options. 7 refs

  8. Meeting the demand. An estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, Nathan [Department of Economics, University of California, Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697-5100 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Current production processes for meat products have been shown to have a significant impact on the environment, accounting for between 15% and 24% of current greenhouse gas emissions. Meat consumption has been increasing at a fantastic rate and is likely to continue to do so into the future. If this demand is to be met, technology used in production in the form of Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) will need to be expanded. This paper estimates future meat consumption and discusses the potential aggregate environmental impact of this production if the use of CAFOs is expanded. I first separate meat into beef, chicken and pig products and estimate the elasticities associated with each product in order to forecast the world demand for meat. Using research on the environmental impact of food production in the US, which uses one of the most efficient CAFO processes in the world, I then calculate the total potential greenhouse emissions of this meat production and discuss the impact of these consumption patterns. I find that, under an expanded CAFO system, meat production in the future will still be a large producer of greenhouse gases, accounting for up to 6.3% of current greenhouse gas emissions in 2030. (author)

  9. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  10. Trends in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arunima; Lan, Jun; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are known to alter hydrological cycles, disrupt marine ecosystems and species lifecycles, and cause global habitat loss. In this study, we use a comprehensive global input-output database to assess the driving forces underlying the change in global CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2010. We decompose the change in emissions for the 20 year period into six mutually exclusive causal determinants. Our assessment of trends in fuel-use reveals that a 10.8 Peta-gram (Pg) rise in emissions from 1990 to 2010 constitutes emissions from the consumption of coal (49%), petroleum (25%), natural gas (17%), and biomass (9%). We demonstrate that affluence (per-capita consumption) and population growth are outpacing any improvements in carbon efficiency in driving up emissions worldwide. Our results suggest that supply chain measures to improve technological efficiency are not sufficient to reduce emissions. To achieve significant emission savings, policy makers need to address the issue of affluence. We argue that policies to address unsustainable lifestyles and consumer behavior are largely unheard of, and governments may need to actively intervene in nonsustainable lifestyles to achieve emission reductions. The results presented in this paper are vital for informing future policy decisions for mitigating climate change. PMID:27063930

  11. Evaluating energy and greenhouse gas technologies with the principles of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many suggest that the environmental impact of energy resource use and the achievement of increased efficiency are best addressed by considering the thermodynamic property exergy. This paper reports on the use of the principles of thermodynamics via exergy to evaluate energy systems and greenhouse gas technologies. Exergy is described and its use as a tool to improve efficiency illustrated. The environmental implications of exergy are discussed, and the ties between exergy and economics described. It is concluded that thermodynamics, and particularly exergy, has a significant role to play in evaluating energy and greenhouse gas technologies. Exergy should prove useful to engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers. To increase the acceptance of exergy, further research is needed to better define its role in the area of environmental impact. (author)

  12. Corporate actions for the climate - Greenhouse gas reduction practices at EpE member companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporate awareness of the reality of climate change and the impact of human activity on global warming goes back some twenty years. It was at this time that EpE members decided to take voluntary action towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions. EpE member companies started out by measuring their emissions (see EpE publication entitled 'Measuring and Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions'), then worked to identify initiatives easiest to implement and those that would have the best reduction potential. This booklet is prepared to contribute to other businesses improving their knowledge and understanding of the best practices identified and implemented by EpE members, in order to speed up the reduction of global emissions, without hampering their competitiveness. The practices showcased here have intentionally been detailed so that they can be easier to adopt. (authors)

  13. Implications of low natural gas prices on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. electricity sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, P.; Venkatesh, A.; Griffin, M.; Matthews, S.

    2012-12-01

    Increased production of unconventional natural gas resources in the U.S. has drastically reduced the price of natural gas. While in 2005 prices went above 10/MMBtu, since 2011 they have been below 3/MMBtu. These low prices have encouraged the increase of natural gas utilization in the United States electricity sector. Natural gas can offset coal for power generation, reducing emissions such as greenhouse gases, sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In quantifying the benefit of offsetting coal by using natural gas, life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown up to 50% reductions in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be expected. However, these studies predominantly use limited system boundaries that contain single individual coal and natural gas power plants. They do not consider (regional) fleets of power plants that are dispatched on the basis of their short-run marginal costs. In this study, simplified economic dispatch models (representing existing power plants in a given region) are developed for three U.S. regions - ERCOT, MISO and PJM. These models, along with historical load data are used to determine how natural gas utilization will increase in the short-term due to changes in natural gas price. The associated changes in fuel mix and life cycle GHG emissions are estimated. Results indicate that life cycle GHG emissions may, at best, decrease by 5-15% as a result of low natural gas prices, compared to almost 50% reductions estimated by previous LCAs. This study thus provides more reasonable estimates of potential reductions in GHG emissions from using natural gas instead of coal in the electricity sector in the short-term.

  14. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  15. Managing Costs in a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Trading Program: A Workshop Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsutani, Marika; Pizer, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Cost containment has emerged as a major point of contention in the current congressional debate about designing a cap-and-trade program to limit future U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper reviews basic concepts and policy options for cost management, drawing on a March 2008 workshop sponsored by Resources for the Future (RFF), the National Commission on Energy Policy, and Duke University’s Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. The different sources and temporal di...

  16. CO2 Emissions and Greenhouse Gas Policy Stringency - An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Probst; Caspar Sauter

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gas (GHG) policy stringency affects anthropogenic CO2 emissions using a new GHG policy stringency indicator and a structural spatial VAR approach. We estimate an average country-specific elasticity of CO2 emissions to GHG policy stringency, and assess the role of channels over which policy stringency affects CO2 emissions. We then ascertain how GHG policy stringency affects sectoral CO2 efficiency and the sectoral composition of economies. Results indica...

  17. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sevigné Itoiz, Eva; Martínez Gasol, Carles; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations t...

  18. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-feng ZHANG; Dou, Zheng-xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world’s population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China’s participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the larges...

  19. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc;

    2012-01-01

    and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon...... emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy....

  20. The Influence of Urban Soil Rehabilitation on Soil Carbon Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Stormwater Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yujuan

    2013-01-01

    Global urbanization has resulted in rapidly increased urban land. Soils are the foundation that supports plant growth and human activities in urban areas. Furthermore, urban soils have potential to provide a carbon sink to mitigate greenhouse gas emission and climate change. However, typical urban land development practices including vegetation clearing, topsoil removal, stockpiling, compaction, grading and building result in degraded soils. In this work, we evaluated an urban soil rehabilita...