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Sample records for brazilian corn streak

  1. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Wahnbaeck Hammond

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The coat protein gene and 3'non-translated region of MRFV were amplified from infected tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using MRFV-specific primers, and were characterized by nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cloned PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between the Brazilian isolates and isolates obtained from Latin America and the United States reveals a close relationship to isolates from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Results support the proposal that the Brazilian corn streak virus be regarded as an isolate of MRFV and provide evidence for the presence of MRFV in "corn stunt' disease in Brazil.O vírus do rayado fino do milho (MRFV, presente em vários países da América Latina, tem mostrado semelhança ao vírus da risca do milho que ocorre no Brasil, em relação a características patogênicas, sorológicas e histológicas. No presente trabalho, ambos os vírus foram comparados molecularmente, visando confirmar a similaridade entre os mesmos. O MRFV foi identificado por hibridização de ácido nucléico em amostras de tecido que apresentavam sintomas de enfezamento, coletadas nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais. O gene da capa protéica e a região 3' não traduzida do MRFV foram amplificados, a partir de tecidos infectados, através da transcrição reversa por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR, usando-se os iniciadores específicos para o vírus, obtendo-se a seq

  2. Fumonisins in Brazilian corn-based foods for infant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, M F P M; Shephard, G S; Sewram, V; Vicente, E; Mendonça, T A; Jordan, A C

    2004-07-01

    A survey of 196 samples of corn-based infant foods from 13 cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, was carried out to investigate the fumonisin contamination in the products. Based on their ingredients, the products were divided into seven groups: infant cereal designated as types A-D, corn meal, corn starch and instant cereal baby food. Although certain infant food samples were free of fumonisin contamination (starch and infant cereals of type A, B and D), contamination levels in the other products (corn meal, instant corn-based baby food and cereal type C) were of concern, particularly those in corn meal. All samples in these categories contained fumonisins. The mean level for total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 + FB3) in corn meal was 2242 microg kg(-1) (maximum 8039 microg kg(-1)), in instant corn-based baby food was 437 (maximum 1096) microg kg(-1) and in infant cereal type C was 664 (maximum 1753) microg kg(-1).

  3. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  4. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  5. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  6. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Biofuels represent an opportunity for domestic fuel production from renewable energy sources with potential environmental and social benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and promoting rural development. However, as demand for biofuel continues to increase worldwide, concerns about land competition between food and fuel, excessive water usage and other unintended environmental consequences have grown. Through a comparative study between US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, we examine the energy, land, water and GHG performance of the two largest industrial fuel ethanol production systems in the world. Our comparisons include current and potential future systems with improved agronomic practices, crop yields, ethanol conversion processes, and utilization of agricultural residues. Our results suggest that the average water footprints of US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol are fairly close (108 and 110 m3/GJ of ethanol, respectively) while the variations can range from 50 to 250 m3/GJ for sugarcane ethanol and 50 to380 m3/GJ for corn ethanol. Results emphasize the need to examine the water footprint within the context of local and regional climatic variability, water availability, competing uses (e.g. agricultural, industrial, and municipal water needs) and other ecosystem constraints. Research is under way (at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and other institutions) to develop models to analyze water supply and demand at the watershed-scale for current and future biomass production, and to understand the tradeoffs among water supply, demand and quality due to more intensive agricultural practices and expansion of biofuels. Land use efficiency metrics, with regards to life cycle GHG emissions (without land use change) savings through gasoline displacement with ethanol, illustrate the progression of the biofuel industry and the importance of maximizing bioenergy production by utilizing both the crops and the residues. A recent

  7. Streak camera meeting summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bliss, David E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Streak cameras are important for high-speed data acquisition in single event experiments, where the total recorded information (I) is shared between the number of measurements (M) and the number of samples (S). Topics of this meeting included: streak camera use at the national laboratories; current streak camera production; new tube developments and alternative technologies; and future planning. Each topic is summarized in the following sections.

  8. Quality assessment of corn batches received at a feed mill in the brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFC Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating factors that contribute to changes in the quality of corn used in compound poultry feeds. Samples were collected from 6488 bulk cargos received at a feed mill located close to Brasília, Brazil. The parameters studied were divided into two groups: those related to corn chemical composition, including crude protein (% CP, ether extract (% EE, crude fiber (% CF, nitrogen-free extract (% NFE, and estimated metabolizable energy (ME, and corn physical characteristics, including density, moisture, and grain physical damage. High coefficients of determination (R² and low coefficients of variation (CV were determined for the chemical and physical parameters. The analysis of variance showed low to medium R². Month, year, supplier, and their interactions influenced (p <0.05 all chemical properties, as well as density, moisture, and ME. Physical characteristics were less affected by those factors, except for quantity of damaged grains. The principal component analysis separated the physical and chemical factors. The coefficients of the first component explained 54% of the total variation between variables. The first principal component showed that NFE and ME increased as humidity decreased. The second component also showed a decrease of physical problems due to reduction in humidity. Results indicate that the feed mills should take preventive measures when selecting suppliers, and diets should be formulated according to the differences in chemical and physical composition of corn supplied in different months and years.

  9. Mycoflora and fumonisin contamination in Brazilian corn from sowing to harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana P; Fonseca, Homero; Fancelli, Antônio Luiz; Direito, Glória Maria; Ortega, Edwin M; Corrêa, Benedito

    2002-06-19

    The present study aimed to analyze the mycoflora and potential mycotoxin contamination of soil and corn samples collected at different plant maturity stages in Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Preto, two regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In addition, the data obtained were correlated with the occurrence of wind-dispersed fungi and the predominant climatic conditions of the two regions studied. Corn mycoflora profiles showed that Fusarium verticillioides prevailed in 35% of the samples from Capão Bonito and in 49% of the samples from Ribeirão Preto. Examination of wind-dispersed fungi also revealed a high incidence of F. verticillioides. Soil mycoflora analyses showed that Penicilliumwas the most prevalent genus, although F. verticillioides was present in 55.5% of Capão Bonito's samples and in 26.7% of Ribeirão Preto's samples. With respect to water activity, the corn kernels most contaminated with F. verticillioides had water activity levels of 0.70-0.80. HPLC analysis of fumonisins revealed that 88.5% of Capão Bonito's kernels were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) (0.09-10.87 microg/g) and 53.8% with fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) (0.05-0.52 microg/g); Ribeirão Preto's kernels presented contamination levels of 93.5% for FB(1) (0.11-17.69 microg/g) and 61.3% for FB(2) (0.05-5.24 microg/g). No aflatoxins were detected by thin-layer chromatography in corn grains of either region. The concomitant occurrence of F. verticillioides and fumonisins in most of the field corn assayed demonstrates the importance of an effective control of cultivation throughout the plant maturity stages.

  10. Streak camera techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avara, R.

    1977-06-01

    An introduction to streak camera geometry, experimental techniques, and limitations are presented. Equations, graphs and charts are included to provide useful data for optimizing the associated optics to suit each experiment. A simulated analysis is performed on simultaneity and velocity measurements. An error analysis is also performed for these measurements utilizing the Monte Carlo method to simulate the distribution of uncertainties associated with simultaneity-time measurements.

  11. Streaking into middle school science: The Dell Streak pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Susan Eudy

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn

  12. Demonstration of a Far Infrared Streak Camera.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabbels, M.M.J.E.; Lankhuijzen, G.M.; Noordam, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    An atomic infrared (IR) streak camera is demonstrated that operates in the mid- and far-infrared (λ = 5-85 μm), well beyond the long wavelength cutoff of conventional streak cameras. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the streak camera are determined using the FELIX free-electron laser as

  13. Influence of the geometry of low-speed streak on the streak instability

    OpenAIRE

    浅井, 雅人; 嵯峨, 信一; 小西, 康郁; Masahito, ASAI; Shinichi, SAGA; Yasufumi, KONISHI; 都科技大; 都科技大; 都科技大; Dept. of Aerospace Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Tech.; Dept. of Aerospace Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Tech.; Dept. of Aerospace Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Tech.

    2001-01-01

    In order to examine the nature of streak instability experimentally, a single low-speed streak is produced by a small piece of screen set normal to the wall in a laminar boundary layer. The lateral width and height of the screen are varied systematically to see the dependency of the streak instability on the geometry of the streak. The results show that when the lateral width of the low-speed streak is greater than three or four times the shear-layer thickness, the streak instability to symme...

  14. Secondary threshold amplitudes for sinuous streak breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Carlo; Brandt, Luca; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.

    2011-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of laminar sinuously bent streaks is studied for the plane Couette flow at Re = 500 in a nearly minimal box and for the Blasius boundary layer at Reδ*=700. The initial perturbations are nonlinearly saturated streamwise streaks of amplitude AU perturbed with sinuous perturbations of amplitude AW. The local boundary of the basin of attraction of the linearly stable laminar flow is computed by bisection and projected in the AU - AW plane providing a well defined critical curve. Different streak transition scenarios are seen to correspond to different regions of the critical curve. The modal instability of the streaks is responsible for transition for AU = 25%-27% for the considered flows, where sinuous perturbations of amplitude below AW ≈ 1%-2% are sufficient to counteract the streak viscous dissipation and induce breakdown. The critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbations increases when the streamwise streak amplitude is decreased. With secondary perturbations amplitude AW ≈ 4%, breakdown is induced on stable streamwise streaks with AU ≈ 13%, following the secondary transient growth scenario first examined by Schoppa and Hussain [J. Fluid Mech. 453, 57 (2002)]. A cross-over, where the critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbation becomes larger than the amplitude of streamwise streaks, is observed for streaks of small amplitude AU < 5%-6%. In this case, the transition is induced by an initial transient amplification of streamwise vortices, forced by the decaying sinuous mode. This is followed by the growth of the streaks and final breakdown. The shape of the critical AU - AW curve is very similar for Couette and boundary layer flows and seems to be relatively insensitive to the nature of the edge states on the basin boundary. The shape of this critical curve indicates that the stability of streamwise streaks should always be assessed in terms of both the streak amplitude and the amplitude of spanwise velocity perturbations.

  15. Nonlinear streak computation using boundary region equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J A; Martel, C, E-mail: juanangel.martin@upm.es, E-mail: carlos.martel@upm.es [Depto. de Fundamentos Matematicos, E.T.S.I Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    The boundary region equations (BREs) are applied for the simulation of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise periodic array of streaks in a flat plate boundary layer. The well-known BRE formulation is obtained from the complete Navier-Stokes equations in the high Reynolds number limit, and provides the correct asymptotic description of three-dimensional boundary layer streaks. In this paper, a fast and robust streamwise marching scheme is introduced to perform their numerical integration. Typical streak computations present in the literature correspond to linear streaks or to small-amplitude nonlinear streaks computed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) or the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSEs). We use the BREs to numerically compute high-amplitude streaks, a method which requires much lower computational effort than DNS and does not have the consistency and convergence problems of the PSE. It is found that the flow configuration changes substantially as the amplitude of the streaks grows and the nonlinear effects come into play. The transversal motion (in the wall normal-streamwise plane) becomes more important and strongly distorts the streamwise velocity profiles, which end up being quite different from those of the linear case. We analyze in detail the resulting flow patterns for the nonlinearly saturated streaks and compare them with available experimental results. (paper)

  16. Time-resolved photoemission using attosecond streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagele, S.; Pazourek, R.; Wais, M.; Wachter, G.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically study time-resolved photoemission in atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We review recent advances in the study of the photoelectric efect in the time domain and show that the experimentally accessible time shifts can be decomposed into distinct contributions that stem from the feld-free photoionization process itself and from probe-field induced corrections. We perform accurate quantum-mechanical as well as classical simulations of attosecond streaking for efective one-electron systems and determine all relevant contributions to the time delay with attosecond precision. In particular, we investigate the properties and limitations of attosecond streaking for the transition from short-ranged potentials (photodetachment) to long-ranged Coulomb potentials (photoionization). As an example for a more complex system, we study time-resolved photoionization for endohedral fullerenes A@C60 and discuss how streaking time shifts are modifed due to the interaction of the C60 cage with the probing infrared streaking field.

  17. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  18. Secondary threshold amplitudes for sinuous streak breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Cossu, Carlo; Brandt, Luca; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear stability of laminar sinuously bent streaks is studied for the plane Couette flow at Re=500 in a nearly minimal box and for the Blasius boundary layer at Re_d*= 700. The initial perturbations are nonlinearly saturated streamwise streaks of amplitude AU perturbed with sinuous perturbations of amplitude AW. The local boundary of the basin of attraction of the linearly stable laminar flow is computed by bisection and projected in the AU – AW plane providing a well defined critical ...

  19. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  20. Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short...

  1. Suppression of wake's instabilities by optimal streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory

    2014-11-01

    Wakes can sustain large transient energy growth. Optimal perturbations are computed for the cases of parallel, weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes. Streaks are found to be the optimal amplified structures produced by the non normal energy amplification. The level of energy increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations except in the circular cylinder wake where the optimal is reached for λz ~ 6 D . In parallel wakes these streaks are shown to suppress the absolute instability. Furthermore the global instability of the weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes can be completely annihilate with moderate streaks amplitudes. The comparison of these spanwise periodic (3D) optimal perturbations with the spanwise uniform (2D) control showed that the energy required to stabilize the wake is always smaller for the 3D control. Moreover the sensitivity of the global mode growth rate is discovered to be quadratic for 3D perturbations while being linear for 2D ones meaning that usual first order sensitivity analysis is unable to predict their larger efficiency.

  2. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  3. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  4. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  5. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Luo, Duan; Wen, Wenlong; Xu, Junkai; Tian, Jinshou; Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin; Chen, Jianzhong; Liu, Rong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  6. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Luo, Duan [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Xu, Junkai [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jianzhong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Rong [Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  7. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-21

    Jul 21, 2014 ... Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although ...

  8. Automatic streak endpoint localization from the cornerness metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sease, Brad; Flewelling, Brien; Black, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Streaked point sources are a common occurrence when imaging unresolved space objects from both ground- and space-based platforms. Effective localization of streak endpoints is a key component of traditional techniques in space situational awareness related to orbit estimation and attitude determination. To further that goal, this paper derives a general detection and localization method for streak endpoints based on the cornerness metric. Corners detection involves searching an image for strong bi-directional gradients. These locations typically correspond to robust structural features in an image. In the case of unresolved imagery, regions with a high cornerness score correspond directly to the endpoints of streaks. This paper explores three approaches for global extraction of streak endpoints and applies them to an attitude and rate estimation routine.

  9. AIP GHz modulation detection using a streak camera: Suitability of streak cameras in the AWAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Muggli, P

    2017-01-01

    Using frequency mixing, a modulated light pulse of ns duration is created. We show that, with a ps-resolution streak camera that is usually used for single short pulse measurements, we can detect via an FFT detection approach up to 450 GHz modulation in a pulse in a single measurement. This work is performed in the context of the AWAKE plasma wakefield experiment where modulation frequencies in the range of 80–280 GHz are expected.

  10. Statistical characteristics of streak artifacts on CT images: Relationship between streak artifacts and mA s values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Kuniahru; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Enchi, Yukihiro; Niimi, Takanaga [Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-20 Daikominami 1-chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya, 461-8673 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, 2-15 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-20 Daikominami 1-chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how streak artifacts on computed tomography (CT) images vary with reduction in radiation doses by assessing the quantitative relationship between the streak artifacts and milliampere-time product (mA s) values. A commercially available chest phantom was used to measure the streak artifacts on the CT images obtained using a 4- and 16-multidetector-row helical CT scanners with various mA s values at a constant tube voltage of 120 kVp. The cardiac slice image was employed as a target image for evaluating the streak artifacts on the CT image. Eighty parallel line segments with a length of 20 pixels were placed perpendicular to numerous streak artifacts on the cardiac slice image, and the largest difference between adjacent CT values in each of the 80 CT-value profiles of these line segments was employed as a feature variable of streak artifacts; these feature variables have been analyzed by the extreme value theory. The largest difference between adjacent CT values in each CT-value profile can be statistically modeled by a Gumbel distribution. Further, the maximum level of streak artifacts on CT images that will be tolerated for clinical use and low-dose CT screening examination was expected to be estimated using the location parameter in the Gumbel distribution.

  11. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  12. Streak image denoising and segmentation using adaptive Gaussian guided filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuocheng; Guo, Baoping

    2014-09-10

    In streak tube imaging lidar (STIL), streak images are obtained using a CCD camera. However, noise in the captured streak images can greatly affect the quality of reconstructed 3D contrast and range images. The greatest challenge for streak image denoising is reducing the noise while preserving details. In this paper, we propose an adaptive Gaussian guided filter (AGGF) for noise removal and detail enhancement of streak images. The proposed algorithm is based on a guided filter (GF) and part of an adaptive bilateral filter (ABF). In the AGGF, the details are enhanced by optimizing the offset parameter. AGGF-denoised streak images are significantly sharper than those denoised by the GF. Moreover, the AGGF is a fast linear time algorithm achieved by recursively implementing a Gaussian filter kernel. Experimentally, AGGF demonstrates its capacity to preserve edges and thin structures and outperforms the existing bilateral filter and domain transform filter in terms of both visual quality and peak signal-to-noise ratio performance.

  13. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Granvik, M.; Torppa, J.; Muinonen, K.; Poikonen, J.; Lehti, J.; Säntti, T.; Komulainen, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data to support the development and validation of population models, and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. We focus on the low signal-to-noise (SNR) detection of objects with high angular velocities, resulting in long and faint object trails, or streaks, in the optical images. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and, particularly for satellites, within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a 'track-before-detect' problem, resulting in streaks of arbitrary lengths. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, algorithms are not readily available yet. In the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project, we develop and evaluate an automated processing pipeline applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The algorithmic

  14. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  15. Simulation of FEL pulse length calculation with THz streaking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgisyan, I., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ischebeck, R.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Juranić, P., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-04-02

    Simulation of THz streaking of photoelectrons created by X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser and reconstruction of the free-electron laser pulse lengths. Having accurate and comprehensive photon diagnostics for the X-ray pulses delivered by free-electron laser (FEL) facilities is of utmost importance. Along with various parameters of the photon beam (such as photon energy, beam intensity, etc.), the pulse length measurements are particularly useful both for the machine operators to measure the beam parameters and monitor the stability of the machine performance, and for the users carrying out pump–probe experiments at such facilities to better understand their measurement results. One of the most promising pulse length measurement techniques used for photon diagnostics is the THz streak camera which is capable of simultaneously measuring the lengths of the photon pulses and their arrival times with respect to the pump laser. This work presents simulations of a THz streak camera performance. The simulation procedure utilizes FEL pulses with two different photon energies in hard and soft X-ray regions, respectively. It recreates the energy spectra of the photoelectrons produced by the photon pulses and streaks them by a single-cycle THz pulse. Following the pulse-retrieval procedure of the THz streak camera, the lengths were calculated from the streaked spectra. To validate the pulse length calculation procedure, the precision and the accuracy of the method were estimated for streaking configuration corresponding to previously performed experiments. The obtained results show that for the discussed setup the method is capable of measuring FEL pulses with about a femtosecond accuracy and precision.

  16. Angioid streaks, clinical course, complications, and current therapeutic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas1, Dimitris Papaconstantinou2, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea2, George Kalantzis2, Dimitris Karagiannis2, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Ioannis Ladas21Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Angioid streaks are visible irregular crack-like dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that are associated with atrophic degeneration of the overlying retinal pigmented epithelium. Angioid streaks may be associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Paget’s disease, sickle-cell anemia, acromegaly, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, but also appear in patients without any systemic disease. Patients with angioid streaks are generally asymptomatic, unless the lesions extend towards the foveola or develop complications such as traumatic Bruch’s membrane rupture or macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The visual prognosis in patients with CNV secondary to angioid streaks if untreated, is poor and most treatment modalities, until recently, have failed to limit the devastating impact of CNV in central vision. However, it is likely that treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor, especially in treatment-naive eyes to yield favorable results in the future and this has to be investigated in future studies.Keywords: angioid streaks, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, choroidal neovascularization

  17. Time delays for attosecond streaking in photoionization of neon

    CERN Document Server

    Feist, Johannes; Nagele, Stefan; Pazourek, Renate; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the time-resolved photoemission in neon atoms as probed by attosecond streaking. We calculate streaking time shifts for the emission of 2p and 2s electrons and compare the relative delay as measured in a recent experiment by Schultze et al. [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to calculate accurate Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delays from multi- electron dipole transition matrix elements for photoionization. The additional laser field-induced time shifts in the exit channel are obtained from separate, time-dependent simulations of a full streaking process by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation on the single-active-electron level. The resulting accurate total relative streaking time shifts between 2s and 2p emission lie well below the experimental data. We identify the presence of unresolved shake-up satellites in the experiment as a potential source of error in the determination of streaking time shifts.

  18. Small-size streak tube for imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinshou; Hui, Dandan; Luo, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Shaorong; Jia, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Streak tube imaging lidar, as a novel flash lidar, due to its advantages of higher resolution for low contrast conditions, compact and rugged physical configurations, small image distortions owing to its scannerless design, and higher image update rates, has immense potential to provide 3D single-laser-pulse scannerless imaging, 3D multispectral imaging, 3D multispectral fluorescence imaging, and 3D polarimetry. In order to further reduce the size and enlarge the field of view (FOV) of the lidar system, we designed a super small-size, large photocathode area and meshless streak tube with spherical cathode and screen. With the aid of Computer Simulation Technology Software package (CST), a model of the streak tube was built, and its predominant performances were illustrated via tracking electron trajectories. Spatial resolution of the streak tube reaches 20lp/mm over the entire ∅28mm photocathode working area, and its temporal resolution is better than 30ps. Most importantly, the external dimensions of the streak tube are only ∅50mmx100mm. And several prototypes are already manufactured on the basis of the computer design.

  19. Evaluation of combining ability in white corn for special use as corn grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Souto Bignotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic potential of white corn for corn grits, 28 hybrids resulting from diallel crosses of eight parents, including parents and S1 generations, were evaluated. The combining abilities and levels of heterosis and inbreeding depression were estimated. The parents used were the main white maize hybrids of the Brazilian germplasm. The combinations HT 9332 x HT 392, IAC Nelore x HT 9332, IAC Nelore x HT 932, and IPR 119 x IAC Nelore are promising for reciprocal recurrent selection programs targeting higher grain yield. Hybrid IPR 127 was indicated as a source of industrial lines with favorable traits for dry-rolled corn production. Hybrid IAC Nelore had the lowest estimate of inbreeding depression and was recommended for the breeding of lines and participation in higher-yielding hybrids and composites.

  20. First report of xanthomonas vasicola causing bacterial leaf streak on corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 and 2015, Zea mays samples (field, seed, and popcorn) were submitted to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln displaying long, dark, yellow to brown, water-soaked, linear lesions confined to the interveinal spaces of the leaves. Initial symptoms appeare...

  1. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  2. Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Blue Streak Hap, Labidochromis caeruleus

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün, Sebahattin; Güroy, Derya; Tekeşoğlu, Haluk; Güroy, Betül; Çelik, İhsan; Tekinay, A. Adem; Bulut, Musa

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the optimum dietary protein level of a freshwater ornamental fish, Blue streak hap (Labidochromis caeruleus). Four isocaloric fish meal based diets ranging from 30% to 45% in protein were fed to triplicate groups of Blue streak hap for 8 weeks. Fish (initial weight, 0.85 g) were reared in twelve 50 L aquarium with biological filter and controlled temperature (27.5°C), in stocking density of ten fish/aquarium. Results showed that dietary protein level si...

  3. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... 2Department of Fruit Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. Accepted 5 September, 2012. Banana streak virus (BSV) is of quarantine significance since Musa is a vegetatively propagated crop. Diagnosis by symptomatology is unreliable because the symptoms ...

  4. Improved approach to characterizing and presenting streak camera performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Jones, B.A.

    1985-07-15

    The performance of a streak camera recording system is strongly linked to the technique used to amplify, detect and quantify the streaked image. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) streak camera images have been recorded both on film and by fiber-optically coupling to charge-coupled devices (CCD's). During the development of a new process for recording these images (lens coupling the image onto a cooled CCD) the definitions of important performance characteristics such as resolution and dynamic range were re-examined. As a result of this development, these performance characteristics are now presented to the streak camera user in a more useful format than in the past. This paper describes how these techniques are used within the Laser Fusion Program at LLNL. The system resolution is presented as a modulation transfer function, including the seldom reported effects that flare and light scattering have at low spatial frequencies. Data are presented such that a user can adjust image intensifier gain and pixel averaging to optimize the useful dynamic range in any particular application.

  5. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is a threat to productivity and product quality in East Africa. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of CBSD on the primary photosynthetic apparatus of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Three cassava varieties with varying levels of reaction to infection by CBSD ...

  6. Planetary-scale streak structures produced in a high-resolution simulation of Venus atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, H.; Sugimoto, N.; Takagi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ohfuchi, W.; Enomoto, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ishiwatari, M.; Sato, T. M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Satoh, T.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary-scale streak structures captured by the IR2 camera onboard AKATSUKI was reproduced in a high-resolution simulation of Venus Atmosphere. We have found that the streak structures are extending from the polar vortices and synchronized in both hemispheres. Our experiments suggest that a low-stability layer is a key for forming the planetary-scale streak structures.

  7. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  8. Actinomycetales from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  9. Intelligent detection and removing of straight periodic streaks on digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zehao; Sheng, Hui; Xu, Xianfeng

    2017-08-01

    Straight periodic steaks are common negative errors on images, an intelligent method is proposed to test and remove the periodic streaks on digital images. Because of many artificial errors or negative experiment factors, digital images are always contaminated by straight periodic streaks, which will correspondently incur error information on them. By Fast Two Dimensional Fourier Transform, the space spectra from these periodic streaks are discrete and can be test intelligently. After eliminate these frequency ingredient, the periodic streaks disappear after inverse Fourier Transform. The numerical simulation experiment shows that this method is robust in detesting and removing the periodic streaks on digital figures.

  10. Observation of molecular dipole excitations by attosecond self-streaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A; Pazourek, Renate; Wais, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We propose a protocol to probe the ultrafast evolution and dephasing of coherent electronic excitation in molecules in the time domain by the intrinsic streaking field generated by the molecule itself. Coherent electronic motion in the endohedral fullerene \\Necsixty~is initiated by a moderately intense femtosecond UV-VIS pulse leading to coherent oscillations of the molecular dipole moment that persist after the end of the laser pulse. The resulting time-dependent molecular near-field is probed through the momentum modulation of photoemission from the central neon atom by a time-delayed attosecond XUV pulse. Our ab-initio time-dependent density functional theory and classical trajectory simulations predict that this self-streaking signal accurately traces the molecular dipole oscillations in real time. We discuss the underlying processes and give an analytical model that captures the essence of our ab-initio simulations.

  11. Small-size meshless 50 ps streak tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N. V.; Andreev, S. V.; Belolipetski, V. S.; Bryukhnevich, G. I.; Greenfield, D. E.; Ivanova, S. R.; Kaverin, A. M.; Khohlova, A. N.; Kuz'menko, E. A.; Levina, G. P.; Makushina, V. A.; Monastyrskiy, M. A.; Schelev, M. Ya.; Semichastnova, Z. M.; Serdyuchenko, Yu. N.; Skaballanovich, T. A.; Sokolov, V. E.

    2008-11-01

    In contrast to the conventional image intensifier with large work area, a streak image tube should possess additional important feature - the comparatively small temporal distortion at the entire work area of the photocathode. With this additional engineering restriction taken into account, a novel small-size meshless streak image tube has been developed by means of numerical optimization. The tube with 25-mm wide work area contains a pair of deflection plates to sweep the electron image along the 25 mm output phosphor screen that is separated by 100 mm from the photocathode. The electron image can be shuttered with a 300 V blanking electric pulse. Electron-optical magnification of the tube is unit; spatial resolution reaches 30 lp/mm over the entire photocathode work area; temporal resolution lies in the 20 - 50 ps range, depending on the accelerating voltage (6 - 15 kV).

  12. Silent polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in a patient with angioid streaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cebeci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present a case of silent polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV in a patient with angioid streaks. PCV was detected during a routine ophthalmic examination and confirmed by fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography. After 2 years of follow-up, the PCV remained silent without any complications. We report this rare coexistence and review literature on this topic.

  13. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M J; Upadhyay, J; Deshpande, P P; Sharma, M L; Navathe, C P

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  14. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all the time. They usually form on the ball of the foot. (The ball is the roundish part on the bottom of ... special doughnut-shaped pads that let the corn fit right into the hole in the middle to ...

  15. Maize streak virus: an old and complex 'emerging' pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Van Der Walt, Eric; Dent, Kyle; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae) occurs throughout Africa, where it causes what is probably the most serious viral crop disease on the continent. It is obligately transmitted by as many as six leafhopper species in the Genus Cicadulina, but mainly by C. mbila Naudé and C. storeyi. In addition to maize, it can infect over 80 other species in the Family Poaceae. Whereas 11 strains of MSV are currently known, only the MSV-A strain is known to cause economically significant streak disease in maize. Severe maize streak disease (MSD) manifests as pronounced, continuous parallel chlorotic streaks on leaves, with severe stunting of the affected plant and, usuallly, a failure to produce complete cobs or seed. Natural resistance to MSV in maize, and/or maize infections caused by non-maize-adapted MSV strains, can result in narrow, interrupted streaks and no obvious yield losses. MSV epidemiology is primarily governed by environmental influences on its vector species, resulting in erratic epidemics every 3-10 years. Even in epidemic years, disease incidences can vary from a few infected plants per field, with little associated yield loss, to 100% infection rates and complete yield loss. The only virus species known to cause MSD is MSV, the type member of the Genus Mastrevirus in the Family Geminiviridae. In addition to the MSV-A strain, which causes the most severe form of streak disease in maize, 10 other MSV strains (MSV-B to MSV-K) are known to infect barley, wheat, oats, rye, sugarcane, millet and many wild, mostly annual, grass species. Seven other mastrevirus species, many with host and geographical ranges partially overlapping those of MSV, appear to infect primarily perennial grasses. MSV and all related grass mastreviruses have single-component, circular, single-stranded DNA genomes of approximately 2700 bases, encapsidated in 22 x 38-nm geminate particles comprising two incomplete T = 1 icosahedra, with 22 pentameric capsomers

  16. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  17. Review of concepts and applications of image sampling on high-speed streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, H.

    2017-02-01

    Image sampling is a simple, convenient and working scheme to obtain two-dimensional (2D) images on high-speed streak cameras which have only one-dimensional (1D) slit cathode as an imaging sensor on a streak tube. 1D sampling of a 2D image in one direction was realized as Multi-Imaging X-ray Streak camera (MIXS) with a similar configuration to TV raster scan. 2D sampling of a 2D image was realized as 2-D Sampling Image X-ray Streak camera (2D-SIXS) with a similar configuration to CCD pixels. For optical-UV streak cameras, 2D fiber plate coupled to the output of a streak camera was untied and fibers were rearranged to form a line on the cathode slit. In these schemes, clever arrangement of the sampling lines or points relative to the streaking direction were essential for avoiding overlap of the streaked signals with each other. These streak cameras with image sampling technique were successfully applied to laser plasma experiment, particularly for laser-driven nuclear fusion research with simultaneous temporal- and spatial resolutions of 10 ps and 15 μm, respectively. This paper reviews the concept, history, and such applications of the scheme.

  18. STREAK CAMERA MEASUREMENTS OF THE APS PC GUN DRIVE LASER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J. C.; Lumpkin, A. H.

    2017-06-25

    We report recent pulse-duration measurements of the APS PC Gun drive laser at both second harmonic and fourth harmonic wavelengths. The drive laser is a Nd:Glass-based chirped pulsed amplifier (CPA) operating at an IR wavelength of 1053 nm, twice frequency-doubled to obtain UV output for the gun. A Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera and an M5675 synchroscan unit are used for these measurements; the synchroscan unit is tuned to 119 MHz, the 24th subharmonic of the linac s-band operating frequency. Calibration is accomplished both electronically and optically. Electronic calibration utilizes a programmable delay line in the 119 MHz rf path. The optical delay uses an etalon with known spacing between reflecting surfaces and is coated for the visible, SH wavelength. IR pulse duration is monitored with an autocorrelator. Fitting the streak camera image projected profiles with Gaussians, UV rms pulse durations are found to vary from 2.1 ps to 3.5 ps as the IR varies from 2.2 ps to 5.2 ps.

  19. Interactions between performance pressure, performance streaks, and attentional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Allsop, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    How is performance under pressure influenced by the history of events that precede it, and how does the pressure outcome influence the series of events that follow? A baseball batting simulation was used with college players to investigate these questions. In Experiment 1, the difficulty of the simulation was first adaptively adjusted to equate performance level. Batters next completed 20 at-bats used to classify them into one of three performance groups (normal, cold streak, or hot streak) followed by a one at-bat pressure condition. Finally, performance was evaluated over a period of 20 postpressure at-bats. In Experiment 2, a series of secondary tasks were added to assess attentional focus. In both experiments, whether batters succeeded or failed under pressure was significantly related to their performance history immediately before the pressure event, with the normal group having the poorest pressure performance. Performance postpressure was significantly related to both the pressure outcome and prepressure performance. These performance effects were related to changes in the batter's attentional focus as shown by changes in secondary task accuracy.

  20. Robust reconstruction of time-resolved diffraction from ultrafast streak cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Badali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with ultrafast diffraction, streak cameras offer an unprecedented opportunity for recording an entire molecular movie with a single probe pulse. This is an attractive alternative to conventional pump-probe experiments and opens the door to studying irreversible dynamics. However, due to the “smearing” of the diffraction pattern across the detector, the streaking technique has thus far been limited to simple mono-crystalline samples and extreme care has been taken to avoid overlapping diffraction spots. In this article, this limitation is addressed by developing a general theory of streaking of time-dependent diffraction patterns. Understanding the underlying physics of this process leads to the development of an algorithm based on Bayesian analysis to reconstruct the time evolution of the two-dimensional diffraction pattern from a single streaked image. It is demonstrated that this approach works on diffraction peaks that overlap when streaked, which not only removes the necessity of carefully choosing the streaking direction but also extends the streaking technique to be able to study polycrystalline samples and materials with complex crystalline structures. Furthermore, it is shown that the conventional analysis of streaked diffraction can lead to erroneous interpretations of the data.

  1. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya. In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to maize streak virus in maize populations of S4 families from the cross of one resistant MAL13 and one susceptible MAL9 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance was ...

  2. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  3. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  4. On the stability of large-scale streaks in turbulent Couette and Poiseulle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junho; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The linear secondary stability of large-scale optimal streaks in turbulent Couette flow at Re=52 and Poiseulle flow at Re=300 is investigated. The streaks are computed by solving the nonlinear two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an eddy-viscosity model. Optimal initial conditions leading the largest linear transient growth are used, and as the amplitude of the initial vortices increases, the amplitude of streaks gradually increases. Instabilities of the streaks appear when their amplitude exceeds approximately 18% of the velocity difference between walls in turbulent Couette flow and 21% of the centerline velocity in turbulent Poiseuille flow. When the amplitude of the streaks is sufficiently large, the instabilities attain significant growth rates in a finite range of streamwise wavenumbers that shows good agreement with the typical streamwise wavenumbers of the large-scale motions in the outer region.

  5. ETHANOL, CORN, AND BROILER: THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE GLOBAL CHAINS / ETANOL, MILHO E FRANGO: A INTERDEPENDENCIA DE SUAS CADEIAS GLOBAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Ferragi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the impact of the increase in the United States (US ethanol production from corn, between 2000 and 2012, and extendedly in the broiler production. A comparative production analysis of the three commodities production in the US and Brazil was given in order to understand the effect on their supply chains. Results indicated that the increase in the US ethanol production was not followed by the local corn and broiler production. Reflexes of the increase in US ethanol production were found in Brazilian broiler production since the corn supply was historically dependent of the US supply. We have also found an excellent opportunity for Brazilian corn production increase with a direct result in ethanol and broiler production since further logistics, and infrastructure solutions are given. 

  6. Vascular Streak Dieback: Penyakit Baru Tanaman Kakao di Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumsu Trisno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback (VSD symptoms was reported recently in several cacao plantations in West Sumatera.  Disease incidence reached 58.82–100% with disease intensity of 24.29–44.71%.  In some cases, dead plant was also found. Fungal isolation was performed to identify the agents associated with VSD.  Plant samples showing VSD symptoms was collected from 3 locations of cacao production center in West Sumatera, i.e. Limapuluh Kota regency, Padang Pariaman regency, and Padang city.  Small pieces of leaf and twig were plated on water agar and potato dextrose agar medium for fungal isolation.  Morphology of hifa, basidiocarp, and basidiospora observed from fungi colonies indicated the presence of Ceratobasidium theobromae on infected plant samples.  This is the first report on the association of C. theobromae on cacao in West Sumatera. 

  7. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  8. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  9. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  10. Blue Nevus with a Dermoscopic Appearance of Peripheral Streaks with Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Sakamoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blue nevi are dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations presenting as papules, nodules or plaques of blue, blue-gray or blue-brown color. Dermoscopic appearance commonly shows global patterns as homogeneous mono/dichromatic pigmentation and multichromatic pigmentation. Here, we report the case of a blue nevus with the dermoscopic feature of peripheral streaks with branches. With histopathologic deep sections, we confirmed that dermal dendritic melanocytes were distributed in the direction of the streaks. We emphasize that streaks are a rare but important sign of blue nevi.

  11. Standard design for National Ignition Facility x-ray streak and framing cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Holder, J. P.; Kalantar, D. K.; MacPhee, A. G.; Telford, S.

    2010-10-01

    The x-ray streak camera and x-ray framing camera for the National Ignition Facility were redesigned to improve electromagnetic pulse hardening, protect high voltage circuits from pressure transients, and maximize the use of common parts and operational software. Both instruments use the same PC104 based controller, interface, power supply, charge coupled device camera, protective hermetically sealed housing, and mechanical interfaces. Communication is over fiber optics with identical facility hardware for both instruments. Each has three triggers that can be either fiber optic or coax. High voltage protection consists of a vacuum sensor to enable the high voltage and pulsed microchannel plate phosphor voltage. In the streak camera, the high voltage is removed after the sweep. Both rely on the hardened aluminum box and a custom power supply to reduce electromagnetic pulse/electromagnetic interference (EMP/EMI) getting into the electronics. In addition, the streak camera has an EMP/EMI shield enclosing the front of the streak tube.

  12. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Streaked Horned Lark Density and Reproductive Success

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The streaked horned lark subspecies represents a small endemic population that breeds and winters in only a few locations in Oregon and Washington. It is perhaps the...

  13. Absolute calibration of optical streak cameras on picosecond time scales using supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S; Gumbrell, E T; Robinson, T S; Floyd, E; Stuart, N H; Moore, A S; Skidmore, J W; Smith, R A

    2017-08-20

    We report a new method using high-stability, laser-driven supercontinuum generation in a liquid cell to calibrate the absolute photon response of fast optical streak cameras as a function of wavelength when operating at fastest sweep speeds. A stable, pulsed white light source based around the use of self-phase modulation in a salt solution was developed to provide the required brightness on picosecond time scales, enabling streak camera calibration in fully dynamic operation. The measured spectral brightness allowed for absolute photon response calibration over a broad spectral range (425-650 nm). Calibrations performed with two Axis Photonique streak cameras using the Photonis P820PSU streak tube demonstrated responses that qualitatively follow the photocathode response. Peak sensitivities were one photon/count above background. The absolute dynamic sensitivity is less than the static by up to an order of magnitude. We attribute this to the dynamic response of the phosphor being lower.

  14. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Chen, N.; Gopal, A.; Udin, S. [Nanoshift LLC, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States); Feng, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  15. Optical Transmission Line For Streak Camera Measurements at Pitz

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, J; Lüdecke, H

    2003-01-01

    The photoinjector injector test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) [1] produces electrons with a momentum of about 4 MeV/c. It is the aim to measure the temporal characteristics of the electron bunch train and single bunches with high accuracy of the order of 1 ps and less. Several types of streak cameras will be used in combination with different radiators which transform particle energy in light. The problem to be solved is the light transport over a distance of about 27 m. Basic demands to the optical system and design principles will be explained. The optical and technical solutions will be presented. The strategy of adjustment and commissioning of the optical system will be described. The system contains switchable optics to use different radiators (OTR, Cherenkov radiators). Diagnostic tools are foreseen at different positions along the optical axis. The results of different measurements in the lab and using the original system will be presented. The problems on the minimalization of the time dipersion in ...

  16. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  17. Split ring resonator based THz-driven electron streak camera featuring femtosecond resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiańska, Justyna; Kassier, Günther; Feurer, Thomas

    2014-07-10

    Through combined three-dimensional electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations we demonstrate a THz driven electron streak camera featuring a temporal resolution on the order of a femtosecond. The ultrafast streaking field is generated in a resonant THz sub-wavelength antenna which is illuminated by an intense single-cycle THz pulse. Since electron bunches and THz pulses are generated with parts of the same laser system, synchronization between the two is inherently guaranteed.

  18. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  19. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  20. The resistance of cocoa hybrids to vascular-streak dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for VSD resistance on cocoa was carried out by inter-crossing the selected clones of TSH 858, KW 162, KW 163, KW 165, KEE 2, ICS 13 and NIC 7 which were selected based on the criteria of VSD resistance, productivity and cross-compatibility. This research has objective to evaluate hybrids of the crossess for VSD resistance, inheritance of the resistance and selecting the most valuable parental-clones for further crossess. Fourteen hybrids and one control were tested 14 in the randomized-completely block design with 4 blocks where in each plot 16 trees planted at Kaliwining Experimental Station in Jember. The resistance was evaluated in the field by scoring the symptoms in the range of 0—6 at 7 year after planting. The scores were varied significantly among the hybrids in the range of 2.19—4.53. Hybrids which were generated from the crosses of resistant clones performed lower number of the score than the hybrids generated from crosses between two susceptible clones (TSH 858 x NIC 7 which performed highest score. The hybrids classified as resistant were TSH 858 x KW 162 (F1 and reciprocal, KW 162 x KEE 2 (F1 and reciprocal, KW 162 x ICS 13, KW 165 x KEE 2. Of the parental clones, KW 162 is the most promising parent as lower score obtained when used it as male or female compared to KEE 2 which performed quite similar of the score with TSH 858 as susceptible parent. Therefore, it could be supposed that KW 162 has better combining ability than KEE 2 where these resistant-clones showed different segregation of their resistance. The resistance was segregated by KW 162 in term of ratio 15 resistant : 1 susceptible while KEE 2 the ratio 1 resistant: 1 susceptible.Key words: Theobroma cocoa L., hybrid, resistance, vascular-streak dieback.

  1. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  2. The evolution of amniote gastrulation: the blastopore-primitive streak transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stower, Matthew J; Bertocchini, Federica

    2017-03-01

    In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates. In humans and other mammals, as well as in avians, gastrulating cells internalize along a structure, called the primitive streak, which builds from the periphery toward the center of the embryo. How these morphogenetic movements are orchestrated and evolved has been a question for developmental biologists for many years. Is the primitive streak a feature shared by the whole amniote clade? Insights from reptiles suggest that the primitive streak arose independently in mammals and avians, while the reptilian internalization site is a structure half-way between an amphibian blastopore and a primitive streak. The molecular machinery driving primitive streak formation has been partially dissected using mainly the avian embryo, revealing a paramount role of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in streak formation. How did the employment of this machinery evolve? The reptilian branch of the amniote clade might provide us with useful tools to investigate the evolution of the amniote internalization site up to the formation of the primitive streak. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e262. doi: 10.1002/wdev.262 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  4. The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it

  5. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  6. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-mu ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV, while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV. Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  7. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  8. Automated Streak Detection for High Velocity Objects: Test with YSTAR-NEOPAT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Won Chung

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to efficiently detect streaks in survey images and made a performance test with YSTAR-NEOPAT images obtained by the 0.5m telescope stationed in South Africa. Fast moving objects whose apparent speeds exceed 10 arcsec/min are the main target of our algorithm; these include artificial satellites, space debris, and very fast Near-Earth Objects. Our algorithm, based on the outline shape of elongated sources employs a step of image subtraction in order to reduce the confusion caused by dense distribution of faint stars. It takes less than a second to find and characterize streaks present in normal astronomical images of 2K format. Comparison with visual inspection proves the efficiency and completeness of our automated detection algorithm. When applied to about 7,000 time-series images from YSTAR telescope, nearly 700 incidents of streaks are detected. Fast moving objects are identified by the presence of matching streaks in adjoining frames. Nearly all of confirmed fast moving objects turn out to be artificial satellites or space debris. Majority of streaks are however meteors and cosmic ray hits, whose identity is often difficult to classify.

  9. The origin and structure of streak-like instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Michael; Miller, Colin; Tang, Wei; Finney, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Streamwise streaks are consistently observed in wildland fires, at the base of pool fires, and in other heated flows within a boundary layer. This study examines both the origin of these structures and their role in influencing some of the macroscopic properties of the flow. Streaks were reproduced and characterized via experiments on stationary heated strips and liquid and gas-fueled burners in laminar boundary layer flows, providing a framework to develop theory based on both observed and measured physical phenomena. The incoming boundary layer was established as the controlling mechanism in forming streaks, which are generated by pre-existing coherent structures, while the amplification of streaks was determined to be compatible with quadratic growth of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, providing credence to the idea that the downstream growth of streaks is strongly tied to buoyancy. These local instabilities were also found to affect macroscopic properties of the flow, including heat transfer to the surface, indicating that a two-dimensional assumption may fail to adequately describe heat and mass transfer during flame spread and other reacting boundary layer flows. This work was supported by NSF (CBET-1554026) and the USDA-FS (13-CS-11221637-124).

  10. Transient energy growth of optimal streaks in parallel round jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, J. I.; Brancher, P.

    2017-11-01

    We present a linear optimal perturbation analysis of streamwise invariant disturbances evolving in parallel round jets. The potential for transient energy growth of perturbations with azimuthal wavenumber m ≥1 is analyzed for different values of Reynolds number R e . Two families of steady (frozen) and unsteady (diffusing) base flow velocity profiles have been used, for different aspect ratios α = R/θ, where R is the jet radius and θ is the shear layer momentum thickness. Optimal initial conditions correspond to infinitesimal streamwise vortices, which evolve transiently to produce axial velocity streaks, whose spatial structure and intensity depend on base flow and perturbation parameters. Their dynamics can be characterized by a maximum optimal value of the energy gain Gopt, reached at an optimal time τopt after which the perturbations eventually decay. Optimal energy gain and time are shown to be, respectively, proportional to R e2 and R e , regardless of the frozen or diffusing nature of the base flow. Besides, it is found that the optimal gain scales like Go p t∝1 /m3 for all m except m = 1. This quantitative difference for azimuthal wavenumber m = 1 is shown to be based on the nature of transient mechanisms. For m = 1 perturbations, the shift-up effect [J. I. Jiménez-González et al., "Modal and non-modal evolution of perturbations for parallel round jets," Phys. Fluids 27, 044105-1-044105-19 (2015)] is active: an initial streamwise vorticity dipole induces a nearly uniform velocity flow in the jet core, which shifts the whole jet radially. By contrast, optimal perturbations with m ≥2 are concentrated along the shear layer, in a way that resembles the classical lift-up mechanism in wall-shear flows. The m = 1 shift-up effect is more energetic than the m ≥2 lift-up, but it is slower, with optimal times considerably shorter in the case of m ≥2 disturbances. This suggests that these perturbations may emerge very quickly in the flow when injected

  11. Impact of industrial dry-milling on fumonisin redistribution in non-transgenic corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Ono, Mario Augusto; Garcia, Glauco Tironi; Fazani, Victor Hugo Meconi; Vizoni, Édio; Rodrigues, Karem Caroline Bonacin; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%. Fumonisin levels in cornmeal and grits were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission. Therefore, corn industrial dry-milling can contribute to reducing fumonisin levels in corn products intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ELETTRA Streak Camera System Set-Up and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Ferianis, M

    2000-01-01

    At ELETTRA, a Streak Camera system has been installed and tested. The bunch length is a significant machine parameter to measure, as it allows a direct derivation of fundamental machine characteristics, like its broadband impedance. At ELETTRA the Light from a Storage Ring Dipole is delivered through an optical system to an Optical Laboratory where it can be observed and analysed. The Streak Camera is equipped with different timebases, allowing both single sweep and dual sweep operation modes, including the Synchroscan mode. The Synchroscan frequency equal to 250 MHz, which is half of the ELETTRA RF frequency, allows the acquisition of consecutive bunches, 2ns apart. To fully exploit the performances of the Streak Camera, an optical path has been arranged which includes a fast opto-electronic shutter. By doing so, the optical power deposited on the photo-cathode is reduced in the different ELETTRA fillings.

  13. Impact of laser phase and amplitude noises on streak camera temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlotzko, V., E-mail: wlotzko@optronis.com [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany); Uhring, W. [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Summ, P. [Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Streak cameras are now reaching sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In cumulative acquisition mode, this resolution does not entirely rely on the electronic or the vacuum tube performances but also on the light source characteristics. The light source, usually an actively mode-locked laser, is affected by phase and amplitude noises. In this paper, the theoretical effects of such noises on the synchronization of the streak system are studied in synchroscan and triggered modes. More precisely, the contribution of band-pass filters, delays, and time walk is ascertained. Methods to compute the resulting synchronization jitter are depicted. The results are verified by measurement with a streak camera combined with a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid state laser oscillator and also a fiber oscillator.

  14. Ice fall streaks in a warm front . An S-band polarimetric radar study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppas, Stavros; Crosier, Jonathan; Choularton, Thomas; Bower, Keith

    2017-04-01

    On 21st January 2009, a maturing low pressure system approached the UK along with several associated systems. An observational research flight (part of the APPRAISE-Clouds project) took place in southern England, sampling the leading warm front of this system. During the flight, the Warm Conveyor Belt (WCB) was well depicted by the radar Doppler velocity parameter. Simultaneously, extensive ice fall streaks appeared on ZDR RHI scans as long slanted zones of high ZDR. It seems that there is a connection between the WCB activity and the formation and structure of the ice fall streaks. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by the WCB played a key role on their formation. Moreover, in-situ measurements showed that the ice fall streaks had a very specific substance and they can affect the surface precipitation.

  15. A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

    2010-02-18

    An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

  16. Performance of Laser Megajoule’s x-ray streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Gontier, D.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Rubbelynck, C.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J. P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis France SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    A prototype of a picosecond x-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to provide plasma-diagnostic support for the Laser Megajoule. We report on the measured performance of this streak camera, which almost fulfills the requirements: 50-μm spatial resolution over a 15-mm field in the photocathode plane, 17-ps temporal resolution in a 2-ns timebase, a detection threshold lower than 625 nJ/cm{sup 2} in the 0.05–15 keV spectral range, and a dynamic range greater than 100.

  17. Distribution of aflatoxins in corn fractions visually segregated for defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedade Fabiana Segatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin distribution in corn fractions obtained after visual segregation for defects in 30 samples, known to be contaminated, was studied. Each sample was passed through a 5.0 mm round holes sieve, graded for defects and then segregated in sound kernels (regular kernels and non-sound kernels (injured, germinated, fermented, moldy, heated, insect damaged, immature, broken, hollow, fermented up to ¼, discolored, extraneous materials, and injured by other causes, as defined by the Brazilian Official Grading rules for corn. The non-sound kernels showed the highest contamination levels in all samples. The contamination levels of non-sound kernels (20% of total weight ranged from 23 to 1,365 µg/kg of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and were higher than sound kernels (p<1% ranging from not detected (ND to 126 µg/kg and in 87% of these the aflatoxin contents were lower than 20 µg/kg. Statistically significant correlation indexes were found among the percentage of defective groups like fermented, heated and sprouted kernels or the total injured kernels, and the estimated contamination levels for the sound and non sound fractions. It was concluded that the non-sound kernels fraction, even being small in weight, has contributed with 84% of the estimated contamination of the samples. The segregation of the non-sound kernels would favor a reduction in the contamination of corn lots. The poorer quality corn types (types 3 and Bellow Standart have predominated among samples of the experiment.

  18. C.C.D. Readout Of A Picosecond Streak Camera With An Intensified C.C.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J. C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.

    1985-02-01

    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube. Starting from the output screen of the streak camera, the constitutive elements are : - A fiber optic taper (A.O. Scientific Instruments) set in contact with the fiber optic output window of the streak tube achieves the image demagnification ; - A double proximity focused image intensifier (RTC - XX1410 SP) achieves the bright-ness amplification without any distortion ; - A second fiber optic taper achieves the dimensional matching between intensifier output and C.C.D. sensitive area ;

  19. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  20. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  1. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... characterized quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to maize streak virus in maize populations of S4 families from the cross of one resistant MAL13 and one susceptible MAL9 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance was evaluated in replicated field trials under artificial inoculation while selecting using.

  2. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  3. Characteristics of the alarm calls of buff-streaked chat groups and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many animals emit alarm calls in response to a potential predator. These calls may transmit information about predator type and response urgency. This study compared the alarm calls of the social buff-streaked chat, Oenanthe bifasciata, to the asocial African stonechat, Saxicola torquata. Spring traps were used to capture ...

  4. Efficient inoculation of rice black-streaked dwarf virus to maize using Laodelphax striatellus Fallen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is the most important viral disease of maize in China. Although deploying disease resistant hybrids would be the most effective way to control the disease, development of resistant hybrids has been limited by virus t...

  5. Diversity of banana streak-inducing viruses in Nigeria and Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... revealed BSV-like particles by IEM than were detected by TAS-ELISA or IC-PCR. Of the 51 leaf ... BSV-like viruses in West Africa. Key words: Banana streak virus, diversity, serological assays, immunoelectron microscopy, immunocapture. PCR. ..... inclination between their arms were also frequently.

  6. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  7. Pathophysiological consideration of medullary streaks on FLAIR imaging in pediatric moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hime; Mikami, Takeshi; Kuribara, Tomoyoshi; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Medullary streaks detected on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging have been considered to be reflected ischemic regions in pediatric moyamoya disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these medullary streaks both clinically and radiologically and to discuss associated pathophysiological concerns. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 14 consecutive pediatric patients with moyamoya disease treated between April 2009 and June 2016. Clinical and radiological features and postoperative imaging changes were analyzed. In 4 patients, hyperintense medullary streaks on FLAIR imaging (HMSF) at the level of the centrum semiovale were detected. RESULTS The HMSF were coincident with hyperintense medullary streaks on a T2-weighted image, though they were not completely coincident with the vasculature on either a T2*-weighted image or contrast-enhanced CT. Analysis revealed significantly higher values in terms of MR angiography scores, number of flow voids of the basal ganglia, and the presence of the medullary artery in the group with HMSF than in those without. In contrast, the presence of white matter damage was significantly less frequent in the HMSF group. All HMSF disappeared after surgery, and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient at the same level was significantly reduced postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Although HMSF should be associated with collateral circulation in moyamoya disease, other factors may be involved, including stagnated cerebrospinal fluid or vasogenic edema that is relevant to the impaired state of the white matter. Findings in this study provide insight into the pathophysiological basis of the perivascular space in moyamoya disease.

  8. Attosecond streaking of shake-up and Auger electrons in xenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present first results of simultaneous attosecond streaking measurements of shake-up electrons and Auger electrons emitted from xenon. We extract relative photo-emission delays for electrons emitted from the 4d, 5s and 5p subshell, as well as for the 5p−25d correlation satellite (shake-up electrons.

  9. Diversity of banana streak-inducing viruses in Nigeria and Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... populations or showing an angularly bent morphology were found. Occasionally, in certain samples and with ... Australia was determined by sequence comparison of the conserved sequence motifs of the ...... Genetic diversity among Banana streak virus isolates from Australia. Phytopathol. 90: 921-927.

  10. Effect of temperature on wheat streak mosaic disease development in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature is one of the key factors that influence viral disease development in plants. In this study, temperature effect on Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) replication and in planta movement was determined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged virus in two winter wheat cultivars. Virus-...

  11. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A S; Benstead, J; Ahmed, M F; Morton, J; Guymer, T M; Soufli, R; Pardini, T; Hibbard, R L; Bailey, C G; Bell, P M; Hau-Riege, S; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Regan, S P; Agliata, T; Jungquist, R; Schmidt, D W; Kot, L B; Garbett, W J; Rubery, M S; Skidmore, J W; Gullikson, E; Salmassi, F

    2016-11-01

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  12. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  13. Chromatin Structure of Wheat Breeding Lines Resistant to Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) is an important disease limiting wheat production, however no WSMV resistance effective above 18°C is present within the primary genetic pool of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In contrast, the wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium (2n=6x=42) shows good resistance to WS...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes...

  16. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  17. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  18. POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.

  19. POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira

    2017-06-01

    The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.

  20. Improved corn protein based articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  2. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  3. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A. G.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D.; Hassett, J.; Hatch, B. W.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  4. A Demographic Model to Evaluate Population Declines in the Endangered Streaked Horned Lark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine F. Camfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Streaked Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata is listed as endangered by the State of Washington, USA and by Canada under the Species at Risk Act and is also classified as a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the USA. A substantial portion of Streaked Horned Lark habitat has been lost or degraded, and range contraction has occurred in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We estimate the vital rates (fecundity, adult and juvenile survival and population growth rate (λ for Streaked Horned Larks breeding in Washington, USA and conduct a Life-Stage Simulation Analysis (LSA to evaluate which vital rate has the greatest influence on λ. We simulated changes in the three vital rates to examine how much they would need to be adjusted either independently or in concert to achieve a stable Streaked Horned Lark population (λ = 1. We also evaluated which fecundity component (the number of fledglings per egg laid or renesting interval had the greatest impact on λ. The estimate of population growth suggests that Streaked Horned Larks in Washington are declining rapidly (λ = 0.62 ± 0.10 and that local breeding sites are not sustainable without immigration. The LSA results indicate that adult survival had the greatest influence on λ, followed by juvenile survival and fecundity. However, increases in vital rates led to λ = 1 only when adult survival was raised from 0.47 to 0.85, juvenile survival from 0.17 to 0.58, and fecundity from 0.91 to 3.09. Increases in breeding success and decreases in the renesting interval influenced λ similarly; however, λ did not reach 1 even when breeding success was raised to 100% or renesting intervals were reduced to 1 day. Only when all three vital rates were increased simultaneously did λ approach 1 without requiring highly unrealistic increases in each vital rate. We conclude that conservation activities need to target all or multiple vital rates to be successful. The

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  6. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  7. HUMIC ACID ON GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENNIS AFRAIRE RODRIGUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of technologies to increase stand establishment efficiency and seed vigor, as well as to maximize profits, is of fundamental importance for the sustainability of agriculture. Products based on humic substances, such as humic acids, have been recently used in Brazilian agriculture to produce seedlings with high vigor, which positively influences the establishment of the initial stand. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of treatment of corn seeds with a commercial humic acid-based product, Humykos® (18% of humic acid content, on germination and seedling vigor. The treatments consisted of six doses (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mL 100 kg-1 seed of Humykos®, and the treated seeds were analyzed for germination and vigor (first count, emergence, emergence speed index, length, and dry mass of shoots and roots. Our results show that humic acid promotes greater seedling growth and increased shoot dry mass in corn; in addition, it has a positive influence on the emergence speed index up to a dose 158 mL 100 kg-1 seeds.

  8. EVALUATION OF CORN HYBRIDS UNDER CONTRASTING WATER AVAILABILITY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILIAN HENRIQUE DINIZ BUSO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to assess adaptability and stability of corn hybrids regarding grain yields when sown in three different seasons in the Brazilian cerrado. The research was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the IF Goiano, campus in Ceres - GO. Pre - sowing fertilization was made with 20 kg ha - 1 of nitrogen, 150 kg ha - 1 of phosphorus and 80 kg ha - 1 of potassium (04 - 30 - 16 formulation. Data were analyzed in a random block experimental design. We assessed tem corn hybrids (Truck, Fórmula, P30F53, P3646H, P30F35H, AGN 30A77H, AGN 30A37H, AG 8088PRO, DKB 390 and DKB Bi9440 in three sowing seasons (Nov. 18, 2011; Jan. 31, 2012 and Feb. 20, 2012 with three replications. Harvests were held on Apr. 4, 2012; Jun. 10, 2012 and Jul. 1, 2012. Each hybrid were assessed on yielding; and a graphical analysis was made to contrast hybrids and sowing seasons regarding stability and adaptability. Results showed a significant effect of the interaction between hybrids and sowing times. Therefore, we may state that the best hybrid in an environment would not be necessarily good in another. Thereby, we can infer that drought and corn genetic variability have diverse behaviors in each season. Over the two - dimensional graphics generated by GGE Biplot method, we observed an increased adaptability of AGN 30A77H when sown on Nov. 18, 2011 and on Jan. 31, 2012, followed by Fórmula; however, for P30F35H, it was on Feb. 20, 2012.

  9. Motion Streaks Do Not Influence the Perceived Position of Stationary Flashed Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether motion streaks, produced by fast moving dots Geisler 1999, distort the positional map of stationary flashed objects producing the well-known motion-induced position shift illusion (MIPS. The illusion relies on motion-processing mechanisms that induce local distortions in the positional map of the stimulus which is derived by shape-processing mechanisms. To measure the MIPS, two horizontally offset Gaussian blobs, placed above and below a central fixation point, were flashed over two fields of dots moving in opposite directions. Subjects judged the position of the top Gaussian blob relative to the bottom one. The results showed that neither fast (motion streaks nor slow moving dots influenced the perceived spatial position of the stationary flashed objects, suggesting that background motion does not interact with the shape-processing mechanisms involved in MIPS.

  10. Drag reduction of a 3D bluff body using coherent streamwise streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujals, G.; Depardon, S.; Cossu, C.

    2010-11-01

    Separation on the rear-end of an Ahmed body is suppressed by means of large-scale coherent streaks forced on the roof of the model. These streaks originate from an array of suitably shaped cylindrical roughness elements and are amplified by the mean shear through the lift-up effect. Interacting with the mean velocity field at leading order, they induce a strong controlled spanwise modulation. The resulting streaky base flow is observed to sustain the adverse pressure gradient since PIV measurements as well as static wall pressure distributions show that the re-circulation bubble completely vanishes. These modifications of the topology of the flow are associated with a substantial drag reduction, which can be of about 10% when the roughness array is optimally placed on the roof of the bluff body.

  11. Molecular characterization of banana streak acuminata Vietnam virus isolated from Musa acuminata siamea (banana cultivar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, F; Laboureau, N; Muller, E; Lockhart, B E L; Iskra-Caruana, M-L

    2007-01-01

    An isolate of banana streak virus (BSV) that does not also occur as an integrant in the Musa balbisiana genome was sought in order to investigate the biological role of BSV in the evolution of either the Musa genome or of the virus itself. We isolated BSV virions from a Musa acuminata siamea accession from Vietnam and sequenced the entire viral genome. The molecular organization is similar to that described for other BSV but slightly larger (7801 bp vs. 1611-7568 bp), and ORF I has a non-conventional start codon. This genome was sufficiently different to propose it as a member of a distinct species named Banana streak virus strain acuminata Vietnam (BSAcVNV).

  12. Motion Streaks Do Not Influence the Perceived Position of Stationary Flashed Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether motion streaks, produced by fast moving dots Geisler 1999, distort the positional map of stationary flashed objects producing the well-known motion-induced position shift illusion (MIPS). The illusion relies on motion-processing mechanisms that induce local distortions in the positional map of the stimulus which is derived by shape-processing mechanisms. To measure the MIPS, two horizontally offset Gaussian blobs, placed above and below a central fixation point, were flashed over two fields of dots moving in opposite directions. Subjects judged the position of the top Gaussian blob relative to the bottom one. The results showed that neither fast (motion streaks) nor slow moving dots influenced the perceived spatial position of the stationary flashed objects, suggesting that background motion does not interact with the shape-processing mechanisms involved in MIPS. PMID:22645464

  13. The effect of the acceleration/deceleration trauma in angioid streaks: A pathogenic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Sánchez, J; Chau Ramos, C E; Mazagatos Used, P J; Aparicio Hernandez-Lastras, M J

    2016-09-01

    A 59-year-old male with acceleration/deceleration cranial trauma (ADT), caused by a car accident. After one month, he presented with loss of visual acuity in the right eye. A fluorescein angiography test was performed and it detected centrifugal hyperfluorescent lines from the optic nerve head, a characteristic compatible with the diagnosis of angioid streaks. The loss of visual acuity was demonstrated by the discovery of a juxtafoveal choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV). ADT can cause hyper-extension of the eyeball in its equator line, producing the rupture of fragile structures such as the Bruch membrane (MB) in patients with angioid streaks and the subsequent formation of CNV. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mach-zehnder based optical marker/comb generator for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Kirk

    2015-03-03

    This disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for generating marker and comb indicia in an optical environment using a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator. High speed recording devices are configured to record image or other data defining a high speed event. To calibrate and establish time reference, the markers or combs are indicia which serve as timing pulses (markers) or a constant-frequency train of optical pulses (comb) to be imaged on a streak camera for accurate time based calibration and time reference. The system includes a camera, an optic signal generator which provides an optic signal to an M-Z modulator and biasing and modulation signal generators configured to provide input to the M-Z modulator. An optical reference signal is provided to the M-Z modulator. The M-Z modulator modulates the reference signal to a higher frequency optical signal which is output through a fiber coupled link to the streak camera.

  15. Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ashley P.; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths λθ+≈70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.

  16. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  17. Relationship Analysis Between Leaf-Stomata Characteristics with Cocoa Resistance to Vascular-Streak Dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Soesilo, Agung; Arisandy, Poppy; Sari, Indah Anita; Harimurti, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of leaf-stomata indicate having relationship with the resistance of cocoa to vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by Ceratobasidum theobromae. This research has objective to identify the relationship between leaf-stomata haracteristicsto VSD resistance in order to develop criteria for selection. Trial was establised in randomized-complete block design with three blocks as replications in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa R...

  18. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  19. Full Annulus Numerical Study of Hot Streaks Propagation in a Hydrogen-rich Syngas-Fired Heavy Duty Axial Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, E.; Sayma, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of fuel composition on hot streaks propagation in a high-pressure turbine using a full annulus unsteady computational fluid dynamics analysis of the first two stages. Hot streaks result from the inherent non-uniformities of temperature profiles at the exit of the combustion chamber. Variations in composition arise from current challenges requiring gas turbines to adapt to fuel variations driven by the need to reduce CO2 emissions through the use of sy...

  20. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang, Yuman [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  1. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. I. Cascaded model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongru; Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Chao; Yu, Bing; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    Streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) is an active imaging system using a pulsed laser transmitter and a streak tube receiver to produce 3D range and intensity imagery. The STIL has recently attracted a great deal of interest and attention due to its advantages of wide azimuth field-of-view, high range and angle resolution, and high frame rate. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of STIL systems. A theoretical model for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of the STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver is presented, based on the linear cascaded systems theory of signal and noise propagation. The STIL system is decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Expressions for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. The work presented here is useful for the design and evaluation of STIL systems.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Streaked and Abnormal Floret Mutant st-fon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A double mutant with streaked leaf and abnormal floret was found and temporarily named streaked leaf and floral organ number mutant (st-fon. For this mutant, besides white streak appeared on culm, leaves and panicles, the number of floral organs increased and florets cracked. The extreme phenotype was that several small florets grew from one floret or branch rachis in small florets extended and developed into panicles. By using transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of white histocytes of leaves at the seedling stage, the white tissues which showed abnormal plastids, lamellas and thylakoids could not develop into normal chloroplast, and the development of chloroplast was blocked at the early growth stage of plastid. Scanning electron microscope and paraffin section were also used to observe the development of floral organs, and the results indicated that the development of floral meristem was out of order and unlimited, whereas in the twisty leaves, vascular bundle sheath cells grew excessively, or some bubbly cells increased. Genetic analyses carried out by means of cross and backcross with four normal-leaf-color materials revealed that the mutant is of cytoplasm inheritance.

  3. Sub-picosecond x-ray streak camera development for laser fusion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieber, A.J.; Sutphin, H.D.; Webb, C.B.; Williams, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    In laser-fusion interactions the effectiveness of coupling laser energy into target compression can be followed by obtaining spatial and temporal information on x-radiation emitted by the target. Microballoon targets now used require temporal resolution of better than a few picoseconds to track accurately target collapse and disassembly. Instabilities of two picoseconds or less are predicted for the process. Most streak cameras are based upon a sector-focused streak tube, which in the design limit is capable of only about 10 ps x-ray resolution. Therefore, a new tube, based upon the proximity-focused or wafer intensifier was developed as a laser-fusion diagnostic capable in the design limit of delivering truly sub-picosecond x-ray resolution. A new power supply was also developed to drive the streak tube. Together, a camera has resulted with true picosecond capability, small size, high sensitivity, broad dynamic range, high spatial resolution, and very low jitter. The system has proved 98 percent reliable in over 300 laser shots providing data on the collapse of microballoons when irradiated by a dual beam Nd:YAG laser. Theoretical predictions of 2.5 to 3 ps resolution are consistent with experimental data. A visible variant of the design now under construction is expected to give sub-picosecond resolution with advantages similar to the x-ray system.

  4. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benstead, J., E-mail: james.benstead@awe.co.uk; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Reagan, S.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  5. Production and Partial Characterization of Alpha-Amylase from Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn pomace, a by-product of corn from “ogi” production was used as a substrate for the production of alpha-amylase by a corn fermenting strain of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 4527. The corn pomace was fortified with potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and 2% w/v glucose to produce corn pomace basal medium, ...

  6. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  7. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  8. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  9. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may, without...

  10. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  11. Development of a Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL II: Improving Measurement of Lengths of Detected Streaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Youp Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As described in the previous paper (Park et al. 2013, the detector subsystem of optical wide-field patrol (OWL provides many observational data points of a single artificial satellite or space debris in the form of small streaks, using a chopper system and a time tagger. The position and the corresponding time data are matched assuming that the length of a streak on the CCD frame is proportional to the time duration of the exposure during which the chopper blades do not obscure the CCD window. In the previous study, however, the length was measured using the diagonal of the rectangle of the image area containing the streak; the results were quite ambiguous and inaccurate, allowing possible matching error of positions and time data. Furthermore, because only one (position, time data point is created from one streak, the efficiency of the observation decreases. To define the length of a streak correctly, it is important to locate the endpoints of a streak. In this paper, a method using a differential convolution mask pattern is tested. This method can be used to obtain the positions where the pixel values are changed sharply. These endpoints can be regarded as directly detected positional data, and the number of data points is doubled by this result.

  12. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  13. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  14. Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan

  15. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts.

  16. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  17. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ... Cultivation in 10 L bioreactor was carried out under the optimized corn straw hydrolysate medium. According to ...

  18. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the concentration of DE and ME in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 84 barrows (initial BW: 13.7±2.3 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 14 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of P. Seven additional diets were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that 600 units of microbial phytase was included in each diet. The STTD of P was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, and the STTD of P was also greater (Pbakery meal than in corn and hominy feed. Addition of phytase increased (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal but not in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or DDGS. In Exp. 2, 56 barrows (initial BW: 14.6±2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 7 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A corn-based diet consisting of 97.5% corn and vitamins and minerals was formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, and 2 diets were based on hominy feed or bakery meal. The concentration of ME was 3,891, 3,675, 3,655, 3,694, 4,400, 3,169, and 3,150 kcal/kg DM in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, respectively. The ME (DM basis) in corn was greater (Pbakery meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, but less (Pbakery meal, and DDGS was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, but phytase can be included in diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal to improve P digestibility. The ME in corn gluten meal is greater than

  19. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  20. Electronic Image Readout Devices Used In Conjunction With Picosecond Streak Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, C.; Genoud, M.; Fleurot, N.; Launspach, J.; Mazataud, D.; Mens, A.

    1985-02-01

    Understanding the laser-matter interaction experiments require a dynamic recording of the phenomena as well as a good knowledge of the laser pulse occuring during the irradiation of the target ; those measurements are made with streak cameras the increasing number of which leads to processing problems when the results are recorded on films. Furthermore, since physicists wish to have those temporal information immediatly, we unfolded automatic image readout devices fitted specially to streak cameras. The first one used an ISOCON tube operating with a slow sweep (0.5 s frame)1-2. The sensitivity of the tube was very good but its dynamic range was too limited when seeing pulsed images at low light level. So we developped two electronic readout chains with solid state devices which behave better for that kind of light. The first one was designed to get the most information along the temporal axis of the camera sweep (1024 points) in one or two spatial channels ; this device operates a linear 1024 photodiodes array the signal of which is digitized on 12 bits. We have obtained a temporal resolution better than 15 ps and a dynamic range over 500 ; this system is mainly useful to study laser pulses (rise time, temporal profile...)3. For applications requiring two dimension images, we studied and realized a device operating a CCD array and a fiber optics reducer (40-18 mm) adapting the image of the streak camera screen to the dimensions of the input fiber optics of the CCD. A comparison has been made on different CCD cameras on a test setup which simulates the experimental conditions, in order to choose the CCD which would fit the best for that purpose ; we present these results here, as well as those of the associated readout chains.

  1. Attosecond Electron Correlation Dynamics in Double Ionization of Benzene Probed with Two-Electron Angular Streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, Alexander H.; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Liao, Qing; Adhikari, Pradip; Basnayake, Gihan; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Li, Wen

    2017-09-01

    With a novel three-dimensional electron-electron coincidence imaging technique and two-electron angular streaking method, we show that the emission time delay between two electrons can be measured from tens of attoseconds to more than 1 fs. Surprisingly, in benzene, the double ionization rate decays as the time delay between the first and second electron emission increases during the first 500 as. This is further supported by the decay of the Coulomb repulsion in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization. This result reveals that laser-induced electron correlation plays a major role in strong field double ionization of benzene driven by a nearly circularly polarized field.

  2. Temporal Characterization of Electron Beam Bunches with a Fast Streak Camera at the JLab FEL Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S; Douglas, D; Hardy, D; Hernandez-Garcia, C; Jordan, K; Neil, G; Shinn, M D

    2005-01-01

    The design and construction of an optical transport that brings synchrotron radiation from electron bunches to a fast streak camera in a remote area has become a useful tool for online observation of bunch length and stability. This paper will report on the temporal measurements we have done, comparison with simulations, and the on-going work for another imaging optical transport system that will make possible the direct measurement of the longitudinal phase space by measuring the bunch length as a function of energy.

  3. Insufficient buffer capacity in up chamber leads to vertical streaking of two-dimensional electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-hua JIN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of buffer capacity in up chamber on vertical streaking(VSTK) of two-dimensional electrophoresis.Methods The same buffer volume was kept in up chamber,VSTK was compared by running two SDS gels or single one in 1× Laemmli buffer(buffer),or two ones in 1.5×,2× and 3× buffer in up chamber respectively.Results VSTK appeared severely when two gels were run in 1× buffer,while disappeared when one did.When two gels were run in 1.5×buffer,VSTK only existed in the region o...

  4. Localized search cues in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B; Meihls, L N; Coudron, T A; Lim, E; Hibbard, B E

    2009-04-01

    Cues that elicit a characteristic localized search behavior by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were extracted from living corn, Zea mays L., roots with acetone. Larvae were exposed to corn roots or to an acetone extract of corn roots and then transferred into a bioassay arena where their movements were tracked and recorded. After a 5-min exposure to live corn roots, larvae produced highly convoluted tracks that were indicative of a localized search behavior, and these distinctive tracks were also produced by larvae exposed to an acetone extract of corn roots. Larvae exposed to a filter paper control moved in relatively straight paths that were indicative of ranging behavior. Larval tracks were recorded by means of a videocamera and tracking software, and four parameters of movement were used to quantify the tracks: mean turn angle, mean meander, total distance, and maximum distance from origin. For every parameter measured, tracks resulting from exposure to the control were significantly different from tracks resulting from exposure to live corn roots and to all doses of the corn root extract. In a separate experiment, larvae exposed to corn root pieces or corn root juice exhibited the localized search behavior, but larvae exposed to oat root pieces and oat root juice (nonhost) exhibited ranging behavior.

  5. Insecticide enhancement with feeding stimulants in corn for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2005-08-01

    Amounts of the insecticide thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality of western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were reduced 100-fold when extracts of germinating corn, Zea mays L., were used to entice neonate larvae to feed on it. In behavioral bioassays, neonate rootworm larvae fed vigorously on filter paper disks treated with liquid pressed from corn roots. Moreover, disks treated with an acetone extract of corn (dried and rewetted with water) also elicited strong feeding from larvae. Larvae wandered away from filter paper disks treated with distilled water without feeding. Dilutions of thiamethoxam were tested in the bioassay alone or with corn extract and the efficacy of this insecticide was improved by the addition of the corn extract. For solutions containing 10 ppm thiamethoxam, 95% larval mortality occurred after 30 min of exposure when corn extract was present, but only 38% mortality occurred when the same concentration of insecticide alone (no feeding stimulants) was tested. Larval mortality after 24 h was significantly higher for corn extract-treated disks with 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ppm insecticide than for the same concentrations without corn extract. Thiamethoxam did not deter larval feeding on corn extract, even at the highest concentration of thiamethoxam tested.

  6. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  7. Automatic Reacquisition of Satellite Positions by Detecting Their Expected Streaks in Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, M.

    Artificial satellites, and particularly space junk, drift continuously from their known orbits. In the surveillance-of-space context, they must be observed frequently to ensure that the corresponding orbital parameter database entries are up-to-date. Autonomous ground-based optical systems are periodically tasked to observe these objects, calculate the difference between their predicted and real positions and update object orbital parameters. The real satellite positions are provided by the detection of the satellite streaks in the astronomical images specifically acquired for this purpose. This paper presents the image processing techniques used to detect and extract the satellite positions. The methodology includes several processing steps including: image background estimation and removal, star detection and removal, an iterative matched filter for streak detection, and finally false alarm rejection algorithms. This detection methodology is able to detect very faint objects. Simulated data were used to evaluate the methodology's performance and determine the sensitivity limits where the algorithm can perform detection without false alarm, which is essential to avoid corruption of the orbital parameter database.

  8. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  9. The effect of Aloe vera leaf gel on fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nasim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Asgary, Sedigheh; Asnaashari, Hossein; Abdian, Narges

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease that is associated with a variety of etiologic factors such as hyperlipidemia and inflammation. Aloe vera (Liliaceae family) has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory drug. The aims of this survey were to define the beneficial effects of Aloe vera leaf gel on some of the atherosclerosis risk factors, and also fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. [corrected] 32 white male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 8, each). During the study, the animals had a standard diet (control group), high cholesterol diet (HC group), high cholesterol diet with Aloe vera leaf gel (3.2%v/v) (HC+ Aloe group) and Aloe vera leaf gel (Aloe group) for 30 days. Fasting blood samples were collected from all animals at the beginning and end of the study. Then total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and CRP were measured before and after experimental periods. By the end of the study, the aortas were removed and investigated for atherosclerosis plaque formation. Significant differences were observed in TC and CRP levels of the high-cholesterol diet with Aloe vera and the high-cholesterol diet alone (p Aloe vera(p Aloe vera has beneficial effects on the prevention of fatty streak development; it may reduce the development of atherosclerosis through modification of risk factors. However, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms whereby this plant exerts its anti-atherosclerotic effects.

  10. Crowd Motion Analysis Based on Social Force Graph with Streak Flow Attribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaonian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, crowd management has attracted a great deal of attention in the area of video surveillance. Among various tasks of video surveillance analysis, crowd motion analysis is the basis of numerous subsequent applications of surveillance video. In this paper, a novel social force graph with streak flow attribute is proposed to capture the global spatiotemporal changes and the local motion of crowd video. Crowd motion analysis is hereby implemented based on the characteristics of social force graph. First, the streak flow of crowd sequence is extracted to represent the global crowd motion; after that, spatiotemporal analogous patches are obtained based on the crowd visual features. A weighted social force graph is then constructed based on multiple social properties of crowd video. The graph is segmented into particle groups to represent the similar motion patterns of crowd video. A codebook is then constructed by clustering all local particle groups, and consequently crowd abnormal behaviors are detected by using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model. Extensive experiments on challenging datasets show that the proposed method achieves preferable results in the application of crowd motion segmentation and abnormal behavior detection.

  11. An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

    2013-06-13

    National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  14. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  15. Small Near-Earth Asteroids in the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: A Real-Time Streak-detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczak, Adam; Prince, Thomas A.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Bue, Brian; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Barlow, Tom; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Kulkarni, Shrinivas

    2017-03-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the 1-100 meter size range are estimated to be ˜1,000 times more numerous than the ˜15,000 currently cataloged NEAs, most of which are in the 0.5-10 kilometer size range. Impacts from 10-100 meter size NEAs are not statistically life-threatening, but may cause significant regional damage, while 1-10 meter size NEAs with low velocities relative to Earth are compelling targets for space missions. We describe the implementation and initial results of a real-time NEA-discovery system specialized for the detection of small, high angular rate (visually streaked) NEAs in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images. PTF is a 1.2-m aperture, 7.3 deg2 field of view (FOV) optical survey designed primarily for the discovery of extragalactic transients (e.g., supernovae) in 60-second exposures reaching ˜20.5 visual magnitude. Our real-time NEA discovery pipeline uses a machine-learned classifier to filter a large number of false-positive streak detections, permitting a human scanner to efficiently and remotely identify real asteroid streaks during the night. Upon recognition of a streaked NEA detection (typically within an hour of the discovery exposure), the scanner triggers follow-up with the same telescope and posts the observations to the Minor Planet Center for worldwide confirmation. We describe our 11 initial confirmed discoveries, all small NEAs that passed 0.3-15 lunar distances from Earth. Lastly, we derive useful scaling laws for comparing streaked-NEA-detection capabilities of different surveys as a function of their hardware and survey-pattern characteristics. This work most directly informs estimates of the streak-detection capabilities of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF, planned to succeed PTF in 2017), which will apply PTF’s current resolution and sensitivity over a 47-deg2 FOV.

  16. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Ronald A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in

  17. 'Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is!': Effects of Streaks on Confidence and Betting in a Binary Choice Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H; Clark, Luke

    2015-07-01

    Human choice under uncertainty is influenced by erroneous beliefs about randomness. In simple binary choice tasks, such as red/black predictions in roulette, long outcome runs (e.g. red, red, red) typically increase the tendency to predict the other outcome (i.e. black), an effect labeled the "gambler's fallacy." In these settings, participants may also attend to streaks in their predictive performance. Winning and losing streaks are thought to affect decision confidence, although prior work indicates conflicting directions. Over three laboratory experiments involving red/black predictions in a sequential roulette task, we sought to identify the effects of outcome runs and winning/losing streaks upon color predictions, decision confidence and betting behavior. Experiments 1 (n = 40) and 3 (n = 40) obtained trial-by-trial confidence ratings, with a win/no win payoff and a no loss/loss payoff, respectively. Experiment 2 (n = 39) obtained a trial-by-trial bet amount on an equivalent scale. In each experiment, the gambler's fallacy was observed on choice behavior after color runs and, in experiment 2, on betting behavior after color runs. Feedback streaks exerted no reliable influence on confidence ratings, in either payoff condition. Betting behavior, on the other hand, increased as a function of losing streaks. The increase in betting on losing streaks is interpreted as a manifestation of loss chasing; these data help clarify the psychological mechanisms underlying loss chasing and caution against the use of betting measures ("post-decision wagering") as a straightforward index of decision confidence. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  19. Corn-milling pretreatment with anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Craig, James C; Kurantz, M J; Singh, Vijay

    2003-02-01

    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia has been suggested as a pretreatment for corn milling. Batches of corn were exposed to ammonia under controlled conditions. The amounts of ammonia absorbed and reacted with the corn were measured. The amounts were not more than are needed as nutritional supplement for yeast fermentation to ethanol. Loosening of the hull was observed qualitatively, and subsequent shearing in a disk mill followed by steeping for 2, 4, 6, or 8 h showed that germ could be recovered at higher yield and after a shorter steeping time compared to untreated control batches. Quality of oil was not affected by treatment with ammonia.

  20. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  1. Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Siddharth, 1976-; Eisenback, J. D.; Youngman, R. R. (Roger Ray)

    2009-01-01

    Describes four species of plant parasitic nematodes in the genus Meloidogyne, their life cycle, habitat, host plants, and types of damage to field corn. Also notes non-chemical and chemical means of control.

  2. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    EXPERIMENTAL VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CORN COB. COMPOSITES UNDER RADIAL COMPRESSION. BY. U.G.N. ANAZODO. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ABSTRACT. The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for ...

  3. Applications of a streak-camera-based imager with simultaneous high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, David I.; Knight, Frederick K.

    1993-01-01

    A high-speed imaging device has been built that is capable of recording several hundred images over a time span of 25 to 400 ns. The imager is based on a streak camera, which provides both spatial and temporal resolution. The system's current angular resolution is 16 X 16 pixels, with a time resolution of 250 ps. It was initially employed to provide 3-D images of objects, in conjunction with a short-pulse (approximately 100 ps) laser. For the 3-D (angle-angle-range) laser radar, the 250 ps time resolution corresponds to a range resolution of 4 cm. In the 3-D system, light from a short-pulse laser (a frequency-doubled, Q-switched, mode-locked Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm) flood-illuminates a target of linear dimension approximately 1 m. The returning light from the target is imaged, and the image is dissected by a 16 X 16 array of optical fibers. At the other end of the fiber optic image converter, the 256 fibers form a vertical line array, which is input to the slit of a streak camera. The streak camera sweeps the input line across the output phosphor screen so that horizontal position is directly proportional to time. The resulting 2-D image (fiber location vs. time) at the phosphor is read by an intensified (SIT) vidicon TV tube, and the image is digitized and stored. A computer subsequently decodes the image, unscrambling the linear pixels into an angle-angle image at each time or range bin. We are left with a series of snapshots, each one depicting the portion of target surface in a given range bin. The pictures can be combined to form a 3-D realization of the target. Continuous recording of many images over a short time span is of use in imaging other transient phenomena. These applications share a need for multiple images from a nonrepeatable transient event of time duration on the order of nanoseconds. Applications discussed for the imager include (1) pulsed laser beam diagnostics -- measuring laser beam spatial and temporal structure, (2

  4. Long-term follow-up of choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks: case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rashaed S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Saba Al-Rashaed, J Fernando ArevaloKing Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the clinical course of choroidal neovascularization (CNV secondary to angioid streaks and the outcomes in response to different treatment modalities.Methods: This was a case series of two consecutive patients (four eyes with CNV secondary to angioid streaks. Visual acuity, ophthalmological examination, color photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography were used to assess the outcomes of treatment.Results: Two eyes were treated with photodynamic therapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane, one eye underwent thermal laser photocoagulation for extrafoveal CNV followed by intravitreal bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV, and one eye underwent intravitreal bevacizumab for subfoveal CNV. The follow-up period was 4–6 years. The final visual acuities of all eyes were 20/300 or worse with large submacular fibrosis.Conclusion: CNV secondary to angioid streaks in these two patients had a poor prognosis despite undergoing different types of treatment. Poor outcome was likely related to frequent recurrence and newly developed CNV, which remained a clinical concern in these cases.Keywords: choroidal neovascular membrane, angioid streaks, intravitreal bevacizumab, photodynamic therapy

  5. Evaluation of triticale accessions for resistance to wheat bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterium Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on wheat and other small grains. Several triticale accessions were reported to possess high levels of resistance to wheat Xtu strains. In this study, we evaluated a worldwide collection of 502 triticale acces...

  6. Compositions of Low Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks on Mars: Examination of MGS TES Data in Western Arabia Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandfield, J. L.; Wyatt, M. B.; Christensen, P.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Basalt and andesite surface compositions are identified within individual low albedo intracrater features and adjacent dark wind streaks. High resolution mapping of compositional heterogeneities may help constrain origin hypotheses for these features. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  8. The genome organization of lucerne transient streak and turnip rosette sobemoviruses revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõmera, Merike; Truve, Erkki

    2013-03-01

    Unlike other sobemoviruses, lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) and turnip rosette virus (TRoV) have been reported to contain two successive ORF1s (denoted as ORF1a and ORF1b) instead of a single ORF1. Also, their next ORF (ORF2a/2a2b) has been mapped to a region ca. 200 nucleotides downstream from that of other sobemoviruses, leading to the lack of transmembrane segments at the N-termini of P2a/2a2b. In the current study, we resequenced this region for TRoV and LTSV. The hypothetical beginning of ORF1b was mapped as the beginning of ORF2a/2a2b for both TRoV and LTSV. Computional analysis revealed transmembrane segments at the N-termini of the TRoV and LTSV polyproteins.

  9. Shiny white streaks: a sign of malignancy at dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Danielle; Ishioka, Priscila; Alonso-Pinedo, Yarel; Palacios-Bejarano, Leyla; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the practical importance of the presence of shiny white streaks (SWS) (chrysalis or crystalline structures in polarized dermoscopy) for suspicion of malignancy, diagnosis of melanoma, and pre-operative estimation of Breslow thickness and its correlation with total dermoscopy score (TDS). SWS were present in 13.6% of 800 consecutive excised lesions. The presence of SWS was associated with malignancy (odds ratio (OR) 10.534, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.357-17.455, p lesions with invasive melanoma (OR 10.333, 95% CI 3.812-28.014) and melanomas with high TDS (OR 6.286, 95% CI 1.673-23.619), but was also a factor in the diagnosis of featureless and some thin melanomas. These results corroborate the clinical applicability of SWS in aiding the diagnosis of malignancy and helping to raise the general dermatologist's awareness in cases of doubt and featureless lesions.

  10. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  11. Streaking temporal double slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Martin; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar P H; Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

  12. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of pea streak virus (genus Carlavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Li, Zhengnan; Bernardy, Mike; Wiersma, Paul A; Cheng, Zhihui; Xiang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Pea streak virus (PeSV) is a member of the genus Carlavirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. Here, the first complete genome sequence of PeSV was determined by deep sequencing of a cDNA library constructed from dsRNA extracted from a PeSV-infected sample and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The PeSV genome consists of 8041 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains six open reading frames (ORFs). The putative peptide encoded by the PeSV ORF6 has an estimated molecular mass of 6.6 kDa and shows no similarity to any known proteins. This differs from typical carlaviruses, whose ORF6 encodes a 12- to 18-kDa cysteine-rich nucleic-acid-binding protein.

  13. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  14. Tracing dynamics of laser-induced fields on ultrathin foils using complementary imaging with streak deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Koschitzki, Ch.; Andreev, A. A.; Nickles, P. V.; Sander, W.; Schnürer, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the electric and magnetic fields, which are created on plasma vacuum interfaces as a result of highly intense laser-matter interactions. For the field generation ultrathin polymer foils (30-50 nm) were irradiated with high intensity femtosecond (1019 - 1020 W /cm2 ) and picosecond (˜1017 W /cm2 ) laser pulses with ultrahigh contrast (1010 - 1011 ). To determine the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of these fields the proton streak deflectometry method has been developed further and applied in two different imaging configurations. It enabled us to gather complementary information about the investigated field structure, in particular about the influence of different field components (parallel and normal to the target surface) and the impact of a moving ion front. The applied ultrahigh laser contrast significantly increased the reproducibility of the experiment and improved the accuracy of the imaging method. In order to explain the experimental observations, which were obtained by applying ultrashort laser pulses, two different analytical models have been studied in detail. Their ability to reproduce the streak deflectometry measurements was tested on the basis of three-dimensional particle simulations. A modification and combination of the two models allowed for an extensive and accurate reproduction of the experimental results in both imaging configurations. The controlled change of the laser pulse duration from 50 femtoseconds to 2.7 picoseconds led to a transition of the dominating force acting on the probing proton beam at the rear side of the polymer foil. In the picosecond case the (v ⇀ x B ⇀ ) -term of the Lorentz force dominated over the counteracting E ⇀-field and was responsible for the direction of the net force. The applied proton deflectometry method allowed for an unambiguous determination of the magnetic field polarity at the rear side of the ultrathin foil.

  15. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  16. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured...

  17. Correlação linear e espacial entre produtividade de milho (Zea mays L. e atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob plantio direto do Cerrado Brasileiro = Linear and spatial correlation between corn grains productivity (Zea mays L. and physical attributes in a Haplic Acrustox under no-tillage in the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Lustosa Santos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade vegetal depende de vários fatores, dentre eles a densidade e a porosidade do solo. No ano agrícola 2004/2005, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia (Unesp, Campus de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo (22º23’’ latitude S; 51º27’’ longitude W, foram analisados a produtividade de grãos de milho (PG, irrigado com pivô central, as densidades da partícula (DP e do solo (DS e a porosidade total (PT de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, sob plantio direto. O objetivo foi estudar as correlações lineares e espaciais entre os atributos. Foi instalada uma rede geoestatística, para a coleta dos dados do solo e da planta, contendo 120 pontos amostrais, numa área de 0,8 ha. Os atributos do solo apresentaram baixa variabilidade de seus dados, sendo média no da planta. A DS e a PT, na camada superficial, e a PG não variaram aleatoriamente. Elas seguiram padrões espaciais bem definidos, com alcances entre 28,6 e 60,6 m. As correlações lineares múltiplas indicaram que a PT1, a PT3 e a DS3 foram atributos significativos, quando correlacionados com a PG. Entre os atributos do solo, as correlações lineares simples variaram elasticamente. Contudo, quando correlacionados com a PG, tais correlações pouco variaram. Ainda que com reservas devido à baixa correlação, com o aumento da DS3 ocorreu uma diminuição da PG. Por outro lado, as correlações espaciais entre os atributos do solo e a PG foram praticamente nulas, sendo, contudo, elevadas quando exclusivamente entre aqueles do solo.Thevegetal productivity depends on several factors, including the bulk density and the soil porosity. The corn grains yield (GY, under no-tillage system and irrigated, and the following soil attributes (particle density-PD, bulk density-BD, and the total porosity-TP, in a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox, located at the Experimental Station of the Faculdade de Agronomia (Unesp, in Ilha

  18. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  19. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  1. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  2. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  3. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  4. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  5. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in sodas and ...

  6. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  7. Ethanol Plant Siting and the Corn Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatal, Yeheshua Shay

    Corn-based ethanol production has affected U.S. agriculture in general and the corn market in particular for the last several years. This study provides practical insights on the linkage formed between the two industries. The study aims to answer questions related to ethanol industry growth such as: where will the next ethanol plants be located, what will be their capacities, and what will be the plant siting effect on corn supply and price in the plants' regions? Some of these questions have never been addressed in the literature while some have only been casually researched. The first chapter of the dissertation provides background on the ethanol industry. The second chapter investigates how changes in ethanol plant capacity affect corn supply geographically around the plant. The study is based on a county-level analysis of the 48 contiguous states for the years 2002-2008. The empirical analysis uses a non-linear least squares (NLS) model for estimating the key parameters and accounts for spatial autocorrelation. The results indicate that locating an ethanol plant in a county stimulates additional acres of planted corn within a 286-mile radius around the plant. An additional one million gallons of annual ethanol capacity is estimated to increase planted corn by 5.21 acres in the county in which the plant is located. This effect diminishes linearly to zero as the distance between the plant and other counties approaches 286 miles. In order to establish confidence intervals for the NLS estimators I utilize both residual and block bootstrap techniques. To account for spatial autocorrelation across counties, I employ a spatial error model.

  8. Corn cob lightweight concrete for non-structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J.; Vieira, J.; H. Pereira; Jacinto, C.; Vilela, P.; Paiva, A.; Pereira, S.; Cunha,V.; H. Varum

    2012-01-01

    A lightweight concrete using granulated corn cob (without corn) as an aggregate is proposed in this research work. Taking into account that corn cob, after extracting the corn, is generally considered an agricultural waste, an interesting economic and sustainable benefit may result by using it as a building material. Therefore, it can be an alternative sustainable lightweight aggregate solution in comparison to the most currently applied ones such as expanded clay, particles of co...

  9. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section...

  10. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  11. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  12. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  13. Recombination hotspots and host susceptibility modulate the adaptive value of recombination during maize streak virus evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjane Adérito L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize streak virus -strain A (MSV-A; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae, the maize-adapted strain of MSV that causes maize streak disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa, probably arose between 100 and 200 years ago via homologous recombination between two MSV strains adapted to wild grasses. MSV recombination experiments and analyses of natural MSV recombination patterns have revealed that this recombination event entailed the exchange of the movement protein - coat protein gene cassette, bounded by the two genomic regions most prone to recombination in mastrevirus genomes; the first surrounding the virion-strand origin of replication, and the second around the interface between the coat protein gene and the short intergenic region. Therefore, aside from the likely adaptive advantages presented by a modular exchange of this cassette, these specific breakpoints may have been largely predetermined by the underlying mechanisms of mastrevirus recombination. To investigate this hypothesis, we constructed artificial, low-fitness, reciprocal chimaeric MSV genomes using alternating genomic segments from two MSV strains; a grass-adapted MSV-B, and a maize-adapted MSV-A. Between them, each pair of reciprocal chimaeric genomes represented all of the genetic material required to reconstruct - via recombination - the highly maize-adapted MSV-A genotype, MSV-MatA. We then co-infected a selection of differentially MSV-resistant maize genotypes with pairs of reciprocal chimaeras to determine the efficiency with which recombination would give rise to high-fitness progeny genomes resembling MSV-MatA. Results Recombinants resembling MSV-MatA invariably arose in all of our experiments. However, the accuracy and efficiency with which the MSV-MatA genotype was recovered across all replicates of each experiment depended on the MSV susceptibility of the maize genotypes used and the precise positions - in relation to known recombination hotspots

  14. Bacterial Diversity in Rhizospheres of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Min; Kremer, Robert J.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Davis, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in transgenic and nontransgenic corn rhizospheres was determined. In greenhouse and field studies, metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of 16S rRNAs differentiated bacterial communities among soil textures but not between corn varieties. We conclude that bacteria in corn rhizospheres are affected more by soil texture than by cultivation of transgenic varieties.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  16. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  19. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  20. Overall comparison of subpicosecond electron beam diagnostics by the polychromator, the interferometer and the femtosecond streak camera

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Yoshimatsu, T; Sasaki, S; Sugiyama, Y; Ishi, K; Shibata, Y; Kondo, Y; Yoshii, K; Ueda, T; Uesaka, M

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal bunch length of subpicosecond and picosecond electron beams have been performed by three methods with three radiation sources at the 35 MeV S-band twin liner accelerators at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The methods we adopt are the femtosecond streak camera with a nondispersive reflective optics, the coherent transition radiation (CTR) Michelson interferometer and the 10 ch polychromator that detects the spectrum of CTR and coherent diffraction radiation (CDR). The measurements by the two CTR methods were independently done with the streak camera and their results were consistent with one another. As a result, the reliability of the polychromator for the diagnostics of less than picosecond electron bunch and the usefulness of the diagnostics for the single shot measurement were verified. Furthermore, perfect nondestructive diagnostics for subpicosecond bunches was performed utilizing CDR interferometry. Then the good agreement between CDR interfero...

  1. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  2. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  3. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible rice variety. For the ability to acquire RBSDV and transmit the virus to healthy plants by SBPH, there was no significant difference between frozen infected leaves and in vitro infected leaves. The novel method could be applied to identification of rice variety resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease, facilitating the breeding process for rice black-streaked dwarf disease resistance.

  4. Use of the Coelomic Grafting Technique for Prolonged ex utero Cultivation of Late Preprimitive Streak-Stage Rabbit Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, Bernd; Männer, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Due to its morphological similarity with the early human embryo, the pregastrulation-stage rabbit may represent an appropriate mammalian model for studying processes involved in early human development. The usability of mammalian embryos for experimental studies depends on the availability of whole embryo culture methods facilitating prolonged ex utero development. While currently used culture methods yield high success rates for embryos from primitive streak stages onward, the success rate of extended cultivation of preprimitive streak-stage mammalian embryos is low for all previously established methods and for all studied species. This limits the usability of preprimitive streak-stage rabbit embryos in experimental embryology. We have tested whether the extraembryonic coelom of 4-day-old chick embryos may be used for prolonged ex utero culture of preprimitive streak-stage rabbit embryos (stage 2, 6.2 days post coitum). We found that, within this environment, stage 2 rabbit blastocysts can be cultured at decreasing success rates (55% after 1 day, 35% after 2 days, 15% after 3 days) up to a maximum of 72 h. Grafted blastocysts can continue development from the onset of gastrulation to early organogenesis and thereby form all structures characterizing age-matched controls (e.g. neural tube, somites, beating heart). Compared to normal controls, successfully cultured embryos developed at a slower rate and finally showed some structural and gross morphological anomalies. The method presented here was originally developed for whole embryo culture of mouse embryos by Gluecksohn-Schoenheimer in 1941. It is a simple and inexpensive method that may represent a useful extension to presently available ex utero culture systems for rabbit embryos. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Automatic detection of Martian dark slope streaks by machine learning using HiRISE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yexin; Di, Kaichang; Xin, Xin; Wan, Wenhui

    2017-07-01

    Dark slope streaks (DSSs) on the Martian surface are one of the active geologic features that can be observed on Mars nowadays. The detection of DSS is a prerequisite for studying its appearance, morphology, and distribution to reveal its underlying geological mechanisms. In addition, increasingly massive amounts of Mars high resolution data are now available. Hence, an automatic detection method for locating DSSs is highly desirable. In this research, we present an automatic DSS detection method by combining interest region extraction and machine learning techniques. The interest region extraction combines gradient and regional grayscale information. Moreover, a novel recognition strategy is proposed that takes the normalized minimum bounding rectangles (MBRs) of the extracted regions to calculate the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) feature and train a DSS classifier using the Adaboost machine learning algorithm. Comparative experiments using five different feature descriptors and three different machine learning algorithms show the superiority of the proposed method. Experimental results utilizing 888 extracted region samples from 28 HiRISE images show that the overall detection accuracy of our proposed method is 92.4%, with a true positive rate of 79.1% and false positive rate of 3.7%, which in particular indicates great performance of the method at eliminating non-DSS regions.

  6. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  7. Improving the diffraction of full-length human selenomethionyl metavinculin crystals by streak-seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Izard, Tina (Scripps)

    2012-06-28

    Metavinculin is an alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin that has a 68-residue insert in its tail domain (1134 total residues) and is exclusively expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle tissue, where it plays important roles in myocyte adhesion complexes. Mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in man. Crystals of a DCM-associated mutant of full-length selenomethionine-labeled metavinculin grown by hanging-drop vapor diffusion diffracted poorly and were highly sensitive to radiation, preventing the collection of a complete X-ray diffraction data set at the highest possible resolution. Streak-seeding markedly improved the stability, crystal-growth rate and diffraction quality of DCM-associated mutant metavinculin crystals, allowing complete data collection to 3.9 {angstrom} resolution. These crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 170, c = 211 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}.

  8. Progressive symmetric vertical macular wide angioid streak-like lacquer crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon Purpose: We report an unusual case of bilateral vertical lacquer crack with no history of ocular trauma and with progressive marked enlargement and consequent visual loss. Methods: Three-year follow-up was completed using best-corrected visual acuity, serial fundus photographs, intravenous fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Results: We report the occurrence of lacquer crack in a 43-year-old woman with no history of trauma except for laser in situ keratomileusis surgery for mild myopia (as reported by the patient in the past 5 years and habitual ocular rubbing. Lacquer crack started in the right eye and became evident 1 year later in the left eye. Serial photography after repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for subfoveal choroidal new vessel showed the lacquer crack widened gradually in both eyes. Axial length measurement revealed the presence of high myopia. Best-corrected visual acuity dropped to 20/200 bilaterally. Conclusion: We hypothesize that a thin Bruch's membrane in high myopia is prone for small rupture initially either spontaneously or following laser in situ keratomileusis and subsequent widening of the rupture by oculopression and intravitreal injections from rise in intraocular pressure. Keywords: angioid streak, Bruch's membrane rupture, choroidal rupture, choroidal neovascularization, high myopia, lacquer crack, LASIK

  9. Optical gating and streaking of free electrons with sub-optical cycle precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozák, M.; McNeur, J.; Leedle, K. J.; Deng, H.; Schönenberger, N.; Ruehl, A.; Hartl, I.; Harris, J. S.; Byer, R. L.; Hommelhoff, P.

    2017-01-01

    The temporal resolution of ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy experiments is currently limited by the available experimental techniques for the generation and characterization of electron bunches with single femtosecond or attosecond durations. Here, we present proof of principle experiments of an optical gating concept for free electrons via direct time-domain visualization of the sub-optical cycle energy and transverse momentum structure imprinted on the electron beam. We demonstrate a temporal resolution of 1.2±0.3 fs. The scheme is based on the synchronous interaction between electrons and the near-field mode of a dielectric nano-grating excited by a femtosecond laser pulse with an optical period duration of 6.5 fs. The sub-optical cycle resolution demonstrated here is promising for use in laser-driven streak cameras for attosecond temporal characterization of bunched particle beams as well as time-resolved experiments with free-electron beams. PMID:28120930

  10. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  11. Cassava brown streak disease: historical timeline, current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Katie R; Bailey, Andy M; Alicai, Titus; Seal, Sue; Foster, Gary D

    2017-09-08

    Cassava is the second most important staple food crop in terms of per capita calories consumed in Africa and holds potential for climate change adaptation. Unfortunately, productivity in East and Central Africa is severely constrained by two viral diseases: cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). CBSD was first reported in 1936 from northeast Tanzania. For approximately seventy years CBSD was restricted to coastal East Africa and so had a relatively low impact on food security compared to CMD. However, at the turn of the 21st century CBSD re-emerged further inland, in areas around Lake Victoria and it has since spread through many East and Central African countries, causing high yield losses and jeopardising the food security of subsistence farmers. This recent re-emergence has attracted intense scientific interest, with studies shedding light on CBSD viral epidemiology, sequence diversity, host interactions and potential sources of resistance within the cassava genome. This review reflects on 80 years of CBSD research history (1936 - 2016) with a timeline of key events. We provide insights into current CBSD knowledge, management efforts and future prospects for improved understanding needed to underpin effective control and mitigation of impacts on food security. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A simple, novel and high efficiency sap inoculation method to screen for tobacco streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresha, S; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Balol, Gurupada B; Keshavareddy, G; Rangaswamy, K T; Udayakumar, M

    2012-10-01

    A rapid and efficient sap inoculation method for tobacco streak virus (TSV) was developed in sunflower. Sap from TSV-infected sunflower plants was freshly extracted in phosphate buffer and diluted serially from 10(-1) to 10(-8). Two-day old seedlings of sunflower were injured at the meristem and immersed in the sap for 10 min, maintained at 20 °C for 2-3 days and shifted to greenhouse. The surviving seedlings in the respective sap dilution were scored for symptoms of sunflower necrosis disease (SND). SND symptoms were seen in 80 % of the seedlings inoculated with a sap dilution of 10(-5). ELISA and RT-PCR analysis of coat protein and movement protein of TSV confirmed SND symptoms. The methodology was also found to be reproducible when the sap from the infected plants was inoculated onto healthy plants. The main aim of the study was to develop a primary screening strategy for the selection of transgenics developed for SND resistance. This methodology can also be extended for the analysis of resistance against other viruses.

  13. Streaks of Life: The Introduction and Translation of a Passage from the Autobiography of Ethel Smyth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dragičević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the translated passage, taken from the autobiography of Ethel Smyth, Streaks of Life, the author writes about the position of women in music, her own position—that of a female composer in the early 20th century England. The author speaks of terror and the patronizing diction of patriarchal society. She continues with a critique of media representations, but mostly focuses on difficulties in the attempts to place one’s (woman’s artwork in public space. Despite the fact that she was romantically involved with women throughout her life and wrote about them in her other autobiographical texts, she refuses to connect lesbian identity with her work—perhaps the reason lies in the ‘safety’ of being in a closet, or because of her perceived irrelevance of lesbian identities towards artist’s output. What she emphasizes more is a woman’s perspective—reasonably so, since she was deeply involved with the suffrage movement. In her descriptions, she considers economic and political contexts of the First World War era, which gave the opportunity of holding a (temporary job for women—both in factories and in orchestras. At the end, she returns to specifics of women’s position in society, and calls for a rebellion against the tyranny of the patriarchy.

  14. Effect of rosella extract on development of fatty streaks lesions in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Al-Kennany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to explore the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa on female rats on oxidative stress which induced by 0.5% H2O2. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue (aorta and heart malonadyaldehyde (MDA as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherosclerotic lesions follow up light microscopical technique has been applied. The result elucidate significant reduction in lipid profit parameters namely: low density lipoprotein (LDL-c, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (vLDL-c, atherogenic index and significant elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL-c in few animals treated with H2O2 and rosella extract, parallely, this research illustrate reduction in aorta and heart MDA concentration, concomitant with significant rising in glutathione (GSH level. Histopathologically, this study revealed fatty streaks associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells have been detected after 60 days, in animal treated with rosella revealed reduction in lipid vacuoles and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMcs in media toward intimal layers after 40 days from treatment.

  15. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  16. Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn and corn-based human foodstuffs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko, M B; Visconti, A

    1994-01-01

    A survey has been carried out in Italy on the natural occurrence of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in corn kernels from regional distributors and corn genotypes from breeding stations as well as in commercially available corn-based food products. All corn samples were fumonisin positive at levels up to 5310 ng/g for FB1 and up to 1480 for FB2. In corn-based foods, the highest fumonisin contamination levels were recorded in puffed (extruded) corn containing up to 6100 ng/g of FB1 and up to 520 ng/g of FB2. Levels ranging from 420 to 3760 ng/g FB1 and from 80 to 910 ng/g FB2 were detected in corn grits, corn flour or polenta (a sort of thick porridge made with corn flour). All sweet corn samples examined were positive for FB1, at levels varying from 60 to 790 ng/g FB1, but negative for FB2. Lower levels of fumonisins were found in other commodities, such as popcorn (up to 60 ng/g FB1 and 20 ng/g FB2), tortilla chips (up to 60 ng/g FB1 and 10 ng/g FB2), and corn flakes (10 ng/g FB1). These findings indicate a high degree of human exposure to fumonisins in Italy through the ingestion of commercially available corn-based foodstuffs.

  17. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  18. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  19. Combination treatment of low fluence photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to angioid streaks in Paget′s disease - 12 month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha V Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioid streaks also called Knapp striae are small breaks in the Bruch′s membrane and have been reported with a host of systemic diseases. Rupture of streaks or development of secondary choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM carries a dismal visual prognosis. We report the successful treatment of CNVM secondary to Paget′s disease using low fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT and intravitreal ranibizumab.

  20. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tong; Wu, Li-juan; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Ji, Ying-Hua; Yong-jian FAN; Zhou, Yi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible r...

  1. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labaria, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warrick, Abbie L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Celliers, Peter M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, Daniel H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  2. Statistical iterative reconstruction for streak artefact reduction when using multidetector CT to image the dento-alveolar structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Kober, C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: When metallic prosthetic appliances and dental fillings exist in the oral cavity, the appearance of metal-induced streak artefacts is not avoidable in CT images. The aim of this study was to develop a method for artefact reduction using the statistical reconstruction on multidetector row CT images. Methods: Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures. Therefore, reconstructed images with weak artefacts were attempted using projection data of an artefact-free image in a neighbouring thin slice. Images with moderate and strong artefacts were continuously processed in sequence by successive iterative restoration where the projection data was generated from the adjacent reconstructed slice. First, the basic maximum likelihood–expectation maximization algorithm was applied. Next, the ordered subset–expectation maximization algorithm was examined. Alternatively, a small region of interest setting was designated. Finally, the general purpose graphic processing unit machine was applied in both situations. Results: The algorithms reduced the metal-induced streak artefacts on multidetector row CT images when the sequential processing method was applied. The ordered subset–expectation maximization and small region of interest reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. A general-purpose graphic processing unit realized the high performance. Conclusions: A statistical reconstruction method was applied for the streak artefact reduction. The alternative algorithms applied were effective. Both software and hardware tools, such as ordered subset–expectation maximization, small region of interest and general-purpose graphic processing unit achieved fast artefact correction. PMID:24754471

  3. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  4. Identification of feeding stimulants in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2008-04-01

    Using a bioassay-driven approach, we have isolated and identified a blend of compounds from the roots of germinating corn, Zea mays L., that serve as feeding stimulants for neonate western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The active blend is a combination of simple sugars (30:4:4 mg/ml glucose:fructose:sucrose in the corn root) plus at least one of the free fatty acids in germinating corn roots (2:5 mg/ml oleic acid:linoleic acid in the corn root). When an extract of germinating corn was partitioned into an ethyl acetate fraction and an aqueous fraction, full feeding occurred only when the two fractions were recombined, indicating that the phagostimulant was comprised of both polar and nonpolar components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of root extracts from germinating corn seedlings revealed a blend of 20 compounds from a variety of chemical classes, including small sugars, diacids, amino acids, inorganic compounds, and free fatty acids. When the major components were tested in feeding bioassays, the sugars and lipids were shown to be essential for feeding by larvae, but the two classes of compounds were only effective when combined. The sugars alone elicited feeding by only 40% of larvae, but the percentage of larvae feeding was increased significantly with the addition of linoleic acid (91.7% larvae feeding) or oleic acid (85.8% larvae feeding). The amino acids alone were not essential elements for feeding by western corn rootworm larvae.

  5. Fumonisin levels in Uruguayan corn products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, M S; Silva, G E; Scott, P M; Lawrence, G A; Stack, M E

    1997-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate fumonisins FB1 and FB2 in Uruguayan corn products. Sixty-four samples of different local brands were purchased from retail stores during a 15-month period and analyzed for FB1 and FB2 by methanol-water extraction, cleanup with a 1 mL. strong-anion-exchange solid-phase extraction column, and liquid chromatography with o-pthaldialdehyde-2-mercaptoethanol derivatization and fluorescence detection. Contamination levels for FB1 varied from 50 ng/g (detection limit) to 6342 ng/g. Values were highest in feed samples (up to 6342 ng/g), unprocessed corn kernel (up to 3688 ng/g), and milled products, which included polenta (up to 427 ng/g). They were lowest in processed corn kernel (up to 155 ng/g) and snacks (up to 314 ng/g). FB2 was determined in one-fourth of the total samples and detected at trace levels in only one feed sample. The data demonstrated the natural occurrence of fumonisins in corn products in Uruguay. Feed and polenta that contain fumonisins could be of concern because they are consumed in large amounts and are often the main nutrient source in Uruguay.

  6. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  7. CULTIVATION OF MUSHROOM (Pleurotus ostreatus) USING CORN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    KEY WORDS: Mushroom, Pleurotus Ostreatus, Saw Dust, Corn Cobs, Substrates. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms have been defined as macro-fungi with distinctive fruit bodies, which are visible to the naked eye. Mushrooms belong to the class. Basidiomycetes (Pelczar et al., 2003). Mushrooms have long been recognized ...

  8. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.100...

  9. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned corn. 155.130 Section 155.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (d) Butter or margarine in a quantity not less than 3 percent...

  10. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  11. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  12. Nitrogen Use and Carbon Sequestered by Corn Rotations in the Northern Corn Belt, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Pikul

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N requirements for corn (Zea mays L., and increase soil carbon (C storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. rotations were conventional tillage (CS and ridge tillage (CSr. Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC, and a 4-year rotation of corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L. companion-seeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.–alfalfa hay (CSWA. Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha–1 (highN, of 5.3 Mg ha–1 (midN, and with no N fertilizer (noN. Total (1990–2000 corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha–1 under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990–2000 corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 35 Mg ha–1 under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments was 0.68 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha–1 under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha–1 under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha–1 under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg–1 with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg–1 under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (–0.75 with CSWA and widened (0.72 under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce

  13. Closed-loop control of boundary layer streaks induced by free-stream turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, George; Lu, Liang; Ricco, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The central aim of the paper is to carry out a theoretical and numerical study of active wall transpiration control of streaks generated within an incompressible boundary layer by free-stream turbulence. The disturbance flow model is based on the linearized unsteady boundary-region (LUBR) equations, studied by Leib, Wundrow, and Goldstein [J. Fluid Mech. 380, 169 (1999), 10.1017/S0022112098003504], which are the rigorous asymptotic limit of the Navier-Stokes equations for low-frequency and long-streamwise wavelength. The mathematical formulation of the problem directly incorporates the random forcing into the equations in a consistent way. Due to linearity, this forcing is factored out and appears as a multiplicative factor. It is shown that the cost function (integral of kinetic energy in the domain) is properly defined as the expectation of a random quadratic function only after integration in wave number space. This operation naturally introduces the free-stream turbulence spectral tensor into the cost function. The controller gains for each wave number are independent of the spectral tensor and, in that sense, universal. Asymptotic matching of the LUBR equations with the free-stream conditions results in an additional forcing term in the state-space system whose presence necessitates the reformulation of the control problem and the rederivation of its solution. It is proved that the solution can be obtained analytically using an extension of the sweep method used in control theory to obtain the standard Riccati equation. The control signal consists of two components, a feedback part and a feed-forward part (that depends explicitly on the forcing term). Explicit recursive equations that provide these two components are derived. It is shown that the feed-forward part makes a negligible contribution to the control signal. We also derive an explicit expression that a priori (i.e., before solving the control problem) leads to the minimum of the objective cost

  14. Experimental observations of rapid Maize streak virus evolution reveal a strand-specific nucleotide substitution bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsani Arvind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have indicated that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses in the taxonomic families Geminiviridae, Parvoviridae and Anellovirus may be evolving at rates of ~10-4 substitutions per site per year (subs/site/year. These evolution rates are similar to those of RNA viruses and are surprisingly high given that ssDNA virus replication involves host DNA polymerases with fidelities approximately 10 000 times greater than those of error-prone viral RNA polymerases. Although high ssDNA virus evolution rates were first suggested in evolution experiments involving the geminivirus maize streak virus (MSV, the evolution rate of this virus has never been accurately measured. Also, questions regarding both the mechanistic basis and adaptive value of high geminivirus mutation rates remain unanswered. Results We determined the short-term evolution rate of MSV using full genome analysis of virus populations initiated from cloned genomes. Three wild type viruses and three defective artificial chimaeric viruses were maintained in planta for up to five years and displayed evolution rates of between 7.4 × 10-4 and 7.9 × 10-4 subs/site/year. Conclusion These MSV evolution rates are within the ranges observed for other ssDNA viruses and RNA viruses. Although no obvious evidence of positive selection was detected, the uneven distribution of mutations within the defective virus genomes suggests that some of the changes may have been adaptive. We also observed inter-strand nucleotide substitution imbalances that are consistent with a recent proposal that high mutation rates in geminiviruses (and possibly ssDNA viruses in general may be due to mutagenic processes acting specifically on ssDNA molecules.

  15. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  16. Fluorescence measurement by a streak camera in a single-photon-counting mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Masayuki; Itoh, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a recently developed fluorescence measurement system that uses a streak camera to detect fluorescence decay in a single photon-counting mode. This system allows for easy measurements of various samples and provides 2D images of fluorescence in the wavelength and time domains. The great advantage of the system is that the data can be handled with ease; furthermore, the data are amenable to detailed analysis. We describe the picosecond kinetics of fluorescence in spinach Photosystem (PS) II particles at 4-77 K as a typical experimental example. Through the global analysis of the data, we have identified a new fluorescence band (F689) in addition to the already established F680, F685, and F695 emission bands. The blue shift of the steady-state fluorescence spectrum upon cooling below 77 K can be interpreted as an increase of the shorter-wavelength fluorescence, especially F689, due to the slowdown of the excitation energy transfer process. The F685 and F695 bands seem to be thermally equilibrated at 77 K but not at 4 K. The simple and efficient photon accumulation feature of the system allows us to measure fluorescence from leaves, solutions, single colonies, and even single cells. The 2D fluorescence images obtained by this system are presented for isolated spinach PS II particles, intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, the PS I super-complex of a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, isolated membranes of a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Acidiphilium rubrum, which contains Zn-BChl a, and a coral that contains a green fluorescent protein and an algal endosymbiont, Zooxanthella.

  17. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  18. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  1. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  2. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  3. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  4. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  5. Priming corn seeds with plant growth regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Pallaoro,Dryelle Sifuentes; Avelino,Anne Caroline Dallabrida; Camili,Elisangela Clarete; Guimarães,Sebastião Carneiro; MARIA CRISTINA DE FIGUEIREDO E ALBUQUERQUE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the plant growth regulator application, in different doses, on priming, with and without water restriction, in corn seeds. Evaluations were carried out in two periods (0 to 30 days of storage), with treatments consisting of seeds primed in water (0.0 MPa) and polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (-0.4 MPa), with or without plant growth regulator added in different doses, plus a control group. The amount of plant growth regulator was standardized by the gibbe...

  6. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  7. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  8. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  9. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  10. Selection for resistance to mCry3A-expressing transgenic corn in western corn rootworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the development of resistance to mCry3A, a laboratory colony of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was established from field survivors of mCry3A-expressing (MIR604) corn, Zea mays L. Feral adults emerging from MIR604 (selected) and isoline (control) field plots were collected and returned to the laboratory. Progeny of each colony was reared one generation on isoline corn and then crossed reciprocally with a nondiapausing colony. The resulting nondiapausing progeny were then reared on greenhouse corn in accordance with the wild type parent's origin (on MIR604 or isoline corn). After four, seven, and 10 total generations of selection, the resistance ratio of the selected colony was 0.5, 4.3, and 15.4 in terms of lethal concentration (LC)50 values in toxicity assays, with the latter two LC50 values being significant. After seven generations of selection in total, selected and control colonies were screened on MIR604 and isoline corn under field conditions. There was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction in terms of plant damage. There was no significant difference in damage between MIR604 and isoline corn, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony. After 14 generations of selection, a seedling bioassay was performed. Again, there was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction, this time in terms of the number of larvae recovered. There was no significant difference in the number of larvae recovered from MIR604 and isoline corn for the selected colony, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony, although larval size was greater on isoline corn for both colonies. Resistance has developed in western corn rootworm laboratory colonies to all Bt proteins currently registered for corn rootworm management, which emphasizes the importance of adhering to resistance management plans for maintaining product efficacy.

  11. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  13. Research and simulation on the rollover system of corn harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of our country's corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when driving in mountainous and hilly regions. In order to improve the design quality of corn harvester and enhance the security of operation, it is of great significance to research the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester. Hydro-pneumatic suspension has powerful function of adjusting the balance of automobile body and good shock absorption function. In this paper, hydro-pneumatic suspension is applied to the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester to improve the ability of anti-rollover. At last using ADAMS simulation technology to simulate the roll stability of traditional corn harvester and the corn harvester with hydro pneumatic suspension, then calculating the heeling angle in both cases.

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  15. Analysis of Dark Slope Streaks on Mars based on Multitemporal Imagery and Digital Elevation Model derived from HRSC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Bjoern Peter; Walter, Sebastian; Muller, Jan-Peter; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-10-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars are dark and narrow downhill oriented surface features found in equatorial regions (1) associated with water or hydrated salt flows (2). On the other hand there are Dark Slope Streaks which seem to be dry avalanches on dust covered slopes (3). The origin of both ist still under discussion. We found linear features in eastern Noctis Labyrinthus region (6°S, 265°E) with lengths of up to several kilometres and lateral extensions of 20-30 metres. RSL fade andrecur in the same location over multiple Mars years (4). Similarily, Dark Slope Streaks form on at least annual to decade-long timescales (5). During 10 years of HRSC observation time (2005-2015) several linear features in Noctis Labyrinthus changed in visibility. Slopeparameters and seasonal illumination conditions are investigated based ona DTM derived from HRSC data. Also particle flow along streaks has been modelled. Feature and change identification is presented involving spatial filtering and DTM analysis.The research leading to these results has received funding from theEuropean Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n° 607379.(1) McEwen, A.S., et al. (2014): Recurring slope lineae in equatorialregions of Mars. Nat. Geosci 7: 53-58.(2) Ojha, L. et al. (2015): Spectral evidence for hydrated salts inrecurring slope linear on Mars. Nat. Geosci, DOI:10.1038/NGEO2 546.(3) Sullivan, R. et al. (2001). Mass Movement Slope Streaks Imaged by theMars Orbiter Camera. J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,607-23,633.(4) McEwen, A.S., et al. (2011): Seasonal Flows on Warm Martian Slopes.Science, Vol. 333, Issue 6043, pp. 740-743.(5) Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.S. (2001). Mars Global Surveyor Mars OrbiterCamera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission. J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,429-23,570.

  16. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  17. Impact of certain corn cultivars on some ological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development, survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on five corn cultivars were evaluated at 25°C under laboratory conditions. The corn leaf aphid had a longer nymphal developmental time of 4.99, 4.98, 4.73, 4.46, and 5.60 day of Ada9516, K. Arifiye, ...

  18. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  19. Measurement of fumonisins in corn with a fiber optic fluoroimmunosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Maragos, Chris M.

    1997-05-01

    A fiber-optic immunosensor was used to determine concentrations of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1(FB1) in both spiked and naturally contaminated corn samples. Samples were extracted with a mixture of methanol/water. Two methods were used to prepare the methanolic corn extracts before introduction to the immunosensor: (1) simple dilution of the methanolic corn extract; or (2) affinity column cleanup. The sensor displayed an IC50 of 70 ng FB1/mL when toxin was introduced in phosphate buffered saline. Simple dilution of methanolic corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 equivalent to 25 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 3.2 (mu) g/g corn, while affinity cleanup of corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 of 5 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 0.4 (mu) gFB1/g corn. The difference in sensitivity between the two cleanup techniques was due to concentration of fumonisins obtained from the affinity cleanup procedure. Naturally contaminated corn samples were also analyzed after either simple dilution or affinity column cleanup. For comparison the naturally contaminated corn samples were analyzed with an HPLC method after isolation of the fumonisins with strong anion exchange (SAX) solid phase extraction cartridges. The SAX/HPLC method and the immunosensor method agreed well except when large amounts of other fumonisins (i.e. fumonisin B2) were present. This was due in part to the cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody with other fumonisins. The immunosensor has the potential to screen individual corn samples for fumonisins within six minutes, and is among the fastest of the currently available FB1 detection methods.

  20. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Murgiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae, gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a

  1. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  2. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  3. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  4. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecti...

  5. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  6. Identification of functional sequences in the pregenomic RNA promoter of the Banana streak virus Cavendish strain (BSV-Cav).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Tony; Grof, Christopher P L; Ebert, Paul R; Schenk, Peer M

    2005-03-01

    The promoter regions of plant pararetroviruses direct transcription of the full-length viral genome into a pregenomic RNA that is an intermediate in the replication of the virus. It serves as template for reverse transcription and as polycistronic mRNA for translation to viral proteins. We have identified functional promoter elements in the intergenic region of the Cavendish isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV-Cav), a member of the genus Badnavirus. Potential binding sites for plant transcription factors were found both upstream and downstream of the transcription start site by homology search in the PLACE database of plant cis-acting elements. The functionality of these putative cis-acting elements was tested by constructing loss-of-function and "regain"-of-function mutant promoters whose activity was quantified in embryogenic sugarcane suspension cells. Four regions that are important for activity of the BSV-Cav promoter were identified: the region containing an as-1-like element, the region around -141 and down to -77, containing several putative transcription factor binding sites, the region including the CAAT-box, and the leader region. The results could help explain the high BSV-Cav promoter activity that was observed previously in transgenic sugarcane plants and give more insight into the plant cell-mediated replication of the viral genome in banana streak disease.

  7. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. II. Theoretical analysis and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing; Chen, Chao; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    In the preceding paper (referred to here as paper I), we presented a general signal-to-noise performance analysis of a streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) system within the framework of linear cascaded systems theory. A cascaded model is proposed for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of a STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver. The STIL system can be decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Equations for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of an external intensified STIL system. The implementation of the cascaded model for predicting and evaluating the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system is described. Some factors that limit the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  9. Implications of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, infestation in an Aspergillus flavus-biocontrolled corn agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. NutriDense Corn Grain and Corn Silage for Dairy Cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benefield, B. C; Lineiro, M; Ipharraguerre, I. R; Clark, J. H

    2006-01-01

    ... amino acids (Lys, Met, Cys, Thr, and Trp) than conventional yellow dent ( YD ) corn hybrids ( Akay and Jackson, 2001 ). More recently, the LND hybrid also was bred to produce grain with a nutrient content that was greater than that for YD but also to contain more leaves above the ear than ND. These traits were combined in LND with the goal of inc...

  11. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  12. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  13. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy- corn milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folly

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid ... Spicing improved the colloidal stability of the soy-corn milk type and its acceptability to the consumer, but has no .... quality of raw- pasteurized and UHT milks in shops. Asian J. Sci. Res.

  15. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  16. (roasted seeds and bread) of maize/corn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-13

    Nov 13, 2017 ... potential for increasing maize production through extensive use of improved seeds is thus high in Ethiopia and is being ... range of products including corn oil, sweetener, corn starch, and ethanol. ...... An efficient digestion procedure for the determination of metals in the raw maize seed and its processed ...

  17. Diet improvement for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably the world’s most expensive pest to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and researchers t...

  18. Impact of certain corn cultivars on some ological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... biotypes and plant species and cultivars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and survival rates were lower on. TTM815 than that of the other corn cultivars. TTM815 showed resistance to the pest. In summary, corn cultivars have a significant effect on survivorship, developmental rate, fecundity, longevity and ...

  19. The perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina by Braconid in Dezful Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. The method used in this study was correlative descriptive and causal relation. A random sample of Dezful township corn farmers of Khouzestan Province, ...

  20. Fermented Corn Waste Liquor as a Potential Source for Probiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some fermented cereals are known to contain LAB, limited information is available on the massive production of LAB from low cost fermented meals such as corn mash waste. Hence the efficiency of 72h- corn waste liquor as a rich source for probiotic LAB was evaluated. The liquor aseptically recovered from ...

  1. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn cobs, an indigenous carbon source, were tested as substrate by Aspergillus niger for optimum synthesis of xylanase using the submerged fermentation technique. The trials for xylanase production were conducted at three concentration levels (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) of corn cobs, four different fermentation temperatures ...

  2. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  3. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  4. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... intercropping usually benefits from increased light intercep- tion, root contact with more soil, increased ... monocropping of corn and has a number of advantages such as lower inputs, lower cost of ... Hand weeding by hoe was done once when the corn was app. 20 cm in height. Plots were harvested at the ...

  5. Reinforcement Effect of Corn Flour in Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn flour is an economical renewable material and investigated in this study as filler for rubber composites. The composites were prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of corn flour with rubber latex, followed by freeze-drying and compression molding. The small strain elastic modulus and the str...

  6. Complementation of sweet corn mutants: a method for grouping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accumulate sugars at the expense of starch and have low total carbohydrate at the mature kernel stage (Boyer and. Shannon 1984). At 18–21 days after pollination (harvest stage of sweet corn), these mutants have four to eight times higher total sugar than the normal corn (Holder et al. 1974). Due to comparative high sugar ...

  7. The perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of corn farmers about biological control of. Caradrina by Braconid in Dezful Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. The method used in this study was correlative descriptive and causal relation. A random sample of Dezful township corn farmers of.

  8. Nutritional qualities of corn cob and waste paper incubated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the concurrent 30.2 and 27.8 percentage unit increases in crude protein digestibility of corn cob and waste paper may in fact improve the nutritive value for livestock with no detriment to the health (organ and blood of the animals. Keywords: Nutritional qualities, waste paper, corn cob, Pleurotus sajor caju ...

  9. UTILIZATION OF CORN STARCH AS SUBSTRATE FOR Я

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IITA

    the major reserve carbohydrate in all higher plants. It is produced commercially from the seeds, tubers and roots of plants. The major source of starch is corn, from which it is extracted by a wet milling process. Corn starch can be obtained as a cheap carbon source forming an heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of two ...

  10. Effectiveness of corn stalk ash in reducing tannin levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of corn stalk ash in reducing tannin levels and improving In vitro enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides in crop residues. ... The findings suggest that treatment with corn stalk ash might be an effective means of detannifying and improving digestion of crop residues. Ghana Journal of Science Vol. 44, 2004: ...

  11. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  12. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  13. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvel, G.E.; Vogel, K.P.; Mitchell, R.B. [USDA-ARS, 344 Keim Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, P.O. Box 830937, Lincoln, NE 68583-0937 (United States); Follett, R.F. [USDA-ARS, Room S-100, 2150 Centre Avenue Building D, Ft. Collins, CO 80526-8119 (United States); Kimble, J.M. [USDA-NRCS, National Soil Survey Center, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Crop residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are viewed as an abundant and inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields to produce bioenergy. Assumptions include that with minimum or no-tillage farming methods, there will be no deleterious production or environmental effects. A long-term field study was established in eastern Nebraska, USA, to compare the switchgrass managed as a biomass energy crop versus no-till corn on a non-irrigated site, marginal for row-crop production, in the western Corn Belt. Our objective in this paper is to report on corn stover removal effects on corn grain yields and potential ethanol production in both cropping systems. Corn, under no-till management, and switchgrass were grown at three N fertilizer levels. In the first 5 years (2001-2005), removal of half the available stover significantly reduced corn yields. During that same time period, the potential ethanol yield for switchgrass was equal to or greater than the potential total ethanol yield of corn grain and harvested stover fertilized at the same optimum N rate. The effect of crop residue removal on crop productivity needs to be investigated in other agro-ecosystems and the potential use of dedicated perennial biomass energy crops should remain a viable renewable energy option on non-irrigated marginal croplands. (author)

  14. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  15. Effects of cover crops and weed management on corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Yeganehpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important replacement methods used instead of chemical herbicide and conventional tillage is cover and companion crops’ application which is a major factor in sustainable agriculture. In order to determine the best cover crop in controlling weeds of corn field and its further effects on corn yield, an experiment was carried out in a factorial arrangement based on RCB design with three replicates. The treatments of this experiment included companion crops (clover, hairy vetch, basil and dill as first factor and time of sowing cover and medicinal plant (synchronic sowing with corn and sowing 15 days after corn sowing as second factor. The results showed that ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were significantly influenced by companion crops and sowing date. Whereas, weed biomass was influenced by cover crop type × sowing date interaction. Also, the results indicated that increasing biomass weed resulted in linear reduction of grain yield. The highest ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were obtained for cultivation of clover with corn. Synchronic cultivation of companion crops with corn had higher grain length and yield compared with cultivation 15 days after corn. The lowest weed biomass was recorded for concurrent cultivation of corn with clover due to rapid growth and high competitive power of clover in the early stage of growth.

  16. Production costs of potential corn stover harvest and storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover has potential as a bioenergy feedstock in North America. Here we compared production costs for various corn stover harvest (three-pass and two-pass with baling and chopping, and single-pass) and storage options (outdoor and indoor dry bales, outdoor wrapped bales, and chopped stover in b...

  17. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  18. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  19. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  20. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  1. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  2. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  3. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  5. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  6. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  7. Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Onstad, D W; Hellmich, R L; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D; Prasifka, J R

    2012-02-01

    We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting larval mortality resulting from feeding on cross-pollinated ears or Bt ears of corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). In the simulations, evolution of resistance was delayed equally well by both seed mixtures and blocks with the same proportion of refuge. Our results showed that Bt-pollen drift has little impact on the evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis. However, low-toxin expression in ears of transgenic corn can reduce the durability of transgenic corn expressing single toxin, whereas durability of pyramided corn hybrids is not significantly reduced. The toxin-survival rate of heterozygous larvae in Bt-corn ears expressing one or two proteins has more impact on evolution of Bt resistance in O. nubilalis than the parameters related to larval movement to Bt ears or the toxin-survival rate of the homozygous susceptible larvae in Bt ears. Bt resistance evolves slower when toxin mortality is distributed across the first two larval stadia than when only the first instars are susceptible to Bt toxins. We suggest that stakeholders examine toxin-survival rates for insect pests and take into account that instars may feed on different parts of Bt corn.

  8. Effects of Cry34/35Ab1 corn on the survival and development of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-06-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major agricultural pest that is managed with transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). The effects of Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 (event DAS-59122-7) and entomopathogens on the survival and development of larval D. v. virgifera were examined in laboratory, field and greenhouse experiments. Larvae preferred non-Bt over Bt corn in a laboratory experiment, and there was higher recovery from non-Bt corn than from Bt corn in a field experiment. In a greenhouse study, survival at 17 days did not differ significantly among non-Bt corn, Bt corn and a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn, but development was delayed on Bt corn. Older larvae fed non-Bt corn had lower survival when entomopathogenic nematodes were added, but no other effects of pathogen were detected. Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 delayed larval development of D. v. virgifera and deterred feeding. In a mixture of Bt and non-Bt corn, larval development and survival were similar to non-Bt corn alone, suggesting that non-Bt plants in a blended refuge or a pure stand may produce a similar number of adult insects, and that timing of adult emergence may also be similar. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  11. Molecular interactions and immune responses between maize fine streak virus and the leafhopper vector G. nigrifrons through differential expression and RNA interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is an emerging virus of maize that is transmitted by an insect vector, the leafhopper called Graminella nigrifrons. Virus transmission by the leafhopper requires that the virus enter into and multiply in insect cells, tissues and organs before being transmitted to a ne...

  12. Particle streak velocimetry-OCT (PSV-OCT): a novel method for multi-vector component velocimetry of microscale flow physiology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kevin C.; Huang, Brendan K.; Gamm, Ute A.; Bhandari, Vineet; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method for 2.5 and 3 vector component velocimetry. We call this method particle streak velocimetry OCT (PSV-OCT). PSV-OCT generates two-dimensional, 2.5 vector component (v_x,|v_y|,v_z) cross-sectional maps of microscale flow velocity (e.g. biological cilia-driven fluid flow). The enabling insight is that a tracer particle in sparsely-seeded fluid flow traces out streaks in (x,z,t)-space. The streak orientations in x-t and z-t yield v_x and v_z, respectively. The in-plane (x-z plane) residence time yields the out-of-plane speed |v_y|. Vector component values are generated by fitting streaks to a model of image formation. We demonstrate cross-sectional estimation of (v_x,|v_y|,v_z) in two important animal models in ciliary biology: Xenopus embryos (tadpoles) and mouse trachea. Further, by incorporation the assumption of incompressible flow into the estimation process, we are able to generate 3 vector component (v_x,v_y,v_z) estimates in three spatial dimensions from 2.5 vector component measurements taken in parallel OCT planes in 3D space.

  13. Time and wavelength-resolved luminescence evaluation of several types of scintillators using streak camera system equipped with pulsed X-ray source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuya, Y.; Yanagida, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Kamada, K.; Kawaguchi, N.; Ishizu, S.; Uchiyama, K.; Mori, K.; Kitano, K.; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 634, č. 1 (2011), s. 59-63 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : streak camera system * scintillator * pulsed X-ray source Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  14. Optimal streaks in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body and their influence on vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marant, Mathieu; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Grégory

    2017-06-01

    We compute the optimal perturbations of azimuthal wavenumber m THAT maximize the spatial energy growth in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. Optimal perturbations with m ≠ 0 lead to the amplification of streamwise streaks in the wake. When forced with finite amplitude m ≠ 1, optimal perturbations have a stabilizing effect on large-scale unsteady vortex shedding in the wake. We show that m ≥ 2 modes, which are forced with zero mass flux, can significantly reduce the amplitude of the unsteady lift force exerted on the body. When combined with low levels of base bleed, these perturbations can completely suppress the unsteadiness in the wake with reduced levels of mass injection in the flow.

  15. Jet streak circulations associated with a moderate snowfall event as diagnosed from NGM model output. [Nested Grid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocin, Paul J.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Skillman, William C.; Grumm, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    The existence, evolution, and interaction of vertical circulations associated with upper-level jet streaks during a moderate snowfall event are diagnosed using a nested grid model (NGM). The event itself is overviewed, and the diagnosis of transverse circulations utilizing NGM output is discussed. Focus is placed on the identification of the horizontal and vertical components of the circulation, the temporal evolution of the circulation, and the comparison of the circulation from successive model forecasts. A preliminary analysis of the model data indicates that the horizontal and vertical branches of the circulations can be diagnosed from the model output, and the horizontal and vertical components of the circulations may be identified and followed during an individual forecast cycle.

  16. A point-by-point analysis of performance in a fencing match: psychological processes associated with winning and losing streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.

  17. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  18. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  19. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  20. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  1. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

  2. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  3. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  5. Zapatista corn: a case study in biocultural innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    In November 2001, Nature published a letter in which University of California Berkeley's biologists claimed to have found evidence of genetically modified (GM) DNA in regional varieties of maize in Oaxaca, even though the Mexican government had banned transgenic corn agriculture in 1998. While urban protesters marched against the genetic 'contamination' of Mexican corn by US-based agricultural biotech firms, rural indigenous communities needed a framework for understanding concepts such as GM before they could take action. This article analyzes how the indigenous organization, the Zapatistas, mobilized a program to address this novel entity. Their anti-GM project entailed educating local farmers about genetics, importing genetic testing kits, seed-banking landrace corn and sending seeds to 'solidarity growers' around the world. This article explores material-semiotic translations to explain one of the central aspects of this project, the definition and circulation of Zapatista corn--an entity defined not only through cultural geography, but also technological means. Through its circulation, Zapatista corn serves to perform a biocultural engagement with Zapatista's political project of resistance to neoliberalism. While much has been written about both regulatory policy and consumer activism against GM in the Global North, Zapatista corn also provides a case study in indigenous, anti-GM activism founded on biocultural innovation and the creation of alternative networks for circulating corn.

  6. Water resource requirements of corn-based ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, Stanley; Lant, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol derived from fermentation of corn is a very water-intensive product with water to ethanol mass ratios of 927 to 1178 and volumetric ratios of 1174 to 1492 for the major rainfed corn-growing U.S. states of Illinois and Iowa and the leading irrigated corn-growing state of Nebraska, respectively. Over 99% of water requirements are for growing corn feed stocks, with 99% of that amount in Illinois and Iowa, occurring as evapotranspiration of rainfall in corn fields, and 60% as evapotranspiration of applied irrigation water in Nebraska. As a rough measure of water quality impacts, 65.5 g N, 23.8 g P, and 1.03 g of pesticides are applied, and 4.8 kg of soil is eroded per liter of ethanol produced. These results add to knowledge on corn-based ethanol's low net energy balance and high carbon footprint by demonstrating the high water resource intensity of corn-based ethanol production.

  7. Development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom ASOTAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks as alternative filler was studied with a view to replacing asbestos, which has been known to be carcinogenic. Corn husks was sourced and milled, before been sieved into sieve grades of 100 and 200 μm. The varying proportions of the as-screened corn husk fibres and silicon carbide were mixed with fixed proportions of graphite, steel dust and resin to produce brake pads by using compressional moulding. The hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, wear rate and porosity of the products were then determined. The result obtained showed that the brake pad produced with the corn husk passing the finer 100 μm screen gave better compressive strength, higher hardness, lower porosity and lower rate of wear, consequent on the finer distribution of the corn husks particles in the matrix. The results obtained for the brake pads were then compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad, corn husk based. The results were found to be in close agreement suggesting that corn husk can be used in the production of asbestos-free brake pads.

  8. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  9. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may be...

  10. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately upon...

  11. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  12. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  13. The calibration of read-out-streak photometry in the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor and the construction of a bright-source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. J.; Chan, N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Talavera, A.; Yershov, V.; Kennedy, T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Hancock, B.; Smith, P. J.; Carter, M.

    2017-04-01

    The dynamic range of the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded from its micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. One way to overcome this limitation is to use photons that arrive during the frame transfer of the CCD, forming vertical read-out streaks for bright sources. We calibrate these read-out streaks for photometry of bright sources observed with XMM-OM. The bright-source limit for read-out-streak photometry is set by the recharge time of the MCPs. For XMM-OM, we find that the MCP recharge time is 5.5 × 10-4 s. We determine that the effective bright limits for read-out-streak photometry with XMM-OM are approximately 1.5 mag brighter than the bright-source limits for normal aperture photometry in full-frame images. This translates into bright-source limits in Vega magnitudes of UVW2=7.1, UVM2=8.0, UVW1=9.4, U=10.5, B=11.5, V=10.2, and White=12.5 for data taken early in the mission. The limits brighten by up to 0.2 mag, depending on filter, over the course of the mission as the detector ages. The method is demonstrated by deriving UVW1 photometry for the symbiotic nova RR Telescopii, and the new photometry is used to constrain the e-folding time of its decaying ultraviolet (UV) emission. Using the read-out-streak method, we obtain photometry for 50 per cent of the missing UV source measurements in version 2.1 of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous UV Source Survey catalogue.

  14. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  15. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol as an expandable green alternative to crude oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Deepak; de Souza, Amanda P.; Larsen, Søren; Lebauer, David S.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Sparovek, Gerd; Bollero, Germán; Buckeridge, Marcos S.; Long, Stephen P.

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions will require a transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. Expansion of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol provides one near-term scalable solution to reduce CO2 emissions from the global transport sector. In contrast to corn ethanol, the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol system may offset 86% of CO2 emissions compared to oil use, and emissions resulting from land-use change to sugarcane are paid back in just 2-8 years. But, it has been uncertain how much further expansion is possible given increasing demand for food and animal feed, climate change impacts and protection of natural ecosystems. We show that Brazilian sugarcane ethanol can provide the equivalent of 3.63-12.77 Mb d-1 of crude oil by 2045 under projected climate change while protecting forests under conservation and accounting for future land demand for food and animal feed production. The corresponding range of CO2 offsets is 0.55-2.0 Gigatons yr-1. This would displace 3.8-13.7% of crude oil consumption and 1.5-5.6% of net CO2 emission globally relative to data for 2014.

  17. Distribution development strategy of corn processed (corn stick and corn dodol production to achieve corn competitive product market in Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halid

    2017-06-01

    home industry for Maize Stick with tasted by Shrimp from Llimboto Lake will get profit if the income above of break event is Rp 120.000,- if production is over of break even point is 11,975 gram and will follow of the price over of break even point about Rp 52.500. Production analysis for home industry for Dodol sweat maize will get profit if the income earned over of break even point is Rp 170,174, if production is earned over of break even point 6,90 basket and if the price is over of break even point is about 19.550; 4 Main distribution development strategy of corn stick and corn dodol are developing corn distribution product, increased the volume of production, to reach the market target, and increased the promotion of product and price information. Key words: Corn Production, Distribution Development Strategy

  18. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...... was observed from corn stover pretreated at 195 degrees for 15min with formic acid....

  19. Hydrocolloid occlusion for the treatment of neurovascular corns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Beck, Jan Walther; Reumert, L N

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocolloid occlusion on neurovascular corns. The design was an observer-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Thirty consecutive patients participated in the trial. The patients received curettage alone or curettage with hydrocolloid...... occlusion. Six treatments were given over 12 weeks. A follow-up examination was performed 3 months after termination of the trial. Outcome measures were the size of the corns, a discomfort score, and an overall judgment of the trial. The results demonstrated no benefit of occlusion for symptoms or signs...... of neurovascular corns. The patients treated with occlusion were, however, generally more satisfied than the conventional group....

  20. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  1. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed sunflower or corn silages and concentrate based on citrus pulp or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Andrade Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets containing sunflower or corn silages and concentrate based on citrus pulp or ground corn on intake, apparent digestibility, feeding behavior, microbial protein production, and production, composition, and fatty acid profile of milk from dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (586±61 kg live weight; 25.0±4.0 kg daily milk yield at 80 to 120 days in milk were randomly assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial array. The experimental diets were: sunflower silage + citrus pulp-based concentrate; sunflower silage + ground corn-based concentrate; corn silage + citrus pulp-based concentrate; and corn silage + ground corn-based concentrate. The dry matter intake was highest for diets containing sunflower silage and lowest for diets with citrus pulp. Sunflower silage provided the highest intakes of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract. Except for the ether extract, the type of forage and carbohydrate did not influence the apparent nutrient digestibility. The forage and carbohydrate sources did not influence the feed eating time, but animals fed sunflower silage showed decreased rumination time and chewing activity. The microbial protein production was not altered with the diets. No differences were observed for milk production or composition, except for the milk urea nitrogen and lactose concentration. The type of forage influenced the milk fatty acid profile, to which corn silage presented higher values for fatty acids up to a 17-carbon chain length. The inclusion of sunflower silage and citrus pulp, compared with corn silage and ground corn, alters dry matter intake and ingestive behavior, but maintains milk production and composition with satisfactory characteristics of the milk fatty acid profile, providing an alternative feed for dairy cows.

  2. Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Siegfried, Blair D; Miller, Nicholas J; Sappington, Thomas W; Ellersieck, Mark R; Spencer, Terence A; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2008-12-09

    To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby "refuges" of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this "high-dose" criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1-4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC(50) was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management.

  3. Experiments with Corn To Demonstrate Plant Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Gray, Margarit S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores using corn seeds to demonstrate plant growth and development. This experiment allows students to formulate hypotheses, observe and record information, and practice mathematics. Presents background information, materials, procedures, and observations. (SAH)

  4. Sealing type effect on corn silage quality in bunker silos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Neumann; Guilherme Fernando Mattos Leão; Eloize Jaqueline Askel; Fabiano Marafon; Danúbia Nogueira Figueira; Mailson Poczynek

    .... Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two sealing types on dry matter recovery rate, aerobic stability, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of corn silage in bunker silos...

  5. Forecasting corn production in Serbia using ARIMA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural crop production is closely related to climate, as a decisive success factor. Temperature fluctuations and changes in the volume of precipitation are the main factors affecting the growth and development of crops, and, ultimately, the quantity produced. Corn is the most common crop necessary to provide for domestic needs, and a strategic product for export. Production of corn in the period from 1947 to 2014 in Serbia had an oscillatory trend, with significant jumps and falls in production. The subject of this paper is the forecasting of future trends in corn production in Serbia. Building on the subject, the purpose of this paper is to create the model for forecasting future corn production and establishing its trends.

  6. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  7. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  8. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  9. Teelthandleiding korrelmais en Corn Cob Mix (CCM) - rassenkeuze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den L.; Groten, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Voor een rassenkeuze voor de teelt van korrelmais en corn cob mix spelen de volgende factoren een rol: Beginontwikkeling, Vroegheid, Plantlengte, Oogstbaarheid, Dorsbaarheid en of de mais óók als snijmais wordt gebruikt (Dubbeldoel-maïs).

  10. Effects of Corn Cob Treated with Sodium Chloride on Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four dietary treatments involving 50% cotton seed cake (CSC) and 50% corn cob treated with 0,5,10, and 15% were determined using a Completely Randomized Design in a 20-day trial. Treated corn cob and CSC (5%NaCl) increased the consumption of DM (317.88+54.65g/d) and CP (39.95±1.49g/d) ...

  11. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  12. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  13. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  14. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  15. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  16. Assessment of soil attributes and crop productivity after diversification of the ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly specialized cash-grain production systems based upon corn-soybean rotations under tilled soil management are common in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt. This study, initiated in 1997, was conducted to determine if diversification of this ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation would affect soil char...

  17. National Corn Growers Association Clean Water Act and TMDL Program: An Introduction and Basic Desk Reference for Corn Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primer from the National Corn Growers Association includes information on the Clean Water Act, TMDLs, a hypothetical TMDL case study and opportunities for the agricultural community's involvement in development and implementation of TMDLs.

  18. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-12-05

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  19. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: II - indices of fertilizer efficiency and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the efficiency of nitrogen (N fertilization is low, inducing a temporal variability of crop yield, economic losses, and environmental impacts. Variable-rate N fertilization (VRF, based on optical spectrometry crop sensors, could increase the N use efficiency (NUE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corn grain yield and N fertilization efficiency under VRF determined by an optical sensor in comparison to the traditional single-application N fertilization (TSF. With this purpose, three experiments with no-tillage corn were carried out in the 2008/09 and 2010/11 growing seasons on a Hapludox in South Brazil, in a completely randomized design, at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The following crop properties were evaluated: aboveground dry matter production and quantity of N uptake at corn flowering, grain yield, and vegetation index determined by an N-Sensor® ALS optical sensor. Across the sites, the corn N fertilizer had a positive effect on corn N uptake, resulting in increased corn dry matter and grain yield. However, N fertilization induced lower increases of corn grain yield at site 2, where there was a severe drought during the growing period. The VRF defined by the optical crop sensor increased the apparent N recovery (NRE and agronomic efficiency of N (NAE compared to the traditional fertilizer strategy. In the average of sites 1 and 3, which were not affected by drought, VRF promoted an increase of 28.0 and 41.3 % in NAE and NRE, respectively. Despite these results, no increases in corn grain yield were observed by the use of VRF compared to TSF.

  20. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yue; Xiangrui Li; Enyan Zhang; Xiaoxia Liu; Zhangwu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120?bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression an...

  1. Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) dispersal and adaptation to single-toxin transgenic corn deployed with block or blended refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David W; Nowatzki, Timothy M; Stanley, Bruce H; Meinke, Lance J; Flexner, J Lindsey

    2011-08-01

    A simulation model of the temporal and spatial dynamics and population genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created to evaluate the use of block refuges and seed blends in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn (Zea mays L.). This Bt corn expresses one transgenic corn event, DAS-59122-7, that produces a binary insecticidal protein toxin (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and provides host-plant resistance. The model incorporates the latest information about larval and adult behavior. Results of this modeling effort indicate that the seed-blend scenarios in many cases produced equal or greater durability than block refuges that were relocated each year. Resistance evolved in the most likely scenarios in 10-16 yr. Our standard analysis presumed complete adoption of 59122 corn by all farmers in our hypothetical region, no crop rotation, and 100% compliance with Insect Resistant Management (IRM) regulations. As compliance levels declined, resistance evolved faster when block refuges were deployed. Seed treatments that killed the pest when applied to all seeds in a seed blend or just to seeds in Bt corn blocks delayed evolution of resistance. Greater control of the pest population by the seed treatment facilitated longer durability of the transgenic trait. Therefore, data support the concept that pyramiding a transgenic insecticidal trait with a highly efficacious insecticidal seed treatment can delay evolution of resistance.

  2. Diallel analysis of popcorn lines and hybrids for baby corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rafael de Souza Camacho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the combining ability of popcorn lines and hybrids with favorable traits for baby corn production, using lines extracted from the major genotypes of the Brazilian germplasm. From nine popcorn lines, derived from the genotypes Zélia, CMS 42, CMS 43, UEM M2, Zaeli and IAC 112, 36 single-cross hybrids were obtained without reciprocals. In partial diallel crosses, 25 single-cross hybrids were obtained, derived from crosses of five lines of the Zaeli (group I with five lines from IAC 112 (group II. We recommend using lines derived from Zaeli and CMS 42 in hybrid breeding programs for higher ear yields. The lines P9.5.1 and P9.5.5 (group I and P8.3 and P8.5 (group II can be recommended for recombination within each group and for the formation of two synthetic populations for recurrent selection, in order to increase ear yield.

  3. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxo1 Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-rong XU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Rxo1 cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxo1 was digested with Sca I and NgoM IV and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa I and Xma I. pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxo1 was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxo1 gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector, named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxo1, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  4. A multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer for warm-dense matter experiments at NDCX-I and NDCX-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, P.A., E-mail: pani@lbl.gov; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer (SOP) developed the for warm-dense-matter (WDM) experiments at the existing NDCX-I facility and the NDCX-II facility currently being commissioned at LBNL. The SOP served as the primary temperature diagnostic in the recent NDCX-I experiments, in which an intense K{sup +} beam was used to heat different metal samples into WDM states. The SOP consists of a spectral grating (visible and near-infrared spectral range) and a fast, high-dynamic-range optical streak camera. The instrument is calibrated absolutely with a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp and can itself be considered as an absolutely calibrated, time-resolving spectrometer. The sample temperature is determined from fitting the recorded thermal spectrum into the Planck formula multiplied by a model of emissivity.

  5. Refração por retinoscopia com luz em faixa em cães Refraction by streak retinoscopy in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.T. Ranzani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A refração ocular por retinoscopia com luz em faixa em 10 cães normais, sem raça definida, demonstrou que a maioria dos animais, independentemente do porte, apresentou tendência à hipermetropia, além de anisometropia e astigmatismo.Ocular refraction by streak retinoscopy performed in 10 mixed breed dogs showed that most of the animals, independently of size, had a tendency to hypermetropia, anisometropia, and astigmatism.

  6. GFP is Efficiently Expressed by Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Using a Range of Tritimovirus NIa Cleavage Sites and Forms Dense Aggregates in Cereal Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)-based transient expression vector was developed to express GFP as a marker protein. The GFP cistron was engineered between the P1 and HC-Pro cistrons in an infectious cDNA clone of WSMV. The cleavage sites, P3/6KI, 6KI/CI, NIa/NIb, or NIb/CP, from WSMV were fused to ...

  7. Expression of a rice chitinase gene in transgenic banana ('Gros Michel', AAA genome group) confers resistance to black leaf streak disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Gabriella; Sagi; Jacon, Géraldine; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Busogoro, Jean-Pierre; Thiry, Els; Strosse, Hannelore; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic banana (Musa acuminata ?Gros Michel?) integrating either of two rice chitinase genes was generated and its resistance to Black Leaf Streak disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis was tested using a leaf disk bioassay. PCR screening indicated the presence of the hpt selectable marker gene in more than 90?% of the lines tested, whereas more than three quarters of the lines contained the linked rice chitinase gene resulting in a co-transformation frequency of at least 71...

  8. Crystallographic analysis reveals octamerization of viroplasm matrix protein P9-1 of Rice black streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Fusamichi; Higashiura, Akifumi; Shimizu, Takumi; Pu, Yingying; Suzuki, Mamoru; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Sasaya, Takahide; Kanamaru, Shuji; Arisaka, Fumio; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Omura, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The P9-1 protein of Rice black streaked dwarf virus accumulates in viroplasm inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in viruses in the family Reoviridae. Crystallographic analysis of P9-1 revealed structural features that allow the protein to form dimers via hydrophobic interactions. Each dimer has carboxy-terminal regions, resembling arms, that extend to neighboring dimers, thereby uniting sets of four dimers via lateral hydrophobic interactions, to yield cylindrical octamers. The importance of these regions for the formation of viroplasm-like inclusions was confirmed by the absence of such inclusions when P9-1 was expressed without its carboxy-terminal arm. The octamers are vertically elongated cylinders resembling the structures formed by NSP2 of rotavirus, even though there are no significant similarities between the respective primary and secondary structures of the two proteins. Our results suggest that an octameric structure with an internal pore might be important for the functioning of the respective proteins in the events that occur in the viroplasm, which might include viral morphogenesis.

  9. Evolution of Endogenous Sequences of Banana Streak Virus: What Can We Learn from Banana (Musa sp.) Evolution?▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species—GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)—through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions—matK and trnL-trnF—as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV. PMID:20427523

  10. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  11. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of tobacco streak virus and a proteolytically modified form of the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnke, P C; Johnson, J E

    1993-09-01

    Isolated tobacco streak virus strain mild (TSV-M) top nucleoprotein component (TV) was crystallized by vapor diffusion with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methyl pentanediol. The morphology of the crystal suggested a hexagonal space group, however, the crystals were disordered as analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Capsid protein from TSV (strains M and white clover) was treated with trypsin to remove 87 amino terminal residues. The modified capsid protein was purified by ion exchange chromatography and crystallized in both hexagonal and triclinic forms. Hexagonal crystals grown by vapor diffusion in PEG diffract X rays to 4.5 A. The crystals, in the space group P6(2) or its enantiomorph, possess unit cell dimensions of a = 98.3 A, c = 108.7 A and probably contain 12 dimers/unit cell. Triclinic crystals grown by vapor diffusion in ammonium sulfate diffracted X rays to 2.4 A resolution when exposed to X-ray synchrotron radiation. The crystals have unit cell dimensions of a = 60.1 A, b = 77.5 A, c = 73.9 A with alpha = 67.8 degrees, beta = 130 degrees, and gamma = 106 degrees and probably contain 4 dimers/unit cell.

  13. Long-Term Follow-Up of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Secondary to Angioid Streaks Treated by Intravitreal Aflibercept and Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Wong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Angioid streaks (AS are dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that may be idiopathic or associated with numerous systemic illnesses. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV is an underdiagnosed exudative chorioretinopathy often characterised by serosanguineous detachments of the pigmented epithelium. The use of the anti-VEGF agents ranibizumab and aflibercept in the management of PCV secondary to AS has not been previously documented. We report 3 patients with active PCV secondary to AS, 1 of which had a family history of PCV secondary to AS, not previously reported in the literature. All patients were symptomatic and treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy with and without combination photodynamic therapy (PDT. Methods: This is a long-term retrospective case review of 3 eyes of 3 patients with AS and clinical features of PCV. The patients were examined using fundoscopy, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. All patients were managed with intravitreal anti-VEGF using a treat-and-extend protocol according to specific retreatment criteria. One patient had 1 session of PDT in combination with anti-VEGF injections. Results: The mean follow-up time in all patients was 4 years. In all 3 cases, the treatment resulted in improved visual acuity and regression of active PCV lesions with a longer duration between injections. Conclusion: The treat-and-extend protocol with intravitreal aflibercept or ranibizumab with or without PDT is effective and safe for PCV secondary to AS.

  14. Streak Camera Studies of Vertical Synchro-Betatron-Coupled Electron Beam Motion in the APS Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bing Xin; Guo, Weiming; Harkay, Katherine C; Sajaev, Vadim

    2005-01-01

    We present experimental studies of synchro-betatron-coupled electron beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring. We used a vertical kicker to start the beam motion. When the vertical chromaticity is nonzero, electrons with different initial synchrotron phases have slightly different betatron frequencies from the synchronous particle, resulting in a dramatic progression of bunch-shape distortion. Depending on the chromaticity and the time following the kick, images ranging from a simple vertical tilt in the bunch to more complicated twists and bends are seen with a visible light streak camera. Turn-by-turn beam position monitor data were taken as well. We found that the experimental observations are well described by the synchro-betatron-coupled equations of motion. We are investigating the potential of using the tilted bunch to generate picosecond x-ray pulses. Also note that the fast increase in vertical beam size after the kick is dominated by the internal synchro-betatron-coupled motion of the ...

  15. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense suppresses brassinosteroid-mediated susceptibility to Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuqing; Zhang, Hehong; Sun, Zongtao; Li, Junmin; Hong, Gaojie; Zhu, Qisong; Zhou, Xuebiao; MacFarlane, Stuart; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Plant hormones play a vital role in plant immune responses. However, in contrast to the relative wealth of information on hormone-mediated immunity in dicot plants, little information is available on monocot-virus defense systems. We used a high-throughput-sequencing approach to compare the global gene expression of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infected rice plants with that of healthy plants. Exogenous hormone applications and transgenic rice were used to test RBSDV infectivity and pathogenicity. Our results revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was induced while the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway was suppressed in infected plants. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or brassinazole (BRZ) resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV incidence, while epibrassinolide (BL) treatment increased RBSDV infection. Infection studies using coi1-13 and Go mutants demonstrated JA-mediated resistance and BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. A mixture of MeJA and BL treatment resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV infection compared with a single BL treatment. MeJA application efficiently suppressed the expression of BR pathway genes, and this inhibition depended on the JA coreceptor OsCOI1. Collectively, our results reveal that JA-mediated defense can suppress the BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Structure and components of the globular and filamentous viroplasms induced by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Lv, Ming-Fang; Song, Xi-Jiao; Yang, Jian; Li, Jing; Sun, Zong-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Heng-Mu

    2017-07-01

    Viroplasms of members of the family Reoviridae are considered to be viral factories for genome replication and virion assembly. Globular and filamentous phenotypes have different components and probably have different functions. We used transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography to examine the structure and components of the two viroplasm phenotypes induced by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Immuno-gold labeling was used to localize each of the 13 RBSDV encoded proteins as well as double-stranded RNA, host cytoskeleton actin-11 and α-tubulin. Ten of the RBSDV proteins were localized in one or both types of viroplasm. P5-1, P6 and P9-1 were localized on both viroplasm phenotypes but P5-1 was preferentially associated with filaments and P9-1 with the matrix. Structural analysis by electron tomography showed that osmiophilic granules 6-8nm in diameter served as the fundamental unit for constructing both of the viroplasm phenotypes but were more densely packed in the filamentous phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  18. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.

    2017-01-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop–pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996–2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes. PMID:28680673

  19. Preparation and characteristic of gelatine/oxidized corn starch and gelatin/corn starch blend microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhi Hua; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1%wt; 3%wt; 5%wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques. Blends solutions of G/OCS showed longer Gel time, higher transparency and lower viscosity; further displayed faster dissolution rate than that of G/CS under similar conditions. This was attributed to the formed Schiff base between the aldehyde group of OCS and amino group of G which improved the compatibility between G and OCS. All results indicated that the composites could be prepared with excellent properties by G/OCS (6:4) which would overcome some disadvantage such as thermodynamic incompatibility and phase separation by G/CS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  1. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  2. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  3. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  4. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  5. Light field driven streak-camera for single-shot measurements of the temporal profile of XUV-pulses from a free-electron laser; Lichtfeld getriebene Streak-Kamera zur Einzelschuss Zeitstrukturmessung der XUV-Pulse eines Freie-Elektronen Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehling, Ulrike

    2009-10-15

    The Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a source for highly intense ultra short extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses with pulse durations of a few femtoseconds. Due to the stochastic nature of the light generation scheme based on self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the duration and temporal profile of the XUV pulses fluctuate from shot to shot. In this thesis, a THz-field driven streak-camera capable of single pulse measurements of the XUV pulse-profile has been realized. In a first XUV-THz pump-probe experiment at FLASH, the XUV-pulses are overlapped in a gas target with synchronized THz-pulses generated by a new THz-undulator. The electromagnetic field of the THz light accelerates photoelectrons produced by the XUV-pulses with the resulting change of the photoelectron momenta depending on the phase of the THz field at the time of ionisation. This technique is intensively used in attosecond metrology where near infrared streaking fields are employed for the temporal characterisation of attosecond XUV-Pulses. Here, it is adapted for the analysis of pulse durations in the few femtosecond range by choosing a hundred times longer far infrared streaking wavelengths. Thus, the gap between conventional streak cameras with typical resolutions of hundreds of femtoseconds and techniques with attosecond resolution is filled. Using the THz-streak camera, the time dependent electric field of the THz-pulses was sampled in great detail while on the other hand the duration and even details of the time structure of the XUV-pulses were characterized. (orig.)

  6. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  7. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  8. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Content of some heavy metals in soil and corn grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, K.L. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Henson, G.; Kelley, G. (McLean and Hopkins Counties, KY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to find causes for lower than expected corn (Zea mays L.) production along the bottomlands of the Green and Pond Rivers in western Kentucky, corn fields were sampled for soil and corn grain to determine heavy metal content. Samples from sixteen carefully selected fields were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni content. Yield of corn was not related to either soil or grain content of these heavy metals. There was also not relationship between soil pH and heavy metal accumulation by grain or heavy metal accumulation by grain and soil and Ni were within the range of values reported in the literature for uncontaminated soils. However, soil content of Cd was near or above the upper end of the ranges reported in the literature, even on control samples taken upstream from sites of potential heavy metal pollution. Karnak soils (fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, mesic Vertic Haplaquepts), which are high in montmorillonitic clay content and have high cation exchange capacities, had higher Cd content than the other soils sampled. Except for two sites, grain Cd content was similar to values reported in the literature. Corn yields were found to be generally lower on Karnak soils than on other soils, raising the possibility that observed lower than expected yields are related to the poor physical characteristics of these soils rather than heavy metal pollutants in floodwaters. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  10. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of the sweet corn inbred lines is of great importance for its breeding. In this paper we analyzed genetic similarity of six sweet corn inbreds based on SSR markers. 40 SSR primers were used in DNA amplification. Results were compared and correlated with the data on specific combining ability, obtained by the diallel analysis. The results of SCA were in concurrence with genetic similarity. Values of rank correlation coefficient were negative, indicating that more similar inbred lines had smaller estimates of SCA, and lines that were less similar had higher estimates of SCA. Rank correlation coefficient between SCA and GS according to Dice coefficient was between -0,16 and -0,57*.

  11. Functional analysis of corn husk photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, Jasper J L; Kwasny, Scott; Bala, Soumi; Evans, John R; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Furbank, Robert T; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2011-06-01

    The husk surrounding the ear of corn/maize (Zea mays) has widely spaced veins with a number of interveinal mesophyll (M) cells and has been described as operating a partial C(3) photosynthetic pathway, in contrast to its leaves, which use the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. Here, we characterized photosynthesis in maize husk and leaf by measuring combined gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, the oxygen dependence of the CO(2) compensation point, and photosynthetic enzyme activity and localization together with anatomy. The CO(2) assimilation rate in the husk was less than that in the leaves and did not saturate at high CO(2), indicating CO(2) diffusion limitations. However, maximal photosynthetic rates were similar between the leaf and husk when expressed on a chlorophyll basis. The CO(2) compensation points of the husk were high compared with the leaf but did not vary with oxygen concentration. This and the low carbon isotope discrimination measured concurrently with gas exchange in the husk and leaf suggested C(4)-like photosynthesis in the husk. However, both Rubisco activity and the ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to Rubisco activity were reduced in the husk. Immunolocalization studies showed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is specifically localized in the layer of M cells surrounding the bundle sheath cells, while Rubisco and glycine decarboxylase were enriched in bundle sheath cells but also present in M cells. We conclude that maize husk operates C(4) photosynthesis dispersed around the widely spaced veins (analogous to leaves) in a diffusion-limited manner due to low M surface area exposed to intercellular air space, with the functional role of Rubisco and glycine decarboxylase in distant M yet to be explained.

  12. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  13. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  14. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  16. Influence of corn oil and beef tallow on growth of channel catfish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupree, H.K

    1969-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish were offered a series of 18 purified diets that contained liquid corn oil, solid corn oil, and beef tallow at 4, 8, and 16 percent of the dry diet, and white dextrin at 8...

  17. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  18. 75 FR 27772 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed its Statement of section 311 Operating Conditions in...

  19. Fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ in corn products, wheat flour and corn oil marketed in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zheng, Fengjia; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study a total of 522 samples were collected from Shandong province of China in 2014 and analysed for the occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fumonisins were detected in 98.1% of the corn products, with the average total level of 369.2 μg kg(-1). The individual average values of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in corn products were 268.3, 53.7 and 47.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. The simultaneous occurrence of FB1, FB2 and FB3 was observed in 76.7% of the corn products. Especially, the results demonstrated that the difference in the contamination levels for fumonisins in these three types of corn products was apparent. In addition, 6.2% of the wheat flour samples were contaminated with FB1, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 34.6 µg kg(-1). No FB2 or FB3 was detected in wheat flour. In corn oil samples no fumonisins were detected.

  20. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  1. Ensiling corn stover: effect of feedstock preservation on particleboard performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Zhilin; Kuo, Monlin; Bian, Yilin; Moore, Kenneth J; Patrick, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Ensilage is a truncated solid-state fermentation in which anaerobically produced organic acids accumulate to reduce pH and limit microbial activity. Ensilage can be used to both preserve and pretreat biomass feedstock for further downstream conversion into chemicals, fuels, and/or fiber products. This study examined the ensilage of enzyme-treated corn stover as a feedstock for particleboard manufacturing. Corn stover at three different particle size ranges (ensilage process, as indicated by sustained lower pH (P ensilage process. Compared with fresh stover, the ensilage process did increase IB of stover particleboard by 33% (P ensilage can be used as a long-term feedstock preservation method for particleboard production from corn stover. Enzyme-amended ensilage not only improved stover preservation but also enhanced the properties of particleboard products.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  3. Zero-tillage and corn production in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, G.S.V.; Taylor, F.; Negi, S.; Douglas, E.; McKyes, E.; Tessier, S.; Burrows, J.

    1981-01-01

    During the summer of 1979, a zero-tillage experiment was conducted in which corn (maize) was grown on 68 different plots representing different soil structural status. Sixty-four of the plots had been subjected to 16 different compaction and tillage treatments and corn grown on them. No machinery traffic had been introduced to these plots since the spring of 1978. Four new plots were established which had been subjected to conventional tillage methods, those being plowing in the fall of 1978 and disc harrowing in the spring of 1979. Corn was hand seeded into all the plots and the growth, development and yield of the crop measured. Several times over the growing season, soil dry bulk density, soil moisture content and soil temperature were measured. Observation of days to emerge, tassel and silk showed that the zero-till plots performed much better than the control plots.

  4. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  5. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  7. Corn-on-a-chip: Mini-channel Device for Corn Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Kevin; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    Plant growth heavily relies on interactions between the root and the soil environment, but it is impossible to observe such interactions because of opaqueness of soil. Microfluidics has been successfully utilized to monitor the root growth behaviors of Arabidopsis. In this study we have chosen Maize as a model plant because of its economic significance, and aim to develop transparent mini-channel devices accommodating the root growth of corn seedlings in a controlled environment. To mimic aspects of the soil environment, we try to impose concentration gradients of key chemical ions to the growing root using the device, and to investigate how the root responds to the applied stimuli. We acknowledge support from NASA Nebraska Space Grant Fellowship.

  8. 21 CFR 137.270 - Self-rising white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising white corn meal. 137.270 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.270 Self-rising white corn meal. (a) Self-rising white corn meal is an intimate mixture of white corn meal, sodium bicarbonate, and one or both of the acid-reacting...

  9. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  10. A Model of Corn and Soybean Shipments on the Ohio River

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Michael W.; Fuller, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for corn and soybean shipments on the Ohio River during the 1992- 2004 period. Using monthly data, OLS (with Newewy-West standard errors) parameters estimates were obtained for the explanatory variables. Results indicate that Ohio River corn and soybean shipments are significantly and positively affected by one month lagged shipments, corn and soybean stocks in the Ohio River production region, and corn and soybean exports from lower Mississippi River Gulf port...

  11. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P physiological changes that occur with increased dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P fiber diet led to a tendency (P effect on phospho-AMPK, AMPK mRNA, or colonic VFA, but in pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  12. A system to enrich for primitive streak-derivatives, definitive endoderm and mesoderm, from pluripotent cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Svetlana; Goh, Hwee Ngee; Lau, Kevin X; Hughes, James N; Familari, Mary; Rathjen, Peter D; Rathjen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Two lineages of endoderm develop during mammalian embryogenesis, the primitive endoderm in the pre-implantation blastocyst and the definitive endoderm at gastrulation. This complexity of endoderm cell populations is mirrored during pluripotent cell differentiation in vitro and has hindered the identification and purification of the definitive endoderm for use as a substrate for further differentiation. The aggregation and differentiation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells, resulting in the formation of EPL-cell derived embryoid bodies (EPLEBs), is a model of gastrulation that progresses through the sequential formation of primitive streak-like intermediates to nascent mesoderm and more differentiated mesoderm populations. EPL cell-derived EBs have been further analysed for the formation of definitive endoderm by detailed morphological studies, gene expression and a protein uptake assay. In comparison to embryoid bodies derived from ES cells, which form primitive and definitive endoderm, the endoderm compartment of embryoid bodies formed from EPL cells was comprised almost exclusively of definitive endoderm. Definitive endoderm was defined as a population of squamous cells that expressed Sox17, CXCR4 and Trh, which formed without the prior formation of primitive endoderm and was unable to endocytose horseradish peroxidase from the medium. Definitive endoderm formed in EPLEBs provides a substrate for further differentiation into specific endoderm lineages; these lineages can be used as research tools for understanding the mechanisms controlling lineage establishment and the nature of the transient intermediates formed. The similarity between mouse EPL cells and human ES cells suggests EPLEBs can be used as a model system for the development of technologies to enrich for the formation of human ES cell-derived definitive endoderm in the future.

  13. Promoters for pregenomic RNA of banana streak badnavirus are active for transgene expression in monocot and dicot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P M; Remans, T; Sági, L; Elliott, A R; Dietzgen, R G; Swennen, R; Ebert, P R; Grof, C P; Manners, J M

    2001-10-01

    Two putative promoters from Australian banana streak badnavirus (BSV) isolates were analysed for activity in different plant species. In transient expression systems the My (2105 bp) and Cv (1322 bp) fragments were both shown to have promoter activity in a wide range of plant species including monocots (maize, barley, banana, millet, wheat, sorghum), dicots (tobacco, canola, sunflower, Nicotiana benthamiana, tipu tree), gymnosperm (Pinus radiata) and fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia). Evaluation of the My and Cv promoters in transgenic sugarcane, banana and tobacco plants demonstrated that these promoters could drive high-level expression of either the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) in vegetative plant cells. In transgenic sugarcane plants harbouring the Cv promoter, GFP expression levels were comparable or higher (up to 1.06% of total soluble leaf protein as GFP) than those of plants containing the maize ubiquitin promoter (up to 0.34% of total soluble leaf protein). GUS activities in transgenic in vitro-grown banana plants containing the My promoter were up to seven-fold stronger in leaf tissue and up to four-fold stronger in root and corm tissue than in plants harbouring the maize ubiquitin promoter. The Cv promoter showed activities that were similar to the maize ubiquitin promoter in in vitro-grown banana plants, but was significantly reduced in larger glasshouse-grown plants. In transgenic in vitro-grown tobacco plants, the My promoter reached activities close to those of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), while the Cv promoter was about half as active as the CaMV 35S promoter. The BSV promoters for pregenomic RNA represent useful tools for the high-level expression of foreign genes in transgenic monocots.

  14. Foraging spots of streaked shearwaters in relation to ocean surface currents as identified using their drift movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Ken; Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-03-01

    Ocean currents are in continuous motion and strongly influence oceanic ecosystems. In situ observation of currents is of primary importance for understanding how marine animals respond to ocean surface currents at various scales and for realizing effective ecosystem-based management and realistic oceanographic modelling. We developed a new method for obtaining in situ current measurements by using seabirds as Lagrangian current sensors akin to drifting buoys. We deployed high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers on streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) foraging in the Oyashio-Tsugaru Warm Current confluence in Japan, which is one of the most productive oceans in the world. The seabirds repeatedly performed foraging trips, including searching for prey and resting on the sea surface, over several hundred kilometres. The seabirds spent half of their time resting on the water surface and tended to be passive drifters. We inferred that the drift movements of C. leucomelas provided a direct and detailed description of the ocean surface currents, because currents deduced from their drift movements were in good agreement with ocean surface currents derived from in situ and satellite data. In addition, we extracted details of shearwaters’ intense searching flights associated with feeding (i.e. foraging spots) from GPS tracks. C. leucomelas did not forage at the core of anticyclonic eddies; rather, they used the boundary areas between eddies and the edge of eddies where primary productivity and prey density are thought to be high. Our study demonstrated that animal-borne GPS data can provide a detailed and cost-efficient tool for observing ocean surface currents and can reveal the ways in which marine animals respond to these currents at a fine scale.

  15. Hairpin RNA derived from viral NIa gene confers immunity to wheat streak mosaic virus infection in transgenic wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Ayala-Navarrete, Ligia; Millar, Anthony A; Larkin, Philip J

    2010-09-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by Wheat curl mite, has been of great economic importance in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Recently, the virus has been identified in Australia, where it has spread quickly to all major wheat growing areas. The difficulties in finding adequate natural resistance in wheat prompted us to develop transgenic resistance based on RNA interference (RNAi). An RNAi construct was designed to target the nuclear inclusion protein 'a' (NIa) gene of WSMV. Wheat was stably cotransformed with two plasmids: pStargate-NIa expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) including WSMV sequence and pCMneoSTLS2 with the nptII selectable marker. When T(1) progeny were assayed against WSMV, ten of sixteen families showed complete resistance in transgenic segregants. The resistance was classified as immunity by four criteria: no disease symptoms were produced; ELISA readings were as in uninoculated plants; viral sequences could not be detected by RT-PCR from leaf extracts; and leaf extracts failed to give infections in susceptible plants when used in test-inoculation experiments. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated hpRNA transgene integrated into the wheat genome. Moreover, accumulation of small RNAs derived from the hpRNA transgene sequence positively correlated with immunity. We also showed that the selectable marker gene nptII segregated independently of the hpRNA transgene in some transgenics, and therefore demonstrated that it is possible using these techniques, to produce marker-free WSMV immune transgenic plants. This is the first report of immunity in wheat to WSMV using a spliceable intron hpRNA strategy.

  16. Cholesterol crystallization in human atherosclerosis is triggered in smooth muscle cells during the transition from fatty streak to fibroatheroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoît; Vo, Sophie; Bayles, Richard; Ferrière, Stephen; Ladjal, Hayette; Toumi, Sondes; Deschildre, Catherine; Ollivier, Véronique; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to being major constituents of the atheromatous core, solid cholesterol crystals (CCs) promote atherosclerotic lesion development and rupture by causing mechanical damage and exerting cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. These findings suggest that targeting CCs might represent a therapeutic strategy for plaque stabilization. However, little is known about how cholesterol crystallization is initiated in human atherothrombotic disease. Here, we investigated these mechanisms. We performed a thorough immunohistological analysis of non-embedded, minimally processed human aortic tissues, combining polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. We found that CC formation was initiated during the fatty streak to fibroatheroma transition in tight association with the death of intralesional smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cholesterol-loaded human SMCs were capable of producing CCs in vitro, a process that was enhanced by type I collagen and by inhibition of autophagy and cholesterol esterification. The fibrous transition, which was characterized by increased type I collagen expression, was associated with changes in the expression of autophagy and cholesterol flux-related genes, including a decrease in the autophagic adapter p62 and an increase in the cholesterol intracellular transporter Niemann-Pick C1. Collagen was identified as a potent inducer of these changes in SMCs. Collagen-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism and autophagy flux in smooth muscle foam cells at the fibrolipid transition likely contribute to initiate cholesterol crystallization in human atherosclerosis. Also, our data are in support of a protective role of autophagy against CC formation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A system to enrich for primitive streak-derivatives, definitive endoderm and mesoderm, from pluripotent cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vassilieva

    Full Text Available Two lineages of endoderm develop during mammalian embryogenesis, the primitive endoderm in the pre-implantation blastocyst and the definitive endoderm at gastrulation. This complexity of endoderm cell populations is mirrored during pluripotent cell differentiation in vitro and has hindered the identification and purification of the definitive endoderm for use as a substrate for further differentiation. The aggregation and differentiation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells, resulting in the formation of EPL-cell derived embryoid bodies (EPLEBs, is a model of gastrulation that progresses through the sequential formation of primitive streak-like intermediates to nascent mesoderm and more differentiated mesoderm populations. EPL cell-derived EBs have been further analysed for the formation of definitive endoderm by detailed morphological studies, gene expression and a protein uptake assay. In comparison to embryoid bodies derived from ES cells, which form primitive and definitive endoderm, the endoderm compartment of embryoid bodies formed from EPL cells was comprised almost exclusively of definitive endoderm. Definitive endoderm was defined as a population of squamous cells that expressed Sox17, CXCR4 and Trh, which formed without the prior formation of primitive endoderm and was unable to endocytose horseradish peroxidase from the medium. Definitive endoderm formed in EPLEBs provides a substrate for further differentiation into specific endoderm lineages; these lineages can be used as research tools for understanding the mechanisms controlling lineage establishment and the nature of the transient intermediates formed. The similarity between mouse EPL cells and human ES cells suggests EPLEBs can be used as a model system for the development of technologies to enrich for the formation of human ES cell-derived definitive endoderm in the future.

  18. Innovative procedures to evaluate corn silage for milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanfi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the main ingredient of diets for dairy cattle (around 40% of diet DM in Italy and, therefore, an accurate estimation of its nutritive value is essential to describe the whole diet. Given the low, and fairly stable protein, lipid and ash contents in corn silage (e.g. a total of around 15% DM, the critical point to evaluate its energy value is the amount and availability of the two main carbohydrate fractions (NDF and non fiber carbohydrates, NFC.

  19. Emergence and growth of corn and soybean under saline stress

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco,Flávio Favaro; Folegatti,Marcos Vinícius; Gheyi,Hans Raj; Fernandes,Pedro Dantas

    2007-01-01

    Emergence and seedling growth may be severely affected by salinity, mainly for sensitive crops. The objective of the present study was to verify the tolerance of corn and soybean to the irrigation water salinity (ECi) during the emergence and initial development stages. Seeds of corn, hybrid 'AG-6690', and soybean, cv. 'Conquista', were sown in pots containing material from a sandy-loam soil and irrigated with water of increasing salinity levels, from 0.3 to 5.9 dS m-1, giving nine levels of ...

  20. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  1. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  2. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.129 Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008...

  3. MANAGING THE CORN ROOTWORM VARIANT: EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM AN INDIANA FARMER SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Harbor, Anetra L.; Martin, Marshall A.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of a corn rootworm "variant" has reduced the effectiveness of a corn-soybean rotation in some areas of Indiana. This research identifies potential control alternatives. Empirical results suggest that younger, more educated managers of larger farms would be the most likely to adopt transgenic corn for rootworm control.

  4. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation – tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  5. First report of damping-off of dent corn seedlings caused by Pythium graminicola in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An unknown disease was observed on corn seedlings in commercial corn fields in Tift County, Georgia, in April 2015. Stems of corn seedlings were brown, water-soaked, soft, decayed, and broke off easily. Disease incidence ranged from 2 to 3%. A fungus-like organism was isolated from all infected stem...

  6. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  7. 76 FR 771 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicones); Carrollton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicones... warehousing facilities of Dow Corning Corporation, located in Carrollton, Elizabethtown and Shepherdsville... to the manufacturing of silicones at the facilities of Dow Corning Corporation, located in Carrollton...

  8. Corn fiber gum and milk protein conjugates with improved emulsion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG), an alkaline hydrogen peroxide extract of the corn kernel milling by-product “corn fiber” was covalently conjugated with Beta-lactoglobulin (Beta-LG) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Covalent coupling of CFG to protein was achieved by dry heating reaction (Maillard-type) of CFG ...

  9. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  10. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  11. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-AB16 Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn AGENCY: Grain Inspection... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for corn under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). Since the standards were last revised, the use of corn for ethanol and the number of...

  12. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation of...

  13. 75 FR 28602 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 17, 2010. Take notice that on May 10, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed a corrected rate...

  14. Utilization of the dry grind process in high-conversion hydrolysates and corn sweetener production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most corn is processed to fuel ethanol and distillers’ grain animal feed using the dry grind process. However, wet milling is needed to refine corn starch. Corn starch is in turn processed to numerous products, including glucose and syrup. However, wet milling is a capital, labor, and energy intensi...

  15. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Laar, van H.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM;

  16. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  17. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  18. Multi-State Trials of Bt Sweet Corn Varieties for Control of the Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, A. M.; Olmstead, D. L.; Burkness, E. C.; Hutchison, W. D.; Dively, G.; Welty, C.; Sparks, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh marke...

  19. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  20. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  1. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  2. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  3. UTILIZATION OF CORN STARCH AS SUBSTRATE FOR Я

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IITA

    amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. ... According to Rose (1980), starch occurs in the form of .... Total bacterial count (cfu x 102/ml). Source. Bacillus spp. Corn starch substrate. Soluble starch substrate. Nutrient broth medium. Soil, U.I.. Canned milk Ibadan. Soil U.I.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  5. Designed enzyme preparations for the hydrolysis of corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of hemicellulolytic enzyme preparations with high activity towards the rather recalcitrant xylan present in corn silage, a major biogas feedstock. Also, recalcitrance factors towards the enzymatic conversion of xylans, varying in type and level of substitution, are

  6. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  7. Physicochemical properties of masa and corn tortilla made by ohmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instant corn flour obtained by ohmic heating (OHICF) was used to prepare masa and tortillas. In this study, the effect of average particle size, moisture, and the final temperature on the physicochemical properties of masa and tortillas elaborated from OHICF was evaluated and were compared with flour obtained by the ...

  8. Production of lactic acid from corn cobs hydrolysate through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes several essential factors for indirect and effective lactic acid production from food wastes by strains of. Lactobaccillus delbrukii using corn cob hydrolysates. The fermentation conditions considered were glucose concentration (1 - 5%), temperature (34 - 40oC), time (0 - 8 days) and pH (5 - 6).

  9. Corn stover-enhanced cellulase production by Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular cellulases by Aspergilus niger NRRL 567 on corn stover was studied in liquid state fermentation. In this study, three cellulases, exoglucanase (EXG), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) were produced by A. niger NRRL 567. The optimal pH, temperature and incubation time for ...

  10. Chemical Characteristics of Corn-Based AADUN, and MASA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to carry out an assessment of the chemical characteristics of two cornbased traditional snacks: aadun and masa fortified with soyabean. Processed soyabean flour was combined with corn at 0%, 25% and 50% respectively to make aadun. Similarly, processed soyabean was used in the fortification ...

  11. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  12. Groundnut-Corn Starch Blend- A Response Surface Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cookie bars were produced from mixtures of cassava and groundnut flours with cornstarch as binder. Box-Behnken response surface design for k=3 was used to study the effects of experimental variables for cassava flour (25-75%), groundnut flour (25-75%) and corn starch (5-15%). Effects of the experimental variables on ...

  13. Components responsible for the emulsification properties of corn fibre gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emulsion was prepared using corn fibre gum (CFG) and the resulting oil and aqueous phases were separated by centrifugation. The material adsorbed onto the surface of the oil droplets in the oil phase was desorbed using surfactant. The desorbed CFG and the non adsorbed CFG that remained present in...

  14. Improved emulsification performance of corn fiber gum following maturation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) in the solid state (milled powder form) was subjected to a maturation treatment by heating under atmospheric pressure at 110 degrees C for 5 (CFG5) and 24 hours (CFG24). The treatment reduced the solubility and aggregation of the proteinaceous component with increased heating t...

  15. Viscofying properties of corn fiber gum with various polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the aqueous solutions of a series of widely-used commercial polysaccharides has been studied by rheological techniques using stress synergism index to evaluate its viscosifying action. Though CFG solution exhibited Newtonian fluid behaviour with a very low vis...

  16. Multiple insect resistance in 50 commercial corn hybrids, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial corn hybrids were screened for ear- and kernel-feeding insect resistance under field conditions at Tifton, GA. Nine hybrids were rated Very Good (VG), the highest rating for multiple insect resistance in 2016 (see following table). Thirteen were Good (G), 19 were Fair (F), and 13 were Poo...

  17. Establishment and function of cover crops interseeded into corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can provide ecological services and improve the resiliency of annual cropping systems; however, cover crop use is low in corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in the upper Midwest due to challenges with establishment. Our objective was to compare three planting me...

  18. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Adler; Benjamin M. Rau; Gregory W. Roth

    2015-01-01

    Pennsylvania farmers have a long history of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use of cover crops, no-till, and...

  19. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: 30A91 PW, 20A78 HX, Impacto VIP 3, 20A55 HX, NS90 PRO 2, Maximus VIP 3, BX 1293YG, RB 9004 PRO, Feroz VIP 3, LG 6036 PRO; conventional: AG 1051 and variety: AL Bandeitante). Attractiveness, aversion ...

  20. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  1. Evidence for an association in corn between stress tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus during infection of susceptible crops, such as corn. A. flavus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination is a serious issue in the southern US, especially during a drought. Field studies demonstrate that reduction of drought stress ...

  2. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  3. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and...

  4. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... like enzymatic defenses, which include primary anti- oxidative enzymes like super oxide .... metabolite of phospholipid peroxidation, is a popular index of first condition on living body oxidative .... on molecular structure and character of the flavonoids in herbs of corn silk and their anti-oxidation activity.

  5. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, Hosein [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Duffield, James A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate.

  6. Recognition of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific pe...

  7. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  8. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  9. Availability and Market Penetration of GMO Corn and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Duffy, Michael D.; Robert Wisner

    1999-01-01

    The authors survey various types of GMO (genetically modified organism) corn and soybeans, including both pest-resistant and herbicide-resistant varieties, and then evaluate the extent to which farmers have begun to use GMO crops. Figures cited include percentages of acres planted with GMO crops, as well as comparisons of non-GMO versus GMO yields.

  10. Effects of feeding corn silage, pelleted, ensiled, or pelleted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Eighty lambs were used in a 56 day experiment with a randomized complete block design. .... complete block experiment to determine the effects of alfalfa haylage versus corn silage on animal ..... chains of complex plant polysaccharides and not the more recalcitrant main chains, especially cellulose.

  11. Interference of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In nature, plants interact with each other and establish positive, negative, and neutral interference relationships. In agricultural ecosystems, crops are usually affected by competition with weeds, and the effects of this process are influenced by the plant population density and proportional abundance and by the species involved. The present study evaluates the competitive interactions of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the University of Passo Fundo during the 2011/12 crop season: one experiment involving corn and C. distichophylla and another involving soybean and C. distichophylla. The experimental units were plastic pots, and the treatments were based on a replacement series, with a constant total density of eight plants per pot. The treatments included five combinations of soybean or corn plants with the weed species (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6 and 0:8, corresponding to relative abundances of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the crop species (and the reverse for the weed species. Competitiveness was analyzed using replacement-series experiment diagrams and competitive indices. Total dry matter and plant height were the two variables analyzed. The competitive indices indicated that corn and soybean crops were more competitive than the weed. The plant height was not affected by competition between both the species.

  12. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Corn Stover and Big Bluestem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Karunanithy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important feedstock quality in converting it into energy through biochemical or thermochemical platforms. Knowledge of moisture sorption relationship is useful in drying and storage to preserve the quality of feedstocks. Moisture sorption isotherms for potential feedstocks such as corn stover and big bluestem are missing. EMC values of corn stover and big bluestem were determined using static gravimetric technique with saturated salt solutions (ERH 0.12–0.89 at different temperatures (20, 30, and 40°C. Depending upon the ERH values, EMC values were ranged from 8.0 to 19.6 and 8.8 to 19.2% db for corn stover and big bluestem, respectively, and they followed typical type II isotherm found in food materials. Nonlinear regression was used to fit five commonly used three-parameter isotherm models (i.e., modified Oswin model, modified Halsey model, modified Chung-Pfost model, modified Henderson model, and the modified Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB model to the experimental data. Modified Halsey emerged as the best model with high F-statistic and R2 values with low Em and Es and fairly random scattered residual plot for corn stover and big bluestem. These models can be used to predict the equilibrium moisture content of these feedstocks starting from harvesting, drying, preprocessing, transportation, storage, and conversion.

  13. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)

  14. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  15. Management of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR was registered for the first time in Europe near the Surčininternational airport in Serbia in 1992. The spread of WCR on the territory of Serbia and itspopulation density increased fast. The Serbian territory was entirely populated in the followingfew years, while major damages occurred on corn grown for two or more years inthe same field. Data on damages caused to over 140,000 ha under corn until 1999 were collectedby organized monitoring. After 2000 and 2003, population abundance of D.v. virgifera,as well as the number of damaged corn fields, significantly decreased due to droughtand application of crop rotation. Corn rootworm has one generation per year. It overwintersin the egg stage. Under the climatic conditions of Serbia larvae hatching starts aroundMay 15th. The highest number of larvae on root is observed around June 20th when feedingis most intensive and plants become lodged as they lose roots. First adults emerge bythe end of June. Their abundance increases during July and reaches maximum by the endof the month. From the second decade of August the abundance decreases. Adults arepresent in the field until the first frosts. Larvae are much more harmful and significant thanadults. Larvae feed on roots or into roots by boring. Roots can be entirely destroyed underheavy attack and the host plants lodged already at the end of June. Under our climatic andagrotechnical conditions, adults are sporadic pests. Adults are a threat only when sowing isdone after the optimal sowing date or in case of stubble corn sowing.Crop rotation is an efficient and most widespread means of WCR control. No damageon corn grown in crop rotation has been registered in Serbia for now. In the first year of productioncorn does not require protection from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte larvae.Several insecticides have performed high efficacy by application at sowing and havebeen registered for commercial use. On the other hand, soil

  16. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  17. Wheat streak mosaic virus Coat Protein Deletion Mutants Elicit More Severe Symptoms Than Wild-Type Virus in Multiple Cereal Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Elowsky, Christian; Graybosch, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Previously, we reported that coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. In this study, we demonstrated that WSMV mutants with deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 but not of 36 to 57 induced severe chlorotic streaks and spots, followed by acute chlorosis in wheat, maize, barley, and rye compared with mild to moderate chlorotic streaks and mosaic symptoms by wild-type virus. Deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome accelerated cell-to-cell movement, with increased accumulation of genomic RNAs and CP, compared with the wild-type virus. Microscopic examination of wheat tissues infected by green fluorescent protein-tagged mutants revealed that infection by mutants lacking CP amino acids 58 to 84 caused degradation of chloroplasts, resulting in acute macroscopic chlorosis. The profile of CP-specific proteins was altered in wheat infected by mutants causing acute chlorosis, compared with mutants eliciting wild-type symptoms. All deletion mutants accumulated CP-specific major protein similarly to that in wild-type virus; however, mutants that elicit acute chlorosis failed to accumulate a 31-kDa minor protein compared with wild-type virus or mutants lacking amino acids 36 to 57. Taken together, these data suggest that deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome enhanced accumulation of CP and genomic RNA, altered CP-specific protein profiles, and caused severe symptom phenotypes in multiple cereal hosts.

  18. Exploiting the combination of natural and genetically engineered resistance to cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak viruses impacting cassava production in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Vanderschuren

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD and cassava mosaic disease (CMD are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV. A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444. Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo. An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa.

  19. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  20. [Treatment of choroidal noevascularization secondary to angioid streaks with bevacizumab and response: Experience of the ophthalmology department of Hassan II university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahloul, M; Chraïbi, F; Aounzou, S; Salam Diarra, A; Abdellaoui, M; Benatiya, I; Tahri, H

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to angioid streaks. We conducted a prospective study in the ophthalmology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fez, including 12 eyes of 7 patients with CNV associated with angioid streaks. We injected 8 eyes with bevacizumab 1.25mg; best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus examination, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed and analyzed for all patients before and after treatment. The goal of the study was to determine the percentage of patients with stabilization or improvement in BCVA and decreased central macular thickness. Visual acuity on admission was <1/10 in 75% of patients. We injected 8 eyes with anti-VEGF, whereas abstention was appropriate for 4 eyes with disciform scarring. The average number of bevacizumab injections was 4.3±1.3 over a mean follow-up of 14.57 months±5.3. After treatment, BCVA was <1/10 in 12.5% of cases, between 1/10 and 5/10 in 50% of cases, and in 37.5% of patients, it was ≥5/10. Mean central macular thickness decreased from 424.25±137.03μm on admission to 255.75 microns±50.14 post-treatment (P=0.005). Intravitreal bevacizumab is a promising and effective treatment option for the management of CNV associated with angioid streaks, with the requirement however of early treatment and extended follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.