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Sample records for brazilian energy matrix

  1. The use of renewable energy in Brazilian energy matrix: economic and environmental aspects protected in the Brazilian Federal Constitution; O uso de energias renovaveis na matriz energetica: aspectos economicos e ambientais defendidos na Constituicao Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa Junior, Edinaldo Benicio de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the problems of consolidations of biofuels programs in Brazil, especially in a time when the use of renewable energy is essential for restructuring of the energy matrix of the countries. This wok also highlights the regulatory model and the difficulty of the Brazilian government in organizing a regulatory framework, strictly, responsible for the bioenergy issue in Brazil. (author)

  2. The role of nuclear energy in brazilian energy matrix: socioeconomic and environmental aspects; O papel da energia nuclear na matriz energetica brasileira: aspectos socioeconomicos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, Priscila

    2016-09-01

    With the large increase of energy demand in the world, either for the continued expansion of industrialization, or by the raise of consumption, are increasing the need for energy sources diversification and the search for cleaner alternatives of energy production. Nuclear power has been considered as an option to curb the emission of greenhouse gases and reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. However, nuclear energy is an issue that still causes a lot of doubt and questions, turning the development of this work very important for a better understanding of the lay public as well as to contribute and encourage future research through an assessment of their environmental and socio-economic aspects, discussing the risks, benefits, and an assessment of the expansion of nuclear energy use, including an overview of nuclear energy in Brazil. Concluding that nuclear energy can contribute to the expansion of the Brazilian energy matrix, as the only heat source able to ensure constant supply of energy without emitting greenhouse gases. Considering that Brazil dominates the technology of the nuclear fuel cycle, and has a large reserves of uranium. A larger share of nuclear energy in the Brazilian energy matrix can generate greater diversification of the same, valuing the environmental and economic sustainability of the country and reducing the system's vulnerability. However, nuclear generation should not be considered as the only solution to the energy problems of the country, but make a part of it by the combination with other renewable sources, increasing the diversity and energy security of the country. (author)

  3. Thoughts about the history of Brazilian energy matrix and the definition of new strategies for the natural gas; Reflexoes sobre a historia da matriz energetica brasileira e sua importancia para a definicao de novas estrategias para o gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flavio; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    This paper remembers the mainly historical facts that conduct the industrial development in Brazil and the consolidation of national energetic matrix. It was analyzed particularly the gap between 1850 and 1970, explaining how petroleum became into the most important energetic considering the Brazilian reality. At the sequence, the paper look to extract, from historical retrospective, essential elements that should be present when new strategies will be defined to increase the natural gas in the Brazil's energetic matrix nowadays. It was analyzed, critically, the sense and efficiency of the main public politics implemented between different historical periods. It was emphasized the importance of these interpretations to the reflection of politics more closed with natural gas, whose must be faced not only like a alternative of energy, but also like important link to a industrial modernization process, technological development and construction of a production system more competitive. (author)

  4. Impact of energy efficiency and alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: scenarios 2005-2050; Impacto da eficiencia energetica e das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: cenarios 2005-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco A.; Gimenes, Andre L.V.; Fujii, Ricardo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Furtado, Marcelo [Greenpeace Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Part of a worldwide initiative championed by Greenpeace International and EREC - European Renewable Energy Council, a partnership between Greenpeace Brazil and GEPEA/USP were established for producing two national alternative energy scenarios, as a blueprint for how to meet forthcoming Brazilian energy needs in a sustainable way. Such scenarios, one reflecting the views of GEPEA/USP and another the perceptions by Greenpeace, were both based on a reference scenario strongly drawing from the 'Plano Decenal 2006-2015' and the 'Plano Nacional de Energia 2030', both by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. From the alternative scenarios one may see that is feasible to satisfy the increasing Brazilian demand through the integrated deployment of alternative resources, Natural Gas fueled thermal power plants and energy conservation measures. To develop the Brazilian electricity energy base in such terms, however, is mandatory to conduct further debate on energy planning issues, conservation measures and alternatives resources concerns included. (author)

  5. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  6. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  7. Assessing scenarios of the brazilian energy matrix in the long-term plan of Ministry of Mines and Energy: impacts in the oil and gas industry; Avaliacao de cenarios de matriz energetica nacional no plano de longo prazo do Ministerio de Minas e Energia: impactos na industria de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The Law no. 9,478/97 establishes that among its attributions the Energy Policy National Council (CNPE) must review periodically the national energy matrix. This paper aims at discussing the scenarios considered in the current revision based on an integrated energy planning approach, identifying its key points and analyzing its eventual consequences, particularly for oil and gas industry. More precisely, it evaluates the effects over the O and G industry of changes in the international and national circumstances. The international key factors focused are, mainly, oil and oil product prices and productive and technological strategies of O and G companies. The national key factors discussed fuel prices, inter-fuel substitution potentials, efficiency levels, potentials of new discovers and characteristics of Brazilian reserves of oil and natural gas (on-shore or off-shore E and P, oil or gas fields, API degree density, sulfur and acid contents), and adequate energy infra-structure (necessity of distribution and transportation grid expansion, refining capacity etc.). Such discussions have important implications for public policies and corporate strategies. (author)

  8. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  9. Brazilian energy balance 1996: 1980 to 1995 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1980 to 1995 period. It`s divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy sources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances 1 fig., 68 graphs., 145 tabs.

  10. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

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    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  11. The challenge of energy poverty. Brazilian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini Pereira, Marcio [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordenation of Post-Graduate Programs in Engineering of The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, CEP: 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vasconcelos Freitas, Marcos Aurelio; Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [International Virtual Institute of Global Change - IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. (author)

  12. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

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    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  13. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered.

  14. Overview of alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: incentive policies, the current market and future prospects; Panorama das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: politicas de incentivo, mercado atual e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative (IEI), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian power matrix is among the cleanest in the world due to the large share of hydroelectric generation. In recent years, several efforts have been concentrated in an attempt to diversify the matrix from the insertion of other renewable alternatives sources. The aim of this study is to analyze the state of generation through biomass, wind and small hydropower sources, covered by specific auctions and the Proinfa, and solar energy (photovoltaic and thermal high temperature) in Brazil, besides trends development of these generation sources. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the 6. CBPE: Brazilian congress on energy planning. Energy and environment; Anais do 6. CBPE: Congresso brasileiro de planejamento energetico. Energia e meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The proceedings of the Brazilian Congress on Energy Planning are presented focusing energy policies, conservation, generation, consumption, distribution and transmission. The congress also presents articles focusing renewable energy sources and environmental aspects of energy.

  16. On exact superpotentials, free energies and matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailu, Girma; Georgi, Howard [Jefferson Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)]. E-mail addresses: hailu@feynman.harvard.edu; georgi@physics.harvard.edu

    2004-02-01

    We discuss exact results for the full nonperturbative effective superpotentials of four dimensional N=1 supersymmetric U(N) gauge theories with additional chiral superfield in the adjoint representation and the free energies of the related zero dimensional bosonic matrix models with polynomial potentials in the planar limit using the Dijkgraaf-Vafa matrix model prescription and integrating in and out. The exact effective superpotentials are produced including the leading Veneziano-Yankielowicz term directly from the matrix models. We also discuss how to use integrating in and out as a tool to do random matrix integrals in the large-N limit. (author)

  17. Low-energy NN scattering with a Brazilian chiral potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, E.F. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Rocha, C.A. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil); Szpigel, S. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM), SP (Brazil); Timoteo, V.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We apply the subtracted kernel method (SKM), a renormalization approach based on recursive multiple subtractions performed in the kernel of the scattering equation, to a Brazilian chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO). We evaluate the phase shifts in the 1S0 and 3P0 channels and explicitly demonstrate that the SKM procedure is renormalization group invariant under the change of the subtraction scale through a non-relativistic Callan-Symanzik flow equation for the evolution of the renormalized NN interactions. (author)

  18. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997; Balanco energetico nacional 1998: ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  19. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995; Balanco energetico nacional 1996: ano base 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  20. Wind Energy Conversion Based on Matrix Converter

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    Mutharasan Anburaj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years renewable sources such as solar, wave and wind are used for the generation of electricity. Wind is one of the major renewable sources. The amount of energy from a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS depends not only on the wind at the site, but also on the control strategy used for the WECS. In assistance to get the appropriate wind energy from the conversion system, wind turbine generator will be run in variable speed mode. The variable speed capability is achieved through the use of an advanced power electronic converter. Fixed speed wind turbines and induction generators are often used in wind farms. But the limitations of such generators are low efficiency and poor power quality which necessitates the variable speed wind turbine generators such as Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG. A high-performance configuration can be obtained by using Scherbius drive composed of a DFIG and a converter in combination AC-DC-AC connect between stator & rotor points for providing the required variable speed operation

  1. General Randic matrix and general Randi'c energy

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    Ran Gu;

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $G$ be a simple graph with vertex set $V(G = {v_1, v_2,ldots , v_n}$ and $d_i$ the degree of its vertex $v_i$, $i = 1, 2, cdots, n$. Inspired by the Randi'c matrix and the general Randi'c index of a graph, we introduce the concept of general Randi'c matrix $textbf{R}_alpha$ of $G$, which is defined by $(textbf{R}_alpha_{i,j}=(d_id_j^alpha$ if $v_i$ and $v_j$ are adjacent, and zero otherwise. Similarly, the general Randi'{c} eigenvalues are the eigenvalues of the general Randi'{c} matrix, the greatest general Randi'{c} eigenvalue is the general Randi'{c} spectral radius of $G$, and the general Randi'{c} energy is the sum of the absolute values of the general Randi'{c} eigenvalues. In this paper, we prove some properties of the general Randi'c matrix and obtain lower and upper bounds for general Randi'{c} energy, also, we get some lower bounds for general Randi'{c} spectral radius of a connected graph. Moreover, we give a new sharp upper bound for the general Randi'{c} energy when $alpha=-1/2$.[2mm] noindent{bf Keywords:} general Randi'c matrix, general Randi'c energy, eigenvalues, spectral radius.

  2. Energy embodiment in Brazilian agriculture: an overview of 23 crops

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    João Paulo Soto Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy required to produce a commodity or to supply a service varies from one production system to another and consequently giving rise to differing levels of environmental efficiency. Moreover, since energy prices have been continuously increasing over time, this energy amount may be a factor that has economic worth. Biomass production has a variety of end-products such as food, energy, and fiber; thus, taking into account the similarity in end-product of different crops (e.g.: sunflower, peanuts, or soybean for oil it is possible to evaluate which crops require less energy per functional unit, such as starch, oil, and protein. This information can be used in decision-making about policies for food safety or bioenergy. In this study, 23 crops were evaluated allowing for a comparison in terms of energy embodied per functional unit. Crops were grouped as follows: starch, oil, horticultural, perennial and fiber, to provide for a deeper analysis of alternatives for the groups, and subsidize further studies comparing conventional and alternative production systems such as organic or genetically modified organisms, in terms of energy. The best energy balance observed was whole sugarcane (juice, bagasse and straw with a surplus of 268 GJ ha−1 yr−1; palm shows the highest energy return on investment with a ratio of approximately 30:1. For carbohydrates and protein production, cassava and soybean, respectively, emerged as the crops offering the greatest energy savings in the production of these functional foods.

  3. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  4. Optimization of photovoltaic energy production through an efficient switching matrix

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    Pietro Romano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a preliminary study on the implementation of a new system for power output maximization of photovoltaic generators under non-homogeneous conditions. The study evaluates the performance of an efficient switching matrix and the relevant automatic reconfiguration control algorithms. The switching matrix is installed between the PV generator and the inverter, allowing a large number of possible module configurations. PV generator, switching matrix and the intelligent controller have been simulated in Simulink. The proposed reconfiguration system improved the energy extracted by the PV generator under non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. Short calculation times of the proposed control algorithms allow its use in real time applications even where a higher number of PV modules is required.

  5. PETROBRAS, an energy company and the Brazilian biofuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando; Diehl Filho, Rubin P.; Fernandes Valle, Luiz Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Ever since the launches of Proalcool (ETHANOL PROGRAM) and PNPB (BIODIESEL PROGRAM), PETROBRAS (as an energy company) has been actively participating in these national projects and investing in tankage collection and storage, shipment and marine terminals, distribution infrastructure, biodiesel and ethanol plants and second-generation biofuels. It has also been the pioneer in offering these products at its service stations to final consumers. PETROBRAS in its 2008-2012 Business Plan intends to invest US$ 1.5 billion in biofuel business and act globally in biofuel commercialization and logistics, leading national biodiesel production and expanding its presence in the ethanol business.

  6. Technical, economic and regulatory aspects for the insertion of renewable sources in the Brazilian energy market; Aspectos tecnicos, economicos e regulatorios para a insercao de fontes renovaveis no mercado eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Malheiro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEO/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Oceanica], E-mail: rafael@lts.coppe.ufrj.br; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], E-mail: larissa@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses technical, economical, political and regulatory aspects which have been favourable to the insertion of renewable sources in the Brazilian electric matrix, specifically those one referred to the season and intermittency interference on those final costs. Additionally, land markers will be indicated for the introduction of renewable source projects in a such way to become more attractive under the viewpoint of the investor due to adequacy of energy generation strategy.

  7. The modernization dependent on the brazilian energy reformulation; A modernizacao dependente da reforma energetica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    The modernization of the Brazilian energy policy relies on the following points: the formation of PETROBRAS and ELETROBRAS for coordination and planning of the expanding investments; the creation in 1967, of the Center for Petroleum Research, and in 1974 of the Center for Electric Research to makes operational the public investment sustained by the Research and Development; the continued formation of teams of human resources highly specialized for developing capacities on using of internal technology and capacities for strategic planning, management and design programs and projects; formation of a local industry of equipment and technological service suppliers.

  8. Hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil

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    THIAGO R. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Matter and energy flux dynamics of wetlands are important to understand environmental processes that govern biosphere-atmosphere interactions across ecosystems. This study presents analyses about hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil. This study was conducted in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH SESC, 16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''W in Brazilian Wetland. According to Curado et al. (2012, the wet season occurs between the months of January and April, while the June to September time period is the dry season. Results presented same patterns in energies fluxes in all period studied. Wind speed and air temperature presented same patterns, while LE was relative humidity presented inverse patterns of the air temperature. LE was predominant in all seasons and the sum of LE and H was above 90% of net radiation. Analyses of linear regression presented positive interactions between wind speed and LE, and wind speed and H in all seasons, except in dry season of 2010. Confidence coefficient regression analyses present statistical significance in all wet and dry seasons, except dry season of 2010, suggest that LE and H had interaction with other micrometeorological variables.

  9. Santa Elena. Ready to reshape its transport energy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2012-07-01

    The renewable energy issue opens the door to an ambient of opportunities. Santa Elena, one of the coastal provinces of Ecuador has the chance to go from a fossil fuel energy culture to a new energy scheme based on the use of environmental friendly fuels like natural gas and other renewable energy carriers like hydrogen. The marginal production of oil and natural gas from the Gustavo Galindo Velasco field and the updated gas reserves from the Gulf of Guayaquil make it possible. Infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution for vehicles is almost ready and any of the three refineries can generate hydrogen from natural gas. This provides the opportunity to reshape the Santa Elena transport energy matrix, where vehicles can burn natural gas and inter country buses can work with hydrogen. Traditional Fishing boats can be fitted with hydrogen storage and fuel systems later on. Santa Elena should face this challenge through a joint effort of public and private parties. Santa Elena State University and its partners as a focus point to create: The Campus of Energy Knowledge, where research, science and technology will serve companies that work in the energy business with a strong synergy, which will create jobs for the Santa Elena people. (orig.)

  10. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  11. Challenges for implementation of bioenergy in the Brazilian energy matrix and biomass gasification process for the production of electrical power; Desafios da bioenergia para sua implementacao na matriz energetica brasileira e o processo de gaseificacao da biomassa para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiroa, E.O.; Moutinho-Junior, D.A.A.; Silva, J.D. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The gasification is the conversion of any solid or liquid fuel in fuel gas through the process of the partial oxidation at a high temperature. The gasification process of course occurs in four distinct physicochemical stages with different temperatures of reaction, as drying of the biomass, pyrolysis, reduction and combustion. The reorganization of the Brazilian electric sector foresees technological innovations in the system of electric generation for the country. The process of gasification integrated in a combined cycle (cycle of Brayton and cycle of Rankine) characterizes an innovative technology. It is with noting that this technology is still in improvement, it shows an excellent perspective of commercial viability and efficiency significantly higher than conventional technology. This work presents a study of the gases generated in the zone of combustion and its behavior in the zone of 'freeboard' of a gasifier of fluidized stream bed. For this study, we made the use of one hybrid technique (half-analytical) that is the transformed one of Fourier. (author)

  12. CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION USING MATRIX CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. SURYA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient conversion of electrical energy from one form to another has always been a fascinating domain for researchers. Right from the era of mercury arc rectifiers to present AC-DC-AC two stage converters and cycloconverters, efforts are consistently being laid to minimize the losses involved in conversion process. In the present study the AC-AC conversion topology known as Matrix Converter (MC, is modeled using MATLAB. Venturini’s simplified algorithm is used to determine the switch modulation duty cycle. The model is designedfor conversion of 50 Hz input frequency to 100 Hz and 25 Hz, using a simplified switch modulation strategy. The waveforms generated by MATLAB/simulink confirm the reduction of conversion losses by 12% to 15% with use of proposed model as compared to conventional (PWM converters. It is not intended in this study just to list out various works done so for but to establish the brevity of fundamental concept representing the simplified design along with its application areas mainly the VFDs and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS. The model has also been tested for control of induction motor with 100 HZ and 25 Hz output frequencies. The waveforms of changed frequencies and reduced losses confirm the results anticipated at design stage.

  13. Renewable energies in the Brazilian legal system: a constitutional vision; As energias renovaveis no ordenamento juridico brasileiro: uma visao constitucional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzillo, Anderson Souza da Silva; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2009-08-15

    The focus of this article is the inclusion of renewable energy in Brazil under the legal institutional aspect from the Brazilian Constitution of 1988. The legal perspective, set up three central pillars of questions: what questions the renewable energy in Brazil put in the legal treatment of the theme? What constitutional legal instruments for the management of renewable energy? Which legal instruments that would be recommended, as policy instruments, for the inclusion of renewable energy in Brazil? With these questions, we will develop the argument of the text.

  14. BTL: a solution to increase energy efficiency in the Brazilian alcohol business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Alves de Sousa, Sirlei Sebastiao; Barbosa de Oliveira, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    Brazil is the world largest producer of sugarcane, which has an energy potential of 1.2 barrels of petroleum per ton. On average, 55% of Brazilian sugarcane is converted into ethanol. When sugarcane is processed, the cane stalks are shredded and crushed to extract the cane juice while the fibrous outer residue (bagasse) is sent to the boiler to provide steam and electricity. With the availability of advanced cogeneration technologies, these units can nowadays employ the onsite bagasse resource to go beyond meeting their own energy requirements and produce surplus electricity. This work proposes a new route for 'green' diesel production. Gasification of biomass coupled with a high-conversion Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different chain lengths from a synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO). The large hydrocarbons can be further hydrocracked to form mainly a high-quality diesel. The fraction of short hydrocarbons is used in a Combined Cycle with the unconverted syngas. The perspectives for application of this route - production of FT synthesis fuels based on biomass residue - ate promising in Brazil. (auth)

  15. Energy and mass transfer parameters in a brazilian semi-arid ecosystem under different thermohydrological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian semi-arid region, the natural vegetation ("Caatinga" has been replaced by irrigated agriculture, emphasising the importance for quantification of the energy and mass exchanges. Eddy covariance and micro-climatic measurements in this natural ecosystem, were analysed for two years under different thermohydrological conditions. Sensible heat flux (H accounted for 49 and 64% of the net radiation (Rn, respectively, during the wetter and the drier conditions of 2004 and 2005. The corresponding fractions of Rn partitioned as latent heat flux (LE were 40% and 25%. Evapotranspiration (ET in 2004, with 693 mm, represented 96% of precipitation (P, while in 2005 (399 mm, it was 18% higher than P, which evidenced the use of the remaining soil moisture from the previous wetter year. All the soil-water-vegetation-atmosphere transfer parameters were influenced by the rainfall amounts. However, the surface resistance (rs was the most strongly affected by the soil moisture status, dropping with increases of the ratio of ET to reference evapotranspiration (ET0. On the other hand, the highest rs values were related to increases in both vapour pressure deficit (De and aerodynamic temperature (T0. The current research aimed to quantify the energy and mass exchange between the "Caatinga" and the lower atmosphere, testing in which circumstances the biophysical controlling parameters can be reasonably predicted from agrometeorological data, throughout parameterizations, to incorporate in large-scale models.

  16. Brazilian energy balance 2011 - year 2010. Final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2011 - ano base 2010. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2010 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2010; chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, desegregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2010, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  17. Energy levels and transition probability matrix elements of ruby for maser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwin, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Program computes fine structure energy levels of ruby as a function of magnetic field. Included in program is matrix formulation, each row of which contains a magnetic field and four corresponding energy levels.

  18. Nano-Textured Fiber Coatings for Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    NANO-TEXTURED FIBER COATINGS FOR ENERGY ABSORBING POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS R. E. Jensen and S. H. McKnight Army Research Laboratory...Textured Fiber Coatings For Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  20. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle [CIRAD and Sao Paulo University (Economic Department and Environmental Science Program) (Brazil)]|[Universidade de Sao Paulo - FEA - Avenida Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 908 CEP: 05 508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wichert, Marcos [Sao Paulo University, ESALQ, Forestry Science, Avenida Padua Dias, 11 CP 9 Piracicaba, SP, CEP 13418-900 (Brazil); Fallot, Abigail [CIRAD, 73 rue Jean-Francois Breton, TA B-42/16 (Bat. 16, Bur. 26), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aimola, Luis [Sao Paulo University, Environmental Science Program, Brazil, PROCAM-USP Rua do Anfiteatro, 181 Colmeia, Favo 15, CEP 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, SP (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Lopes Rosado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE, compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect calorimetry with respiratory hood. Results: In G1 and G2, it was found that the estimates obtained by Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/WHO/ ONU and Henry & Rees did not differ from EE using indirect calorimetry, which presented higher values than the equations proposed by Owen, Mifflin-St Jeor and Oxford. For G1 and G2 the predictive equation closest to the value obtained by the indirect calorimetry was the FAO/WHO/ONU (7.9% and 0.46% underestimation, respectively, followed by Harris-Benedict (8.6% and 1.5% underestimation, respectively. Conclusion: The equations proposed by FAO/WHO/ ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield and Henry & Rees were adequate to estimate the EE in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight. The other equations underestimated the EE.

  2. The Matrix Reloaded - on the Dark Energy Seesaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark energy, based on an extended seesaw for scalar fields, which does not require any new physics at energies below the TeV scale. A very light quintessence mass is usually considered to be technically unnatural, unless it is protected by some symmetry broken at ...

  3. On The Substitution of Energy Sources: The Effect of Flex Fuel Vehicles in the Brazilian Light Road Transportation Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Kamimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available e substitution process resultant of the competition between two energy sources for the same market based on dynamic forecasting model derived from biomathematics, previously applied by authors in the Brazilian gasoline/hydrated ethanol consumption market is analyzed. The hydrated ethanol restriction supply due to decreasing production as a consequence of international price of sugar increasing was the prevailing motive of the forecast breaking. Again the stop and go process adopted by sugarcane private sector was the main reason of hydrated ethanol decreasing production

  4. New approaches to energy efficiency programs in the Brazilian industry; Novas abordagens para programas de eficiencia energetica na industria brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    A modern approach often used in international literature says that the government has the role to create favorable conditions for improving energy efficiency in industry, either through policies, programs or actions. This article's main objective is to describe the main programs for promoting energy efficiency in industry in Brazil and in other countries, for later to propose a new approach for the management and development of energy efficiency programs for the Brazilian industry. The creation of an executive agency, connected to the MME and with strong ties to ELETROBRAS and PETROBRAS, could manage effectively the enormous resources that are needed to mobilize the energy efficiency programs as real alternatives to programs for additional expansion in energy supply. The creation of energy assessment centers, along with an energy efficiency program for energy-intensive industry, would help in promoting energy efficiency in industry. These actions would likely bounce in other industries, and would assist in achieving optimal management standards in the energy industry, consistent with ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, used in countries like the USA and Sweden. (author)

  5. Alpha particle spectroscopy for CR-39 detector utilizing matrix of energy equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, E.M. [Department of General Sciences, Yanbu Industrial College, PO Box 30436, Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiya (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt)], E-mail: ayawad@yahoo.com; Soliman, A.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education (AL-Arish), Suez Canal University, AL-Arish 45111 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Teacher' s College (Bisha), King Khalid University, Bisha, PO Box 551 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: asoliman_99@yahoo.com; Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt)

    2007-10-01

    A method for determining alpha-particle energy using CR-39 detector by utilizing matrix of energy equation was described. The matrix was composed from two axes; the track minor axis (m) and diameter of etched out track end (d) axis of some selected elliptical tracks. The energy E in (m,d) coordinate was approximated by matrix of energy equations given by: E{sub k}={sigma}{sub i,j=0}{sup 2}a{sub ij}d{sub k}{sup i}m{sub k}{sup j}, which was identified using two different approaches. First, i and j were treated as power exponents for d and m. The adjusting parameters values a{sub ij} were obtained and the energy of a given track was deduced directly from it. Second, i and j were treated as indices of some chosen tracks that were fitted to obtain iso-energy curves that were superimposed on m-d scatter plot as calibration curves. The energy between any two successive iso-energy curves in this case was assumed varied linearly with d for a given m. The energy matrix in both cases was solved numerically. Results of the two approaches were compared.

  6. The Matrix Reloaded - on the Dark Energy Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, K; Sloth, M S; Enqvist, Kari; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark energy, based on an extended seesaw for scalar fields, which does not require any new physics at energies below the TeV scale. A very light quintessence mass is usually considered to be technically unnatural, unless it is protected by some symmetry broken at the new very light scale. We propose that one can use an extended seesaw mechanism to construct technically natural models for very light fields, protected by SUSY softly broken above a TeV.

  7. Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.

    1989-01-01

    A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.

  8. Energy and time resolution for a LYSO matrix prototype of the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Atanov, N; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Dane`, E; Davydov, Y I; Flood, K; Giovannella, S; Glagolev, V; Happacher, F; Hitlin, D G; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Miyashita, T; Morescalchi, L; Ott, P; Pezzullo, G; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Soleti, S R; Tassielli, G; Tereshchenko, V; Thomas, A

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the performances of a LYSO crystal matrix prototype tested with electron and photon beams in the energy range 60$-$450 MeV. This study has been carried out to determine the achievable energy and time resolutions for the calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment.

  9. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, G E; Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2000-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular enzymes taking part in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. The structures of the catalytic domain of MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and MMP8 are known, but structures of enzymes belonging to this family still remain to be determined. A general approach...... to the homology modeling of matrix metalloproteinases, exemplified by the modeling of MMP2, MMP9, MMP12 and MMP14 is described. The models were refined using an energy minimization procedure developed for matrix metalloproteinases. This procedure includes incorporation of parameters for zinc and calcium ions...... in the AMBER 4.1 force field, applying a non-bonded approach and a full ion charge representation. Energy minimization of the apoenzymes yielded structures with distorted active sites, while reliable three-dimensional structures of the enzymes containing a substrate in active site were obtained. The structural...

  10. On the generalized eigenvalue method for energies and matrix elements in lattice field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, Benoit; von Hippel, Georg; Mendes, Tereza; Sommer, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the generalized eigenvalue problem for computing energies and matrix elements in lattice gauge theory, including effective theories such as HQET. It is analyzed how the extracted effective energies and matrix elements converge when the time separations are made large. This suggests a particularly efficient application of the method for which we can prove that corrections vanish asymptotically as $\\exp(-(E_{N+1}-E_n) t)$. The gap $E_{N+1}-E_n$ can be made large by increasing the number $N$ of interpolating fields in the correlation matrix. We also show how excited state matrix elements can be extracted such that contaminations from all other states disappear exponentially in time. As a demonstration we present numerical results for the extraction of ground state and excited B-meson masses and decay constants in static approximation and to order $1/m_b$ in HQET.

  11. Energy-dependent correlations in the S-matrix of chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    The M-dimensional unitary matrix S(E), which describes scattering of waves, is a strongly fluctuating function of the energy for complex systems such as ballistic cavities, whose geometry induces chaotic ray dynamics. Its statistical behaviour can be expressed by means of correlation functions of the kind , which have been much studied within the random matrix approach. In this work, we consider correlations involving an arbitrary number of matrix elements and express them as infinite series in 1/M, whose coefficients are rational functions of ɛ. From a mathematical point of view, this may be seen as a generalization of the Weingarten functions of circular ensembles.

  12. Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Yu; Cho, Ting-Yi; Chen, Yen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Meng, Chao-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Hsu-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chung-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a pixel structure for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays that has a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell inserted between the driving polycrystalline Si thin-film transistor and the pixel OLED. Such an active-matrix OLED pixel structure not only exhibits a reduced reflection (and thus improved contrast) compared to conventional OLEDs but also is capable of recycling both incident photon energies and internally generated OLED radiation. Such a feature of energy recycling may be of use for portable/mobile electronics, which are particularly power aware.

  13. A compact versatile matrix converter to integrate various energy resources to utility network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-inputs versatile matrix converter (VMC) to integrate various energy resources and energy storages to a power grid. The VMC is developed based on a traditional indirect matrix converter (IMC) and a nineswitch converter. The six input terminals provide flexibility...... for the connection of two three-phase AC sources or one threephase AC and three DC sources, which make it possible to integrate both DC and AC renewable sources in a single gridtied power electronics interface. The control and modulation schemes are proposed to extract the commanded current from the input AC...

  14. Residual strain gradient determination in metal matrix composites by synchrotron X-ray energy dispersive diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Todd A.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Black, David R.

    1993-01-01

    An X-ray technique for the measurement of internal residual strain gradients near the continuous reinforcements of metal matrix composites has been investigated. The technique utilizes high intensity white X-ray radiation from a synchrotron radiation source to obtain energy spectra from small (0.001 cu mm) volumes deep within composite samples. The viability of the technique was tested using a model system with 800 micron Al203 fibers and a commercial purity titanium matrix. Good agreement was observed between the measured residual radial and hoop strain gradients and those estimated from a simple elastic concentric cylinders model. The technique was then used to assess the strains near (SCS-6) silicon carbide fibers in a Ti-14Al-21Nb matrix after consolidation processing. Reasonable agreement between measured and calculated strains was seen provided the probe volume was located 50 microns or more from the fiber/matrix interface.

  15. Brazilian energy balance 2014 - calendar year 2013: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2014 - ano base 2013: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-01

    energy balance- presents energy assessments related to useful energy, relevant concept for energy efficiency evolution; Annex 5- General structure of the BEB- espouses the conception and the composition of the National Energy Balance; Annex 6-Treatment of information- lists the sources of data for the BEB and methodological particularities in their treatment; Annex 7- Units- gives the conception for the measurement units of BEB data; Annex 8- Conversion factors- presents the factors used in BEB and conditions for their utilization; Annex 9- Consolidated energy balances- contains the BEB consolidation matrixes with energy flows for primary and secondary sources expressed in tons oil equivalent (toe); Annex 10- Energy balance 2014- presents the detailed energy accounting for Brazil in 2013, expressed in usual units.

  16. Brazilian energy balance 2013 - calendar year 2012: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2013 - ano base 2012: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    energy balance- presents energy assessments related to useful energy, relevant concept for energy efficiency evolution; Annex 5- General structure of the BEB- espouses the conception and the composition of the National Energy Balance; Annex 6-Treatment of information- lists the sources of data for the BEB and methodological particularities in their treatment; Annex 7- Units- gives the conception for the measurement units of BEB data; Annex 8- Conversion factors- presents the factors used in BEB and conditions for their utilization; Annex 9- Consolidated energy balances- contains the BEB consolidation matrixes with energy flows for primary and secondary sources expressed in tons oil equivalent (toe); Annex 10- Energy balance 2013- presents the detailed energy accounting for Brazil in 2012, expressed in usual units.

  17. Brazilian Energy Balance 2016 - calendar year 2015; Balanco energetico nacional 2016 - ano base 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2015 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments and total consumption disaggregated per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining. Annex II - Self-production of Electricity - presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex III - World Energy Data - presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source

  18. Sustainability and cogeneration of energy in Brazilian ethanol production; Sustentabilidade e cogeracao de energia na producao de etanol brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, Marcia Cristina Silva; Fonseca, Marcia Batista da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    2008-07-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the world discusses and promotes the use of policies to encourage the replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources like biomass. In Brazil, since the 70's the production of ethanol has been representing an ecological alternative of low costs and high productivity, generating employment and income. Because of the advantages of production costs due to natural resources and abundant workforce, the Brazilian ethanol is currently exported mainly to the United States and European Union. However, there are export barriers to these markets because the ethanol production from sugar cane is considered an activity that generates environmental damage. In respect to this subject, the purpose of this work is to discuss aspects of sustainability of the activity, such as the co-generation of energy. The research is exploratory, descriptive, bibliographical and based on secondary figures. The results indicate solutions based on cooperation, such as the Agro-environmental Protocol, an agreement of cooperation between the government of the State of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane ethanol producing sector of this state. As a characteristic of sustainability the ethanol industry has developed techniques for the re-use of production waste, such as the use of vinasse for fertilization and cogeneration by using biomass. Moreover, the intercropping and the rotation of cane with food crops have been used to preserve the soil. It has become clear that the quest for sustainability in the production of Brazilian ethanol has increased foreign participation in this industry, and this factor is regarded as responsible for the incorporation of new technologies and for the automation of the ethanol industrial production in agreement to environmental requirements. (author)

  19. Kinetic-energy matrix elements for atomic Hylleraas-CI wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank E

    2016-05-28

    Hylleraas-CI is a superposition-of-configurations method in which each configuration is constructed from a Slater-type orbital (STO) product to which is appended (linearly) at most one interelectron distance rij. Computations of the kinetic energy for atoms by this method have been difficult due to the lack of formulas expressing these matrix elements for general angular momentum in terms of overlap and potential-energy integrals. It is shown here that a strategic application of angular-momentum theory, including the use of vector spherical harmonics, enables the reduction of all atomic kinetic-energy integrals to overlap and potential-energy matrix elements. The new formulas are validated by showing that they yield correct results for a large number of integrals published by other investigators.

  20. Nonradiative resonant energy transfer between PbS QDs in porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Elena V.; Litvin, Aleksandr P.; Parfenov, Peter S.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Cherevkov, Sergei A.; Baranov, Alexander V.

    2013-09-01

    Nonradiative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) of two different sizes embedded in porous matrix is observed by a fluorescence spectroscopy. Analysis of decays of photoluminescence from QD mixture shows that energy transfer in studied systems is determined by static quenching, specific for direct contact between QD-donor and QD-acceptor in the QDs close-packed ensembles. From steady-state spectral analysis it was found that efficiency of energy transfer depends on the molar ratio QD-donor/QD-acceptor and energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor passes by several channels.

  1. A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six...

  2. Study of the energy matrix of Minas Gerais considering the contribution of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, Wilson P.B., E-mail: wilson.filho@meioambiente.mg.gov.br [Fundaco Estadual do Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L.; Pinheiro, Ricardo B.; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: rbrantp@gmail.com, E-mail: fortini@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The integrated energy planning is a very important tool for long-term study, projections and reviews of the energy mix of a country or region. By dealing with energy supply and demand projections is therefore related to the needs of society and its development index within a context of sustainability. The aim of this study is to provide information about the Minas Gerais electric matrix and propose solutions for the need of future energy import. In this way, it is proposed a possible deployment of nuclear power plants, in parallel with wind and solar energy, for the necessary energy expansion in the face of population growth framework and energy use in Minas Gerais. Thus, the study tends to contribute to decision-making related to public policies. (author)

  3. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Perry, Katia da Silva Peixoto, E-mail: pereira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rrrg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kspp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teruya, Dirceu Yoshikazu, E-mail: teruya@inpi.gov.br [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the 9. CBE: Brazilian congress on energy; 4. SLAE: Latin American seminar on energy. Energy solution for Brazil. V. 2: Development, planning and public policy for energy sector. Financing models for energy sector; Anais do 9. CBE: Congresso brasileiro de energia; 4. SLAE: Seminario latino-americano de energia. Solucoes para a energia no Brasil. V. 2: Desenvolvimento, planejamento e politicas publicas do setor energetico. Modelos de financiamento para o setor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Papers are presented comprehending the development, planning and government policies for the Brazilian energy sector, emphasizing the following subjects: petroleum, natural gas, electric power, energy consumption, demand and management, power generation, distribution.

  5. Different levels of protein and energy on physiological behavior and performance of European quail in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Lamy Alves Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein on the respiratory rate and the rectal and surface temperatures of 360 European quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix raised on the Brazilian semiarid. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 per 2 factorial arrangement consisting of three protein levels (20, 21 and 22% and two energy levels (3050 and 3150 kcal/kg. We measured the physiological parameters of the quail at 42 days of age. The average rectal temperature noted in this experiment was 41.8°C, which was within the normal range. A significant effect (P <0.05 was verified at the levels of 21 and 22% of crude protein and 3150 kcal/kg. We found that the animals presented the highest respiratory rate in this setting, which is evidence that the panting mechanism results in maintaining thermal homeostasis. The surface temperature of the animals was lower for the 3050 kcal/kg diets. Levels of 21 and 22% of crude protein and 3150 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy were associated with the largest weight gain and the best feed conversion.

  6. The rotating Morse potential energy eigenvalues solved by using the analytical transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying; Tao Qiu-Gong; Yang Yan-Fang

    2012-01-01

    We study the eigenvalues of the rotating Morse potential by using the quantization condition from the analytical transfer matrix (ATM) method.A hierarchy of supersymmetric partner potentials is obtained with Pekeris approximation,which can be used to calculate the energies of higher rotational states from the energies of lower states.The energies of rotational states of the hydrogen molecule are calculated by the ATM condition,and comparison of the results with those from the hypervirial perturbation method reveals that the accuracy of the approximate expression of Pekeris for the eigenvalues of the rotating Morse potential can be improved substantially in the framework of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  7. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a {sup 6}Lil scintillator Bss system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, M. A. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Calibracao de Dosimetros, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E., E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the {sup 241}AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical {sup 3}He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the {sup 6}Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the

  8. Excitation energies from range-separated time-dependent density and density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2012-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the adiabatic formulation exhibits known failures when applied to predicting excitation energies. One of them is the lack of the doubly excited configurations. On the other hand, the time-dependent theory based on a one-electron reduced density matrix functional (time-dependent density matrix functional theory, TD-DMFT) has proven accurate in determining single and double excitations of H(2) molecule if the exact functional is employed in the adiabatic approximation. We propose a new approach for computing excited state energies that relies on functionals of electron density and one-electron reduced density matrix, where the latter is applied in the long-range region of electron-electron interactions. A similar approach has been recently successfully employed in predicting ground state potential energy curves of diatomic molecules even in the dissociation limit, where static correlation effects are dominating. In the paper, a time-dependent functional theory based on the range-separation of electronic interaction operator is rigorously formulated. To turn the approach into a practical scheme the adiabatic approximation is proposed for the short- and long-range components of the coupling matrix present in the linear response equations. In the end, the problem of finding excitation energies is turned into an eigenproblem for a symmetric matrix. Assignment of obtained excitations is discussed and it is shown how to identify double excitations from the analysis of approximate transition density matrix elements. The proposed method used with the short-range local density approximation (srLDA) and the long-range Buijse-Baerends density matrix functional (lrBB) is applied to H(2) molecule (at equilibrium geometry and in the dissociation limit) and to Be atom. The method accounts for double excitations in the investigated systems but, unfortunately, the accuracy of some of them is poor. The quality of the other

  9. Exchange-correlation energy from pairing matrix fluctuation and the particle-particle random phase approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Despite their unmatched success for many applications, commonly used local, semi-local, and hybrid density functionals still face challenges when it comes to describing long-range interactions, static correlation, and electron delocalization. Density functionals of both the occupied and virtual orbitals are able to address these problems. The particle-hole (ph-) Random Phase Approximation (RPA), a functional of occupied and virtual orbitals, has recently known a revival within the density functional theory community. Following up on an idea introduced in our recent communication [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013)], we formulate more general adiabatic connections for the correlation energy in terms of pairing matrix fluctuations described by the particle-particle (pp-) propagator. With numerical examples of the pp-RPA, the lowest-order approximation to the pp-propagator, we illustrate the potential of density functional approximations based on pairing matrix fluctuations. The pp-RPA is size-extensive, self-interaction free, fully anti-symmetric, describes the strong static correlation limit in H2, and eliminates delocalization errors in H2(+) and other single-bond systems. It gives surprisingly good non-bonded interaction energies--competitive with the ph-RPA--with the correct R(-6) asymptotic decay as a function of the separation R, which we argue is mainly attributable to its correct second-order energy term. While the pp-RPA tends to underestimate absolute correlation energies, it gives good relative energies: much better atomization energies than the ph-RPA, as it has no tendency to underbind, and reaction energies of similar quality. The adiabatic connection in terms of pairing matrix fluctuation paves the way for promising new density functional approximations.

  10. Adjacency Matrix Based Energy Efficient Scheduling using S-MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Communication is the main motive in any Networks whether it is Wireless Sensor Network, Ad-Hoc networks, Mobile Networks, Wired Networks, Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wireless Area Network etc, hence it must be energy efficient. The main parameters for energy efficient communication are maximizing network lifetime, saving energy at the different nodes, sending the packets in minimum time delay, higher throughput etc. This paper focuses mainly on the energy efficient communication with the help of Adjacency Matrix in the Wireless Sensor Networks. The energy efficient scheduling can be done by putting the idle node in to sleep node so energy at the idle node can be saved. The proposed model in this paper first forms the adjacency matrix and broadcasts the information about the total number of existing nodes with depths to the other nodes in the same cluster from controller node. When every node receives the node information about the other nodes for same cluster they communicate based on the s...

  11. The matrix Hamiltonian for hadrons and the role of negative-energy components

    OpenAIRE

    Simonov, Yu. A.

    2004-01-01

    The world-line (Fock-Feynman-Schwinger) representation is used for quarks in arbitrary (vacuum and valence gluon) field to construct the relativistic Hamiltonian. After averaging the Green's function of the white $q\\bar q$ system over gluon fields one obtains the relativistic Hamiltonian, which is matrix in spin indices and contains both positive and negative quark energies. The role of the latter is studied in the example of the heavy-light meson and the standard einbein technic is extended ...

  12. Using of electric power auctions in the Brazilian energy sector; A utilizacao de leiloes de energia eletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis Henrique Bassi [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: lhbassi@aneel.gov.br; Camargo, Ivan Marques de Toledo [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: ivancamargo@unb.br

    2006-07-01

    The Brazilian power industry has undergone fundamental institutional changes in order to introduce competition in generation segment by allowing more flexibility to the electricity trading arrangements since mid 90. These reforms were aimed at increasing economic efficiency and both cost and energy price reduction. The restructuring process requested a highly complex legal framework in order to: ensure the necessary investments for the expansion of power infrastructure; stimulate the participation of private capital; and guarantee power supply adequacy at desired safety and reliability levels. The electricity rationing, occurred in 2001, was a result of: lack of investments, growing demand and supply vulnerability to adverse hydrological shocks. As a consequence, the Brazilian Government initiated a wide debate concerning the loopholes in the implanted model as well as the improvements needed to be adopted. The refinement of the electricity trading arrangements is an important aspect of the electric sector model revitalization. It resulted in the implantation of energy auctions aiming at increasing transactions transparency as well as establishing a long run energy price market reference and promoting market efficiency and competition. This paper analyses the implementation of energy auctions as a mechanism for trading power purchase agreements in the long term. It also discusses the Brazilian power industry restructuring process, in the face of the distribution utilities' obligation to purchase power for their captive customers. (author)

  13. Socio-economic and environmental factors influence energy utilization in Brazilian breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Hinke; Coward, W. Andrew; Visser, G. Henk; Vonk, Roel; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Wright, A.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2006-01-01

    Energy intake recommendations for infants are based on data from industrialized countries. FAO/WHO/UNU expressed the need for studies on total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate from developing countries covering current and changing lifestyles. For this observational study, 65 infant

  14. Diet, energy expenditure, and body composition of lactating Ribeirinha women in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Dufour, Darna L

    2007-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically demanding part of human reproduction; yet, compared with pregnancy, we know little about the strategies women in different settings employ to cope with these increased energy demands. This paper takes a biocultural approach and reports longitudinal data on the anthropometry, dietary intakes and energy expenditure of a sample of 23 rural, lactating Ribeirinha women living in subsistence-based communities in the eastern Amazon. The dietary intakes of these lactating women were insufficient to meet their lactating energy needs and were least sufficient during resguardo, a 40-day period in the immediate postpartum when the women observed a series of food taboos and work restrictions. Instead, the women in this study met the increased energy demands of lactation by drawing on their energy reserves and reducing their energy expenditure in physical activity. The women showed a significant reduction in weight (Penergy expenditure (TDEE) was lowest during resguardo and increased as lactation progressed (P=0.01). While the practice of resguardo reduced maternal energy expenditure and allowed women more time to spend with their newborn infants, it came at a cost (low dietary intake), which appears to be related to the loss of the adult woman from subsistence activities. By taking a biocultural approach this study illustrates the role the social environment plays in shaping the experience of lactating women.

  15. Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion System Using Three Phase Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG connected to grid through Matrix Converter (MC is proposed in this study. Necessity for increased demand in electrical energy paved way for use of renewable energy sources, one of which is abundant wind energy available in ample. Various Wind Energy Conversion systems have been proposed over the decades, of which various topologies had been projected, where complex topologies are being in existence. Permanent magnet synchronous generator has substantial advantages over conventional generators like less weight and volume and exemption for separate excitation with high precision. The conventional system involves two stage of conversion involving rectification followed by inversion being coupled by a DC link capacitor before fed to a grid, which decreases the efficiency of the system due to power quality issue. To overcome this matrix converter can be utilized to transfer the power from generation stage to the grid; there by an AC-AC converter can transfer power from generator to the grid. The proposed system is designed and tested in MATALB/Simulink environment and the results are effective.

  16. Brazilian Energy Policies Side-effects on CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklo, Alexandre S.; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schuller, Marcio E.; Chandler, William U.

    2005-02-01

    Uses linear programming techniques and "backcasting" modelling methods to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions mitigation that has resulted in Brazil from policies intended not to address climate change but economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection.

  17. Dielectric matrix formulation of correlation energies in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA): inclusion of exchange effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Jansen, Georg; Angyan, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the general expression for the ground state correlation energy in the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) framework, it is shown that the dielectric matrix formulation, which is usually applied to calculate the direct random phase approximation (dRPA) correlation energy, can be used for alternative RPA expressions including exchange effects. Within this famework, the ACFDT analog of the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) approximation leads to a logarithmic formula for the correlation energy similar to the direct RPA expression. Alternatively, the contribution of the exchange can be included in the kernel used to evaluate the response functions. In this case the use of an approximate kernel is crucial to simplify the formalism and to obtain a correlation energy in logarithmic form. Technical details of the implementation of these methods are discussed and it is shown that one can take advantage of density fitting or Cholesky decomposition techniques to improve the co...

  18. Efficient and accurate evaluation of potential energy matrix elements for quantum dynamics using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzpour, Jonathan P.; Tew, David P.; Habershon, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a linear combination of basis functions, such as Gaussian wavepackets (GWPs), requires costly evaluation of integrals over the entire potential energy surface (PES) of the system. The standard approach, motivated by computational tractability for direct dynamics, is to approximate the PES with a second order Taylor expansion, for example centred at each GWP. In this article, we propose an alternative method for approximating PES matrix elements based on PES interpolation using Gaussian process regression (GPR). Our GPR scheme requires only single-point evaluations of the PES at a limited number of configurations in each time-step; the necessity of performing often-expensive evaluations of the Hessian matrix is completely avoided. In applications to 2-, 5-, and 10-dimensional benchmark models describing a tunnelling coordinate coupled non-linearly to a set of harmonic oscillators, we find that our GPR method results in PES matrix elements for which the average error is, in the best case, two orders-of-magnitude smaller and, in the worst case, directly comparable to that determined by any other Taylor expansion method, without requiring additional PES evaluations or Hessian matrices. Given the computational simplicity of GPR, as well as the opportunities for further refinement of the procedure highlighted herein, we argue that our GPR methodology should replace methods for evaluating PES matrix elements using Taylor expansions in quantum dynamics simulations.

  19. Data-Driven Sampling Matrix Boolean Optimization for Energy-Efficient Biomedical Signal Acquisition by Compressive Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhao; Li, Xin; Xu, Kai; Ren, Fengbo; Yu, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Compressive sensing is widely used in biomedical applications, and the sampling matrix plays a critical role on both quality and power consumption of signal acquisition. It projects a high-dimensional vector of data into a low-dimensional subspace by matrix-vector multiplication. An optimal sampling matrix can ensure accurate data reconstruction and/or high compression ratio. Most existing optimization methods can only produce real-valued embedding matrices that result in large energy consumption during data acquisition. In this paper, we propose an efficient method that finds an optimal Boolean sampling matrix in order to reduce the energy consumption. Compared to random Boolean embedding, our data-driven Boolean sampling matrix can improve the image recovery quality by 9 dB. Moreover, in terms of sampling hardware complexity, it reduces the energy consumption by 4.6× and the silicon area by 1.9× over the data-driven real-valued embedding.

  20. Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenfeld, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 ..mu..s, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data.

  1. Survey design for Spectral Energy Distribution fitting: a Fisher Matrix approach

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Bickerton, Steven J; Grogin, Norman A; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2012-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED fitting parameters predicted by the Fisher Matrix to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wave...

  2. Heterogeneous Distribution of Carbonaceous Material in Murchison Matrix: In Situ Observations Using Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy filtered TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) has been used to study the location of carbonaceous material in situ in Murchison matrix. Carbon occurs frequently as narrow rims around sulfide grains, but is rare in regions of matrix that are dominated by phyllosilicates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changlani, Hitesh J; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K

    2015-09-14

    We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U(∗)/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.

  4. Temporal Patterns of Energy Balance for a Brazilian Tropical Savanna under Contrasting Seasonal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The savanna of Central Brazil (locally known as cerrado has a long history of land cover change due to human activity. These changes have led to the degradation of cerrado forests and woodlands, leading to the expansion of grass-dominated cerrados and pastures. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variation in energy flux in areas of degraded, grass-dominated cerrado (locally known as campo sujo in Central Brazil. The amount of Rn partitioned into H declined as monthly rainfall increased and reached a level of approximately 30% during the wet season, while the amount of Rn partitioned into Le increased as monthly rainfall increased and reached a level of approximately 60% during the wet season. As a result, H was significantly higher than Le during the dry season, resulting in a Bowen ratio (β = H/Le of 3-5, while Le was higher than H during the wet season, resulting in a β≈1. These data indicate that the energy partitioning of grass-dominated cerrado is relatively more sensitive to water availability than cerrado woodlands and forests, and have important implications for local and regional energy balance.

  5. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis; Comercializacao de energia no novo ambiente do setor eletrico brasileiro. Uma metodologia para analise de estrategias de alocacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorelam@cesp.com.br; Lima, Wagner da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: wagner@pea.usp.br; Castro, Roberto [ELEKTRO - Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: castro@mt2net.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  6. Matrix Energy as a Measure of Topological Complexity of a Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of highly interconnected systems is rooted in the interwoven architecture defined by its connectivity structure. In this paper, we develop matrix energy of the underlying connectivity structure as a measure of topological complexity and highlight interpretations about certain global features of underlying system connectivity patterns. The proposed complexity metric is shown to satisfy the Weyuker criteria as a measure of its validity as a formal complexity metric. We also introduce the notion of P point in the graph density space. The P point acts as a boundary between multiple connectivity regimes for finite-size graphs.

  7. Wave packet dynamics in energy space, random matrix theory, and the quantum-classical correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen; Izrailev; Kottos

    2000-03-06

    We apply random-matrix-theory (RMT) to the analysis of evolution of wave packets in energy space. We study the crossover from ballistic behavior to saturation, the possibility of having an intermediate diffusive behavior, and the feasibility of strong localization effect. Both theoretical considerations and numerical results are presented. Using quantal-classical correspondence considerations we question the validity of the emerging dynamical picture. In particular, we claim that the appearance of the intermediate diffusive behavior is possibly an artifact of the RMT strategy.

  8. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part VI: Core polarization effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The continuation of series of papers concerning the construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms is presented. The second-order perturbation theory contributions originating from core polarization effects in the hyperfine structure are considered. Fifteen new formulae for angular coefficients of core polarization parameters are given. The complete set of corrections up to the second-order perturbation theory was taken into account and the accuracy of the wave functions in the intermediate coupling scheme, on the example of the lanthanum atom, was checked.

  9. Dielectric Matrix Formulation of Correlation Energies in the Random Phase Approximation: Inclusion of Exchange Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussard, Bastien; Rocca, Dario; Jansen, Georg; Ángyán, János G

    2016-05-10

    Starting from the general expression for the ground state correlation energy in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem (ACFDT) framework, it is shown that the dielectric matrix formulation, which is usually applied to calculate the direct random phase approximation (dRPA) correlation energy, can be used for alternative RPA expressions including exchange effects. Within this famework, the ACFDT analog of the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) approximation leads to a logarithmic formula for the correlation energy similar to the direct RPA expression. Alternatively, the contribution of the exchange can be included in the kernel used to evaluate the response functions. In this case, the use of an approximate kernel is crucial to simplify the formalism and to obtain a correlation energy in logarithmic form. Technical details of the implementation of these methods are discussed, and it is shown that one can take advantage of density fitting or Cholesky decomposition techniques to improve the computational efficiency; a discussion on the numerical quadrature made on the frequency variable is also provided. A series of test calculations on atomic correlation energies and molecular reaction energies shows that exchange effects are instrumental for improvement over direct RPA results.

  10. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in the Energy Sector: A Perspective from a Brazilian Power Utility Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The key question in this article consists of identifying the conditions under which the social projects developed by the firm Alpha are really promoting the sustainable development in the state of Ceará, located in Northeast Brazil. The general goal is to discuss if the firm’s social projects are related to the sustainable corporate entrepreneurship (SCE. This paper intends to stimulate the scientific community to advance knowledge on entrepreneurial, innovation and sustainability. This case study focuses on four Alpha’s projects: Ecological Initiative, Efficient Exchange, Social Energy, and School of Efficient Paths. The thematic content’s analysis methodology was used in this article. The documental research served as primary data source and helped to better elucidate the studied object. The researcher obtained 12 questionnaires answered. It was found an agreement of respondents to the categories: values, transparency and governance, workforce, environment, suppliers, consumers and customers and community. For the theme government and society, the results showed a disagreement with the category and for the last theme, innovation, the respondents are indifferent. After lexical analysis of data the results confirm in accordance with state of art of literature the existence of triple bottom line in the social projects of Alpha, by the categories resulted (profit, planet, people from content’s analysis of open questions. Alpha is a strong example of social commitment with poverty and environment. In conclusion, the research confirms that the firm promotes sustainable entrepreneurship and innovativeness leading to sustainable development.

  11. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  12. Correlation matrix renormalization approximation for total-energy calculations of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y. X. [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Liu, Jun [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-01-23

    We generalized the commonly used Gutzwiller approximation for calculating the electronic structure and total energy of strongly correlated electron systems. In our method, the evaluation of one-body and two-body density matrix elements of the Hamiltonian is simplified using a renormalization approximation to achieve better scaling of the computational effort as a function of system size. To achieve a clear presentation of the concept and methodology, we describe the detailed formalism for a finite hydrogen system with minimal basis set. We applied the correlation matrix renormalization approximation approach to a H2 dimer and H8 cubic fragment with minimal basis sets, as well as a H2 molecule with a large basis set. The results compare favorably with sophisticated quantum chemical calculations. We believe our approach can serve as an alternative way to build up the exchange-correlation energy functional for an improved density functional theory description of systems with strong electron correlations.

  13. Clinical outcome of protein-energy malnourished patients in a Brazilian university hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, T.A.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Neder, H.D. [Instituto de Economia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Araújo-Junqueira, L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); De-Souza, D.A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Clínica Médica e Curso de Nutrição, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2012-12-17

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a treatable disease with high prevalence among hospitalized patients. It can cause significant increases in the duration of hospitalization and costs. PEM is especially important for health systems since malnourished patients present higher morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to assess the evolution of nutritional status (NS) and the effect of malnutrition on clinical outcome of patients at a public university hospital of high complexity in Brazil. Patients hospitalized in internal medicine (n = 54), oncology (n = 43), and infectious diseases (n = 12) wards were included. NS was evaluated using subjective global assessment up to 48 h after admission, and thereafter at intervals of 4-6 days. On admission, patients (n = 109) were classified as well-nourished (n = 73), moderately malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (n = 28), and severely malnourished (n = 8). During hospitalization, malnutrition developed or worsened in 11 patients. Malnutrition was included in the clinical diagnosis of only 5/36 records (13.9% of the cases, P = 0.000). Nutritional therapy was administered to only 22/36 of the malnourished patients; however, unexpectedly, 6/73 well-nourished patients also received commercial enteral diets. Complications were diagnosed in 28/36 malnourished and 9/73 well-nourished patients (P = 0.000). Death occurred in 12/36 malnourished and 3/73 well-nourished patients (P = 0.001). A total of 24/36 malnourished patients were discharged regardless of NS. In summary, malnutrition remains a real problem, often unrecognized, unappreciated, and only sporadically treated, even though its effects can be detrimental to the clinical course and prognosis of patients. The amount of public and private funds unnecessarily dispersed because of hospital malnutrition is significant.

  14. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  15. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  16. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  17. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  18. Topical report to Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the interfacial coatings for ceramic-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-09

    This report summarizes the task conducted to examine various activities on interface development for ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) intended for high-temperature applications. While several articles have been published on the subject of CMC interfaces, the purpose of this report is to describe the various ongoing efforts on interface concepts, material selection, and issues related to processing methods employed for developing interface coatings. The most exciting and new development in the field is the discovery of monazite as a potential interface material for mullite- and alumina-based composites. Monazite offers two critical properties to the CMC system; a weakly bonded layer due to its non-wetting behavior and chemical compatibility with both alumina and mullite up to very high temperatures (> 1,600 C). A description of the Department of Energy-related activities and some thoughts on processing issues, interface testing, and effects of processing on fiber strength are given.

  19. Energy transfer and thermal conductivity through inert matrix and nuclear fuel analogous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, C.; Heimgartner, P.; Graber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Takano, Masahide; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Kousaku

    1997-11-01

    Thermal conductivity of zirconia based inert matrix and analogous fuel materials were measured and modelled. Measurements were performed using the laser flash method and systematically applied for binary and ternary zirconia-yttria-erbia as well as quaternary systems including thoria or ceria. Measurements were carried out from room temperature to 1250 K. Thermal conductivity was also modelled taking into account the dopant effect on the lattice parameter of the cubic solid solution, the oxygen vacancy size and their concentration. Experimental and modelled lattice parameter values are compared prior to full justification of the results. In the temperature range from 300 to 950 K, the thermal conductivity of the single phase solid solution with yttria, erbia and ceria as analogous fuel material is about 2 W{center_dot}m{sup -1}K{sup -1}. Energy transfer in these materials is discussed on the basis of both photonic and phononic conductivities. (author)

  20. Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changlani, Hitesh J.; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U{sup ∗}/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.

  1. Iterative linearized density matrix propagation for modeling coherent excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, P; Coker, D F

    2010-11-14

    Rather than incoherent hopping between chromophores, experimental evidence suggests that the excitation energy transfer in some biological light harvesting systems initially occurs coherently, and involves coherent superposition states in which excitation spreads over multiple chromophores separated by several nanometers. Treating such delocalized coherent superposition states in the presence of decoherence and dissipation arising from coupling to an environment is a significant challenge for conventional theoretical tools that either use a perturbative approach or make the Markovian approximation. In this paper, we extend the recently developed iterative linearized density matrix (ILDM) propagation scheme [E. R. Dunkel et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 114106 (2008)] to study coherent excitation energy transfer in a model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen light harvesting complex from green sulfur bacteria. This approach is nonperturbative and uses a discrete path integral description employing a short time approximation to the density matrix propagator that accounts for interference between forward and backward paths of the quantum excitonic system while linearizing the phase in the difference between the forward and backward paths of the environmental degrees of freedom resulting in a classical-like treatment of these variables. The approach avoids making the Markovian approximation and we demonstrate that it successfully describes the coherent beating of the site populations on different chromophores and gives good agreement with other methods that have been developed recently for going beyond the usual approximations, thus providing a new reliable theoretical tool to study coherent exciton transfer in light harvesting systems. We conclude with a discussion of decoherence in independent bilinearly coupled harmonic chromophore baths. The ILDM propagation approach in principle can be applied to more general descriptions of the environment.

  2. Energy acquisition in Brazilian captive market: incentives and risks of regulation; Aquisicao de energia no mercado cativo brasileiro: incentivos e riscos da regulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Monica; Mello, Marina Figueira de; Souza, Reinaldo Castro [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The new regulatory framework in Brazilian electricity sector implemented several changes in the way energy is traded. Energy required by all captive consumers is now centrally purchased by the regulator. Distributors are only responsible for demand estimation in their concession areas. In case estimations prove wrong, distributors are punished differently for under or overestimations. Underestimations are punished harder. In this paper we simulate energy purchasing costs for a hypothetical utility in which random percentages of the forecasted demand are used. We also develop a resampling scheme for the PLD (settlement price), which is used to calculate penalties incurred by utilities. We conclude that, despite a very sophisticated regulatory framework, the system is fragile because changes in the inputs of the NEWAVE software (used to calculate the marginal cost of operations, which directly affects the PLD) yield very different punishment fees for a given (fixed) acquisition strategy.

  3. Long distance energy transfer in a polymer matrix doped with a perylene dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Franziska; Lochbrunner, Stefan

    2011-02-28

    Exciton migration over long distances is a key issue for various applications in organic electronics. We investigate a disordered material system which has the potential for long exciton diffusion lengths in combination with a high versatility. The perylene bisimide dye Perylene Red is incorporated in a polymer matrix with a high concentration. The dye molecules represent active sites with a narrow energy distribution for the electronically excited states. Excitons can be efficiently exchanged between them by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The narrow energy distribution reduces drastically the trapping probability of the excitons compared to polymers and allows for long transfer distances. To characterize the mobility of the excitons and their diffusion length the dye Oxazine 1 is added as an acceptor in low concentration and the transfer probability to the acceptor is determined by measuring the reduction of Perylene Red fluorescence. The quenched quantum yield is measured for dye concentrations varying from 0.05 M to 0.15 M for Perylene Red and from 0.3 mM to 3 mM for Oxazine 1. The experimental results are compared to a model which assumes that excitons can diffuse through the material by FRET between Perylene Red sites and are trapped at an acceptor with a final hetero FRET step. We find a quite good match between theory and experiment though the observed diffusion constant is about two times smaller than the calculated one. The exciton diffusion length extracted from the data is 30 nm for a Perylene Red concentration of 0.1 M and demonstrates that long distance energy transfer is possible in this disordered material system.

  4. Low energy R-matrix fits for the 6Li(d,a)4He S factor

    CERN Document Server

    Grineviciute, J; Lamia, L; Spitaleri, C; La Cognata, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information about the 6Li(d,a)4He reaction rates of the astrophysical interest can be obtained by extrapolating direct data to the lower energies, or by indirect methods. The indirect Trojan Horse method, as well as various R-matrix and polynomial fits to direct data, estimate the electron screening energies much larger than the adiabatic limit. Calculations that include the subthreshold resonance estimate smaller screening energies. Purpose: Obtain the 6Li(d,a)4He reaction R-matrix parameters and the astrophysical S factor for the energies relevant to the stellar plasmas by fitting the R-matrix formulas for the subthreshold resonances to the S factor data above 60 keV. Methods: The bare S factor is calculated using the single and the two-level R-matrix formulas for the closest to the threshold 0+ and 2+ subthreshold states at 22.2, 20.2 and 20.1 MeV. The electron screening potential Ue is then obtained by fitting it as a single parameter to the low energy data. Results: The low energy S facto...

  5. Brazilian national energy balance 2007. Calendar year 2006[Includes executive summary 2007]; Balanco energetico nacional 2007. Ano base 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the activities of the Ministry of Mine and Energy, during the calendar year 2006 as follows: energy analysis and aggregated data; supply and demand of energy according to source; energy consumption according to sector; energy external trading; transformation center balance; energy resources and reserves; energy and social economics; state energy data; installed capacity; energy world data.

  6. MoS2 nanocrystals confined in a DNA matrix exhibiting energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nirmal; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2013-09-10

    We report the wet chemical synthesis of MoS2 nanocrystals (NCs), a transition-metal dichalcogenide, using DNA as a host matrix. As evidenced from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the NCs are highly crystalline, with an average diameter of ~5 nm. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption studies along with band gap calculations confirm that NCs are in quantum confinement. A prominent red shift of the optical absorption bands has been observed upon formation of the thin film using hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), i.e., in the case of MoS2@DNA-CTAC. In the thin film, strong electron-phonon coupling arises because of the resonance effect, which is reflected from the emergence of intense first-, second-, and third-order Raman peaks, whenever excited with the 488 nm line. We have established that our as-synthesized MoS2 NCs quench the fluorescence of a well-known DNA minor groove binding probe, Hoechst 33258. Unprecedented fluorescence quenching (94%) of donor (Hoechst 33258) emission and efficient energy transfer (89%) between Hoechst 33258 and MoS2 NCs (acceptor) are obtained. The donor-acceptor distance of these conjugates has been described by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based model. Furthermore, employing a statistical method, we have estimated the probability of the distance distribution between the donor and acceptor. We believe that the study described herein may enable substantial advances in fields of optoelectronics, photovoltaics, catalysis, and many others.

  7. Excitation energies with time-dependent density matrix functional theory: Singlet two-electron systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H; Pernal, K; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2009-03-21

    Time-dependent density functional theory in its current adiabatic implementations exhibits three striking failures: (a) Totally wrong behavior of the excited state surface along a bond-breaking coordinate, (b) lack of doubly excited configurations, affecting again excited state surfaces, and (c) much too low charge transfer excitation energies. We address these problems with time-dependent density matrix functional theory (TDDMFT). For two-electron systems the exact exchange-correlation functional is known in DMFT, hence exact response equations can be formulated. This affords a study of the performance of TDDMFT in the TDDFT failure cases mentioned (which are all strikingly exhibited by prototype two-electron systems such as dissociating H(2) and HeH(+)). At the same time, adiabatic approximations, which will eventually be necessary, can be tested without being obscured by approximations in the functional. We find the following: (a) In the fully nonadiabatic (omega-dependent, exact) formulation of linear response TDDMFT, it can be shown that linear response (LR)-TDDMFT is able to provide exact excitation energies, in particular, the first order (linear response) formulation does not prohibit the correct representation of doubly excited states; (b) within previously formulated simple adiabatic approximations the bonding-to-antibonding excited state surface as well as charge transfer excitations are described without problems, but not the double excitations; (c) an adiabatic approximation is formulated in which also the double excitations are fully accounted for.

  8. Upconversion fluorescence resonance energy transfer based biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Shen, Pei; Li, Chunya; Wang, Yanying; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a very important biomarker in blood. Presently, sensitive and selective determination of MMP-2 directly in blood samples is still a challenging job because of the high complexity of the sample matrix. In this work, we reported a new homogeneous biosensor for MMP-2 based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from upconversion phosphors (UCPs) to carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). A polypeptide chain (NH(2)-GHHYYGPLGVRGC-COOH) comprising both the specific MMP-2 substrate domain (PLGVR) and a π-rich motif (HHYY) was designed and linked to the surface of UCPs at the C terminus. The FRET process was initiated by the π-π interaction between the peptide and CNPs, which thus quenched the fluorescence of the donor. Upon the cleavage of the substrate by the protease at the amide bond between Gly and Val, the donor was separated from the acceptor while the π-rich motif stayed on the acceptor. As a result, the fluorescence of the donor was restored. The fluorescence recovery was found to be proportional to the concentration of MMP-2 within the range from 10-500 pg/mL in an aqueous solution. The quantification limit of this sensor was at least 1 order of magnitude lower than that of other reported assays for MMP-2. The sensor was used to determine the MMP-2 level directly in human plasma and whole blood samples with satisfactory results obtained. Owing to the hypersensitivity of the method, clinical samples of only less than 1 μL were needed for accurate quantification, which can be meaningful in MMP-2-related clinical and bioanalytical applications.

  9. The Brazilian electric energy market. Lessons and perspectives; O mercado brasileiro de energia eletrica. Licoes e perspectivas decorrentes do racionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Edna Lopes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira [CSPE - Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the technical and commercial characteristics of the electric power Brazilian market taking into account his constitution and structuration, the throwback during the operation and adjustings due to rationing administrative process, where various alternatives of commercialization were identified, considering the full supply unavailability. The paper intends to present the implications decurrent from the gradual maturing of the consumption market and the new actors, resulting from the national market restructuration, the initial premises and the acceleration of the market opening time schedule, consequence of the adjustings introduced during the period of the Southeast, Centralwest and Northeast regions rationing, in the period of 2001-21002.

  10. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...

  11. Electric energy generation matrix alternatives for the expansion of the Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050 electric power offer; Alternativas de matrizes de geracao de energia eletrica para expansao da oferta de eletricidade Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Silva, Marcos Vinicius M. da; Luczynski, Estanislau [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas]. E-mails: ruybahia@uol.com.br; vini67@ig.com.br; stasnis@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of several papers presented by the authors in the 9. CBE (2002), 4. CBPE (2004) and X CBE (2004) congresses. These papers discussed some tools for energy planning aiming to develop some alternatives of Brazilian electricity generation matrices. Data used for such follow-up led to some new forecasting based on economic scenarios, which were related to electricity generation matrices. Rates are taken from macro economic series since 1970. However, it is assumed that from 2010 to 2050 there will be a new cycle of economic growing. Such cycle varies from an average growing one to a sustainable one in opposition to the recessive cycle of 1980 to 2010. Investments required to expansion of electrical generation installed capacity were obtained by an evaluation of generation and energy transmission costs, which were based on analysing some options to generation matrices that are hydropower, hydro thermo and thermo hydro ones. These matrices were forecasted for two periods, the first one from 2000 to 2030 and the second one from 2030 to 2050. Such analysing reveals that the hydropower generation is uneconomic, even when it is considered as an alternative for expansion of electricity supplying. Such uneconomic conditions are perennial and they are even worst since the Brazilian electricity power rationing of 2001. Hydro thermo and thermo hydro matrices have a lot of financial, economical and ecological advantages when they are compared to hydropower one in any scenario whether high or low ones, both of them considered for the period of 2000 to 2050. Data analyses showed here may be considered as a study, which can help discussions and evaluations of energy planning governmental offices by making them to understand that hydropower matrix is out of date, and it is not an economic option to be used in a supply expansion plan for the considered periods of 2000 to 2030 and 2030 to 2050. (author)

  12. Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngwoon; Hillman, Timothy R.; Choi, Wonjun; Lue, Niyom; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; So, Peter T. C.; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure the time-resolved reflection matrix of a scattering medium using coherent time-gated detection. From this matrix, we derive and experimentally implement an incident wave pattern that optimizes the detected signal corresponding to a specific arrival time. This leads to enhanced light delivery at the target depth. The proposed method will lay a foundation for efficient phototherapy and deep-tissue in vivo imaging in the near future. PMID:24483661

  13. The performance of ELETROBRAS, through PROCEL, in the energy efficiency of Brazilian industries; Atuacao da ELETROBRAS, atraves do PROCEL, na eficiencia energetica de industrias brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.A.; Perrone, F.P.D.; Moreira, M.A.R.G.; Oliveira, H.L.; Pinto, A.B.A.; Sobral, A.S.; Motta, B.R.; Moya, C.H.; Spera, M.R.; Vilela, L.C.T.; Goes, R.R. de A.; Teixeira, M.V.P.; Sobral, R.L. [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: carlosaparecido@eletrobras.com

    2009-07-01

    The technical part of this paper defends the idea of accomplishing systemic instead of punctual analysis in motor driven systems at industries, since the energetic efficiency potentials increase when all elements of the motor driven system is analyzed and not only the electrical motor. The institutional part of this paper presents the strategies of PROCEL Industria, executed by ELETROBRAS/PROCEL. The actions of this PROCEL sub program consist, basically, on activities with industrial state federations and universities so as to reduce the electrical energy consumption of motor driven systems in industries, which consumes almost 30% of the total Brazilian electricity consumption. This paper also presents results, experiences and future actions of PROCEL Industria. (author)

  14. Blue to near-IR energy transfer cascade within a dye-doped polymer matrix, mediated by a photochromic molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryza, Viktoras; Smith, Trevor A; Bieske, Evan J

    2016-02-21

    The spectroscopic properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix doped with a coumarin dye, a cyanine dye, and a photochromic spiropyran dye have been investigated. Before UV irradiation of the matrix, excitation of the coumarin dye results in minimal energy transfer to the cyanine dye. The energy transfer is substantially enhanced following UV irradiation of the matrix, which converts the colourless spiropyran isomer to the coloured merocyanine isomer, which then acts as an intermediate bridge by accepting energy from the coumarin dye and then donating energy to the cyanine dye. This demonstration of a switchable energy transfer cascade should help initiate new research directions in molecular photonics.

  15. Contextualization of Brazilian energy policy: SALTE Plan to Brasil para todos plan; Contextualizacao da politica energetica brasileira: do Plano SALTE ao Plano Brasil para Todos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Riolando; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has accumulated a significant experience in governmental planning from 1940 onwards. Since the first attempts after the Second World War, the country has tried to create and implement several governmental plans, starting with the SALTE (In Portuguese SALTE is the acronym of Health, Food, Transport and Energy) Plan in 1947 and continuing with various other plans until current days. Throughout the last six decades, Brazil has undertaken diverse attempts to plan and better organize the process of national economic development. This work presents a historical evaluation of the public politics implemented in the sectors - Energy and Industrial - to verify the existence of a correlation and dependence between them, from the second half of the twentieth century until today. Brazil has become more mature from the industrial point of view and has managed to progress in technology throughout these plans. However, despite some isolated sector progress, Brazilian society has remained imbalanced and the lower-class continued to suffer from inequality in education, health and living standards. Due to political changes, the evolution of energy demand and industrial consumption expansion, this study analyses in the period mentioned above, the historical behavior; the economic, industrial and energy trends of the country. (author)

  16. Construction of the zero-energy state of SU(2)-matrix theory: Near the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jens [Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: hoppe@kth.se; Lundholm, Douglas [Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: dogge@math.kth.se; Trzetrzelewski, Maciej [Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden) and Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: 33lewski@th.if.uj.edu.pl

    2009-08-21

    We explicitly construct a (unique) Spin(9)xSU(2) singlet state, {phi}, involving only the fermionic degrees of freedom of the supersymmetric matrix-model corresponding to reduced 10-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory, respectively supermembranes in 11-dimensional Minkowski space. Any non-singular wavefunction annihilated by the 16 supercharges of SU(2) matrix theory must, at the origin (where it is assumed to be non-vanishing) reduce to {phi}.

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2015: ano base 2014 - relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  18. On ambiguities of sign determination of the S-matrix from energy levels in a finite box

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper the authors make a study on the determination of the S-matrix elements for scattering of particles in the infinite volume from the energy levels in the finite box for the case of multiple channels. The study is done with a toy model in 1+1 dimension and the authors find that there is some ambiguity in the sign of nondiagonal matrix elements, casting doubts on whether the needed observables in the infinite volume can be obtained from the energy levels of the box. In this paper I present an easy derivation, confirming the ambiguity of the sign and argue that this, however, does not put restrictions in the determination of observables.

  19. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  20. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshul Majumdar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling, processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  1. The capabilities and constraints of the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) for development of energy matrix; As potencialidades e restricoes do LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) para o desenvolvimento de matriz energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper seeks to introduce and discuss the main features of the LEAP model preparing energy matrixes, in the medium and long term energy planning context. These characteristics are analyzed and compared to other known simulation models used worldwide, checking potentialities and existing barriers of using the LEAP program (author)

  2. Aquisição de sentenças matrizes infinitivas no Português Brasileiro em uma criança de 20-24 meses Acquisition of infinitive matrix sentences in Brazilian Portuguese in a 20-24-month old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanir da Conceição

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, fazemos a análise das sentenças matrizes infinitivas do PB em uma criança no período de 20-24 meses. Levantamos como hipótese que, nesta fase, a gramática infantil tem as categorias funcionais, conforme aponta a corrente continuísta. Porém, Agr não foi acionado ainda com todos os traços relevantes. Consideramos que no PB infantil, ele é fraco, como proposto por Galves (1993.This paper conducts an analysis of infinitive matrix sentences in Brazilian Portuguese in a 20-24-month period. The hypothesis is that children's grammar has the functional categories, as proposed by the continuist approach. However, Agr has not been triggered with all its relevant features. This study considers that in children's Brazilian Portuguese, it is weak, as proposed by Galves (1993.

  3. Behavior of metallic nanoparticles in Al matrix under high electronic energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizza, G. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique/CEA-DRECAM/CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: giancarlo.rizza@polytechnique.edu; Dunlop, A. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique/CEA-DRECAM/CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Dezellus, A. [LEPES/CNRS, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-03-15

    Metallic nanoparticles (Pb and Bi) embedded in a crystalline Al matrix were irradiated with 30 MeV C{sub 60} cluster ions at 300 K. Experimental evidence of partial amorphization of bismuth nanoparticles is observed. On the other hand, Pb inclusions remain crystalline. The condition under which embedded nanoparticles can be amorphized is discussed.

  4. Behavior of metallic nanoparticles in Al matrix under high electronic energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, G.; Dunlop, A.; Dezellus, A.

    2007-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (Pb and Bi) embedded in a crystalline Al matrix were irradiated with 30 MeV C60 cluster ions at 300 K. Experimental evidence of partial amorphization of bismuth nanoparticles is observed. On the other hand, Pb inclusions remain crystalline. The condition under which embedded nanoparticles can be amorphized is discussed.

  5. Effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation and the organic matrix on inhibition of enamel demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S

    2000-09-01

    In the past two decades, accumulated evidence has clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on enamel demineralization, but the exact mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation on demineralization of both normal human enamel and human enamel with its organic matrix removed. Twenty-four human molars were collected, cleaned, and cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was randomly selected and its lipid and protein content extracted. The other half of each tooth was used as the matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas. All the left windows were treated with a low-energy laser irradiation, whereas the right windows served as the non-laser controls. After caries-like lesion formation in a pH-cycling environment, microradiographs of tooth sections were taken for quantification of demineralization. The mean mineral losses (with standard deviation) of the enamel control, the lased enamel, the non-organic enamel control, and the lased non-organic enamel subgroups were 3955 (1191), 52(49), 4565(1311), and 1191 (940), respectively. A factorial ANOVA showed significant effects of laser irradiation (p = 0.0001), organic matrix (p = 0.0125), and the laser-organic matrix interaction (p = 0.0377). The laser irradiation resulted in a greater than 98% reduction in mineral loss, but the laser effect dropped to about 70% when the organic matrix in the enamel was removed. The results suggest that clinically applicable CO2 laser irradiation may cause an almost complete inhibition of enamel demineralization.

  6. Land Use Change Impacts to Flows and Hydropower at the Southern Fringe of the Brazilian Amazon: A Regional, Empirical Study of Land-Water-Energy Nexus Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Cohn, A.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) has occurred extensively in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest-savanna transition. Agricultural development-driven LUCC at regional scales can alter surface energy budgets, evapotranspiration (ET) and rainfall; these hydroclimatic changes impact streamflows, and thus hydropower. To date, there is only limited empirical understanding of these complex land-water-energy nexus dynamics, yet understanding is important to developing countries where both agriculture and hydropower are expanding and intensifying. To observe these changes and their interconnections, we synthesize a novel combination of ground network, remotely sensed, and empirically modeled data for LUCC, rainfall, flows, and hydropower potential. We connect the extensive temporal and spatial trends in LUCC occurring from 2000-2012 (and thus observable in the satellite record) to long-term historical flow records and run-of-river hydropower generation potential estimates. Changes in hydrologic condition are observed in terms of dry and wet season moments, extremes, and flow duration curves. Run-of-river hydropower generation potential is modeled at basin gauge points using equation models parameterized with literature-based low-head turbine efficiencies, and simple algorithms establishing optimal head and capacity from elevation and flows, respectively. Regression analyses are used to demonstrate a preliminary causal analysis of LUCC impacts to flow and energy, and discuss extension of the analysis to ungauged basins. The results are transferable to tropical and transitional forest regions worldwide where simultaneous agricultural and hydropower development potentially compete for coupled components of regional water cycles, and where policy makers and planners require an understanding of LUCC impacts to hydroclimate-dependent industries and ecosystems.

  7. Models of Low Energy Effective Theory applied to Kaon Non-leptonic Decays and Other Matrix Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J

    1999-01-01

    In this talk I describe work on computing non-leptonic matrix elements consistently with both long and short distance contributions included. On the simpler example of the $\\pi^+$-$\\pi^0$ mass difference I explain in detail the matching procedure and the difference between various low-energy models. I then explain the new difficulties in non-leptonic Kaon decays and how the matching here can in principle be done in the same way when scheme dependences are correctly accounted for. In the end I summarize the results J. Prades and I obtain for the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule and $B_6$.

  8. Relationship Between Hysteresis Dissipated Energy and Temperature Rising in Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites Under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the relationship between hysteresis dissipated energy and temperature rising of the external surface in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) during the application of cyclic loading has been analyzed. The temperature rise, which is caused by frictional slip of fibers within the composite, is related to the hysteresis dissipated energy. Based on the fatigue hysteresis theories considering fibers failure, the hysteresis dissipated energy and a hysteresis dissipated energy-based damage parameter changing with the increase of cycle number have been investigated. The relationship between the hysteresis dissipated energy, a hysteresis dissipated energy-based damage parameter and a temperature rise-based damage parameter have been established. The experimental temperature rise-based damage parameter of unidirectional, cross-ply and 2D woven CMCs corresponding to different fatigue peak stresses and cycle numbers have been predicted. It was found that the temperature rise-based parameter can be used to monitor the fatigue damage evolution and predict the fatigue life of fiber-reinforced CMCs.

  9. Modelling the water and energy balances of Amazonian rainforest and pasture using Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian climate observation study data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashby, M.

    1999-01-01

    A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model, SWAPS, is introduced. The model is based on existing models for two-layer evaporation and energy balance, interception evaporation and unsaturated soil moisture transport. The model includes a physically based parameterisation for the soil surface resista

  10. General formulation of rovibrational kinetic energy operators and matrix elements in internal bond-angle coordinates using factorized Jacobians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Wassja A.; Leonhard, Kai

    2016-12-01

    We show how inverse metric tensors and rovibrational kinetic energy operators in terms of internal bond-angle coordinates can be obtained analytically following a factorization of the Jacobian worked out by Frederick and Woywod. The structure of these Jacobians is exploited in two ways: On one hand, the elements of the metric tensor as well as its determinant all have the form ∑rmsin (αn) cos (βo) . This form can be preserved by working with the adjugate metric tensor that can be obtained without divisions. On the other hand, the adjugate can be obtained with less effort by exploiting the lower triangular structure of the Jacobians. Together with a suitable choice of the wavefunction, we avoid singularities and show how to obtain analytical expressions for the rovibrational kinetic energy matrix elements.

  11. Random-matrix approach to the statistical compound nuclear reaction at low energies using the Monte-Carlo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    This theoretical treatment of low-energy compound nucleus reactions begins with the Bohr hypothesis, with corrections, and various statistical theories. The author investigates the statistical properties of the scattering matrix containing a Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) Hamiltonian in the propagator. The following conclusions are reached: For all parameter values studied, the numerical average of MC-generated cross sections coincides with the result of the Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller, Zirnbauer triple-integral formula. Energy average and ensemble average agree reasonably well when the width I is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the average resonance spacing d. In the strong-absorption limit, the channel degree-of-freedom ν a is 2. The direct reaction increases the inelastic cross sections while the elastic cross section is reduced.

  12. A simple representation of energy matrix elements in terms of symmetry-invariant bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Guiqing; Boyd, Russell J

    2010-02-01

    When a system under consideration has some symmetry, usually its Hamiltonian space can be parallel partitioned into a set of subspaces, which is invariant under symmetry operations. The bases that span these invariant subspaces are also invariant under the symmetry operations, and they are the symmetry-invariant bases. A standard methodology is available to construct a series of generator functions (GFs) and corresponding symmetry-adapted basis (SAB) functions from these symmetry-invariant bases. Elements of the factorized Hamiltonian and overlap matrix can be expressed in terms of these SAB functions, and their simple representations can be deduced in terms of GFs. The application of this method to the Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian is demonstrated.

  13. New parameterization of effective nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix interaction for scattering at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ladygina, N B

    2008-01-01

    The model suggested by Love and Franey for description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction was used as the base. The new fitting of the model parameters was done in the energy range from 100 MeV up to 1100 MeV. It is based on the modern partial-wave-analysis solution for NN-amplitudes. The three observables: differential cross section, vector analyzing power, and spin correlation coefficient -- were obtained at every energy. The results are compared with existing the experimental data.

  14. Solid-state active switch matrix for high energy, moderate power battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Larry; Paris, Peter; Ye, Changqing

    2016-06-07

    A battery management system employs electronic switches and capacitors. No traditional cell-balancing resistors are used. The BMS electronically switches individual cells into and out of a module of cells in order to use the maximum amount of energy available in each cell and to completely charge and discharge each cell without overcharging or under-discharging.

  15. A MODIS-Based Energy Balance to Estimate Evapotranspiration for Clear-Sky Days in Brazilian Tropical Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadvinder S. Malhi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET plays an important role in global climate dynamics and in primary production of terrestrial ecosystems; it represents the mass and energy transfer from the land to atmosphere. Limitations to measuring ET at large scales using ground-based methods have motivated the development of satellite remote sensing techniques. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of the SEBAL algorithm for estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes at regional scale, using 28 images from MODIS. SEBAL estimates are compared with eddy-covariance (EC measurements and results from the hydrological model MGB-IPH. SEBAL instantaneous estimates of latent heat flux (LE yielded r 2= 0.64 and r2 = 0.62 over sugarcane croplands and savannas when compared against in situ EC estimates. At the same sites, daily aggregated estimates of LE were r 2 = 0.76 and r2 = 0.66, respectively. Energy balance closure showed that turbulent fluxes over sugarcane croplands were underestimated by 7% and 9% over savannas. Average daily ET from SEBAL is in close agreement with estimates from the hydrological model for an overlay of 38,100 km2 (r2 = 0.88. Inputs to which the algorithm is most sensitive are vegetation index (NDVI, gradient of temperature (dT to compute sensible heat flux (H and net radiation (Rn. It was verified that SEBAL has a tendency to overestimate results both at local and regional scales probably because of low sensitivity to soil moisture and water stress. Nevertheless the results confirm the potential of the SEBAL algorithm, when used with MODIS images for estimating instantaneous LE and daily ET from large areas.

  16. S-matrix Calculations of Energy Levels of the Lithium Isoelectronic Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2010-11-02

    A QED approach to the calculation of the spectra of the lithium isoelectronic sequence is implemented. A modified Furry representation based on the Kohn-Sham potential is used to evaluate all one- and two-photon diagrams with the exception of the two-loop Lamb shift. Three-photon diagrams are estimated with Hamiltonian methods. After incorporating recent calculations of the two-loop Lamb shift and recoil corrections a comprehensive tabulation of the 2s, 2p{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 3/2} energy levels as well as the 2s - 2p{sub 1/2} and 2s - 2p{sub 3/2} transition energies for Z = 10 - 100 is presented.

  17. Research programs at the Department of Energy National Laboratories. Volume 2: Laboratory matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    For nearly fifty years, the US national laboratories, under the direction of the Department of Energy, have maintained a tradition of outstanding scientific research and innovative technological development. With the end of the Cold War, their roles have undergone profound changes. Although many of their original priorities remain--stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile, for example--pressing budget constraints and new federal mandates have altered their focus. Promotion of energy efficiency, environmental restoration, human health, and technology partnerships with the goal of enhancing US economic and technological competitiveness are key new priorities. The multiprogram national laboratories offer unparalleled expertise in meeting the challenge of changing priorities. This volume aims to demonstrate each laboratory`s uniqueness in applying this expertise. It describes the laboratories` activities in eleven broad areas of research that most or all share in common. Each section of this volume is devoted to a single laboratory. Those included are: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Los Alamos National Laboratory; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; and Sandia National Laboratories. The information in this volume was provided by the multiprogram national laboratories and compiled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  18. Thermal activated energy transfer between luminescent states of Mn2+-doped ZnTe nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Noelio O; Silva, Alessandra S; Freitas Neto, Ernesto S; Lourenço, Sidney A

    2012-03-14

    Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Te nanocrystals (NCs), at various concentrations x, were successfully grown in a host glass matrix by the fusion method after appropriate annealing. Growth of these NCs was evidenced by optical absorption (OA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. From the room temperature OA spectra, it was possible to observe the formation of two well defined, different sized groups of NCs, one attributed to quantum dots (QDs) and the other to bulk-like nanocrystals (NCs). XRD results have confirmed that the cubic zincblend structure of nanoparticles is not altered by the substitutional incorporation of Mn(2+) ions into the ZnTe NCs. MFM images supported the OA spectra results and thus provided additional confirmation of the formation of Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Te magnetic nanoparticles in the host glass matrix. The two groups of NCs were also observed in the PL spectra as well as deep defects attributed to the presence of oxygen centers in the electronic structure of the Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Te NCs. Strong agreement between the fitting model, based on rate equation, and experimental PL intensity data at different temperatures demonstrates that this model adequately describes the energy transfer processes between the NCs and the defects of the Zn(1-x)Mn(x)Te system at different temperatures.

  19. Li3PO4 Matrix Enables a Long Cycle Life and High Energy Efficiency Bismuth-Based Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan-Fu; Hu, Junkai; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xi-Yuan; Lee, Sang Bok; Wang, YuHuang

    2016-09-14

    Bismuth is a lithium-ion battery anode material that can operate at an equilibrium potential higher than graphite and provide a capacity twice as high as that of Li4Ti5O12, making it intrinsically free from lithium plating that may cause catastrophic battery failure. However, the potential of bismuth is hampered by its inferior cyclability (limited to tens of cycles). Here, we propose an "ion conductive solid-state matrix" approach to address this issue. By homogeneously confining bismuth nanoparticles in a solid-state γ-Li3PO4 matrix that is electrochemically formed in situ, the resulting composite anode exhibits a reversible capacity of 280 mA hours per gram (mA h/g) at a rate of 100 mA/g and a record cyclability among bismuth-based anodes up to 500 cycles with a capacity decay rate of merely 0.071% per cycle. We further show that full-cell batteries fabricated from this composite anode and commercial LiFePO4 cathode deliver a stable cell voltage of ∼2.5 V and remarkable energy efficiency up to 86.3%, on par with practical batteries (80-90%). This work paves a way for harnessing bismuth-based battery chemistry for the design of high capacity, safer lithium-ion batteries to meet demanding applications such as electric vehicles.

  20. Self-sensing and thermal energy experimental characterization of multifunctional cement-matrix composites with carbon nano-inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Pisello, A. L.; Sambuco, Sara; Ubertini, F.; Asdrubali, F.; Materazzi, A. L.; Cotana, F.

    2016-04-01

    The recent progress of Nanotechnology allowed the development of new smart materials in several fields of engineering. In particular, innovative construction materials with multifunctional enhanced properties can be produced. The paper presents an experimental characterization on cement-matrix pastes doped with Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nano-fibers, Carbon Black and Graphene Nano-platelets. Both electro-mechanical and thermo-physical investigations have been carried out. The conductive nano-inclusions provide the cementitious matrix with piezo-resistive properties allowing the detection of external strain and stress changes. Thereby, traditional building materials, such as concrete and cementitious materials in general, would be capable of self-monitoring the state of deformation they are subject to, giving rise to diffuse sensing systems of structural integrity. Besides supplying self-sensing abilities, carbon nano-fillers may change mechanical, physical and thermal properties of cementitious composites. The experimental tests of the research have been mainly concentrated on the thermal conductivity and the optical properties of the different nano-modified materials, in order to make a critical comparison between them. The aim of the work is the characterization of an innovative multifunctional composite capable of combining self-monitoring properties with proper mechanical and thermal-energy efficiency characteristics. The potential applications of these nano-modified materials cover a wide range of possibilities, such as structural elements, floors, geothermal piles, radiant systems and more.

  1. Difficulties for innovation in energy technology development: thermoelectric generation with vegetable oils; As dificuldades para a inovacao em rotas tecnologicas de desenvolvimento energetico: geracao termeletica com oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose Antonio Sales de [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB-CDS), DF (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel

    2008-07-01

    Analysis of the vegetable oil as energy source, observing the troubles caused by technology innovation insertion in the Brazilian Electrical Matrix by the use of renewable alternative energy sources while competing with the products and systems' market leaders that use fossil sources. (author)

  2. First principles calculations of double ionization energy spectra and two-electron distribution function using T-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Computational Materials Science Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: NOGUCHI.Yoshifumi@nims.go.jp; Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Short-range electron correlation plays a very important role in small systems and significantly affects the double ionization energy (DIE) spectra and the two-electron distribution functions of a CO molecule, for example. In our calculations, the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory is chosen as a starting point, the GW approximation (GWA) is performed in a next step, and finally the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the T-matrix, describing the particle-particle ladder diagrams up to the infinite order, is solved via the eigenvalue problem. The calculated DIE spectra, which are directly given by the eigenvalues, reflect the short-range electron correlation and are in good agreement with the experiment. We confirm that the Coulomb hole appears in the two-electron distribution function constructed from the eigenfunction.

  3. Evidence for energy transfer between Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in porous silicon matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moadhen, A.; Elhouichet, H.; Canut, B.; Sandu, C.S.; Oueslati, M.; Roger, J.A

    2003-12-15

    Europium or terbium and europium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (Eu{sup 3+}/PS and (Eu{sup 3+}+Tb{sup 3+})/PS) by simple impregnation of PS layers with chloride solution of rare earth. This impregnation has been followed by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS). The concentration dependency of photoluminescence (PL) intensity has been investigated. The excitation mechanisms of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions in the PS matrix are discussed through the effect of excitation ray and the results of concentration dependencies of PL measurements. It was found that there is an efficient energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} and to Si nanocrystallites.

  4. Asymptotic degeneracy of the transfer matrix spectrum for systems with interfaces: Relation to surface stiffness and step free energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privman, V.; Svrakic, N.M.

    1989-02-01

    Two- and three-dimensional Ising-type systems are considered in the finite-cross-section cylindrical geometry. An interface is forced along the cylinder (strip in 2d) by the antiperiodic or /plus minus/ boundary conditions. Detailed predictions are presented for the largest asymptotically degenerate set of the transfer matrix eigenvalues. For rough interfaces, i.e., for O < T < T/sub c/ in 2d, T/sub R/ < T < T/sub c/ in 3d, the eigenvalues are split algebraically, and the spectral gaps are governed by the surface stiffness coefficient. For rigid interfaces, i.e., O < T < T /sub R/ in 3d, the eigenvalues are split exponentially, with the gaps determined by the step free energy.

  5. Taking advantage of natural gas for the energy and fuel supply for the Brazilian energy intensive industries: aluminium, siderurgy and chemical products; O aproveitamento do gas natural para o suprimento de energia e combustivel para as industrias energointensivas brasileiras: aluminio, siderurgia e produtos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jose Fernando Leme [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: romero@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work intend to analyse natural gas success in the energy generation for siderurgy industry, aluminium and basic organic chemical products. There is a necessity to inform economy-policy and the energy policy relationship, showing the Brazilian State actuation in the economic development mechanism and electric energy supply. Cast iron and iron, metals and no-irons are considered as electric intensives and energy intensives industry activities. These are sectors that produce merchandises for exportation and spend many quantities of electrical energy for each produced physical unity of law aggregate economic value. (author)

  6. Problems and challenges in Brazilian electric power sector: energy or energetic model crisis?; Problemas e desafios do setor eletrico brasileiro: crise da energia ou crise do modelo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ildo Luis; Vieira, Jose Paulo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2002-07-01

    For the Brazilian electric sector built up from the sixties, the plan was always the viability of the private accumulation, materializing in a implicit privatization based on the purchase decision and sectorial investments. From the nineties on this logic became more deep, aiming the total handing over to the private interests, the control of the concessionaires through the share control sales and the creation of regulatory and legal frame work to guarantee this objective. This paper discusses the challenge and problems of the Brazilian electric sector.

  7. Protein Sequence Comparison Based on Physicochemical Properties and the Position-Feature Energy Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Yusen; Gutman, Ivan; Shi, Yongtang; Dehmer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We develop a novel position-feature-based model for protein sequences by employing physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids and the measure of graph energy. The method puts the emphasis on sequence order information and describes local dynamic distributions of sequences, from which one can get a characteristic B-vector. Afterwards, we apply the relative entropy to the sequences representing B-vectors to measure their similarity/dissimilarity. The numerical results obtained in this study show that the proposed methods leads to meaningful results compared with competitors such as Clustal W. PMID:28393857

  8. Application of variational reduced-density-matrix theory to the potential energy surfaces of the nitrogen and carbon dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2005-05-15

    The acceleration of the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method, using a new first-order algorithm [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)], has shown its usefulness in the accurate description of potential energy surfaces in nontrivial basis sets. Here we apply the first-order 2-RDM method to the potential energy surfaces of the nitrogen and carbon dimers in polarized valence double-zeta basis sets for which benchmark full-configuration-interaction calculations exist. In a wave function formalism accurately stretching the triple bond of the nitrogen dimer requires at least six-particle excitations from the Hartree-Fock reference. Furthermore, cleaving the double bond of C2 should produce a "non-Morse"-like potential curve because the ground state near equilibrium (X 1sigma(g)+) has an avoided crossing with the second excited state (B' 1sigma(g)+) and a level crossing with the first excited state (B 1delta(g)). Because the 2-RDM method variationally optimizes the energy over correlated 2-RDMs on the two-electron space without parametrization of the many-electron wave function, it captures multireference correlations that are difficult to describe with approximate wave functions. The 2-RDM method yields for N2 a potential energy surface with features and spectroscopic constants that are more accurate than those from single-reference methods and similar in accuracy to multireference techniques, and it describes the non-Morse-like behavior of C2 which is not captured by single-reference methods.

  9. National energy data profile - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document has been prepared by the Brazilian committee of the World Energy Council and presents general data on the economic aspects related to the Brazilian primary energy supply, transformation sector and demand.

  10. Energy and intensity distributions of 279 keV multiply scattered photons in bronze - an inverse response matrix approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manpreet Singh; Bhajan Singh; B S Sandhu

    2008-01-01

    An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a true photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of intensity and energy distributions of multiply scattered events originating from interactions of 279 keV photons with thick targets of bronze. The observed pulse-height distributions are a composite of singly and multiply scattered events in addition to bremmstrahlung originating from slowing down of Compton and photo-electrons in thick targets. To evaluate the contribution of multiply scattered events, the spectrum of singly scattered events contributing to inelastic Compton peak is reconstructed analytically. The optimum thickness (saturation depth), at which the number of multiply scattered events saturate, has been evaluated in different energy bin meshes chosen for scintillation detector response unfolding. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison (Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106) supports the present experimental results.

  11. A reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for highly sensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gaina; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence nanoprobe (reduced nano-graphene oxide [nrGO]/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide [Pep-FITC]) for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the Pep-FITC comprising the specific MMP2 substrate domain (PLGVR) onto the surface of nrGO particles through non-covalent linkage. The nrGO was obtained by water bathing nano-graphene oxide under 90°C for 4 hours. After mixing the nrGO and Pep-FITC for 30 seconds, the fluorescence from Pep-FITC was almost completely quenched due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and nrGO. Upon cleavage of the amide bond between Leu and Gly in the Pep-FITC by protease-MMP2, the FITC bound to nrGO was separated from nrGO surface, disrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process and resulting in fluorescence recovery of FITC. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence recovery of nrGO/Pep-FITC was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MMP2 within 0.02-0.1 nM. The detection limit of the nrGO/Pep-FITC was determined to be 3 pM, which is approximately tenfold lower than that of the unreduced carboxylated nano-graphene oxide/Pep-FITC probe.

  12. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); Um modelo de monitoramento ambiental (environmental scanning) orientado para o planejamento estrategico da CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    1997-07-01

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  13. Alternatives for hydrogen production in Brazilian regions aiming the generation of distributed electric energy; Alternativas para a producao de hidrogenio nas regioes brasileiras visando a geracao de energia eletrica distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2009-07-01

    In this work possible sources of hydrogen production for the generation of electric energy in a distributed way, with the fuel cell use, had been selected and studied. Three renewable sources (biomass, photovoltaic and wind) have been studied for energy generation in Brazil. For the establishment of numerical values, the main regional agricultural cultures and the amount of biomass in various brazilian states had been evaluated, in the form of waste, capable to be used for future hydrogen production. It was also investigated and evaluated the numerical capacity of hydrogen production from wind and photovoltaic resources for each region in Brazil, considering the electrolytic process. Based on the results, it is possible to demonstrate the potentialities of Brazil for electric energy generation in a planned distributed way, with fossil fuel substitution, and consequently, decreasing the environmental impacts. (author)

  14. Contribution of matrix converter in microgeneration for a sustainable energy planning; Contribuicao do conversor matricial na microgeracao para um planejamento energetico sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Javier Alexis Andrade; Romero, Jesus Franklin Andrade [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], emails: javier.romero@ufabc.edu.br, jesus.romero@ufabc.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Once microturbine (MT) based generation systems present suitable and short term application conditions in distributed generation, a rigorous sustainability evaluation is necessary. In this work a Two Stage Matrix Converter (CM2E) that improves the energy efficiency performance is evaluated. In this sense, an analysis based on technological indicators regarding a sustainable energy planning is presented in technological, economic, social and environmental dimensions (author)

  15. Two-electron R-matrix approach to calculations of potential-energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. The method is based on a two-electron R-matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is applied to a study of Rydberg states of Rb2 for internuclear separations R from 40 to 320 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 7 to 30. We report bound states associated with the low-lying 3Po resonance and with the virtual state of the rubidium atom that turn into ion-pair-like bound states in the Coulomb potential of the atomic Rydberg core. The results are compared with previous calculations based on single-electron models employing a zero-range contact-potential and short-range modele potential. Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P208/14-15989P).

  16. Constitutional issues of Brazilian tax system in the biodiesel industry; Aspectos constitucionais do regime tributario aplicado a industria brasileira do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Monica Medeiros; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent insertion of biodiesel derived from oily vegetables in the Brazilian genetic matrix calls for the analysis of some aspects that belong to it. This study begins with an introduction to 'sustainable development' definition, it goes through the concept of biodiesel and a brief historical, the paper analyzes it's advantages - social, economic and environmental - related to the fossil fuels predominantly used. With the purpose to look into the 'Programa Nacional de Producao e Uso de Biodiesel - PNPB' created by the Federal Government in 2004, this study searches about the Brazilian regulating legislation on this subject, fundamental for the comprehension of the plans and objectives sought by the Brazilian Government with the encouragement to the production of the biodiesel. This study also investigates the role of the 'Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - ANP' in the regulation of the activities involving this biofuel. In this manner, from the analysis of the related legislation of this new energy source, the present article aims to delineate a view of the the tax system for this new market according to Constitution and pointing out the economic impacts of the biodiesel insertion in the Brazilian national energetic matrix. (author)

  17. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  18. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  19. THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

    2012-01-01

    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability

  20. Insights into the complex formed by matrix metalloproteinase-2 and alloxan inhibitors: molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Giangreco

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. Hence, the development of potent and selective inhibitors targeting these enzymes continues to be eagerly sought. In this paper, a number of alloxan-based compounds, initially conceived to bias other therapeutically relevant enzymes, were rationally modified and successfully repurposed to inhibit MMP-2 (also named gelatinase A in the nanomolar range. Importantly, the alloxan core makes its debut as zinc binding group since it ensures a stable tetrahedral coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in concert with the three histidines of the HExxHxxGxxH metzincin signature motif, further stabilized by a hydrogen bond with the glutamate residue belonging to the same motif. The molecular decoration of the alloxan core with a biphenyl privileged structure allowed to sample the deep S(1' specificity pocket of MMP-2 and to relate the high affinity towards this enzyme with the chance of forming a hydrogen bond network with the backbone of Leu116 and Asn147 and the side chains of Tyr144, Thr145 and Arg149 at the bottom of the pocket. The effect of even slight structural changes in determining the interaction at the S(1' subsite of MMP-2 as well as the nature and strength of the binding is elucidated via molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. Among the herein presented compounds, the highest affinity (pIC(50 = 7.06 is found for BAM, a compound exhibiting also selectivity (>20 towards MMP-2, as compared to MMP-9, the other member of the gelatinases.

  1. CO{sub 2} emissions on the brazilian economy: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} na economia brasileira: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    The article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon gas through of the Brazilian economy official data and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology will be used by indexes (IDA), accomplishing evaluations in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the temporary evaluation of the results considering the available data between 1970 and 2004, the results were compared with other similar studies, whose savings of the studied countries possess relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that so in Brazil as in other countries where the methodology was applied was obtained the level of economical growth as main indicator of the CO{sub 2} emissions alterations for each economy. For Brazil, it is also reality, but it is considered in each period by other factors. Another important comparison is in the carbon intensity of each one of the two compared savings. The Brazilian energetic matrix, for their characteristics, propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the matrix can mitigate the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transport. The use of cleaner fuels and the application of distributed generation and the co-generation energy technologies can be good alternatives for the future and the study of the indexes can help to end which viable and responsible alternatives. (author)

  2. Structure evolutions in a Ti–6Al–4V matrix composite reinforced with TiB, characterised using high energy X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropars, Ludovic, E-mail: ludovic.ropars@airbus.com [Airbus Group SAS, Airbus Group Innovations, 12 rue Pasteur, BP-76, 92152 Suresnes Cedex (France); Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), SI2M Dpt., CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Dehmas, Moukrane, E-mail: ismoukrane.dehmas@univlorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), SI2M Dpt., CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Laboratory of Excellence for Design of Alloy Metals for Low-mass Structures (‘DAMAS’ Labex), Université de Lorraine (France); Gourdet, Sophie; Delfosse, Jérôme [Airbus Group SAS, Airbus Group Innovations, 12 rue Pasteur, BP-76, 92152 Suresnes Cedex (France); Tricker, David [Materion AMC, RAE Road, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6XE (United Kingdom); Aeby-Gautier, Elisabeth [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), SI2M Dpt., CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Laboratory of Excellence for Design of Alloy Metals for Low-mass Structures (‘DAMAS’ Labex), Université de Lorraine (France)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • In-situ high energy X-ray diffraction used during different thermal treatments. • Kinetics of phase evolutions characterised for the matrix and for the borides. • Conversion from TiB{sub 2} to TiB-B27 via a metastable structure TiB-B{sub f}. • Strong effect of the process on the matrix phases evolutions and microstructure. - Abstract: A titanium matrix composite reinforced with TiB was produced using powder metallurgy. A Ti–6Al–4V alloy was chosen to be the matrix, and 12 wt.% of TiB{sub 2} was used as the boron source for the solid state formation of TiB. The TiB{sub 2} to TiB conversion reaction was studied using an in situ high energy X-ray diffraction technique while heat treating the composite. The TiB{sub 2} (space group: P6/mmm) converts into TiB-B27 (Pnma), via TiB-B{sub f} (Cmcm). The metastable character of B{sub f} is confirmed here; it is the first phase formed during the conversion and it progressively converts into B27 during elevated temperature heat treatment. A modification of the phase transformation kinetics in the matrix and of the composite β transus temperature (T{sub β} = 1275 °C) was also observed, mainly due to gas contamination and intensive work hardening as a result of the mechanical alloying process used to manufacture the material and to a modification of the matrix equilibria.

  3. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  4. Photovoltaic energy supply in communities of the Xingo program: Case study: Gualte community-Brazilian Northeast Methodology for natural climatization of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Elielza M. de S; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidad Federal de Pernambuco-UFPE (Brazil); Silva Junior, Ramiro; Ferreira, Fabiana M; Carvalho, Maria A. P [Xingo Program (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The Xingo Program is a multidisciplinary initiative, developed jointly by the CNPq-Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and CHESF- Hydroelectric Power Company of the Sao Francisco River. Its main objective is to promote the development of a semi-arid region through actions undertaken in different areas; more specifically, to seek energetic solutions on suitable techniques in the region and at the same time identify local demands and business opportunities that may lead to the introduction of enterprises in the region, principally focusing social and citizenship development. Eight rural communities located in the perimeter of Xingo program were selected for implementing the first pilot projects. This paper describes a technical and social diagnosis, and a conceptual project that were made for each community, considering the resources and the local available potentialities, prioritizing energy supply to schools, health centers and the supply of drinking water. In particular, the case study describes the process of energy supply to Guatle community, an old farm without any education/health infrastructure and water is supplied by means of trucks, in which there was a significant increase in the number of families after being occupied by activists of the Landless movement. In this community a school unit was built and electrified (school and park illuminated, TV, refrigerator), a 12 m{sup 3}/day water supply system was installed in and old and abandoned well, the water of which showed an excellent quality and quantity, 6 m{sup 3}/h, a very rare occurrence in that region. Later, literacy courses were given to young people and adults, the natural aptitude of the inhabitants. With the arrival of water, the first conflicts for the management of these resources emerged. The experience in Gualte, in spite of the successes and failures, could be considered as a lesson that should be learned. The feeling of citizenship of the needy community

  5. Variational reduced-density-matrix theory applied to the potential energy surfaces of carbon monoxide in the presence of electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2006-04-27

    The variational optimization of the energy with respect to the two-electron reduced-density matrix (2-RDM), constrained by N-representability conditions, can determine the shape of molecular potential energy surfaces with useful accuracy. In this paper, we apply the 2-RDM method with a first-order optimization algorithm [Mazziotti, D. A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 93, 213001] to investigating the potential energy surfaces of carbon monoxide in the presence and absence of an electric field. Two beneficial characteristics of the 2-RDM method for computing potential energy surfaces include the following: (i) its ability to capture multireference effects without specifying any reference wave function or density matrix and (ii) its guarantee of a global energy minimum in the variational optimization. The 2-RDM method produces electronic ground-state energies with similar accuracy at equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries in both the presence and the absence of the electric field. Computed dipole moments are similar in accuracy to the values from the computationally expensive configuration interaction with single, double, triple, and quadruple excitations. These surfaces have important applications in quantum molecular control theory.

  6. Excitation energies with linear response density matrix functional theory along the dissociation coordinate of an electron-pair bond in N-electron systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-01-14

    Time dependent density matrix functional theory in its adiabatic linear response formulation delivers exact excitation energies ωα and oscillator strengths fα for two-electron systems if extended to the so-called phase including natural orbital (PINO) theory. The Löwdin-Shull expression for the energy of two-electron systems in terms of the natural orbitals and their phases affords in this case an exact phase-including natural orbital functional (PILS), which is non-primitive (contains other than just J and K integrals). In this paper, the extension of the PILS functional to N-electron systems is investigated. With the example of an elementary primitive NO functional (BBC1) it is shown that current density matrix functional theory ground state functionals, which were designed to produce decent approximations to the total energy, fail to deliver a qualitatively correct structure of the (inverse) response function, due to essential deficiencies in the reconstruction of the two-body reduced density matrix (2RDM). We now deduce essential features of an N-electron functional from a wavefunction Ansatz: The extension of the two-electron Löwdin-Shull wavefunction to the N-electron case informs about the phase information. In this paper, applications of this extended Löwdin-Shull (ELS) functional are considered for the simplest case, ELS(1): one (dissociating) two-electron bond in the field of occupied (including core) orbitals. ELS(1) produces high quality ωα(R) curves along the bond dissociation coordinate R for the molecules LiH, Li2, and BH with the two outer valence electrons correlated. All of these results indicate that response properties are much more sensitive to deficiencies in the reconstruction of the 2RDM than the ground state energy, since derivatives of the functional with respect to both the NOs and the occupation numbers need to be accurate.

  7. Excitation energies with linear response density matrix functional theory along the dissociation coordinate of an electron-pair bond in N-electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); WCU Program, Dep. of Chemistry, Pohang Univ. of Science and Techn., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Baerends, E. J. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); WCU Program, Dep. of Chemistry, Pohang Univ. of Science and Techn., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-14

    Time dependent density matrix functional theory in its adiabatic linear response formulation delivers exact excitation energies ω{sub α} and oscillator strengths f{sub α} for two-electron systems if extended to the so-called phase including natural orbital (PINO) theory. The Löwdin-Shull expression for the energy of two-electron systems in terms of the natural orbitals and their phases affords in this case an exact phase-including natural orbital functional (PILS), which is non-primitive (contains other than just J and K integrals). In this paper, the extension of the PILS functional to N-electron systems is investigated. With the example of an elementary primitive NO functional (BBC1) it is shown that current density matrix functional theory ground state functionals, which were designed to produce decent approximations to the total energy, fail to deliver a qualitatively correct structure of the (inverse) response function, due to essential deficiencies in the reconstruction of the two-body reduced density matrix (2RDM). We now deduce essential features of an N-electron functional from a wavefunction Ansatz: The extension of the two-electron Löwdin-Shull wavefunction to the N-electron case informs about the phase information. In this paper, applications of this extended Löwdin-Shull (ELS) functional are considered for the simplest case, ELS(1): one (dissociating) two-electron bond in the field of occupied (including core) orbitals. ELS(1) produces high quality ω{sub α}(R) curves along the bond dissociation coordinate R for the molecules LiH, Li{sub 2}, and BH with the two outer valence electrons correlated. All of these results indicate that response properties are much more sensitive to deficiencies in the reconstruction of the 2RDM than the ground state energy, since derivatives of the functional with respect to both the NOs and the occupation numbers need to be accurate.

  8. Molecular host-guest energy-transfer system with an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold employing an ambipolar semiconducting host matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Stefano; Capelli, Raffaella; Hwu, Tsyr-Yuan; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Plötzing, Tobias; Först, Michael; Muccini, Michele

    2010-01-14

    We report on the characteristics of a host-guest lasing system obtained by coevaporation of an oligo(9,9-diarylfluorene) derivative named T3 with the red-emitter 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (DCM). We demonstrate that the ambipolar semiconductor T3 can be implemented as an active matrix in the realization of a host-guest system in which an efficient energy transfer takes place from the T3 matrix to the lasing DCM molecules. We performed a detailed spectroscopic study on the system by systematically varying the DCM concentration in the T3 matrix. Measurements of steady-state photoluminescence (PL), PL quantum yield (PLQY), time-resolved picosecond PL, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold are used to optimize the acceptor concentration at which the ASE from DCM molecules takes place with the lowest threshold. The sample with a DCM relative deposition ratio of 2% shows an ASE threshold as low as 0.6 kW/cm(2) and a net optical gain measured by femtosecond time-resolved pump-and-probe spectroscopy as high as 77 cm(-1). The reference model system Alq(3):DCM sample measured in exactly the same experimental conditions presents an one-order-of-magnitude higher ASE threshold. The ASE threshold of T3:DCM is the lowest reported to date for a molecular host-guest energy-transfer system, which makes the investigated blend an appealing system for use as an active layer in lasing devices. In particular, the ambipolar charge transport properties of the T3 matrix and its field-effect characteristics make the host-guest system presented here an ideal candidate for the realization of electrically pumped organic lasers.

  9. Matrix Representation of Global Power Energy Internet Topology%全球电力能源互联网拓扑的矩阵表述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗新; 张东霞; 宋璇坤

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of network topology connectivity representation of the global power energy internet,by employing the network connection matrix analysis method,the earth”s continents,poles and their interconnections are abstracted as eight nodes and connection channels,which form a connected network and the corresponding connection matrix. Typical power system sectionalizing states and single/bidirectional connection types are selected.Then the spectral norms and spectral condition numbers of the corresponding connection matrixes are calculated and analyzed.The ill-conditioned connection matrixes are improved.The results show that the spectral norm and the spectral condition number can be used as the representation parameters of connection matrixes of the global power energy internet topology.The spectral norm can be used to characterize the complexity of the network topology connectivity.The stability or sensitivity of the corresponding system can be characterized by the spectral condition number.Analyzing system stability using the network connection matrix can serve as an analytical tool for the interconnection of bulk power networks.%为了解决全球电力能源互联网的连通性表述问题,应用网络连通矩阵分析方法,将全球各洲、两极及其互联抽象为8个节点和连接通道,组成连通网络及相应连通矩阵。选取出典型的系统解列状态及单/双向连接类型,计算分析相应连通矩阵的谱范数和谱条件数,改善其中的病态连通矩阵。结果表明,谱范数和谱条件数可以作为全球电力能源互联网拓扑连通矩阵的表述参数。谱范数可以表征其对应网络拓扑连通性的复杂程度。谱条件数可以表征其对应系统的稳定性或者敏感度。利用网络连通矩阵分析稳定性,可以作为大电网互联的一种分析手段。

  10. Relativistic many-body calculations of energy levels, hyperfine constants, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities for alkali-metal atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Derevianko, S A

    1999-01-01

    Removal energies and hyperfine constants of the lowest four $ns, np_{1/2}$ and $np_{3/2}$ states in Na, K, Rb and Cs are calculated; removal energies of the n=7--10 states and hyperfine constants of the n=7 and 8 states in Fr are also calculated. The calculations are based on the relativistic single-double (SD) approximation in which single and double excitations of Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) wave functions are included to all-orders in perturbation theory. Using SD wave functions, accurate values of removal energies, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities are obtained, however, SD wave functions give poor values of magnetic-dipole hyperfine constants for heavy atoms. To obtain accurate values of hyperfine constants for heavy atoms, we include triple excitations partially in the wave functions. The present calculations provide the basis for reevaluating PNC amplitudes in Cs and Fr.

  11. GGA+U study of uranium mononitride: A comparison of the U-ramping and occupation matrix schemes and incorporation energies of fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Antoine; Klipfel, Marco; Lindbom, Niclas; Freyss, Michel; Olsson, Pär

    2016-09-01

    Uranium mononitride is studied in the DFT + U framework. Its ground state is investigated and a study of the incorporation of diverse fission products in the crystal is conducted. The U-ramping and occupation matrix control (OMC) schemes are used to eliminate metastable states. Beyond a certain amount of introduced correlation, the OMC scheme starts to find a lower total energy. The OMC scheme is chosen for the second part of this study. Furthermore, the influence of the magnetic ordering is studied using the U-ramping method, showing that antiferromagnetic order is the most stable one when the U parameter is larger than 1.75 eV. The effect on the density of states is investigated and elastic constants are provided for comparison with other methods and experiments. The incorporation energies of fission products in different defect configurations are calculated and these energies are corrected to take into account the limited size of the supercell.

  12. Actual overview on the wind energy and perspectives for Brazil; Panorama atual da energia eolica e perspectivas para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, Fernanda Fortes; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Wilss, William [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LIMA/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente], Emails: fforteswestin@yahoo.com.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br, wwills@lima.coppe.ufrj.br; Goodward, Jenna [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present stage of energy in the world and its developpement although recent in Brazil. pointing out the main advantages and disadvantages face to other existent electric energy sources, considering the perspectives o sustainable development and their risks for the electric sector. The growing perspective of participation of that source in the Brazilian electric matrix, it complementary paper of that source in front of other sources, between other points are considered in this study.

  13. Effect of tritium reduction in determining energy gain by using R-matrix method direct laser fusion in D-T reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.N. HOSSEINI MOTLAGH; Sh.S.MOHAMADY; M.Kh. MORADKHANI; R. SHAMSI

    2007-01-01

    The laser fusion criterion is known as the ρR-Criterion, also called high-gain condition. This parameter is temperature dependent and can be calculated by R-matrix method. This method is applied for determining improved fusion cross-section for the reactions T(d,n)4He, 3He(d,p)4He, D(d,p)T, D(d,n)3He. In this paper the time dependent reaction rate equations for fusion reaction T(d,n)4He are solved and by using the obtained results we computed the fusion power density, energy gain versus temperature and pR-parameter. The obtained results show that a suitable combination may be a deuterium fraction fD=0.65 and fT=0.35 which would lead 30% reduction in the tritium content of the fuel mixture, and this choice would not change the energy gain value very much. Finally, the obtained energy gain for D-T reaction by using R-matrix is in good agreement with other theories.

  14. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  15. Feasibility for direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering analysis of complex matrix liquids by partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeyo, K H; Gari, S; Mustapha, A O; Mangala, J M

    2012-11-01

    The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. We exploited partial least squares (PLS) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry to rapidly (200 s) analyze lubricating oils. The PLS-EDXRFS method affords non-invasive quality assurance (QA) analysis of complex matrix liquids as it gave optimistic results for both heavy- and low-Z metal additives. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements.

  16. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  17. The potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in the Brazilian industrial sector; Potencial de reducao de emissao de gases de efeito estufa pelo uso de energia no setor industrial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio Francisco

    2010-05-15

    This study seeks to quantify the reductions that can be achieved in CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fuels by Brazilian industries in a long-term low-carbon scenario. We model two horizons, for 2030 and 2050, and also for each sector quantify the abatement costs and other economic parameters and the main technological options applicable, namely: enhanced energy efficiency; replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources or ones with a smaller carbon footprint; elimination of the use of biomass from deforestation; and cogeneration. In the low-carbon scenario for 2030, a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of some 40% can be achieved that year, or approximately 1.5 billion tCO{sub 2} over the period from 2010 to 2030. These reductions would require substantial investments, but in most cases they would be economically attractive, with low or negative abatement costs. For 2050, we modeled a more aggressive scenario, through faster implementation of some specific measures and introduction of new technologies. Despite the possibility of favorable economic results, companies have been reluctant to adopt several of the mitigation measures examined. We discuss some policies, including granting incentives, to overcome the barriers and difficulties to wider adoption of mitigation measures. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the Office of Fusion Energy/DOE workshop on ceramic matrix composites for structural applications in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Lucas, G.E. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop to assess the potential application of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for structural applications in fusion reactors was held on May 21--22, 1990, at University of California, Santa Barbara. Participants included individuals familiar with materials and design requirements in fusion reactors, ceramic composite processing and properties and radiation effects. The primary focus was to list the feasibility issues that might limit the application of these materials in fusion reactors. Clear advantages for the use of CMCs are high-temperature operation, which would allow a high-efficiency Rankine cycle, and low activation. Limitations to their use are material costs, fabrication complexity and costs, lack of familiarity with these materials in design, and the lack of data on radiation stability at relevant temperatures and fluences. Fusion-relevant feasibility issues identified at this workshop include: hermetic and vacuum properties related to effects of matrix porosity and matrix microcracking; chemical compatibility with coolant, tritium, and breeder and multiplier materials, radiation effects on compatibility; radiation stability and integrity; and ability to join CMCs in the shop and at the reactor site, radiation stability and integrity of joints. A summary of ongoing CMC radiation programs is also given. It was suggested that a true feasibility assessment of CMCs for fusion structural applications could not be completed without evaluation of a material tailored'' to fusion conditions or at least to radiation stability. It was suggested that a follow-up workshop be held to design a tailored composite after the results of CMC radiation studies are available and the critical feasibility issues are addressed.

  19. Calculation of isotopic mass and energy production by a matrix operator method. [Volterra method of the multiplicative integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.

    1976-08-01

    The Volterra method of the multiplicative integral is used to determine the isotopic density, mass, and energy production in linear systems. The solution method, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. The method allows a rapid accurate calculation of the change in isotopic density, mass, and energy production independent of the magnitude of the time steps, production or decay rates, or flux levels.

  20. Random-matrix approach to the statistical compound nuclear reaction at low energies using the Monte-Carlo technique [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    This theoretical treatment of low-energy compound nucleus reactions begins with the Bohr hypothesis, with corrections, and various statistical theories. The author investigates the statistical properties of the scattering matrix containing a Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) Hamiltonian in the propagator. The following conclusions are reached: For all parameter values studied, the numerical average of MC-generated cross sections coincides with the result of the Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller, Zirnbauer triple-integral formula. Energy average and ensemble average agree reasonably well when the width I is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the average resonance spacing d. In the strong-absorption limit, the channel degree-of-freedom ν a is 2. The direct reaction increases the inelastic cross sections while the elastic cross section is reduced.

  1. Near-IR laser generation of a high-energy conformer of L-alanine and the mechanism of its decay in a low-temperature nitrogen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudio M; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui; Reva, Igor

    2013-03-28

    Monomers of L-alanine (ALA) were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 14 K. Two conformers were identified for the compound trapped from the gas-phase into the solid nitrogen environment. The potential energy surface (PES) of ALA was theoretically calculated at the MP2 and QCISD levels. Twelve minima were located on this PES. Seven low-energy conformers fall within the 0-10 kJ mol(-1) range and should be appreciably populated in the equilibrium gas phase prior to deposition. Observation of only two forms in the matrices is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the O=C-O-H moiety in the cis orientation are separated by low barriers and collapse to the most stable form I during deposition of the matrix onto the low-temperature substrate. The second observed form II has the O=C-O-H group in the trans orientation. The remaining trans forms have very high relative energies (between 24 and 30 kJ mol(-1)) and are not populated. The high-energy trans form VI, that differs from I only by rotation of the OH group, was found to be separated from other conformers by barriers that are high enough to open a perspective for its stabilization in a matrix. The form VI was photoproduced in situ by narrow-band near-infrared irradiation of the samples at 6935-6910 cm(-1), where the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration in form I appears. The photogenerated form VI decays in N2 matrices back to conformer I with a characteristic decay time of ∼15 min. The mechanism of the VI → I relaxation is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling.

  2. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  3. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  4. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  5. A simple but accurate potential for the naphthalene-argon complex: applications to collisional energy transfer and matrix isolated IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F; Falvo, Cyril; Parneix, Pascal

    2013-01-21

    An explicit polarizable potential for the naphthalene-argon complex has been derived assuming only atomic contributions, aiming at large scale simulations of naphthalene under argon environment. The potential was parametrized from dedicated quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T) level, and satisfactorily reproduces available structural and energetic properties. Combining this potential with a tight-binding model for naphthalene, collisional energy transfer is studied by means of dedicated molecular dynamics simulations, nuclear quantum effects being accounted for in the path-integral framework. Except at low target temperature, nuclear quantum effects do not alter the average energies transferred by the collision or the collision duration. However, the distribution of energy transferred is much broader in the quantum case due to the significant zero-point energy and the higher density of states. Using an ab initio potential for the Ar-Ar interaction, the IR absorption spectrum of naphthalene solvated by argon clusters or an entire Ar matrix is computed via classical and centroid molecular dynamics. The classical spectra exhibit variations with growing argon environment that are absent from quantum spectra. This is interpreted by the greater fluxional character experienced by the argon atoms due to vibrational delocalization.

  6. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  7. The use of a diode matrix in commissioning activities for electron energies {>=}9 MeV: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi [S. C. Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Sanitaria ASL TO 4, Via Di Vittorio 1, 10015 Ivrea, Torino (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    The contribution of a commercially available diode matrix (MapCHECK trade mark sign , provided by Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) for the commissioning procedures of the voxel based Monte Carlo (VMC++) algorithm for electron beams of MasterPlan treatment planning system was investigated. The attention is mainly focused on the calculation in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. With this aim, following a data set similar to that proposed by Electron Collaborative Working Group (ECWG), the dose profiles and two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured by the diode matrix were compared with the calculated ones using the gamma analysis method with acceptance criteria for the dose difference and the distance to agreement equal to 4% and 4 mm, respectively. The average and standard deviation of the percentage of points satisfying the constraint {gamma}{<=}1 are 98.3{+-}4.1% and 99.3{+-}1.7% for the 9 and 12 MeV electron beam, respectively, showing that the accuracy of MasterPlan electron beam algorithm is good for simple two-dimensional geometries as well as for more complicated three-dimensional ones. The results are in agreement with those reported in literature by Cygler et al. [''Evaluation of the first commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning,'' Med. Phys. 31, 142-153 (2004)]. In addition, the authors have also analyzed the response of the 2D array in terms of dose profiles at different depths, comparing the results with those obtained in water phantom using an electron diode. The results show that in the low gradient regions there were no deviations larger than the criteria of acceptability set by Van Dyk et al. [''Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26, 261-273 (1993)]; in the high gradient region, the maximum deviations are less than 2 mm with most of the values less than 1 mm. The present article shows that

  8. The use of a diode matrix in commissioning activities for electron energies > or = 9 MeV: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Valeria Casanova; Pasquino, Massimo; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of a commercially available diode matrix (MapCHECK, provided by Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) for the commissioning procedures of the voxel based Monte Carlo (VMC++) algorithm for electron beams of MasterPlan treatment planning system was investigated. The attention is mainly focused on the calculation in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. With this aim, following a data set similar to that proposed by Electron Collaborative Working Group (ECWG), the dose profiles and two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured by the diode matrix were compared with the calculated ones using the gamma analysis method with acceptance criteria for the dose difference and the distance to agreement equal to 4% and 4 mm, respectively. The average and standard deviation of the percentage of points satisfying the constraint gamma < or = 1 are 98.3 +/- 4.1% and 99.3 +/- 1.7% for the 9 and 12 MeV electron beam, respectively, showing that the accuracy of MasterPlan electron beam algorithm is good for simple two-dimensional geometries as well as for more complicated three-dimensional ones. The results are in agreement with those reported in literature by Cygler et al. ["Evaluation of the first commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning," Med. Phys. 31, 142-153 (2004)]. In addition, the authors have also analyzed the response of the 2D array in terms of dose profiles at different depths, comparing the results with those obtained in water phantom using an electron diode. The results show that in the low gradient regions there were no deviations larger than the criteria of acceptability set by Van Dyk et al. ["Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26, 261-273 (1993)]; in the high gradient region, the maximum deviations are less than 2 mm with most of the values less than 1 mm. The present article shows that MapCHECK can play a useful role in the commissioning of

  9. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  10. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí cohort study of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira Ramalho; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa; Josélia O. A. Firmo; Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (< 450 MET....

  11. Matrix and energy effects during in-situ determination of Cu isotope ratios by ultraviolet-femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarov, Marina, E-mail: m.lazarov@mineralogie.uni-hannover.de; Horn, Ingo

    2015-09-01

    Copper isotope compositions in Cu-bearing metals and minerals have been measured by deep (194 nm) ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS). Pure Cu-metal, brass, and several Cu-rich minerals (chalcopyrite, enargite, covellite, malachite and cuprite) have been investigated. A long-term reproducibility of better than 0.08‰ at the 95% confidence limit on the NIST SRM 976 (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Cu-metal standard has been achieved with this technique. The δ{sup 65}Cu values for all samples have been calculated by standard-sample-standard bracketing with NIST SRM 976. All analyses have been carried out using Ni as a mass discrimination monitor added by nebulization prior to entering the plasma torch. For further verification samples have been analysed by conventional solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS and the results obtained have been compared with those from UV-fsLA-MC-ICP-MS. Several potential matrix-induced molecular interferences on the mineral copper isotope ratio, such as ({sup 32}S{sup 33}S){sup +} and ({sup 32}S-{sup 16}O{sup 17}O){sup +} do not affect the Cu isotope measurements on sulfides, while hydrides, such as Zn–H or doubly-charged Sn{sup 2+} that interfere Ni isotopes can be either neglected or stripped by calculation. Matrix independent Cu-isotope measurements are sensitive to the energy density (fluence) applied onto the sample and can produce artificial shifts in the obtained δ{sup 65}Cu values which are on the order of 3‰ for Cu-metal, 0.5‰ for brass and 0.3‰ for malachite when using energy density of up to 2 J/cm{sup 2} for ablation. A positive correlation between applied energy density and the magnitude of the isotope ratio shift has been found in the energy density range from 0.2 to 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} which is below the ablation threshold for ns-laser ablation. The results demonstrate that by using appropriate low fluence it is possible

  12. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Firmo, Josélia O A; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (MET.min/week) was 31.2%. Unhurried walking accounted for about 1/3 of total energy expenditure. Multivariate analysis based on ordinal logistic regression showed inverse associations between energy expenditure and age and hospitalizations in both sexes. Among men, inverse associations were observed with smoking, number of chronic diseases and number of medical appointments. These results emphasize the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity in older elderly, and underscore the high prevalence of walking in this group.

  13. Product-Service System Design Approach for the Base of the Pyramid Markets: Practical Evidence from the Energy Sector in the Brazilian Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Costa Junior, J.; Diehl, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In Emerging Markets, the product-service system (PSS) design approach may represent a promising solution as a socially and environmentally sound path to economic development. In addition, the energy sector has a major role for the social-economic development and is central to poverty alleviation. Th

  14. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian congress on energy planning. Public policies for energy: challenges for the next quadrennium; Anais do 5. Congresso brasileiro de planejamento energetico. Politicas publicas para a energia: desafios para o proximo quadrienio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented focusing the following subjects: energy consumption and conservation, power generation, petroleum, energy policy and management, electric power, and petroleum.

  15. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  16. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, David C. [Eck Industreis, Inc.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  17. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Eficiência energética de tratores agrícolas fabricados no Brasil Energy efficiency of Brazilian agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastão M. da Silveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, cresce o interesse global na economia de combustível fóssil e na redução das emissões de gases, por motivos econômicos e ecológicos. Neste trabalho se aplicou um método para classificação de tratores agrícolas, com base na sua eficiência energética, usando-se o consumo específico (em L kWh-1 como termo de comparação. O fator energético mais importante para essa máquina é o seu motor, seguido da transmissão. O trabalho se baseia no resultado dos ensaios de tratores realizados segundo normas brasileiras, tendo como modelo o código OECD, além de ser uma classificação de modelos de tratores fabricados no País. Os tratores movidos a álcool apresentaram consumo elevado de combustível. A metodologia permite a idéia de como os tratores se comportam, no que diz respeito à eficiência energética.Nowadays there is a growing global interest in saving fossil fuel and reducing gas emissions for economical and ecological reasons. This research applied a method of classification of agricultural tractors depending on their energy efficiency, using the specific fuel consumption (in L kWh-1 as a comparison. The most important energy factor in these machines is the engine, followed by the transmission. This research is based on results of the OECD tractor test and classifies tractor models, which have been principally sold in Brazil. The tractors fueled by ethanol presented a high level of fuel consumption. The methodology allows us to understand how tractors perform in terms of energy efficiency.

  19. Adiabatic potential energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules: Two-electron R-matrix approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tarana, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. Only diatomic molecules are considered. The method is based on a two-electron \\rmath approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is put into a test by its application to a study of Rydberg states of the hydrogen molecule for internuclear distances $R$ from 20 to 400 bohrs and energies corresponding to $n$ from 3 to 22. The results are compared with previous quantum chemical calculations (lower quantum numbers $n$) and computations based on contact potential models (higher quantum numbers $n$).

  20. Technical and economical analysis of the energy recovery during in incineration of urban solid residues; Analise tecnico-economica da recuperacao de energia durante a incineracao de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavio N.; Lora, Electo S.; Martins, Andre R.S. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1999-07-01

    This work conducts a technical and economical evaluation on the energetic recovering of an incinerator with processing capacity of 600 t/h of urban solid residues, resulting from electric power generation (gas turbines) and cooling (absorption systems) using garbage and natural gas. The results allow the conclusion that besides the social and environmental benefits resulting from the elimination of the contamination potential, an electric energy surplus can be generated for inclusion in the Brazilian energy matrix.

  1. KANTBP: A program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Abrashkevich, A. G.; Amaya-Tapia, A.; Kaschiev, M. S.; Larsen, S. Y.; Vinitsky, S. I.

    2007-10-01

    A FORTRAN 77 program is presented which calculates energy values, reaction matrix and corresponding radial wave functions in a coupled-channel approximation of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. In this approach, a multi-dimensional Schrödinger equation is reduced to a system of the coupled second-order ordinary differential equations on the finite interval with homogeneous boundary conditions of the third type. The resulting system of radial equations which contains the potential matrix elements and first-derivative coupling terms is solved using high-order accuracy approximations of the finite-element method. As a test desk, the program is applied to the calculation of the energy values and reaction matrix for an exactly solvable 2D-model of three identical particles on a line with pair zero-range potentials. Program summaryProgram title: KANTBP Catalogue identifier: ADZH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4224 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 232 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: Intel Xeon EM64T, Alpha 21264A, AMD Athlon MP, Pentium IV Xeon, Opteron 248, Intel Pentium IV Operating system: OC Linux, Unix AIX 5.3, SunOS 5.8, Solaris, Windows XP RAM: depends on (a) the number of differential equations; (b) the number and order of finite-elements; (c) the number of hyperradial points; and (d) the number of eigensolutions required. Test run requires 30 MB Classification: 2.1, 2.4 External routines: GAULEG and GAUSSJ [W.H. Press, B.F. Flanery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterley, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986] Nature of problem: In the hyperspherical adiabatic

  2. Technological management: an approach on the development of the industrial combustion according to the brazilian reality; Gestao tecnologica: uma abordagem sobre desenvolvimento da combustao industrial segundo a realidade brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Jose Joaquim de [PETROBRAS S.A., Sao Mateus do Sul, PR (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Industrializacao do Xisto (SIX)], e-mail: edsouza@petrobras.com.br; Lodi, Cristiane [PETROBRAS Gas e Energia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: cristianelodi@petrobras.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Combustion sciences in the Brazilian industry have always had important difference of other developed and developing countries. Over the last twenty years the dangling economical growing tax, new emission control demands and the harder presence of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix have leaded to an uncommon technology pattern in industrial combustion. Nowadays the Brazilian industry, which deals with combustion in boilers, furnaces and heating demand non-conventional solutions. Some problems may be easily solved by the application of combustion fundamentals and thermodynamic principles; others yet really need an updated approach and high tech solutions some of them based upon upcoming knowledge. Any managing approach for classifying and ranking research and development projects must consider such differences. The actual Brazilian knowledge in combustion sciences allows fitted solutions to almost all industry needs and also opportunities for innovation. However the main challenge is to join and keep all players and drivers under the same target, spreading the available knowledge in order to reduce the technology gap and promoting the development in combustion sciences. This paper presents a set of guidelines for knowledge managing, prospecting and investment in R and D programs in the field of industrial combustion in Brazil. (author)

  3. Energy crisis and rationing: a comparison between the argentinian and brazilian programs; Crisis energetica y racionamiento: los programas de Argentina y Brasil, una comparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbiztondo, Santiago; Navajas, Fernando [Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Latinoamericanas (FIEL)(Argentina)

    2006-01-15

    Although they have been equitable compared, the energy policies taken by Brazil and Argentina as a solution to the energy crisis lived by each one of these countries in years 2001 and 2002, they have enormous differences in terms of the real problem and nature of the established measures. Firstly the central aspects of the demand rationing mechanism adopted by Brazil for the electrical crisis of 2001 are presented. Afterwards the measures adopted in Argentina during the 2004 crisis in the electricity and natural gas rationing are discussed. From this exhibition of facts, comparisons are made and conclusions extracted looking forward to clarify the important differences separating both cases, differences that as the study reveals meant for the Argentine scheme the breach of the expected objectives. In the last section the changes implemented in the Argentine scheme are reflected during year 2005 to counteract the bad results obtained, nevertheless this modifications attacked only in a partial way the original program weaknesses. [Spanish] Si bien han sido comparadas equitativamente, las politicas energeticas tomadas por Brasil y Argentina como solucion a las crisis energeticas vividas por cada uno en el 2001 y 2004 presentan enormes diferencias a nivel de problema real y naturaleza de las medidas establecidas. Primeramente son presentados los aspectos centrales del mecanismo de racionamiento de la demanda adoptados por Brasil en la crisis electrica de 2001. Luego se comentan las medidas adoptadas en Argentina durante su crisis en el ano 2004 en el racionamiento de electricidad y gas natural. A partir de esta exposicion de hechos se realizan comparaciones y se extraen conclusiones que buscan clarificar las importantes diferencias que separan a ambos casos, diferencias que, como revela el estudio, significaron para el esquema argentino el incumplimiento de los objetivos esperados. En la ultima seccion se reflejan los cambios implementados en el esquema argentino

  4. Properties and applications of photon counting and energy resolved X-ray matrix detectors; Eigenschaften und Einsatzgebiete photonenzaehlender und energieaufloesender Roentgenmatrixdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, David; Zscherpel, Uwe; Ewert, Uwe [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Ullberg, Christer; Weber, Niclas; Urech, Mattias [XCounter AB, Danderyd (Sweden); Pantsar, Tuomas; Perez-Fuster, Katya [Ajat Oy Ltd., Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    The use of highly absorbing photoconductor materials (e.g. CdTe) for the production of matrix X-ray detectors allows for a number of years, the direct conversion of X-rays into evaluable electrical signals, for the NDT energy to 300 keV too. The conventional scintillator is omitted, resulting in a reduction of image blurring and an increase in efficiency due to the much larger absorption thicknesses result. Also can be at a sufficiently fast readout speed (50 - 100 ns dead time) count single photons and determine their energy. Thus, the readout noise and the dark image correction omitted. Furthermore, one can detect or hide selectively certain areas of the X-ray energy spectrum by defining energy threshold values. This feature allows one the one hand, the discrimination of materials through the dual energy technology and on the other hand, the reduction of the detected scattered radiation, thereby increasing the contrast sensitivity. In order to use these advantages efficiently, a special calibration procedure is required, which must take into account time-dependent processes in the detector layer. Presented here are the properties of this new generation of X-ray detectors matrix compared to traditional indirect converting detectors based on reference measurements on fiber composite components and thick-walled steel tubes (up to 35 mm). Further possible applications in NDT are discussed with regard to the material discrimination especially within fiber composites (eg CFRP and GFRP).(Contains PowerPoint slides). [German] Der Einsatz von hochabsorbierenden Photoleitermaterialien (z.B. CdTe) zur Herstellung von Roentgen-Matrixdetektoren ermoeglicht seit einigen Jahren die direkte Konvertierung von Roentgenstrahlen in auswertbare elektrische Signale, auch fuer den ZfP-Energiebereich bis 300 keV. Die herkoemmliche Szintillatorschicht entfaellt, was eine Verringerung der Bildunschaerfe und eine Effizienzsteigerung aufgrund der deutlich groesseren Absorptionsdicken zur

  5. R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

  6. Virus-induced dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by increased levels of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and reduced amounts of energy-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtala, Krishnatej; Phong, Truong Q; Steil, Leif; Sauter, Martina; Salazar, Manuela G; Kandolf, Reinhard; Kroemer, Heyo K; Felix, Stephan B; Völker, Uwe; Klingel, Karin; Hammer, Elke

    2011-11-01

    The most relevant clinical phenotype resulting from chronic enteroviral myocarditis is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Mice of the susceptible mouse strain A.BY/SnJ mimick well human DCM since they develop as a consequence of persistent infection and chronic inflammation a dilation of the heart ventricle several weeks after coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Therefore, this model is well suited for the analysis of changes in the heart proteome associated with DCM. Here, we present a proteomic survey of the dilated hearts based on differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric centered methods in comparison to age-matched non-infected hearts. In total, 101 distinct proteins, which belong to categories immunity and defense, cell structure and associated proteins, energy metabolism and protein metabolism/modification differed in their levels in both groups. Levels of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism and electron transport chain were found to be significantly reduced in infected mice suggesting a decrease in energy production in CVB3-induced DCM. Furthermore, proteins associated with muscle contraction (MLRV, MLRc2, MYH6, MyBPC3), were present in significantly altered amounts in infected mice. A significant increase in the level of extracellular matrix proteins in the dilated hearts indicates cardiac remodeling due to fibrosis.

  7. Different effects of energy dependent irradiation of red and green lights on proliferation of human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani Soltani, Samereh; Babaee, Abdolreza; Shojaei, Mohammad; Salehinejad, Parvin; Seyedi, Fatemeh; JalalKamali, Mahshid; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-02-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LED) have recently been introduced as a potential factor for proliferation of various cell types in vitro. Nowadays, stem cells are widely used in regenerative medicine. Human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cells can be more easily isolated and cultured than adult mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red and green lights produced by LED on the proliferation of hUCM cells. hUCM cells were isolated from the umbilical cord, and light irradiation was applied at radiation energies of 0.318, 0.636, 0.954, 1.59, 3.18, 6.36, 9.54, and 12.72 J/cm(2). Irradiation of the hUCM cells shows a significant (p cell number as compared to controls after 40 h. In addition, cell proliferation on days 7, 14, and 21 in irradiated groups were significantly (p red and green lights irradiation to promote proliferation of hUCM cells in vitro. The energy applied to the cells through LED irradiation is an effective factor with paradoxical alterations. Green light inserted a much profound effect at special dosages than red light.

  8. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  9. KANTBP 2.0: New version of a program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Abrashkevich, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    A FORTRAN 77 program for calculating energy values, reaction matrix and corresponding radial wave functions in a coupled-channel approximation of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach is presented. In this approach, a multi-dimensional Schrödinger equation is reduced to a system of the coupled second-order ordinary differential equations on a finite interval with homogeneous boundary conditions: (i) the Dirichlet, Neumann and third type at the left and right boundary points for continuous spectrum problem, (ii) the Dirichlet and Neumann type conditions at left boundary point and Dirichlet, Neumann and third type at the right boundary point for the discrete spectrum problem. The resulting system of radial equations containing the potential matrix elements and first-derivative coupling terms is solved using high-order accuracy approximations of the finite element method. As a test desk, the program is applied to the calculation of the reaction matrix and radial wave functions for 3D-model of a hydrogen-like atom in a homogeneous magnetic field. This version extends the previous version 1.0 of the KANTBP program [O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, A.G. Abrashkevich, A. Amaya-Tapia, M.S. Kaschiev, S.Y. Larsen, S.I. Vinitsky, Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 649-675]. Program summaryProgram title: KANTBP Catalogue identifier: ADZH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZH_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 403 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147 563 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: Intel Xeon EM64T, Alpha 21264A, AMD Athlon MP, Pentium IV Xeon, Opteron 248, Intel Pentium IV Operating system: OC Linux, Unix AIX 5.3, SunOS 5.8, Solaris, Windows XP RAM: This depends on the

  10. Matrix theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A new classical theory of gravitation within the framework of general relativity is presented. It is based on a matrix formulation of four-dimensional Riemann-spaces and uses no artificial fields or adjustable parameters. The geometrical stress-energy tensor is derived from a matrix-trace Lagrangian, which is not equivalent to the curvature scalar R. To enable a direct comparison with the Einstein-theory a tetrad formalism is utilized, which shows similarities to teleparallel gravitation theories, but uses complex tetrads. Matrix theory might solve a 27-year-old, fundamental problem of those theories (sec. 4.1). For the standard test cases (PPN scheme, Schwarzschild-solution) no differences to the Einstein-theory are found. However, the matrix theory exhibits novel, interesting vacuum solutions.

  11. Simultaneous Counter-Ion Co-Deposition a Technique Enabling Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy Studies Using Low-Energy Beams of Mass-Selected Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ryan M.; Moore, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Matrix isolation spectroscopy was first developed in Pimentel's group during the 1950's to facilitate spectroscopic studies of transient species. Cryogenic matrices of condensed rare gases provide an inert chemical environment with facile energy dissipation and are transparent at all wavelengths longer than vacuum UV, making them ideal for studying labile and reactive species such as radicals, weakly bound complexes, and ions. Since frozen rare gases are poor electrolytes, studies of ions require near-equal populations of anions and cations in order to stabilize the number densities required for spectroscopic experiments. Many techniques for generation of ions for using in matrix isolation studies satisfy this criterion intrinsically, however when ion beams generated in external sources are deposited, the counter-ions typically arise via secondary processes that are at best loosely controlled. It has long been recognized that it would be desirable to stabilize deposition of mass-selected ions generated in an external source using simultaneous co-deposition of a beam of counter-ions, however previous attempts to achieve this have been reported as unsuccessful. The Moore group at Lehigh has demonstrated successful experiments of this type, using mass-selected anions generated from a metal cluster source, co-deposited with a balanced current of cations generated in a separate electron ionization source. This talk will focus on the details of the technique, and present some results from proof-of-concept studies on anionic copper carbonyl complexes formed in argon matrices following co-deposition of Cu- with Ar+ or Kr+. Funding support from NSF CAREER Award CHE-0955637 is gratefully acknowledged. Whittle et al., J. Chem. Phys. 22, p.1943 (1954); Becker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 25, p.224 (1956). Godbout et al., J. Chem. Phys. 96, p.2892 (1996). Sabo et al., Appl. Spectrosc. 45, p. 535 (1991).

  12. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  13. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  14. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  15. Matrix elements of unstable states

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, V; Meißner, U -G; Rusetsky, A

    2012-01-01

    Using the language of non-relativistic effective Lagrangians, we formulate a systematic framework for the calculation of resonance matrix elements in lattice QCD. The generalization of the L\\"uscher-Lellouch formula for these matrix elements is derived. We further discuss in detail the procedure of the analytic continuation of the resonance matrix elements into the complex energy plane and investigate the infinite-volume limit.

  16. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Levorato, Mario; Frota, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtai...

  17. Evolution of the energy content and emissions of CO{sub 2} associated with Brazilian economic production between 1990 and 2030: a hybrid approach; Evolucao do conteudo energetico e das emissoes de CO{sub 2} associadas a producao economica brasileira entre 1990 e 2030: uma abordagem hibrida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de; Queiroz, Renato Pinto de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br, e-mail: jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, e-mail: ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br, e-mail: renato.queiroz@epe.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes um hybrid approach to analyze the results of the Energy National Plan 2030, performed by EPE, a state owned Enterprise of Energy Research. The model integrates the energy data to macroeconomics, giving them consistence, from the input-output analysis. The resultant matrixes from this methodology are use to analyze the evolution of energy content and the CO{sub 2} emissions associated to the economic production of choose sectors. (author)

  18. Upconversion nanophosphor: an efficient phosphopeptides-recognizing matrix and luminescence resonance energy transfer donor for robust detection of protein kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenghui; Chang, Lijuan; Wang, Honghong; Bai, Jie; Ren, Wei; Li, Zhengping

    2014-06-17

    Protein kinases play important regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction pathways. The aberrant activities of protein kinases are closely associated with the development of various diseases, which necessitates the development of practical and sensitive assays for monitoring protein kinase activities as well as for screening of potential kinase-targeted drugs. We demonstrate here a robust luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET)-based protein kinase assay by using NaYF4:Yb,Er, one of the most efficient upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs), as an autofluorescence-free LRET donor and a tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled substrate peptide as the acceptor. Fascinatingly, besides acting as the LRET donor, NaYF4:Yb,Er UCNPs also serve as the phosphopeptide-recognizing matrix because the intrinsic rare earth ions of UCNPs can specifically capture the fluorescent phosphopeptides catalyzed by protein kinases over the unphosphorylated ones. Therefore, a sensitive and generic protein kinase assay is developed in an extremely simple mix-and-read format without any requirement of surface modification, substrate immobilization, separation, or washing steps, showing great potential in protein kinases-related clinical diagnosis and drug discovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report by use of rare earth-doped UCNPs as both the phospho-recognizing and signal reporting elements for protein kinase analysis.

  19. Spin Density Matrix Elements in Exclusive rho^0 Electroproduction on 1H and 2H Targets at 27.5 GeV Beam Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A

    2009-01-01

    Spin Density Matrix Elements (SDMEs) describing the angular distribution of exclusive rho^0 electroproduction and decay are determined in the HERMES experiment with 27.6 GeV beam energy and unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets. Eight (fifteen) SDMEs that are related (unrelated) to the longitudinal polarization of the beam are extracted in the kinematic region 1 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 7 GeV^2, 3.0 GeV < W < 6.3 GeV, and -t < 0.4 GeV^2. Within the given experimental uncertainties, a hierarchy of relative sizes of helicity amplitudes is observed. Kinematic dependences of all SDMEs on Q^2 and t are presented, as well as the longitudinal-to-transverse rho^0 electroproduction cross section ratio as a function of Q^2. A small but statistically significant deviation from the hypothesis of s-channel helicity conservation is observed. An indication is seen of a contribution of unnatural-parity-exchange amplitudes; these amplitudes are naturally generated with a quark-exchange mechanism.

  20. R-matrix calculation of integral and differential cross sections for low-energy electron impact excitations of N2 molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M; Morokuma, Keiji; Tashiro, Motomichi

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy electron impact excitations of N$_2$ molecules are studied using the fixed-bond R-matrix method based on state-averaged complete active space SCF orbitals. Thirteen target electronic states of N$_2$ are included in the model within a valence configuration interaction representations of the target states. Integrated as well as differential cross sections of the $A^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{+}$, $B^{3} \\Pi_{g}$, $W^{3} \\Delta_{u}$, ${B'}^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{-}$, ${a'}^{1} \\Sigma_{u}^{-}$, $a^{1} \\Pi_{g}$, $w^{1} \\Delta_{u}$ and $C^{3} \\Pi_{u}$ states are calculated and compared with the previous experimental measurements. These excitations, especially of the higher four states, have not been studied enough theoretically in the previous literature. In general, good agreements are observed both in the integrated and differential cross sections. However, some discrepancies are seen in the integrated cross sections of the $A^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{+}$ and $C^{3} \\Pi_{u}$ states, especially around a peak structure.

  1. Matrix Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  2. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  3. Energy planning and sustainable development: Brazil in the opposite; Planejamento energetico e desenvolvimento sustentado: o Brasil na contramao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, A.W.S. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Akamatsu, J.I.; Sena, G.J.; Silva, F.E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Energy is a factor of great importance in modern societies. Generate, transport and distribute energy to the development of modern societies have become quite complex tasks if performed within the concepts of sustainability and environmental preservation. This paper presents some Brazilian data, showing that not always the decision-makers in governments are aware of the importance of these concepts. Brazil is one of the countries with the cleanest energy matrix in the world, however does not give us the right to neglect our future plans. The social and environmental externality concepts are not yet in everyday life of Brazilian people, the modern problems are increasingly intertwined and it is not possible to evaluate them without a broad analysis of all the issues such as education. (author)

  4. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  5. [Co(salen)] derived Co/Co3O4 nanoparticle@carbon matrix as high-performance electrode for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, E.; Gurunathan, P.; Das, Himadri T.; Ramesha, K.; Elumalai, P.

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt/cobalt oxide nanoparticle-embedded in a carbon matrix was synthesized by one spot pyrolysis of cobalt salen complex [Co(salen)] at 800 °C in an argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the presence of Co and Co3O4 in the carbon matrix. The SEM and TEM observations showed the homogeneous distribution of the Co/Co3O4 grains on the carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies done on the CR2032 coin cell confirmed that the Co/Co3O4@carbon matrix was electrochemically active. A stable specific capacity as high as 1000 mA h g-1 has been observed over 50 charge-discharge cycles at C/5 rate. It is believed that the carbon matrix acted both as a spacer to accommodate volume changes during Li intercalation-deintercalation process and also as conductive network leading to the excellent electrochemical performance of the Co/Co3O4@carbon matrix. Further, supercapacitor studies revealed that a specific capacitance of 615 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 has been exhibited by the Co/Co3O4@carbon matrix electrode in 1 M KOH with high Coulombic efficiency (92%) as well as excellent cycling stability for 5000 cycles.

  6. Operation of the matrix converter as energy sources link of variable voltage; Operacion del convertidor matricial como enlace de fuentes de energia de voltaje variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Garcia, J. M; Hernandez-Figueroa, M. A; Estrada Garcia, H. J; Martinez-Patino, J [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mails: jm.lozano@ugto.mx; mahf@ugto.mx; hestrada@ugto.mx; jesusmp23@ugto.mx

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy technologies, as wind turbines, have had a remarkable penetration in power systems worldwide, causing that actual power grids became dependent and vulnerable to the variability of the energy generated by this type of resource. In that sense, power converters provide a crucial function in the performance of the overall electrical system when they are used as links between this type of generators and the power system. In this paper, a matrix converter is proposed as link device, to cope with distorted and variable voltages as the ones found in wind turbines operation where generated voltages are directly dependent on wind's speed. An analysis of its main functional characteristics when it operates subject to distorted input-voltage condition, in order to synthesize a set of output voltages with constant magnitude and frequency and without harmonic distortion, is presented. Numerical simulations and experimental results from a laboratory-scale prototype are presented to validate the converter performance. [Spanish] La gran penetracion que ha tenido la generacion de energia mediante recursos renovables, como los generadores eolicos, en el mercado energetico, han ocasionado que las redes electricas sean mas dependientes y vulnerables a la variabilidad de la energia que se genera con este tipo de recursos. En ese sentido, los convertidores de potencia utilizados como enlace entre este tipo de generadores y el sistema electrico son determinantes en el comportamiento final que se tendra en el sistema electrico. En el presente trabajo se propone la utilizacion del convertidor matricial como dispositivo de enlace y se analizan sus caracteristicas operativas en casos donde se requiere la generacion de senales de voltaje sinusoidales y con valores constantes tanto en magnitud como en frecuencia a partir de senales variables, situacion que se presenta comunmente en los aerogeneradores donde el voltaje generado depende directamente de la velocidad del

  7. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  8. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  9. Implementation of the Brazilian National Repository - RBMN Project - 13008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia Oliveira de Tello, Cledola [CDTN - Center for Development of Nuclear Technology, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6.627 - Campus UFMG - Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). Besides this NPP, in the National Energy Program is previewed the installation of four more plants, by 2030. In November 2008, CNEN launched the Project RBMN (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes), which aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (authors)

  10. The Brazilian strategy for the hydrogen economy; A estrategia brasileira para economia do hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maiana Brito de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the Brazilian strategy in the development of technology related to hydrogen and the fuel cell systems. The Brazilian program and road map in the area are analyzed: the Program on Science, Technology and Innovation for the Hydrogen Economy - Pro H2, former Brazilian Program of the Fuel Cell Systems-ProCaC which was created in 2002 by the Ministry of Science, Technology - MCT, and the Road map for Structuring of the Hydrogen Economy in Brazil, which was created in 2004 by the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. (author)

  11. The impacts of the generation of biomass power plants in the Brazilian hydrothermal dispatch and its influence on the formation of prices of electric power in Brazil; Os impactos da geracao de usinas a biomassa no despacho hidrotermico brasileiro e sua influencia na formacao do preco da energia eletrica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz Eduardo S.; Ribeiro, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: luizeduardo_jf@yahoo.com.br, pfribeiro@ieee.org; Tardin, Thiago V. [Engenho Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: thiago@engenho.com

    2009-07-01

    The positive and negative impacts of the electric energy generation from biomass of sugar in the Brazilian energy matrix are presented, as well as in the hydrothermal dispatch. Studies on the impacts of the generation sources using sugar cane bagasse in the operational planning and in the composition of the electric energy price are done. Computational implementations using optimized methods, as the stochastic dual dynamic programing, are done, to support the decision making and to compare the obtained results. It is, also presented the commercialization rules for energy in the Free Contracting Environment and in the Regulated Contracting Environment related to the alternative sources of energy, as well as the mechanisms of encouraged energy auction (reserve auction) and the rules for commercialization of energy applied to encouraged sources.

  12. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  14. Metal matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Rohatgi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the world wide upsurge in metal matrix composite research and development activities with particular emphasis on cast metal-matrix particulate composites. Extensive applications of cast aluminium alloy MMCs in day-to-day use in transportation as well as durable good industries are expected to advance rapidly in the next decade. The potential for extensive application of cast composites is very large in India, especially in the areas of transportation, energy and electromechanical machinery; the extensive use of composites can lead to large savings in materials and energy, and in several instances, reduce environmental pollution. It is important that engineering education and short-term courses be organized to bring MMCs to the attention of students and engineering industry leaders. India already has excellent infrastructure for development of composites, and has a long track record of world class research in cast metal matrix particulate composites. It is now necessary to catalyze prototype and regular production of selected composite components, and get them used in different sectors, especially railways, cars, trucks, buses, scooters and other electromechanical machinery. This will require suitable policies backed up by funding to bring together the first rate talent in cast composites which already exists in India, to form viable development groups followed by setting up of production plants involving the process engineering capability already available within the country. On the longer term, cast composites should be developed for use in energy generation equipment, electronic packaging aerospace systems, and smart structures.

  15. Reflections about the Brazilian energy policy from a project of DSM (Demand Side Management) in low-income social strata in the Manaus city, AM, Brazil; Reflexoes sobre a politica energetica brasileira a partir de um projeto de GLD (Gerenciamento pelo Lado da Demanda) em extrato social de baixa renda na cidade de Manaus, AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, Ilsa; Cartaxo, Elizabeth [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    Considering the peculiarities of the different Brazilian regions, this article reports a survey developed in the city of Manaus - AM and makes a political analysis about the electric energy and environmental impacts arising. The main objective is to discuss the importance of rational energy consumption in a region where they add, the problems on the depletion of energy resources, the climatic difficulties, geographical and economic interests inherent in the capitalist system. Within this reality this article discuss aspects of a study by the Amazon Federal University, in the context of a project on energy efficiency. The project swapped 66 inefficient air conditioners for equipment with the stamp PROCEL energy efficiency in seven public schools in the Manaus city. Alongside the exchange program, an educational program selected 111 students whose homes were also monitored through the history of consumption during the life of the project. The result s of monitoring was demonstrated an economy of substantial energy (31%) whereas, in homes, there was no exchange of air conditioners. Should be the positive results only to a new position with respect to the final use of electric energy. It was found that the user's public school belongs to the group of low -income consumers and small the opportunity to reduce their consumption. Consequently, the results point to the inefficient application of resources that limit the possibilities for projects with greater economic and social return. (author)

  16. Use of RAPD molecular markers on differentiation of brazilian and chinese Ganoderma lucidum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo do Nascimento Rolim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the Brazilian and Chinese strains of Ganoderma lucidum with molecular RAPD markers. A similarity matrix was elaborated and the RAPD profiles of G. lucidum strains were also compared to two other Ganoderma spp: G. applanatum and G. lipsiense in order to produce genetic similarity among the species. Based on the primers used, it was possible to determine that the Brazilian strains and Chinese strain CC-22 are alike. The method and the primers selection showed to be appropriate for the genetic identification of G. lucidum strains, enabling them to be improved and used in research, as well as in the world market.

  17. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  19. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  20. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  1. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  2. Eco-compatibility in the Brazilian energy matrix: biodiesel fuel can be considered environmentally friendly?; Eco-compatibilidade na matriz energetica brasileira: o biodiesel pode ser considerado como combustivel ambientalmente correto?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Santos, Jarsia Melo dos; Cruz, Andrea Cristina da; Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, Solange Andrade; Nascimento, Mauricio Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    Based on the law 11.097/05, Brazil begins the compulsory use of biodiesel from 2008, persuading the compliance of economical, technological, social and environmental objectives. The country uses 40 billions litters of diesel per year, 15% to 17% imported, which represented in 2007, a cost superior to two billion dollars. The addition of biodiesel to diesel from 2%, 5% to 20% (limit proved as technically secure), besides providing economical and social benefits, represents environmental gains, due to emissions reduction in relation to diesel fossil. However, besides the acrolein, which can result from the burnt of possible remaining glycerin in biodiesel, the soluble fractions of this biofuel and the effluents generated during its productive processes may cause possible pollution in soil and water bodies. Eco toxicological information of co-products is incomplete, and due to technical and economical restraints for the use of ethanol, methanol is mostly used for the transesterification process of biodiesel production, even though its toxicological properties are already biodiesel/year. However, the estimated production capacity is supposed to reach 3,8 billions L by 2009, what may represent environmental constraints. The present work does not discuss all the ecological risks associated to the biodiesel productive chain. It aims to determine the toxicity of the soluble water fraction (FSA) of three different types of biodiesel: castor base oil (methylic route and homogeneous basic catalysis - NaOH), 'dende' base oil (methylic route and acid catalysis) and residual cooking oil OGR-biodiesel (methylic route and acid and basic catalysis), using as organism-test (Echinometra lucunter) and, as biochemical biomarker, the activity of acid phosphatase, measured in hepatocytes of exposed fishes (Oreochromis niloticus). The results showed that the FSA of mamona (castor oil) biodiesel was the most toxic (5,0 mU/mg), followed by OGR (3,9 mU/mg) and dende biodiesel (2,4 mU/mg), when compared to control (1,6 mU/mg). The results obtained from the early life- stage-test showed a similar trend, the mamona biodiesel being the most toxic (EC50 2.45%), followed of the OGR - residual oil (EC50 = 8.06%) and dende biodiesel (EC50 = 22.75%). The significance of these findings shall be considered for energetic planning. (author)

  3. Matrix pentagons

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  4. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  5. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    James Randall Kahn; Carlos Edwar Freitas; Miguel Petrere

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate signif...

  6. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  7. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  8. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  9. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  10. The effect of fission-energy Xe ion irradiation on the structural integrity and dissolution of the CeO2 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, A. J.; Le Solliec, S.; Lampronti, G. I.; Day, J.; Petrov, P. K.; Farnan, I.

    2017-02-01

    This work considers the effect of fission fragment damage on the structural integrity and dissolution of the CeO2 matrix in water, as a simulant for the UO2 matrix of spent nuclear fuel. For this purpose, thin films of CeO2 on Si substrates were produced and irradiated by 92 MeV 129Xe23+ ions to a fluence of 4.8 × 1015 ions/cm2 to simulate fission damage that occurs within nuclear fuels along with bulk CeO2 samples. The irradiated and unirradiated samples were characterised and a static batch dissolution experiment was conducted to study the effect of the induced irradiation damage on dissolution of the CeO2 matrix. Complex restructuring took place in the irradiated films and the irradiated samples showed an increase in the amount of dissolved cerium, as compared to the corresponding unirradiated samples. Secondary phases were also observed on the surface of the irradiated CeO2 films after the dissolution experiment.

  11. Synthesis and analysis of nanocrystalline β1-Cu3Al and β2-NiAl intermetallic-reinforced aluminum matrix composite by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong-Hai; Nguyen, Minh-Thuyet; Kim, Won Joo; Kim, Jin-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline β1-Cu3Al and β2-NiAl intermetallic compounds were in-situ reinforced in the aluminum matrix with the atomic composition of Al67Cu20Ni13 by the mechanical alloying of elemental powders. Both β1-Cu3Al, β2-NiAl phases that can be only co-synthesized in Cu base alloys have been obtained after 15h milling in this study. The phase evolution during milling process was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The β1-Cu3Al, β2-NiAl phases were metastable with further milling time up to 40 h. Specially, unreacted Al matrix has been totally transformed to amorphous state in the final powder. A remarkable crystalline size of 6.5 nm was reached after 15 h milling time. Thermal stability of the milled powder was also studied by differential thermal analysis. It is shown that β1-Cu3Al, β2-NiAl phases were stable up to higher than 550 °C. Moreover, the inter-diffusion between Al matrix and Cu3Al within the temperature range of 620-740 °C led to the formation of superstructure ζ1-Al3Cu4 phase.

  12. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  13. Energetics of Brazilian ethanol: Comparison between assessment approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Triana, Carlos Ariel, E-mail: carlos.ramirez.triana@gmail.com [Faculty of Bussiness Administration, Economics and Accounting, Politecnico Grancolombiano, Calle 57 3-00 Este, Bogota, Postal Code 110231 (Colombia)

    2011-08-15

    As with any other bioenergy product, bioethanol production requires fossil fuel inputs; hence the alleged benefits of energy security and carbon mitigation depend on the extent to which these inputs are capable of drawing a substantive bioenergetic yield. Brazilian ethanol, made out of sugarcane, has been reported as the most efficient gasoline substitute that is commercially available nowadays. For that reason it has been the object of several analyses on the energetics, i.e. energy balances. These studies surprisingly vary widely according with the scholar approach and are not fully comparable among them due to divergences in the assessment method. This paper standardises results of the four most prominent authors in the field, establishing a point of comparison and drawing some light on the energetics studies on biofuels. The main result is shown in , which homogenises the outcomes for referred studies in terms of unit of assessment in the energy input analysis. Subsequently, this information is also charted () explaining the source of divergence among authors. This work ends with a short reference and comparison to some energy balance studies carried out on feedstocks of diverse nature, highlighting the potential that sugarcane-based bioethanol represents nowadays. - Highlights: > Distribution stage could reduce energy ratio but its contribution is not significant. > In Pimentel and Patzek there is an evident impact of the industrial stage. > A coincidence across the studies was the major impact of the agricultural stage. > Brazilian technology to produce ethanol was proved the most energy efficient one.

  14. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  15. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  16. Matrix Quantum Mechanics from Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a transverse field Ising model with order N^2 spins interacting via a nonlocal quartic interaction. The model has an O(N,Z), hyperoctahedral, symmetry. We show that the large N partition function admits a saddle point in which the symmetry is enhanced to O(N). We further demonstrate that this `matrix saddle' correctly computes large N observables at weak and strong coupling. The matrix saddle undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition at intermediate couplings. At the transition the matrix eigenvalue distribution becomes disconnected. The critical excitations are described by large N matrix quantum mechanics. At the critical point, the low energy excitations are waves propagating in an emergent 1+1 dimensional spacetime.

  17. Treatment of energy loss and multiple scattering in the context of track parameter and covariance matrix propagation in continuous material in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, E; Hughes, E W; Lopez Mateos, D; Salzburger, A; Strandlie, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy loss, its fluctuations, and the multiple scattering of particles passing through matter, with an emphasis on muons. In addition to the well-known Bethe-Bloch and Bethe-Heitler equations describing the mean energy loss from ionization and bremsstrahlung respectively, new parameterizations of the mean energy loss of muons from the direct e+e- pair production and photonuclear interactions are presented along with new estimates of the most probable energy loss and its fluctuations in the ATLAS calorimeters. Moreover, a new adaptive Highland/Moliere approach to finding the multiple scattering angle is taken to accomodate a wide range of scatterer thicknesses. Furthermore, tests of the muon energy loss, its fluctuations, and multiple scattering are done in the ATLAS calorimeters. The material effects described in this paper are all part of the simultaneous track and error propagation (STEP) algorithm of the common ATLAS tracking software.

  18. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  19. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  20. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  1. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  2. Luso-Brazilian antiscorbutic herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Machline, Vera Cecília; Professor, Graduate Program in History of Science, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Not only Iberian physicians such as João Curvo Semmedo and Francisco Suárez de Rivera participated in the 17th and 18th-century endeavor of seeking cures for scurvy. Besides those Luso-Hispanic iatrochemists, at least three Portuguese-born surgeons who resided in the Brazilian colony also took part in this crusade. As detailed here Luis Gomes Ferreyra, Jozé Antonio Mendes and João Cardoso de Miranda – each in his own way – advocated that the herb popularly called mastruço in Portuguese (Ameri...

  3. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  4. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  5. Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    marching toward a multipolar world,” he said in 2009, “and South Amer- ica will be one of those poles.”59 The imperative of asserting Brazilian...countries like Chile, Colombia, and Peru . More pressing still is the issue of Venezuela, which under President Hugo Chávez has staked its own claim to...helicopters to Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador, and used a SIVAM surveillance aircraft to help Peru resolve a hostage crisis in 2003. As part of an

  6. Enhanced Constraints for Accurate Lower Bounds on Many-Electron Quantum Energies from Variational Two-Electron Reduced Density Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2016-10-01

    A central challenge of physics is the computation of strongly correlated quantum systems. The past ten years have witnessed the development and application of the variational calculation of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) without the wave function. In this Letter we present an orders-of-magnitude improvement in the accuracy of 2-RDM calculations without an increase in their computational cost. The advance is based on a low-rank, dual formulation of an important constraint on the 2-RDM, the T 2 condition. Calculations are presented for metallic chains and a cadmium-selenide dimer. The low-scaling T 2 condition will have significant applications in atomic and molecular, condensed-matter, and nuclear physics.

  7. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  8. Solow meets Leontief. Economic growth and energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbex, Marcelo; Perobelli, Fernando S. [Department of Economics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This paper proposes a methodology that integrates a growth model with an input-output model to analyze the impacts of economic growth on the consumption of energy. The integration between the models is carried out by calibrating the growth module, which incorporates energetic inputs (renewable and nonrenewable) in the production function, and implementing shocks by the supply side (capital, labor, renewable and nonrenewable energy) in the input-output model. This allows us to verify the pattern of energy consumption for each sector in the input-output matrix. We apply this methodology to study the energy consumption of eleven economic sectors in Brazil, using data from the Brazilian National Accounts and Input-Output Matrix (IBGE) and the National Energy Report (BEN). We conduct experiments involving changes in technological progress growth rate, extraction and regeneration rates of both renewable and nonrenewable resources and population growth to analyze the impact of changes in the parameters of the model on the sectoral output growth rate and, consequently, on the consumption of energy in each economic sector. (author)

  9. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao-Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao], e-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence Composição mineral determinado por fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energia de frutos exóticos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.O sabor exótico dos frutos tropicais brasileiros vem contribuindo para o aumento de seu consumo. Ao se considerar a busca por uma alimentação balanceada, por consumidores cada vez mais exigentes, o conhecimento da composição de vitaminas e sais minerais dos frutos que compõe a dieta se faz necessário. Desta forma o presente trabalho vem contribuir com a determinação da concentração de macro (K e Ca e microelementos (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn e Br em oito frutos tropicais exóticos brasileiros: abiu (Lucuma caimito Ruiz

  13. Wind energy technical-economic viability under the new regulatory rules of the Brazilian electric sector; Viabilidade tecnico-economica da energia eolica face ao novo marco regulatorio do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques

    2001-02-15

    The wind energy development in the world shows as one of the most important and promising technologies in the clean energy generation complement. This work presents the wind energy evolution and utilization in the electric power generation, the environmental impacts and perspectives. Considering the great wind potential in Brazil and the new rules of the electric sector, technical feasibility studies were developed based on regions north and northeast wind data as well as economic feasibility studies based on the new regulatory rules for the energy renewable sources. The results show that is possible to generate clean energy within the new context of the electricity sector.(author)

  14. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  15. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  16. R-matrix calculation of differential cross sections for low-energy electron collisions with ground and electronically excited state O2 molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M; Tennyson, J; Tashiro, Motomichi; Morokuma, Keiji; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electron collisions with the O$_2$ molecule in its ground ${X}^{3}\\Sigma_g^-$ state, as well as excited ${a}^{1}\\Delta_g$ and ${b}^{1}\\Sigma_g^+$ states are calculated. As previously, the fixed-bond R-matrix method based on state-averaged complete active space SCF orbitals is employed. In additions to elastic scattering of electron with the O$_2$ ${X}^{3}\\Sigma_g^-$, ${a}^{1}\\Delta_g$ and ${b}^{1}\\Sigma_g^+$ states, electron impact excitation from the ${X}^{3}\\Sigma_g^-$ state to the ${a}^{1}\\Delta_g$ and ${b}^{1}\\Sigma_g^+$ states as well as '6 eV states' of ${c}^{1}\\Sigma_u^{-}$, ${A'}^{3}\\Delta_u$ and ${A}^{3}\\Sigma_u^{+}$ states is studied. Differential cross sections for excitation to the '6 eV states' have not been calculated previously. Electron impact excitation to the ${b}^{1}\\Sigma_g^+$ state from the metastable ${a}^{1}\\Delta_g$ state is also studied. For electron impact excitation from the O$_2$ ${X}^{3}\\Sigma_g^-$ state to the ${b}^{1}\\Sigma_g^+$ state, our results...

  17. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  18. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  19. Photovoltaic systems connected to electric power like distributed generators: the recent situation at the PVPS-IEA and at the Brazilian scenario; Sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede eletrica como geradores distribuidos: a situacao recente no PVPS-IEA e no cenario brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglia, Renato Brito; Oliveira, Sergio Henrique Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], email: renato.quaglia@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this paper it is considered the use of Distributed Generation (GD) as a further option to centralized generation of electricity and treats its photovoltaic systems connected to power network (SFCR's) technology as an option in this interesting 'new' model to plan the expansion of the brazilian electrical energy matrix, mainly in urban centres. For this reason, it was necessary to mention the main characteristics of this technology as distributed generators, and the profile of his generation when connected in homes and commercial buildings. Moreover, it presents the benefits that these systems can offer the electricity sector, society and the economy. In the study of Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), specifically the situation of this technology in Germany, realized that the creation of mechanisms of financial incentives provided to implement some of the main barriers associated with the integration of photovoltaic systems as distributed generators. In assessing the Brazilian context, there was the incipient photovoltaic market in the country, even taking some systems already installed, note that the vast majority are intended for studies of Research and Development. There is also the exploitation of photovoltaic systems connected to the network for use in homes, businesses or industries, probably because of the lack of incentive programs for SFCR's. Although there is a programme of incentives to Alternative Sources of Electricity - Proinfa, it does not consider the SFCR's in its guidelines for qualification, only the wind systems, small hydroelectric plants and systems powered by biomass. Point is, therefore, the need for the creation of an energy policy that encourages the Brazilian market photovoltaic, more precisely a policy of offering incentives conditions of maturity of this technology when connected to the network - technical standards, decrease costs, creation of hand of specialized work, installation of manufacturers

  20. Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rubesam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.

  1. Brief analysis of the energy matrix in the state of Mato Grosso and the mesoregions; Analise sucinta das matrizes energeticas de Mato Grosso e suas mesorregioes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Ferreira, Noel Flavio Costa; Melo, Moises Candido de; Leite, Jose Ermete Rabello [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento]. E-mails: niepe@ufmt.br; niepe@pop.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The text presents relative energetic analyses to the Mato Grosso and its regions, with basis in presented matrices of offer and demand in the document - BEEMT 2004 - Mato Grosso Energetic Balance and Regions - period 1995 a 2003. The analyses were made leading in account two average taxes of annual growth in 1999/2003 periods 1995/2003 and, respectively, objectifying one better understanding of the evolution of the behavior of the energy ones in the State. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of peptides after high-energy impact on the icy matrix: Preliminary step for further UV-induced formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontareva, Natalia B.; Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Shelegedin, Vladimir N.

    2009-04-01

    In the interstellar medium, the most probable source of organic molecules could be non-equilibrium processes driven by photons, cosmic rays, shock waves and solid bodies' collisions. The dense cold phase of ISM host icy dust grains - important chemical catalyst during its life cycle. Such particles consist of mineral core composed by silicate or olivine admixed with metal sulfides and oxides, with the water-icy envelope containing organic molecules. Organic molecules in the ISM evolve and become later incorporated in solar system material (comets and meteorites). The formation of polypeptides from single amino acids was traced in simulation experiments representing the inner structure of icy dust grains. Experimental chamber was irradiated at subzero temperatures at the dosage of 2.54 kRad/min. Solid frozen solutions of Gly and Phe were taken as the experimental samples inserted into the metal tube kept at subzero temperatures in the presence of liquid nitrogen. Formation of di- and tri-peptides was demonstrated after applying mass-spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Having polypeptides within the icy matrix, dust grains with ice mantles are transported to warm, dense and active protostellar regions, where ultraviolet irradiation may become important and alter the grain composition. Furthermore UVC radiation may contribute to the formation of additional amounts of polypeptides, since short-wave photons are totally adsorbed by a thin outer layer. This presumption coincides with our previous investigations concerning UV impact on prebiotic formation of the main biological molecules. Combination of two irradiation types in different stages of interstellar flight could compensate the effects of low reagents concentration and temperature. Since the primordial Earth had no atmosphere, the natural carriers could get freely onto its surface and thus raise the concentration of organic molecules.

  3. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  4. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  5. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  6. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm.

  7. Determination of the CKM-matrix element |V{sub ub}| from the electron energy spectrum measured in inclusive B→X{sub u}eν decay with the BABAR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, Thomas

    2013-01-30

    This document presents a measurement of the CKM matrix-element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke in inclusive semileptonic B→X{sub u}eν events on a dataset of 471 million B anti B events recorded by the BABAR detector. Inclusive B→X{sub u}eν decays are selected by reconstructing a high energetic electron (positron). Background suppression is achieved by selecting events with electron (positron) energies near the kinematical allowed endpoint of B→X{sub u}eν decays. A B→D{sup *}eν veto is applied to further suppress background. This veto uses D{sup *} mesons which have been reconstructed with a partial reconstruction technique.

  8. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  9. The financial feasible electric energy conservation potential in brazilian public and commercial buildings - retrofit demonstrations; O potencial de conservacao de energia eletrica financeiramente viavel em edificios publicos e comerciais do Brasil: demonstracoes de retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomardon, Louise Land B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lamberts, Roberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Thome, Mabele [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PROCEL

    1998-12-31

    In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil, to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools, the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the 6 Cities Project. The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector. A data-base is being created with information on energy consumption intensity and demand intensity in 15 buildings in each city. The data-base was designed to help the standards development. Among those buildings, in each city, two were selected, one is a public building and the other a private building, for a detailed energy audit. The audit data was used to calibrate a DOE2 simulation model. Simulations were performed and state of art technologies for energy efficiency are being tested and will be implemented. An after retrofit monitoring program is planed. In this paper the results of the first buildings will be showed, whose results point for reductions of electricity consumption, financially viable, between 25% and 35%. (author) 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: louise at ppe.ufrj.br; lamberts at ecv.ufsc.br

  10. State-selected chemical reaction dynamics at the S matrix level - Final-state specificities of near-threshold processes at low and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, David C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1992-01-01

    State-to-state reaction probabilities are found to be highly final-state specific at state-selected threshold energies for the reactions O + H2 yield OH + H and H + H2 yield H2 + H. The study includes initial rotational states with quantum numbers 0-15, and the specificity is especially dramatic for the more highly rotationally excited reactants. The analysis is based on accurate quantum mechanical reactive scattering calculations. Final-state specificity is shown in general to increase with the rotational quantum number of the reactant diatom, and the trends are confirmed for both zero and nonzero values of the total angular momentum.

  11. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  12. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  13. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications. PMID:27511271

  14. Fluorescence characterization of co-immobilization-induced multi-enzyme aggregation in a polymer matrix using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET): toward the metabolon biomimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Minteer, Shelley D

    2013-08-12

    Sequential metabolic enzymes can form supramolecular complexes named metabolons in vivo through enzyme-enzyme association or aggregation to facilitate efficient substrate channeling. By separately labeling enzymes with lysine-targeting carboxylic acid succinimidyl ester fluorophores of distinct excitation wavelengths, this research presents a quantitative study of polymer-entrapment-induced in vitro multi-enzyme aggregation from three Krebs cycle enzymes using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to find potential polymer materials for immobilizing enzyme cascades and inducing the metabolon biomimic formation on electrodes. The effect of hydrophobic modification of linear polyethylenimine, Nafion, and chitosan polymers on metabolon formation has been investigated through photobleaching FRET imaging in addition to traditional steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. By partially destroying FRET acceptors of longer excitation wavelength, increased fluorescence from dequenched donors of shorter excitation wavelength was measured and enzyme interactions in terms of energy-transfer efficiencies were mapped point by point. Results show that trimethyloctadecylammonium-modified Nafion works best in inducing multi-enzyme aggregation and exhibits a promising future in immobilized metabolon biomimics with the most uniform enzyme organization, as indicated by the protein distance distribution.

  15. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E.; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications.

  16. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  17. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  18. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  19. A vision about the professional qualification in the new Brazilian electric energy sector. Threats and opportunities; Uma visao sobre a formacao profissional nas empresas do novo setor de energia eletrica brasileiro. Ameacas e oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos Filho, Afranio B. de Alencar

    2001-07-01

    This work intends to examine which new qualification and abilities will be necessary to the electric power professional in the face of the deep changes that affects the energy market in the end of this century in Brazil.This question lead us to investigate, at the same time, two decisive points of the process: the energy sector restructuring that demands a new professional and the professional training translated in programs with information contents to attend this contemporary demand.

  20. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  1. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  2. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  3. Forecasts for the electric energy supply in the Brazilian South-Southeast market 1990-2000; Perspectivas para o atendimento de mercado de energia eletrica Sul-Sudeste, 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Mazzon, Joao Gilberto [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1990-05-01

    In opposite to the recent expectations, the systematic delays in the operational start of the constructions of new electric power generation units in south and southeast regions of Brazil, caused by financial restrictions, will not lead to energy rationalization. This fact reached out from the low expansion rates of the consumer sector in this regions of Brazil. This paper also shows the demand factors of this market and forecast the future electric energy market for these regions until the years 2000. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  5. Treatment analysis of incentive politics for renewable energy projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM): the Brazilian case; Analise do tratamento das politicas de incentivos a projetos de energias renovaveis no mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL): o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Anamelia; Hauser, Philipp, Emails: anameliam@yahoo.com.br, philipphauser@web.de

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the politics for mitigation recently adopted by the Brazil, and discuss his treatment under the rules of CDM, viewing to contribute for a transparent solution which to allow the conciliation global and national politics for the clean expansion of the energy sector in Brazil.

  6. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  7. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  8. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  9. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  10. Partitioned R-matrix theory for molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-14

    R-matrix calculations usually require all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the inner region Hamiltonian matrix. For molecular problems, particularly when large configuration interaction expansions are used for the target, the Hamiltonian matrix is often too large to be completely diagonalized. Berrington and Ballance (2002 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 2275) proposed a partitioned R-matrix theory which only required a proportion of the solutions of the Hamiltonian matrix. This theory was implemented and tested in the atomic R-matrix code. The theory is adapted to the needs of R-matrix calculations on low-energy electron-molecule collisions. A number of alternative procedures are tested. The best is shown to give reliable results with explicit inclusion of only a fraction of the solutions. It is shown that with this revised theory the number of solutions required does not depend on the complexity of the target wavefunction even though this strongly influences the size of the final Hamiltonian matrix. This method will be implemented as part of the UK molecular R-matrix program suite.

  11. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  12. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  13. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  14. Wind energy; Energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Gusmao do; Lima, Jorge H. Greco; Francescutti, Fabio Gino; Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Silva, Patricia de Castro; Giannini, Marcio; Vianna Junior, Affonso [Centro de Pesquisa de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from wind energy, presenting a panoramic approaching on the state-of-art of wind energy, the evolution of the technological dynamics of the sector in Brazil, description of the wind energy technology, the environment and the wind energy, analysis of the economic viability, the strategy for the development of a Brazilian wind energy technology, the estimative for the necessary financial resources, the identification of the present barriers to the penetration of the technology, the mechanisms for the viabilization of the technology introduction.

  15. Analysis of the Brazilian national regulatory overview aiming the insertion of mini and micro hydroelectric power plants in the energy market; Analise do panorama regulatorio nacional visando a insercao das mini e microcentrais hidreletricas no mercado de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Jason Tibirica

    2006-07-01

    The significant expansion of Small Hydro Power plant - SHPs, in the past seven years, can be largely credited, to the incentives regulated by ANEEL, with the intention of stimulating the construction of those enterprises. Among other incentives, they deserve prominence: the authorization no payment for exploration of the hydraulic potential; the relative discharge of financial compensation for the use of hydraulic resources; and the discounts, foreseen in law, for power grid use. In the period of 1998 to October of 2004, ANEEL authorized the construction of 308 SHPs, throughout Brazil, and it allowed the refurbishment of further 46 plants. Besides, it registered 192 hydropower plants , with smaller potency or same to 1 MW, denominated MHP - Mini and Micro Hydropower Plants. Part of this universe of 500 small or miniplants, 43 are located in Sao Paulo state and the great majority in Minas Gerais. In seven years of existence ANEEL granted, 4.576 MW of SHPs and MHP. Those enterprises will contribute to the expansion of the offer of energy, with economy of the use of transmission lines, once the power plant is located, in general, close of the consumer market. The small hydropower plants and mini hydropower plants exemplify a interesting and creative alternative to assist the energy infrastructure development, respecting the other pillars, relative to the environment and the sustainable development. On this context is possible to highlight the value of renewable and less pollutant sources of energy, as well as the prevention of the negative environmental impacts. These types of projects are the ones that come close to perfection, even if considered the available technological resources of the time they were built. Moreover, it can serve as paradigm for the contemporary engineers. All those that, in fact were wrapped up in the recovery or refurbishment of those preciousness, unanimously pay tribute to the SHPs. (author)

  16. Interacting Giant Gravitons from Spin Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harmark, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Using the non-abelian DBI action we find an effective matrix model that describes the dynamics of weakly interacting giant gravitons wrapped on three-spheres in the AdS part of AdS_5 x S^5 at high energies with two angular momenta on the S^5. In parallel we consider the limit of \\CN=4 super Yang-Mills theory near a certain unitarity bound where it reduces to the quantum mechanical theory called SU(2) Spin Matrix Theory. We show that the exact same matrix model that describes the giant gravitons on the string theory side also provides the effective description in the strong coupling and large energy limit of the Spin Matrix Theory. Thus, we are able to match non-supersymmetric dynamics of D-branes on AdS_5 x S^5 to a finite-N regime in \\CN=4 super Yang-Mills theory near a unitarity bound.

  17. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  18. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  20. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  1. Gasto energético de adultos brasileños saludables: una comparación de métodos Energy expenditure of healthy brazilian adults: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Esteves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hay diversos métodos disponibles para medir el consumo de energía en el ser humano. Debido al alto costo y pequeño número de laboratorios capaces de utilizar la calorimetría directa y la técnica del agua doblemente marcada, se ha realizado un número relativamente pequeño de mediciones del gasto energético utilizándose estos métodos. Así, cada día más, los investigadores se atienen en alto grado a los métodos de calorimetría indirecta (CI y bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA y los clínicos a las ecuaciones de predicción para calcular los requerimientos de energía total en sus estudios y pacientes respectivamente. Objetivo: Evaluar el Gasto Energético Basal (GEB y el Gasto Energético Total (GET de individuos saludables comparando los resultados de CI, BIA y ecuaciones predictivas con los de requerimiento estimado de energía (EER, Fleisch, FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 y 2001. Material y métodos: Se evaluó el gasto energético en 81 individuos de ambos sexos por CI y BIA. De estos, fueron calculados el GEB por las ecuaciones FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 y 2001 y el GET por EER, Fleisch y FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 y 2001. Los datos se analizaron con el programa Sigma Stat for Windows versión 2.03 y se utilizó eltest de Dunn's para la comparación de las medianas obtenidas por los métodos y ecuaciones (p There are many available methods to measure the human energy consumption. Due to the high cost and small number of laboratories able to perform it, the direct calorimetry and doubly labeled water technique are rarely used to measure the energy expenditure. As consequence, there is an increase use of the indirect calorimetry and bioelectrical impedance analysis methods by researchers and predictive equations by physicians to calculate the total energy requirements in research and in clinic. Objective: To evaluate the basal energy expenditure (GEB and total energy expenditure (GET of healthy subjects comparing results of indirect calorimetry (CI, bioelectrical

  2. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  3. Phosphine in various matrixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine was determined in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal sediment, in prawn-pond bottom soil, in the eutrophic lake Wulongtan, in the sewage sludge and in paddy soil as well. Results showed that matrix-bound phosphine levels in freshwater and coastal sediment, as well as in sewage sludge, are significantly higher than that in paddy soil. The correlation between matrix bound phosphine concentrations and organic phosphorus contents in sediment samples is discussed.

  4. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  5. Mixed matrix membrane development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    2003-03-01

    Two types of mixed matrix membranes were developed by UOP in the late 1980s. The first type includes adsorbent polymers, such as silicalite-cellulose acetate (CA), NaX-CA, and AgX-CA mixed matrix membranes. The silicalite-CA has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 5.15 +/- 2.2. In contrast, the CA membrane has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 0.77 +/- 0.06. The second type of mixed matrix membrane is PEG-silicone rubber. The PEG-silicone rubber mixed matrix membrane has high selectivity for polar gases, such as SO(2), NH(3), and H(2)S.

  6. Self-consciousness Scale: a Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M A; Gomes, W B

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a Brazilian version of the Self-consciousness Scale to university students. Factorial structure, subscale intercorrelations, and normative data obtained with 182 subjects are reported. These results suggest that the proposed model of self-consciousness is applicable in the Brazilian culture, although some significant sex differences were found for two of the scales. Reliability tests and the factorial validity of the scale showed that this version still needs refinement to be used as a reliable research tool.

  7. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  8. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  9. Density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Blunt, N S; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quantum Monte Carlo method capable of sampling the full density matrix of a many-particle system, thus granting access to arbitrary reduced density matrices and allowing expectation values of complicated non-local operators to be evaluated easily. The direct sampling of the density matrix also raises the possibility of calculating previously inaccessible entanglement measures. The algorithm closely resembles the recently introduced full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method, but works all the way from infinite to zero temperature. We explain the theory underlying the method, describe the algorithm, and introduce an importance-sampling procedure to improve the stochastic efficiency. To demonstrate the potential of our approach, the energy and staggered magnetization of the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on small lattices and the concurrence of one-dimensional spin rings are compared to exact or well-established results. Finally, the nature of the sign problem...

  10. Matrix dynamics of fuzzy spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jatkar, D P; Wadia, S R; Yogendran, K P; Jatkar, Dileep P.; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2002-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fuzzy two-spheres in a matrix model which represents string theory in the presence of RR flux. We analyze the stability of known static solutions of such a theory which contain commuting matrices and SU(2) representations. We find that irreducible as well as reducible representations are stable. Since the latter are of higher energy, this stability poses a puzzle. We resolve this puzzle by noting that reducible representations have marginal directions corresponding to non-spherical deformations. We obtain new static solutions by turning on these marginal deformations. These solutions now have instability or tachyonic directions. We discuss condensation of these tachyons which correspond to classical trajectories interpolating from multiple, small fuzzy spheres to a single, large sphere. We briefly discuss spatially independent configurations of a D3/D5 system described by the same matrix model which now possesses a supergravity dual.

  11. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Mediated Photoluminescence Quenching in Stoichiometrically Assembled CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Peptide Labeled Black Hole Quencher Conjugates for Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sreenadh Sasidharan; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Onoshima, Daisuke; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence quenching of streptavidin modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) instigated by biotin-peptide-BHQ-1 (biotin-pep-BHQ-1) molecule was investigated. Here, we have achieved an efficient photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs with the conjugation of dark quencher (black hole quencher-BHQ) molecules intermediated with the GPLGVRGK peptide. The luminescence of streptavidin-QDs585 was decreased upon titration with a nano molar concentration of the biotin-GPLGVRGK-BHQ-1 molecule. It has been suggested that the decrease of QDs PL occurred through a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism from the analysis of steady state photoluminescence intensity measurements as well as time resolved lifetime measurements of streptavidin-QDs and QDs-(pep-BHQ-1)n conjugates. The sequence of intermediate peptide GPLG↓VRGK can act as a target material for matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) produced by cancer cells at its Gly and Val region, shown by the down-headed arrow. Interestingly, here the reported self-assembled QDs-(pep-BHQ-1)n conjugates could detect the presence MMP-2 at a detection limit of 1 ng/mL with a clear luminescence recovery.

  12. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  13. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  14. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  15. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  16. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  17. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  18. Brazilian Review of Finance 2012 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online; a printed version is maintained, in part, thanks to a grant from CNPq/CAPES. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The journal is indexed by EconLit, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Gale and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 18 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 30% for papers submitted in 2010, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for all articles published in 2011 was 266. The worst case was 462 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 432. The worst case was 599 days. The average number of hits per article as of January 2012 was 1,249. Sixty-four individuals served as reviewers in 2011.

  19. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  20. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  1. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  2. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  3. Identitarian Politics in the "Quilombo" Frechal: Live Histories in a Brazilian Community of Slave Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Malighetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended fieldwork, the paper discusses the construction of identity in a Brazilian quilombo - a term originally used by the Portuguese authorities to juridically define the flights of the Brazilian slaves. Appealing to a Constitutional Article granting the property of the land to the descendant of the fugitive slaves, the people of Frechal (Maranhão obtained - after complex events overshadowed by tension and violence - the expropriation of the land bought by an entrepreneur of São Paulo with the precise intent to forcibly expel the local population. Founding their right on an idea of cultural authenticity and mobilizing a symbolism capable of legitimating their claims and of giving them a legal weight, they transformed themselves from object of slavery, discrimination and racism to ethno-political subjects. Proceeding from the analysis of this paradigmatic case, the article shows how the term quilombo can be "re-semanticized" in order to be applicable to the contemporary situations of the Afro-Brazilian population. The actuality of the word, transferred from its original juridical meaning of colonial matrix, is founded on the idea that the quilombos are not isolated survivals of the past to honor in the memory of the heroes that fought against slavery. Rather they represent true projects of a new political order, nuclei of the contemporary resistance founded on the collective property of the land. As such the quilombos are considered as real counterpoints to the neoliberal expansion in the rural areas.

  4. Brazilian monitoring system of hydropower dams; Monitoramento hidrologico de reservatorios hidreletricos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Alexandre Cernach; Silva, Jose Jorge da; Rodrigues, Mauro Silvio; Moreira, Rodrigo de Matos; Coimbra, Roberto Moreira; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos de [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Estudos e Informacoes Hidrologicas]. E-mail: cernach@aneel.gov.br; jorgej@aneel.gov.br; maurol@aneel.gov.br; rodrigom@aneel.gov.br; rcoimbra@aneel.gov.br; mfreitas@aneel.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    The Brazilian energetic sector goes by a deep restructuring process, reaching all the involved agents. Thus, the Federal Government, in December 26, 1996, instituted the National Agency of Electric Energy - ANEEL, through the Law nr. 9.427, to establish the regulation of the production, transmission, distribution and commercialization of electric energy service, and to guarantee electric services. To obtain consistent data in operation of the reservoirs that subsidize the decision related to the inspection activities, regulation and mediation and to guarantee the hydrologic information associated to hydroelectric enterprises, ANEEL published in December 4, 1998, the Resolution ANEEL nr. 396 in order to establish the conditions for implementation, maintenance and operation of hydrological stations. This paper shows the beginning of the implementation of the Brazilian Monitoring System of Hydropower Dams. (author)

  5. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  6. Efeitos multiplicadores da economia florestal brasileira Multiplier effects of the Brazilian forestry economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Renato Valverde

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da importância do setor florestal para o desenvolvimento socioeconômico brasileiro por meio dos modelos econômicos de equilíbrio geral multissetoriais, através das análises das matrizes de insumo-produto (MIP e de contabilidade social (MCS. As principais fontes dos dados foram as Tabelas de Insumo-Produto (TIP do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, além de informações obtidas no Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES, no Banco Central (BACEN e na Secretaria da Receita Federal (SRF, referentes ao ano de 1995. Observou-se que tão importante quanto contribuir para a geração e formação do PIB, de emprego, impostos, salários e balança comercial é o poder que um setor produtivo tem a mais que o outro de multiplicar estes indicadores quando uma unidade monetária é gasta a mais pelos consumidores finais na demanda por produtos deste determinado setor. Os resultados indicaram que o setor florestal é um dos setores da economia brasileira que apresentou os maiores efeitos multiplicadores para os indicadores socioeconômicos, sendo superiores aos de outros como o da indústria automobilística, de equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos, de máquinas e equipamentos e de produtos químicos e petróleo.This study evaluated the important role the forestry sector plays in the Brazilian economic development by means of the multisector general economic equilibrium models, through the analyses of the Input-Output Matrix (IOM and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM. The main sources were the Input-Output Tables (IOT from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, the National Bank of Economic and Social Development (BNDES, from the Brazilian Central Bank (BACEN and the Brazilian Federal Revenue Office (SRF, for 1995. It was observed that the extra power a productive sector has over another to multiply GDP, jobs, taxes, salaries and trade balance, is as important as

  7. Improved Matrix Uncertainty Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We consider the regression model with observation error in the design: y=X\\theta* + e, Z=X+N. Here the random vector y in R^n and the random n*p matrix Z are observed, the n*p matrix X is unknown, N is an n*p random noise matrix, e in R^n is a random noise vector, and \\theta* is a vector of unknown parameters to be estimated. We consider the setting where the dimension p can be much larger than the sample size n and \\theta* is sparse. Because of the presence of the noise matrix N, the commonly used Lasso and Dantzig selector are unstable. An alternative procedure called the Matrix Uncertainty (MU) selector has been proposed in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) in order to account for the noise. The properties of the MU selector have been studied in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) for sparse \\theta* under the assumption that the noise matrix N is deterministic and its values are small. In this paper, we propose a modification of the MU selector when N is a random matrix with zero-mean entries having the variances th...

  8. Molecular physicochemical parameters predicting antioxidant activity of Brazilian natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are capable of oxidizing cellular proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, contributing to cellular aging, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, coronary heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Free radicals-scavenging by phenolic compounds occurs by the transfer of one electron followed by the H-abstraction. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of a series of seventeen phenolic compounds extracted from Brazilian flora (Chimarrhis turbinata and Arrabidea samydoides, some physicochemical parameters (heat formation of the neutral, radical, and cationic compounds; orbitals' energies; ClogP; ΔH OX; and ΔHf were calculated. Considering the results from the calculated descriptors, the molecules 10a-f can be classified as having a higher antioxidant activity.

  9. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030; Sobre a situacao energetica brasileira: de 1970 a 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de; Flores, Tarcisio Santos; Cruz, Nathalia Gracielle da Silva; Diamantino, Hugo Duarte; Barroso, Livia Alves; Rocha, Bruna Almeida; Souza, Romulo Luiz Mendes; Ramos, Pedro Camilo; Macedo, Marcio Henrique Marques [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  10. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations; Atualizacao das normas nucleares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia; Soares, Abner Duarte; Nogueira, Tindyua de Moraes; Monteiro, Iara Arraes; Pitta, Maria Adelia Rocha; Bruno, Natanael Carvalho; Pereira, Enneite Souza; Pinto, Marvio dos S.; Lidington, Regina Marcia Rocha; Rocha, Marco Aurelio Toledo, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: tnogueira@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: iara@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mpitta@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: espereira@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: marvio@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: , E-mail: rmliding@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mtoledo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Normas

    2011-10-26

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  11. The importance of reservoir regularization in the Brazilian electric system; A importancia dos reservatorios de regularizacao no sistema eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronaldo Antonio de; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Livino, Angela; Moretz-Shon-David, Pedro Americo [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], emails: ronaldo.souza@epe.gov.br, amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br, angela.livino@epe.gov.br, pedro.david@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a quantification of benefits due to reservoirs for the Brazilian power system in terms of system regularization and also in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction because of the avoided thermal generation. The results have shown losses in firm energy for the power system, requiring other sources for power generation, which represent negatives impacts in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  12. Pilot plant for production of photovoltaic modules using Brazilian technology; Planta piloto de producao de modulos fotovoltaicos com tecnologia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehlecke, Adriano; Zanesco, Izete [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Centro Brasileiro para Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar Fotovoltaica - CB-Solar]. E-mail: moehleck@pucrs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the implantation of a pilot plant for photovoltaic modules production at the Brazilian Center for Development of Photovoltaic Solar Energy placed in the Technological Park of the Catholic University of South Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The paper presents and discusses a history of the project, the existent infrastructure, the expected results and the continuity proposal.

  13. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  14. Rheocasting Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girot, F.A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J.M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    A development status account is given for the rheocasting method of Al-alloy matrix/SiC-whisker composites, which involves the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of 8-15 vol pct of whiskers through the stirring of the semisolid matrix melt while retaining sufficient fluidity for casting. Both 1-, 3-, and 6-mm fibers of Nicalon SiC and and SiC whisker reinforcements have been experimentally investigated, with attention to the characterization of the resulting microstructures and the effects of fiber-matrix interactions. A thin silica layer is found at the whisker surface. 7 references.

  15. Modeling for sustainable use of biofuels, eolic and solar energy within the scope of the local Brazilian Integrated Planning of Energy Resources: case study of this plan in Aracatuba region, SP, Brazil; Modelagem para o aproveitamento sustentavel dos biocombustiveis, energia eolica e solar dentro do PIR (Planejamento Integrado de Recursos Energeticos) local: estudo de caso do PIR da regiao de Aracatuba, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    It is evaluated the wind power, solar energy resources and biofuels available in Aracatuba through integrated resources planning methodology. which seeks to systematize and qualify the impacts associated with the use of energy by integrating supply and demand and seeking the lowest full-cost recital characteristics of each energy resource in environmental, social, political and technical-economic dimensions . Working with the demand forecast for trend, sustainable energy scenarios, optimistic and sustainable-prime as a PIN for the integration of energy resources over time, and considering the vigilant of Energy-environmental parameters, fetching mapping meeting local demand and export of energy. Thus conclude that the energy resources considered may meet the requirements of demand in all scenarios, but with the possibility of exhaustion in certain scenarios with planning horizon larger than 30 years. (author)

  16. Insertion of the free consumers in the Brazilian electrical sector: challenges and opportunities; Insercao dos consumidores livres no setor eletrico brasileiro: desafios e oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Cristiane Padilha

    2010-03-15

    This thesis analyses the role of free consumers in the Brazilian Electric Power Sector. Therefore, it evaluates the role of free consumers in other markets worldwide and analyses the current Brazilian regulatory framework that was introduced in 2004. The current model has replaced the one adopted in the 1990s, when the first reform of the Brazilian Electricity Sector occurred. To assess the role of free consumers in the electricity sector, this work analyses the benefits that this kind of consumers perceive and the risks they are exposed to when they switch from the captive market and go towards the open market. It also evaluates the influence of free consumers over the other industry agents: generators, distributors, retail consumers and society. It also identifies new options for free consumers in the Brazilian electric energy (author)

  17. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  18. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical...

  19. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  20. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  1. Matrix fractional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  3. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  4. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  5. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  6. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  7. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  8. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  9. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  10. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  11. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  12. Brazilian Agribusiness Facing African Food Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Abbade, Eduardo Botti; UNIFRA; Dewes, Homero; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) / Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian agriculture has achieved high production levels in recent years. In contrast, agricultural production in Africa is low, but it shows great potential. This paper discusses the agricultural profiles of the main regions of Africa as well as the agribusiness partnership established between Africa and Brazil. This research is based on descriptive analysis of data collected in official agencies, such as FAO, the World Bank, the United Nations, and the Africa–Brazil Institute. This study p...

  13. PETROBRAS: an energy company and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando Martins; Valle, Luiz Alberto Fernandes; Diehl Filho, Rubin Pedro [PETROBRAS University, Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). School of Gas and Energy Science and Technology], e-mail: fernandotorres@com.br, e-mail: lavalle@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rubin@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Global warming and other climate changes have been occurring because of human activities, mainly the burning of fossil fuels. This releases greenhouse gases, chief among them carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. Brazil's answer was to launch of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975, in response to the first oil shock (in 1973). This was intensified with the second oil shock (in 1979-80). Under this program, the gasoline used in the transportation segment was replaced by: anhydrous ethanol in vehicles manufactured to consume gasoline, up to a proportion of 25%; hydrated ethanol in vehicles especially manufactured to consume this renewable fuel. The impact of these efforts was extremely significant, as demonstrated by the the effects of the first and second oil shocks on the country's trade balance and balance of oil and derivatives in 1973-74 and 1979-80 can be clearly seen. At the time of the second shock, the increase in imports in the trade balance basically coincided with the increased imports of oil and refined products. (author)

  14. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  15. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand...

  16. Use of statistical procedures in Brazilian and international dental journals

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Pereira,Antônio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive survey was performed in order to assess the statistical content and quality of Brazilian and international dental journals, and compare their evolution throughout the last decades. The authors identified the reporting and accuracy of statistical techniques in 1000 papers published from 1970 to 2000 in seven dental journals: three Brazilian (Brazilian Dental Journal, Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo and Revista de Odontologia da UNESP) and four international jo...

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  18. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  19. A Novel Formulation of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A

    2009-01-01

    We present a gauge-independent quark mass counterterm for the on-shell renormalization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the Standard Model that is directly expressed in terms of the Lorentz-invariant self-energy functions, and automatically satisfies the hermiticity constraints of the mass matrix. It is very convenient for practical applications and leads to a gauge-independent CKM counterterm matrix that preserves unitarity and satisfies other highly desirable theoretical properties, such as flavor democracy.

  20. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  2. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  3. Characterization of Brazilian Bentonite Organoclays as sorbents of petroleum-derived fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bertagnolli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on preparing and characterizing Brazilian bentonite clay through the use of quaternary ammonium salt so as to apply it as a sorbent for petroleum-derived fuels. Bentonite clay was organophilizated by the intercalation of quaternary ammonium salts such as cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 physisorption and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The clay similarity with petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline and diesel oil were defined by sorption and swelling tests. The increase in basal spacing and the appearance of absorption bands related to the CH2 and CH3 groups confirm the efficiency of Brazilian organoclays. Removal percentages between 50 and 60 for benzene, toluene and xylene indicate the potential of organoclay in the remediation of areas contaminated by petroleum-derived fuels.

  4. Dosimetric characterisation of Brazilian natural stones using the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Cecatti, S.G.P.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2002-07-01

    A thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) measuring system developed and constructed at IPEN was used to verify the feasibility of the use of Brazilian natural semi-precious stones, such as jasper, amethyst, agate (blue and rose) and quartz (rose and white) for gamma and X radiation detection. Its counting system consists of a 2p windowless gas-flow proportional counter, and the heating system is formed by a temperature programmer that provides linear heating of the samples. The samples were tested in gamma and in X radiation beams and evaluated in relation to their main dosimetric characteristics, as TSEE glow curves, calibration curves and energy dependence. The TSEE results are compared with those of thermoluminescence. The results obtained show the usefulness of Brazilian natural stones as dosimetric materials, using the thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission techniques. (author)

  5. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  6. Ceramic Matrix Composites .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mukerji

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The present state of the knowledge of ceramic-matrix composites have been reviewed. The fracture toughness of present structural ceramics are not enough to permit design of high performance machines with ceramic parts. They also fail by catastrophic brittle fracture. It is generally believed that further improvement of fracture toughness is only possible by making composites of ceramics with ceramic fibre, particulate or platelets. Only ceramic-matrix composites capable of working above 1000 degree centigrade has been dealt with keeping reinforced plastics and metal-reinforced ceramics outside the purview. The author has discussed the basic mechanisms of toughening and fabrication of composites and the difficulties involved. Properties of available fibres and whiskers have been given. The best results obtained so far have been indicated. The limitations of improvement in properties of ceramic-matrix composites have been discussed.

  7. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  8. Finite Temperature Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1998-01-01

    We present the way the Lorentz invariant canonical partition function for Matrix Theory as a light-cone formulation of M-theory can be computed. We explicitly show how when the eleventh dimension is decompactified, the N=1 eleven dimensional SUGRA partition function appears. From this particular analysis we also clarify the question about the discernibility problem when making statistics with supergravitons (the N! problem) in Matrix black hole configurations. We also provide a high temperature expansion which captures some structure of the canonical partition function when interactions amongst D-particles are on. The connection with the semi-classical computations thermalizing the open superstrings attached to a D-particle is also clarified through a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some ideas about how Matrix Theory would describe the complementary degrees of freedom of the massless content of eleven dimensional SUGRA are also discussed.

  9. The Brazilian cellulose and paper industry: forecasting of energy demands for scenery of economic growth and energy conservation; A industria de celulose e papel do Brasil: projecoes da demanda de energia para cenarios de crescimento economico e de conservacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Roberta Ferreira Carrijo; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP/FEM), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], E-mail: rcarrijo@fem.unicamp.br; Berni, Mauro Donizete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper performs a retrospective analysis of its economic performance and energy consumption, using various parameters capable of to capture the main technological and economical influences. After that, a long term projections are presented of the energy demand of paper and cellulose industries, obtained by using the model of structural disaggregation.

  10. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  11. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  12. The sustainability through of decentralized energy projects; A sustentabilidade atraves de empreendimentos energeticos descentralizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: anto1810@fec.unicamp.br, cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents discussions about the environmental impacts of the current ways of centralized electric energy generation related to the Brazilian economic model which has characteristic of income concentration, as well as to the environmental and social problems of the great metropolises. Therefore, discussions of the opportunity and the insert forms, in the Brazilian energy system, of the sustainable energy enterprises: small hydroelectric power plants, eolic energy, solar photovoltaic and hydrogen, are also presented. (author)

  13. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  14. IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Tada, T; Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    We review our proposal for a constructive definition of superstring, type IIB matrix model. The IIB matrix model is a manifestly covariant model for space-time and matter which possesses N=2 supersymmetry in ten dimensions. We refine our arguments to reproduce string perturbation theory based on the loop equations. We emphasize that the space-time is dynamically determined from the eigenvalue distributions of the matrices. We also explain how matter, gauge fields and gravitation appear as fluctuations around dynamically determined space-time.

  15. Little IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Y; Saito, O; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Saito, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    We study the zero-dimensional reduced model of D=6 pure super Yang-Mills theory and argue that the large N limit describes the (2,0) Little String Theory. The one-loop effective action shows that the force exerted between two diagonal blocks of matrices behaves as 1/r^4, implying a six-dimensional spacetime. We also observe that it is due to non-gravitational interactions. We construct wave functions and vertex operators which realize the D=6, (2,0) tensor representation. We also comment on other "little" analogues of the IIB matrix model and Matrix Theory with less supercharges.

  16. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  17. Rheocasting Al Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girot, F. A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J. M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    Aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced by SiC short fibers (or whiskers) can be prepared by rheocasting, a process which consists of the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement by stirring within a semi-solid alloy. Using this technique, composites containing fiber volume fractions in the range of 8-15%, have been obtained for various fibers lengths (i.e., 1 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm for SiC fibers). This paper attempts to delineate the best compocasting conditions for aluminum matrix composites reinforced by short SiC (e.g Nicalon) or SiC whiskers (e.g., Tokamax) and characterize the resulting microstructures.

  18. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  19. Proposal of specific policies for wind energy in Brazil, after the first phase of the PROINFA Programme; Propostas de politicas especificas para energia eolica no Brasil apos a primeira fase do PROINFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques

    2007-04-15

    This work aims to propose viable strategies, using several criteria, for the development of Wind Energy in Brazil, to be implemented from the second phase of the PROINFA (Programa de Incentivo a Fontes Alternativas de Energia/Incentive Program to Alternative Energy Sources) onwards. It describes the main incentives for fostering renewable energy sources for electricity generation both under a theoretical point of view and through an analysis of the international experience in this field. It also present an analysis of the new Brazilian electric power sector, specially of the evolution of the politics for renewable power sources. Given the international experience and the current state of the Brazilian Utilities, this work proposes and evaluates quantitative and qualitatively strategies for the application of incentives to Wind Energy, beyond those already applied in PROINFA. The criteria for these strategies are: (1) reduction of greenhouse emissions by utilities; (2) optimization of the hydroelectric system; (3) industrial and regional development and (4) an increase of the participation of alternative renewable sources in the power matrix. The results obtained in this work show clearly the viability of several strategies for Wind Energy development in Brazil: for strategy (1), it was identified that Quota/Green Certificate is more adequate for the Brazilian case; for both strategies (2) and (3) it was identified that the Feed-In system is the most adequate one. Finally, for the strategy (4) the Feed-In system is more adequate for a short-term strategy, while, for the long-term, the harmonization of the Feed-In system and Quota/Green Certificate is more appropriate for wind energy development in Brazil. (author)

  20. Zeroes in continuum - continuum dipole matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Pratt, R. H.; Korol, Andrei

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that Cooper minima in photoeffect cross sections are due to zeroes in corresponding bound-free dipole matrix elements. As was discussed before(C. D. Shaffer, R. H. Pratt, and S. D. Oh, Phys. Rev. A. 57), 227 (1998)., free-free dipole matrix elements in screened (atomic or ionic) potentials can also have zeroes. Such zeroes (existing at energies of the order of 1-100 eV) result in structures in the energy dependence of bremsstrahlung cross sections and angular distributions(A. Florescu, O. I. Obolensky, C. D. Shaffer, and R. H. Pratt, AIP Conference Proceedings, 576), 60 (2001).. In the soft photon limit, zeroes of radiative free-free matrix elements are related to Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic scattering of electrons by atoms. Here we study properties of the trajectories of dipole matrix element zeroes in the plane of initial and final electron energies. We show how the trajectories in this plane evolve with ionicity for several low ℓ dipole transitions ℓ → ℓ ± 1.

  1. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  2. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entri...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions.......We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...

  3. Matrix Embedded Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakolanu, U. G.; Freund, F. T.

    2016-05-01

    In the matrix of minerals such as olivine, a redox reaction of the low-z elements occurs. Oxygen is oxidized to the peroxy state while the low-Z-elements become chemically reduced. We assign them a formula [CxHyOzNiSj]n- and call them proto-organics.

  4. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

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    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  5. Use of wastes as option for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Henriques, Rachel Martins [Virtual Institute of Climate Change (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, Amaro Olimpio Jr. [Center for Integrated Studies of the Environment and Climate Change (CentroClima/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    The present study presents an analysis of the options available for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector. The objective is to verify the potential use of wastes for electrical energy generation and its competitiveness in comparison with other sources of renewable energy. A comparison was made using marginal abatement cost curves derived from a reference scenario obtained from earlier studies dealing with the expansion of the Brazilian power sector. The results showed that the availability of wastes is significant and that they can be used at a cost 20-60% lower than that of wind power generation, a subsidized source of energy in Brazil. It can therefore be concluded that it would be more efficient if incentives were applied to the use of wastes for electrical power generation since it offers socio-environmental benefits which go far beyond the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  6. PHYSICAL METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND MODIFICATION OF BIOPOLYMER MATRIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilets

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions which are necessary for successful functioning of implants based on polymer matrix having the structure of a chaotic three-dimensional grid are analyzed. The investigation is aimed on the development of techniques for manufacturing the volumetric structured matrixes from polymer biocompatible materials and techniques of implant creation by electro-physical surface treatment of the matrix structure with the purpose of management of their biochemical and biological activity. Morphological characteristics of the matrixes, produced by the method of freeze-drying of the polymeric gel are reported. The complex energy system created for volumetric discharges generation in the structured heterogeneous substances is described. 

  7. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  8. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  9. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  10. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  11. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randall Kahn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

  12. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma P. Cotrim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases’ 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3, in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in

  13. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  14. Not all that glitters is RMT in the forecasting of risk of portfolios in the Brazilian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Leonidas; Bortoluzzo, Adriana Bruscato; Venezuela, Maria Kelly

    2014-09-01

    Using stocks of the Brazilian stock exchange (BM&F-Bovespa), we build portfolios of stocks based on Markowitz's theory and test the predicted and realized risks. This is done using the correlation matrices between stocks, and also using Random Matrix Theory in order to clean such correlation matrices from noise. We also calculate correlation matrices using a regression model in order to remove the effect of common market movements and their cleaned versions using Random Matrix Theory. This is done for years of both low and high volatility of the Brazilian stock market, from 2004 to 2012. The results show that the use of regression to subtract the market effect on returns greatly increases the accuracy of the prediction of risk, and that, although the cleaning of the correlation matrix often leads to portfolios that better predict risks, in periods of high volatility of the market this procedure may fail to do so. The results may be used in the assessment of the true risks when one builds a portfolio of stocks during periods of crisis.

  15. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  16. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe.

  17. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  18. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  19. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  20. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  1. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  2. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  3. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  4. Effective Hamiltonian and unitarity of the S matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, I

    2003-07-01

    The properties of open quantum systems are described well by an effective Hamiltonian H that consists of two parts: the Hamiltonian H of the closed system with discrete eigenstates and the coupling matrix W between discrete states and continuum. The eigenvalues of H determine the poles of the S matrix. The coupling matrix elements W(cc')(k) between the eigenstates k of H and the continuum may be very different from the coupling matrix elements W(cc')(k) between the eigenstates of H and the continuum. Due to the unitarity of the S matrix, the W(cc')(k) depend on energy in a nontrivial manner. This conflicts with the assumptions of some approaches to reactions in the overlapping regime. Explicit expressions for the wave functions of the resonance states and for their phases in the neighborhood of, respectively, avoided level crossings in the complex plane and double poles of the S matrix are given.

  5. Matrix string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1997-02-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix mode] of M-theory proposed by Banks et a]. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N = 8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  6. Matrix string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states. (orig.).

  7. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  8. Holomorphic matrix integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Felder, Giovanni; Riser, Roman

    2004-01-01

    We study a class of holomorphic matrix models. The integrals are taken over middle dimensional cycles in the space of complex square matrices. As the size of the matrices tends to infinity, the distribution of eigenvalues is given by a measure with support on a collection of arcs in the complex planes. We show that the arcs are level sets of the imaginary part of a hyperelliptic integral connecting branch points.

  9. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population's diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption - crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods.

  10. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898. Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population to avoid these foods.

  11. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods. PMID:26270019

  12. Interacting giant gravitons from spin matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmark, Troels

    2016-09-01

    Using the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld action we find an effective matrix model that describes the dynamics of weakly interacting giant gravitons wrapped on three-spheres in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) part of AdS5×S5 at high energies with two angular momenta on the S5. In parallel we consider the limit of N =4 super Yang-Mills theory near a certain unitarity bound where it reduces to the quantum mechanical theory called S U (2 ) spin matrix theory. We show that the exact same matrix model that describes the giant gravitons on the string theory side also provides the effective description in the strong coupling and large energy limit of the spin matrix theory. Thus, we are able to match nonsupersymmetric dynamics of D-branes on AdS5×S5 to a finite-N regime in N =4 super Yang-Mills theory near a unitarity bound.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

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    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  14. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  15. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  16. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  17. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-01-19

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and <50% reported maintaining urate-lowering therapy indefinitely for patients without tophi. Among residents and PR, the residency stage was the main predictor of concordance with the ACR guidelines, with PR achieving the greatest rates. Reported practices were commonly concordant with the 2012 ACR gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  18. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  19. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

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    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  20. The citation pattern of Brazilian economists

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    João Ricardo Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of international citations by Brazilian economists in papers published in the top domestic journals in 1994 and 2004. Brazilian research in economics has become more open to international influence and widespread geographically; researchers more specialized and technically oriented and the research topics more diversified. However, Brazil is plagued by editorial favoritism, reflected in the negative and significant impact of references to the works authored by domestic journals editors on international citations. We also find that longer technical papers written on topics other than the economic history of Brazil are more likely to cite foreign literature.Este artigo estuda os determinantes das citações internacionais dos economistas brasileiros em artigos publicados nas principais revistas domésticas de economia nos anos 1994 e 2004. A pesquisa de economia no Brasil se tornou mais aberta à influencia internacional e mais espalhada geograficamente; os pesquisadores mais especializados e tecnicamente orientados e os tópicos de pesquisa mais diversificados. Entretanto, a pesquisa continua sendo prejudicada pelo favoritismo editorial, refletido no impacto negativo e significante das referências dos autores aos trabalhos dos editores das revistas domésticas sobre as citacoes internacionais. Constatamos que artigos técnicos mais longos sobre tópicos que não sejam sobre história econômica do Brasil têm maior chance de citar a literatura internacional.

  1. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

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    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  2. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  3. Bidding Strategies in Brazilian Treasury Auctions

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    Anderson Caputo Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Most empirical work in treasury auctions use aggregate auction results to examine bidding behavior. We investigate the strategies of bidders in Brazilian treasury auctions using both aggregate and bidder level data and find that more detailed information allows great improvements in the understanding of bidding behavior in treasury auctions. Classifying bidders according to characteristics regarding their institutional category and their nationality, we find evidence of distinct bidding behavior across types of bidders. Moreover, in line with previous evidence in auctions of Japanese government securities, we find that foreign bidders seem to obtain higher profits than those of national institutions. These results suggest that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of testes of bidding behavior that do not take differences in bidder’s characteristics into account and (or that assume that treasury securities are pure common-value goods. We find that Brazilian auctions are relatively illiquid as higher competition yields lower bidders’ discounts. Contrary to theoretical predictions of both common- and private-value auctions, we also find that bidders obtain lower profits in auctions with higher dispersion in bidders’ valuations.

  4. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  5. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  6. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles.

  7. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  8. Methodology for matrix support: interfaces between Occupational Therapy and the health care organizing tool

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    Simone de Pádua Ayresb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses matrix support as a tool for transforming the ways of organizing health care,particularly concerning primary care. To this end, it conceptualizes the subject and reflects on the growing roleof the Occupational Therapist in matrix teams since the creation of the Centers of Support for Family HealthCare (NASF by the Brazilian Health Agency. Moreover, it discusses the issues raised during the workshopon “Teamwork and matrix support in Primary Health Care” held in October 2011, at the Primary Health CareSymposium of the XII Brazilian Congress and IX Latin American Congress of Occupational Therapy. It introducesreflections on the challenges encountered in the practice of matrix support in the everyday work in the NASFs.It was possible to observe that the obstacles found have been impairing workers’ activities; nevertheless, what isvalued in this article is the importance of the identification of these obstacles as the first step to overcome them,as well as the occupational therapist’s role as one of the actors of the transformations needed.

  9. Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)

  10. Matrix Completions and Chordal Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth John HARRISON

    2003-01-01

    In a matrix-completion problem the aim is to specifiy the missing entries of a matrix inorder to produce a matrix with particular properties. In this paper we survey results concerning matrix-completion problems where we look for completions of various types for partial matrices supported ona given pattern. We see that thc existence of completions of the required type often depends on thechordal properties of graphs associated with the pattern.

  11. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

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    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  12. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

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    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  13. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

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    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  14. THE GENERALIZED POLARIZATION SCATTERING MATRIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Least Square Best Estimate of the Generalized Polarization matrix from a set of measurements is then developed. It is shown that the Faraday...matrix data. It is then shown that the Least Square Best Estimate of the orientation angle of a symmetric target is also determinable from Faraday rotation contaminated short pulse monostatic polarization matrix data.

  15. Performance of an adult Brazilian sample on the Trail Making Test and Stroop Test

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    Kenia Repiso Campanholo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The Trail Making Test (TMT and Stroop Test (ST are attention tests widely used in clinical practice and research. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the adult Brazilian population and to study the influence of gender, age and education on the TMT parts A and B, and ST cards A, B and C. Methods: We recruited 1447 healthy subjects aged ≥18 years with an educational level of 0-25 years who were native speakers of Portuguese (Brazilian. The subjects were evaluated by the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, along with the TMTA, TMTB and ST A, B and C. Results: Among the participants, mean intellectual efficiency was 103.20 (SD: 12.0, age 41.0 (SD: 16.4 years and education 11.9 (SD: 5.6 years. There were significant differences between genders on the TMTA (p=0.002, TMTB (p=0.017 and STC (p=0.024. Age showed a positive correlation with all attention tests, whereas education showed a negative correlation. Gender was not found to be significant on the multiple linear regression model, but age and education maintained their interference. Conclusion: Gender did not have the major impact on attentional tasks observed for age and education, both of which should be considered in the stratification of normative samples.

  16. Clinical and molecular analysis of human reproductive disorders in Brazilian patients

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    A.C. Latronico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several genes that influence the development and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis (HPG have been identified. These genes encode an array of transcription factors, matrix proteins, hormones, receptors, and enzymes that are expressed at multiple levels of the HPG. We report the experience of a single Endocrinology Unit in the identification and characterization of naturally occurring mutations in families affected by HPG disorders, including forms of precocious puberty, hypogonadism and abnormal sexual development due to impaired gonadotropin function. Eight distinct genes implicated in HPG function were studied: KAL, SF1, DAX1, GnRH, GnRHR, FSHß, FSHR, and LHR. Most mutations identified in our cohort are described for the first time in literature. New mutations in SF1, DAX1 and GnRHR genes were identified in three Brazilian patients with hypogonadism. Eight boys with luteinizing hormone- (LH independent precocious puberty due to testotoxicosis were studied, and all have their LH receptor (LHR defects elucidated. Among the identified LHR molecular defects, three were new activating mutations. In addition, these mutations were frequently associated with new clinical and hormonal aspects, contributing significantly to the knowledge of the molecular basis of reproductive disorders. In conclusion, the naturally occurring genetic mutations described in the Brazilian families studied provide important insights into the regulation of the HPG.

  17. R-matrix calculation for photoionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We have employed the R-matrix method to calculate differe ntial cross sections for photoionization of helium leaving helium ion in an exci ted state for incident photon energy between the N=2 and N=3 thresholds (69~73 eV) of He+ ion. Differential cross sections for photoionization in the N=2 level at emission angle 0° are provide. Our results are in good agreem ent with available experimental data and theoretical calculations.

  18. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  19. Essays on energy policy; Ensaios sobre politica energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo Goulart; Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Iootty, Mariana

    2007-07-01

    This book is divided into four chapters covering the following aspects. Chapter one - two great themes interrelated are treated; energy policy and regulation. Chapter two - analysis is performed on the changes occurred in the petroleum industry and market during the last years, emphasizing three dimensions: the oil price, the derivative prices; and the reformulation of the brazilian petroleum industry. Chapter three - the articles discuss the difficulties faced in the implantation of the brazilian gas industry. Chapter four - the presented articles discuss the institutional changes running in the brazilian electric sector, initiated at decade of 90's. The conclusion, which tries to identify the basic premises for the elaboration of a Brazilian energy policy.

  20. Historical evolution of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Reis, Vitor Manoel da Silva

    2012-02-01

    In this special edition in celebration of the centennial of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, the authors take a retrospective look at printed Brazilian dermatology from the very beginning onward, showing evidence of descriptive dermatology with rich discussions, illustrations and advertisements of medications much used at the time, such as bismuth for the treatment of syphilis, before the discovery of penicillin. This retrospective covers up to the current days, when publications in the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology have reached the modern era in electronics, science and layout as well.

  1. Brazilian vodkas have undetectable levels of ethyl carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy V. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While in Europe vodka is mainly derived from potatoes or cereals, a large proportion of Brazilian vodka is likely obtained from sugarcane, which contains ethyl carbamate (EC precursors. EC, in addition to several other contaminants and congeners, were investigated in 32 samples of Brazilian vodka. All samples complied with the Brazilian regulations for congeners and contaminants, having EC content below 0.01 mg/L (detection limit. These results are probably related to the processing of vodka, in particular the use of extractive and rectifying stainless steel distillation columns, which allow the production of high strength spirits with low levels of congeners and contaminants.

  2. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  3. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  4. Supported Molecular Matrix Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are difficult to separate using conventional gel electrophoresis methods such as SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis, owing to their large size and heterogeneity. On the other hand, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis can separate these molecules, but is not compatible with glycan analysis. Here, we describe a novel membrane electrophoresis technique, termed "supported molecular matrix electrophoresis" (SMME), in which a porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane filter is used to achieve separation. This description includes the separation, visualization, and glycan analysis of mucins with the SMME technique.

  5. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  6. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  7. A spectral analysis of team dynamics and tactics in Brazilian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Anido, Ricardo O; Ruffino, Paulo Régis C; Barros, Ricardo M L; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterise the total space covered and the distances between players within teams over ten Brazilian First Division Championship matches. Filmed recordings, combined with a tracking system, were used to obtain the trajectories of the players (n = 277), before and after half-time. The team surface area (the area of the convex hull formed by the positions of the players) and spread (the Frobenius norm of the distance-between-player matrix) were calculated as functions of time. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was applied to each time series. The median frequency was then calculated. The results of the surface area time series median frequencies for the first half (0.63 ± 0.10 cycles · min⁻¹) were significantly greater (P team formation during a match. This analysis can provide insights that allow coaches to better control the team organisation on the pitch.

  8. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  9. Investments in the Brazilian electric sector; Os investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Octavio Pinto Barreto de

    2008-05-15

    This work covers the investments in the Brazilian electric sector. Initially it describes the investments since 1879 in order to give a better understanding of the historical return obtained by investors, associated risks, investors' profile and investment's funding. Then some financial considerations related to new investments analysis are presented, emphasizing: the discounted cash flow theory, the equity return, the business risks and the characteristics of the main project accounts. Additionally, a hydroelectric case study is presented, in which the effect at the energy price of uncertainties in cost's projections, regional tax benefits, tax alternatives, and others are stressed. (author)

  10. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  11. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  12. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  13. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  14. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  15. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  16. Brazilian spotted fever: a reemergent zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Greca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is the most pathogenic species of the spotted-fever rickettsiae group and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Amblyomma cajennense is the most important tick species involved in the cycle of this zoonosis in Brazil as it presents low host specificity, great number of natural reservoirs and wide geographic distribution. It was first described in the state of São Paulo in 1929 and later in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. The number of cases decreased in the 1940's with the development of new plague control techniques and antibiotics. In the last decades, the number of new cases has increased. The current review aimed at reporting some of the epidemiological and public health aspects of this reemergent disease with new foci, mainly in the southeastern region of Brazil.

  17. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  18. Chromosome X aneuploidy in Brazilian schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Leopoldo Silva; Khayat, André Salim; de Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients may provide clues to the genes involved in this disease. For this reason, a chromosomal analysis of samples from 62 schizophrenics and 70 controls was performed with trypsin-Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the X chromosome. A clonal pericentric inversion on chromosome 9 was detected in one male patient, and we also discovered mosaicism associated with X chromosome aneuploidy in female patients, primarily detected in schizophrenic and normal female controls over 40 years old. When compared with age-matched female controls, the frequency of X chromosome loss was not significantly different between schizophrenics and controls, except for the 40- to 49-year-old age group. Our findings suggest that the X chromosome loss seen in schizophrenic patients is inherent to the normal cellular aging process. However, our data also suggest that X chromosome gain may be correlated with schizophrenia in this Brazilian population.

  19. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  20. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  1. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  2. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  3. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.

  4. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  5. 基于能量变分剪切效应空间梁单元刚度矩阵及荷载列阵推导%DERIVATION OF ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX AND LOAD ARRAY FOR SPACE BEAM WITH SHEAR EFFECT BASED ON ENERGY VARIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文军; 叶献国

    2012-01-01

    为了系统研究空间梁单元考虑剪切变形影响时的刚度矩阵及荷载列阵,将能量变分原理应用于空间梁的单元分析。建立了考虑剪切效应的空间梁单元位移函数,利用最小势能原理导出了这种空间梁单元的刚度矩阵和荷载列阵的表达式,显式积分得到单元刚度矩阵,同时计算了平面内部分非节点荷载作用下的等效节点荷载,修正了相关文献中的部分错误。计算结果表明:该方法所得到的单元刚度矩阵与相关文献中其他方法的计算结果完全一致,为编制空间巨型结构的有限元程序奠定基础,对推算其他类型单元刚度矩阵及其荷载列阵也具有理论意义和应用价值。%In order to study systematically the stiffness matrix and load array of space beam element with the impact of shear deformation, the element was analyzed by the energy variation principle. The displacement functions for space beam element with shear deformation effect were put forward, and then expressions of element stiffness matrix and load array for this beam were deduced strictly by the minimum potential energy principle. Explicit integration was carried out for the element stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal loads under some forms of no-node load within a plane were calculated as well, which had revised the mistakes in relevant reference. Results show that the element stiffness matrix computed by the method is consistent with those in related documents calculated by other methods, which makes a foundation for compiling the finite element procedure for space mega frame structure. Which has a good theoretical and practical value in the calculation of the element stiffness matrixes and load arrays for other elements as well.

  6. Environmental profile analysis of MDF panels production: study in a brazilian technological condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Moro Piekarski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the environmental profile of MDF panel manufacturing in the Brazilian industry in terms of energy, emissions and dependence on renewable sources. The study was conducted by using the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, specifically through the development of the first Life Cycle Inventory (LCI of MDF in a Brazilian industry. The life cycle inventory and the production processes analysis were constructed using Umberto® v.5.6 software and following the ISO 14040 series. The study covers the life cycle of MDF production from gate-to-gate perspective, involving the on-site manufacturing system. The functional unit was defined in 1 m3 of MDF. About 76% of energy required to produce MDF is thermal (52.8% of thermal energy is required for the drying process of wood fiber. CO2 is a major emission during the MDF production, where natural gas contributes to 96.7% of total CO2 fossils. It was observed a low dependence of non-renewable source (19.2% compared with the literature.

  7. German-Brazilian nuclear deal. [1975 partnership now seen as counterproductive for Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-02-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs.

  8. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Mészárosová, H.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlický, M.; de Andrade, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    The digital, decimetric (950-2500 MHz) Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS, Sawant, H.S., Subramanian, K.R., Faria, C., et al. Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). Solar Phys. 200, 167-176, 2001) with high time (10-1000 ms) and frequency (1-10 MHz) resolution is in regular operation since April, 1998, at the National Space Research Institute (INPE) at São José dos Campos, Brazil. The BSS has now been upgraded with a new digital data acquisition and data processing system. The new version of the BSS has improved the observational possibilities with the capability to record up to 200 frequency channels available in the selectable frequency range 950-2500 MHz. The GPS receiver permits the acquisition of data with time accuracy in the order of 0.1 ms. The software system of the BSS is composed by two distinct modules: the first, data acquisition system provides a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows one to choose the observational parameters. The second module is the real time visualization system that permits real time visualization of the observed dynamic spectrum and additionally allows procedures for visualization and preliminary analysis of the recorded solar spectra. Using the new visualization system, we have realized two new types of dm-radio fine structures: narrow band type III bursts with positive as well as negative group frequency drift and dots emissions arranged in zebra-like and fiber-like chains. Furthermore, we have found flare generated fast wave trains according to their tadpole signature in wavelet power spectra for a decimetric type IV radio event (June 6, 2000 flare).

  9. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  10. Nuclear option: analysis of the actual status and future perspectives for Brazilian case; Opcao nuclear: analise da situacao atual e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Wilma S.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a global view of actual status and future perspectives of Brazilian nuclear option. By diversity of subjects treated in it, the difficulties are appointed at each chapter, when necessary. The strategies are focused in details in chapters 7 and 8. In chapter 10 they are emphasized in its main aspects for Brazilian case. To give an overview of the state-of-the-art related to nuclear energy, many figures and references are presented in the Annex. 104 refs., 111 figs.

  11. Modifying Matrix Materials to Increase Wetting and Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Katie

    2011-01-01

    In an alternative approach to increasing the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fiber and matrix components of organic-fiber/polymer matrix composite materials, the matrix resins are modified. Heretofore, it has been common practice to modify the fibers rather than the matrices: The fibers are modified by chemical and/or physical surface treatments prior to combining the fibers with matrix resins - an approach that entails considerable expense and usually results in degradation (typically, weakening) of fibers. The alternative approach of modifying the matrix resins does not entail degradation of fibers, and affords opportunities for improving the mechanical properties of the fiber composites. The alternative approach is more cost-effective, not only because it eliminates expensive fiber-surface treatments but also because it does not entail changes in procedures for manufacturing conventional composite-material structures. The alternative approach is best described by citing an example of its application to a composite of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in an epoxy matrix. The epoxy matrix was modified to a chemically reactive, polarized epoxy nano-matrix to increase the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fibers and the matrix. The modification was effected by incorporating a small proportion (0.3 weight percent) of reactive graphitic nanofibers produced from functionalized nanofibers into the epoxy matrix resin prior to combining the resin with the UHMWPE fibers. The resulting increase in fiber/matrix adhesion manifested itself in several test results, notably including an increase of 25 percent in the maximum fiber pullout force and an increase of 60-65 percent in fiber pullout energy. In addition, it was conjectured that the functionalized nanofibers became involved in the cross linking reaction of the epoxy resin, with resultant enhancement of the mechanical properties and lower viscosity of the matrix.

  12. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  13. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  14. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V R; Pimenta, F J G S; Aguiar, M C F; do Carmo, M A V; Naves, M D; Mesquita, R A

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian commercial ethanol propolis extract, also formulated to ensure physical and chemical stability, was found to inhibit oral candidiasis in 12 denture-bearing patients with prosthesis stomatitis candidiasis association.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  16. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Patrícia Paula; Silvana Pereira Giozza; Michelle Zanon Pereira; Patrícia Souza Boaventura; Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos; Camile Giaretta Sachetti; César Omar Carranza Tamayo; Clarissa Campos Guaragna Kowalski; Flavia Tavares Silva Elias; Suzanne Jacob Serruya; Reinaldo Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive inves...

  17. Quantifying price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, B. M.; Takami, M. Y.; Cajueiro, D. O.; Petitinga, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market. We employ a recently developed methodology to test whether the Brazilian stock price returns present a power law distribution and find that we cannot reject such behavior. Empirical results for sub-partitions of the time series suggests that for most of the time the power law is not rejected, but that in some cases the data set does not conform with a power law distribution.

  18. A long way from tax justice : the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinas, Lena; Moellmann Ferro, Thiago Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the major characteristics of the Brazilian tax system, after underlining the modifications it went through since 1988, when the country adopted a new and democratic Constitution. One important feature is the marked incidence of indirect consumer and production taxes (49% of all tax revenues) in place of direct taxes on income, inheritance, and capital gains. This imbalance between indirect and direct taxes explains, in large part, the elevated regressivity of the Brazilian...

  19. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  20. PRODEEM - the Brazilian programme for rural electrification using photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco A.; Lima, Jorge H.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: marcoag@cepel.br, jlima@cepel.br

    2002-07-01

    This work describes several technical and managerial aspects of the Brazilian PRODEEM Program, which comprises installation of thousands of PV systems for several applications in Brazilian outback. The equipment were acquired through international bidding and CEPEL was specially concerned about the its quality and lifespan, as well as about the correct sizing of the systems. The purpose of this work is to present a history and the technical experience obtained by CEPEL after several years of involvement in PRODEEM activities. (author)