Full Text Available Brazil and Coffee. Historians tend to identify both. But coffee occupies a small place, even a negative one, in Brazilian national identity. This article shows that neither literature nor historical studies have focused their attention on it. The focus is always on colonial heritage, geography or racial mixture. Rural areas are seen as backward with no contributions to national identity, but rather hindering it. In colonial times coffee was unimportant. In the XIX century, it engendered slavery and latifundia. In our own century, coffee's most important role was that of being denied by urbanization and industry. If God is Brazilian, he does not drink coffee.
Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.
Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular
LEONI Luís A.B.
Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.
Caeverton de Oliveira Camelo
Full Text Available Goal: To analyze the perceived value of the coffee consumers. Method: By means of a data collection as responses of 417 brazilian coffee consumers, at a first moment was profiled the sample, subsequently, the Exploratory Factorial Analysis was carried out. Originality/Relevance: In the contemporary competitive scenario, the consumer emerges as a primordial link for the development of agribusiness, so in recent years, consumer behavior has been increasingly investigated. The value perceived by the consumer plays an essential role in the behavior of individuals in relation to their purchasing decisions. Results: The results showed that four dimensions of values that influence in brazilian coffee consumption, the functional value quality, the functional value price, social value and emotional value can be identified. Theoretical/methodological contributions: These values can be applied influence in the decision making of the consumer in relation to the consumption of coffee.
Avila, A. M. H. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Pereira, V. R.
According to the Brazilian Government the actual area of coffee production in the country is close to 2.25 million hectares. The sector involves 290.000 of farmers with a production of 44 million of 60 Kg bags in 2015. The Arabica Coffee specie is cultivated in the country where the climate condition are characterized by a year mean temperatures between 18°C and 22°C. Temperatures higher than 33°C can cause abortion of flowers during the spring season and reduce the production while lower than 18°C can be affected by frost during winter when the minimum temperature can be lower than 2°C in the shelter. For a better quality of the final product the winter, between July and August, must be dry with rainfall lower than 50 mm/month. The Ministry of Agriculture defines those conditions for the Official Coffee Climatic Risk Zoning. In 2002, a partnership with the British Embassy and 2 Brazilian institutions, i. e. the State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa, published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002). This study was based on the PRECIS/Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model future projections. The crop simulations indicated a decrease in the grain production due to temperature rise. Later in 2012, a new study was developed in cooperation with the World Bank to evaluate the future of nine main commodities in Brazil under climate change, including the Arabica coffee. The worst scenario considering any mitigation and adaptation action indicated that the two most affected crops would be the soybean and coffee, with a reduction of 22% and 6.7 % in the yield respectively. Field surveys to evaluate the historical spatial dynamic and migration of Arabica coffee cultivated areas confirmed the results of the previous studies and indicated a recent increase in the search for cooler altitude areas to plant coffee. Also the field observations
Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno
Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...
Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F
The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.
Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R
Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 The Authors.
Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME
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The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.
Souza, de H.N.
The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a
Souza, de H.N.
The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a
Diego José Pessôa
Full Text Available The brands adds value to the products and this is the article’s subject. For this, the analyses focus the brand’s elements that can be improved in order to strengthen the brazilian brand of specialty coffees in the international markets.
Pessôa, Diego José; Souza, Maria José Scassiotti de
The brands adds value to the products and this is the article’s subject. For this, the analyses focus the brand’s elements that can be improved in order to strengthen the brazilian brand of specialty coffees in the international markets.
Luciana Florêncio de Almeida
Full Text Available Coffee production has grown 100% in volume over the past 30 years, accounting for 144 million coffee bags produced in 2015. Brazil responded to 42% of this production, along with Vietnam (19%, Colombia (9%, Indonesia (8%, and Ethiopia (4% (OIC, 2016. Following this pace, the consumption expanded not only in such traditional markets as the United States (4.2 kg/year, Germany (6.9 kg/year, and France (5.7 kg/year but also in tea-driven markets, such as Japan, Korea, Russia, and China (CECAFE, 2013. In 2015, Brazil harvested 43.2 million 60-kg bags of green coffee, 32 million of which were of Arabica coffee and 11.2 million of a Conilon species (CONAB, 2016. The planted area in Brazil is 2.3 million hectares, and there are about 287,000 producers, predominantly mini- and small farmers. Having continental dimensions, the country presents a variety of climates, reliefs, altitudes, and latitudes that allow the production of a wide range of types and qualities of coffee (MAPA, 2016. This research aimed to clarify present and future challenges for the Brazilian coffee agrichain, considering the growing demand and also competitiveness between the coffee countries’ producers. To capture the vivid perception of the actors in the coffee chain, a qualitative approach was employed. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 10 coffee specialists were interviewed to identify the coffee sector’s main milestones for Brazil over the next 30 years. The findings culminated in eight key success factors for coffee-farming management. Finally, in the second phase, the results of phase two were submitted for analysis by 39 coffee farmers through three discussion panels held in the major producing regions: Sul de Minas (corresponding to 25% of the national production, Cerrado Mineiro (with 10%, and Matas de Minas (with 16% (MAPA, 2016. The third phase comprised the data analysis, aggregating the patterns by regions and by critical factors. The
Eduardo F. Da Silva
Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.
Moreira, R F; Trugo, L C; de Maria, C A; Matos, A G; Santos, S M; Leite, J M
Coffee is basically consumed for the pleasure given by its taste and aroma, that is, the quality and acceptance of the coffee beverage are directly related to its sensorial characteristics. Thus, nowadays coffee quality is basically evaluated by sensorial analysis. However, together with this kind of analysis, it should be important to have available more objective chemical methods to assess coffee quality. One possible approach could be based on the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CGA), since they are considered precursors of coffee flavour and pigments during roasting. In the present work, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of chlorogenic acids was applied to six different Brazilian arabica green coffee samples which were previously characterised by sensorial analysis. The results showed the potential to correlate the chemical data, evaluated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) statistical method, with sensorial analysis in order to discriminate the quality of the samples. It was observed that the 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (3,5-diCQA) isomers are very important for grouping the coffees into good and bad samples.
Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ
Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.
Marquese, Rafael de Bivar
The generation of enlightened Luso-Brazilians saw Caribbean slavery agriculture as the model to be emulated in Portuguese America. To do so, at the turn of the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries, they translated and published some texts originally elaborated in the Antilles. In this reformist environment, the coffee culture occupied a place of prominence. To understand the role of this knowledge in establishing the Brazilian coffee culture, the Brazilian case is compared with the Cuban. The intent is to demonstrate that in the Spanish colony, the productive coffee plan of Santo Domingo was implanted, while in Brazil a plan was created, supported by new standards of agricultural management that were founded on local knowledge.
M. Cornelis (Marilyn); E.M. Byrne; T. Esko (Tõnu); M.A. Nalls (Michael); A. Ganna (Andrea); N.P. Paynter (Nina); K.L. Monda (Keri); N. Amin (Najaf); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ngwa; V. Huikari (Ville); A. Cavadino (Alana); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); A. Teumer (Alexander); K. Yu; P. Marques-Vidal; R. Rawal; A. Manichaikul (Ani); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); J.M. Vink; J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); G. Burlutsky (George); J. Lahti (Jari); V. Mikkilä (Vera); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Eriksson; S. Musani (Solomon); T. Tanaka; F. Geller (Frank); J. Luan; J. Hui; R. Mägi (Reedik); M. Dimitriou (Maria); M. Garcia (Melissa); W.-K. Ho; M.J. Wright (Margaret); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); D.J. Couper (David); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Hofman (Albert); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); I. Barroso; I. Johansson (Ingegerd); L. Xue (Luting); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L. Milani (Lili); C. Power (Christine); H. Snieder (Harold); R.P. Stolk; S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); R. Biffar; F. Gu; F. Bastardot (Francois); Z. Kutalik; D.R. Jacobs (David); N.G. Forouhi (Nita G.); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Lind (Lars); C. Lindgren; K. Michaëlsson; A.P. Morris (Andrew); M.K. Jensen (Majken K.); K.T. Khaw; R.N. Luben (Robert); J.J. Wang; S. Männistö (Satu); M.-M. Perälä; M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J. Viikari (Jorma); D. Mozaffarian; K. Mukamal (Kenneth); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); A. Döring; A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); N. Dahmen (N.); T. Carithers; K.L. Tucker; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); H.A. Boyd; M. Melbye (Mads); J.L. Treur; D. Mellström (Dan); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Tönjes (Anke); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); D.K. Houston; Y. Liu; J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed; M.A. Mason; A.B. Zonderman; L. Franke (Lude); B.S. Kristal; J. Karjalainen (Juha); D.R. Reed; H.-J. Westra; M.K. Evans; D. Saleheen; T.B. Harris (Tamara); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); G.C. Curhan (Gary); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Beilby (John); L.R. Pasquale; B. Feenstra; S. Bandinelli; J.M. Ordovas; A.T. Chan; U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Gieger (Christian); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); D.S. Siscovick (David); O. Raitakari (Olli); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); P. Mitchell (Paul); D. Hunter (David); P. Kraft (Peter); E.B. Rimm (Eric B.); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); N.J. Wareham (Nick); P.K. Vollenweider (Peter K.); N. Caporaso; H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M.L. Neuhouser (Marian L.); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce H. R.); F.B. Hu (Frank); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P.W. Franks; P.M. Ridker (Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); G. Heiss (Gerardo); A. Metspalu (Andres); K.E. North (Kari); E. Ingelsson (Erik); J.A. Nettleton; R.M. van Dam (Rob); D.I. Chasman (Daniel)
textabstractCoffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day)
Cornelis, M. C.; Byrne, E. M.; Esko, T.; Nalls, M. A.; Ganna, A.; Paynter, N.; Monda, K. L.; Amin, N.; Fischer, K.; Renstrom, F.; Ngwa, J. S.; Huikari, V.; Cavadino, A.; Nolte, I. M.; Teumer, A.; Yu, K.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Rawal, R.; Manichaikul, A.; Wojczynski, M. K.; Vink, J. M.; Zhao, J. H.; Burlutsky, G.; Lahti, J.; Mikkila, V.; Lemaitre, R. N.; Eriksson, J.; Musani, S. K.; Tanaka, T.; Geller, F.; Luan, J.; Hui, J.; Maegi, R.; Dimitriou, M.; Garcia, M. E.; Ho, W-K; Wright, M. J.; Rose, L. M.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Pedersen, N. L.; Couper, D.; Oostra, B. A.; Hofman, A.; Ikram, M. A.; Tiemeier, H. W.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van Rooij, F. J. A.; Barroso, I.; Johansson, I.; Xue, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Milani, L.; Power, C.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R. P.; Baumeister, S. E.; Biffar, R.; Gu, F.; Bastardot, F.; Kutalik, Z.; Jacobs, D. R.; Forouhi, N. G.; Mihailov, E.; Lind, L.; Lindgren, C.; Michaelsson, K.; Morris, A.; Jensen, M.; Khaw, K-T; Luben, R. N.; Wang, J. J.; Mannisto, S.; Perala, M-M; Kahonen, M.; Lehtimaki, T.; Viikari, J.; Mozaffarian, D.; Mukamal, K.; Psaty, B. M.; Doering, A.; Heath, A. C.; Montgomery, G. W.; Dahmen, N.; Carithers, T.; Tucker, K. L.; Ferrucci, L.; Boyd, H. A.; Melbye, M.; Treur, J. L.; Mellstrom, D.; Hottenga, J. J.; Prokopenko, I.; Toenjes, A.; Deloukas, P.; Kanoni, S.; Lorentzon, M.; Houston, D. K.; Liu, Y.; Danesh, J.; Rasheed, A.; Mason, M. A.; Zonderman, A. B.; Franke, L.; Kristal, B. S.; Karjalainen, J.; Reed, D. R.; Westra, H-J; Evans, M. K.; Saleheen, D.; Harris, T. B.; Dedoussis, G.; Curhan, G.; Stumvoll, M.; Beilby, J.; Pasquale, L. R.; Feenstra, B.; Bandinelli, S.; Ordovas, J. M.; Chan, A. T.; Peters, U.; Ohlsson, C.; Gieger, C.; Martin, N. G.; Waldenberger, M.; Siscovick, D. S.; Raitakari, O.; Eriksson, J. G.; Mitchell, P.; Hunter, D. J.; Kraft, P.; Rimm, E. B.; Boomsma, D. I.; Borecki, I. B.; Loos, R. J. F.; Wareham, N. J.; Vollenweider, P.; Caporaso, N.; Grabe, H. J.; Neuhouser, M. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Hu, F. B.; Hyppoenen, E.; Jarvelin, M-R; Cupples, L. A.; Franks, P. W.; Ridker, P. M.; van Duijn, C. M.; Heiss, G.; Metspalu, A.; North, K. E.; Ingelsson, E.; Nettleton, J. A.; van Dam, R. M.; Chasman, D. I.
Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to
Cornelis, M. C.; Byrne, E. M.; Esko, T.; Nalls, M. A.; Ganna, A.; Paynter, N.; Monda, K. L.; Amin, N.; Fischer, K.; Renstrom, F.; Ngwa, J. S.; Huikari, V.; Cavadino, A.; Nolte, I. M.; Teumer, A.; Yu, K.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Rawal, R.; Manichaikul, A.; Wojczynski, M. K.; Vink, J. M.; Zhao, J. H.; Burlutsky, G.; Lahti, J.; Mikkilä, V.; Lemaitre, R. N.; Eriksson, J.; Musani, S. K.; Tanaka, T.; Geller, F.; Luan, J.; Hui, J.; Mägi, R.; Dimitriou, M.; Garcia, M. E.; Ho, W.-K.; Wright, M. J.; Rose, L. M.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Pedersen, N. L.; Couper, D.; Oostra, B. A.; Hofman, A.; Ikram, M. A.; Tiemeier, H. W.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van Rooij, F. J. A.; Barroso, I.; Johansson, I.; Xue, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Milani, L.; Power, C.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R. P.; Baumeister, S. E.; Biffar, R.; Gu, F.; Bastardot, F.; Kutalik, Z.; Jacobs, D. R.; Forouhi, N. G.; Mihailov, E.; Lind, L.; Lindgren, C.; Michaëlsson, K.; Morris, A.; Jensen, M.; Khaw, K.-T.; Luben, R. N.; Wang, J. J.; Männistö, S.; Perälä, M.-M.; Kähönen, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Viikari, J.; Mozaffarian, D.; Mukamal, K.; Psaty, B. M.; Döring, A.; Heath, A. C.; Montgomery, G. W.; Dahmen, N.; Carithers, T.; Tucker, K. L.; Ferrucci, L.; Boyd, H. A.; Melbye, M.; Treur, J. L.; Mellström, D.; Hottenga, J. J.; Prokopenko, I.; Tönjes, A.; Deloukas, P.; Kanoni, S.; Lorentzon, M.; Houston, D. K.; Liu, Y.; Danesh, J.; Rasheed, A.; Mason, M. A.; Zonderman, A. B.; Franke, L.; Kristal, B. S.; Karjalainen, J.; Reed, D. R.; Westra, H.-J.; Evans, M. K.; Saleheen, D.; Harris, T. B.; Dedoussis, G.; Curhan, G.; Stumvoll, M.; Beilby, J.; Pasquale, L. R.; Feenstra, B.; Bandinelli, S.; Ordovas, J. M.; Chan, A. T.; Peters, U.; Ohlsson, C.; Gieger, C.; Martin, N. G.; Waldenberger, M.; Siscovick, D. S.; Raitakari, O.; Eriksson, J. G.; Mitchell, P.; Hunter, D. J.; Kraft, P.; Rimm, E. B.; Boomsma, D. I.; Borecki, I. B.; Loos, R. J. F.; Wareham, N. J.; Vollenweider, P.; Caporaso, N.; Grabe, H. J.; Neuhouser, M. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Hu, F. B.; Hyppönen, E.; Järvelin, M.-R.; Cupples, L. A.; Franks, P. W.; Ridker, P. M.; van Duijn, C. M.; Heiss, G.; Metspalu, A.; North, K. E.; Ingelsson, E.; Nettleton, J. A.; van Dam, R. M.; Chasman, D. I.; Nalls, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Hernandez, Dena G.; Sharma, Manu; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Saad, Mohamad; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Schulte, Claudia; Lesage, Suzanne; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, J. Mark; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Deloukas, Panos; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Dürr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Dong, Jing; Gardner, Michelle; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Harris, Clare; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huang, Xuemei; Hershey, Milton S.; Wurster, Isabel; Mätzler, Walter; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; München, Helmholtz Zentrum; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw R.; Morrison, Karen E.; O' Sullivan, Sean S.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Pollak, Pierre; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Shaw, Karen; Sidransky, Ellen; Smith, Colin; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Bettella, Francesco; Stockton, Joanna D.; Strange, Amy; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Stefánsson, Kári; Martinez, Maria; Sabatier, Paul; Wood, Nicholas W.; Hardy, John; Heutink, Peter; Brice, Alexis; Gasser, Thomas; Singleton, Andrew B.; Singleton, Andrew; Cookson, Mark; Hernandez, Dena; Nalls, Michael; Zonderman, Alan; Ferrucci, Luigi; Johnson, Robert; Longo, Dan; O'Brien, Richard; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Zielke, Ronald; Weale, Michael; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Box, P. O.
Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to
Tagliaferro, F.S.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bode, P.; Baas, H.W.
The degree of homogeneity is normally assessed by the variability of the results of independent analyses of several (e.g., 15) normal-scale replicates. Large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis (LS-INAA) with a collimated Ge detector allows inspecting the degree of homogeneity of the initial batch material, using a kilogram-size sample. The test is based on the spatial distributions of induced radioactivity. Such test was applied to samples of Brazilian whole (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of approximately 1 kg in the frame of development of a coffee reference material. Results indicated that the material do not contain significant element composition inhomogeneities between batches of approximately 30-50 g, masses typically forming the starting base of a reference material. (author)
de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Ara?jo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho
Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings duri...
Vega, Fernando E.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.
Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Saponari, Maria
The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%. PMID:26679584
de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho
Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.
Rackel Aguiar Mendes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010 from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74, based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2–3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. Results: The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.1, and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Conclusion: Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.
Full Text Available Diferentes marcas de café em pó e instantâneo, disponíveis no comércio local da cidade de Campinas, foram analisadas com o objetivo de determinar o teor de cafeína nesses produtos. A metodologia utilizada envolveu as etapas de extração com água, limpeza da amostra com acetato de chumbo básico, determinação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e detector de UV-vísivel a 254 nm. Para a separação da cafeína foi utilizada uma coluna Merck C18 (ODS, de 5µm, e fase móvel isocrática composta de metanol-água (25:75, v/v. Os teores de cafeína variaram tanto entre as diferentes marcas e tipos de café analisados quanto em função da técnica de preparo da bebida. Os valores determinados situaram-se na faixa de 0,43 a 0,85 mg/ml para as bebidas preparadas com cafés em pó e de 0,61 a 0,82 mg/ml para o café instantâneo.Different brands and batches of brazilian regular and instant coffee were purchased in supermarkets of Campinas’ city and analysed for caffeine content. The method used involved extraction with boiling water, clarification with saturated basic acetate and determination by high performance liquid cromatography. Analysis was carried out using a Model 6000 A solvent delivery system (Waters associates, and a Model 7125 sample injector system (Reodyne, Inc. with a 5µl sample loop. The system was also equipped with a Waters Model M440 absorbance detector set at 254 nm. A Merck ODS 5µm column (15 cm x 4.6 mm i.d. was used to separate the caffeine. The mobile phase was methanol:water (25:75, v/v. The caffeine content varied for different brands and types of coffee and according to the beverage preparation technique. Values in the range of 0.43 to 0.85 mg/ml and 0.61 to 0.82 mg/ml were determined in regular and instant coffee, respectively.
Assis, Felipe L.; Bajrai, Leena; Abrahao, Jonatas S.; Kroon, Erna G.; Dornas, Fabio P.; Andrade, Kétyllen R.; Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Pilotto, Mariana R.; Robert, Catherine; Benamar, Samia; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe
Since the recent discovery of Samba virus, the first representative of the family Mimiviridae from Brazil, prospecting for mimiviruses has been conducted in different environmental conditions in Brazil. Recently, we isolated using Acanthamoeba sp. three new mimiviruses, all of lineage A of amoebal mimiviruses: Kroon virus from urban lake water; Amazonia virus from the Brazilian Amazon river; and Oyster virus from farmed oysters. The aims of this work were to sequence and analyze the genome of these new Brazilian mimiviruses (mimi-BR) and update the analysis of the Samba virus genome. The genomes of Samba virus, Amazonia virus and Oyster virus were 97%–99% similar, whereas Kroon virus had a low similarity (90%–91%) with other mimi-BR. A total of 3877 proteins encoded by mimi-BR were grouped into 974 orthologous clusters. In addition, we identified three new ORFans in the Kroon virus genome. Additional work is needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of mimiviruses from Brazil, including if and why among amoebal mimiviruses those of lineage A predominate in the Brazilian environment. PMID:26131958
Dereeper, Alexis; Guyot, Romain; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Anthony, François; Argout, Xavier; de Bellis, Fabien; Combes, Marie-Christine; Gavory, Frederick; de Kochko, Alexandre; Kudrna, Dave; Leroy, Thierry; Poulain, Julie; Rondeau, Myriam; Song, Xiang; Wing, Rod; Lashermes, Philippe
Coffee is one of the world's most important agricultural commodities. Coffee belongs to the Rubiaceae family in the euasterid I clade of dicotyledonous plants, to which the Solanaceae family also belongs. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of a homozygous doubled haploid plant of Coffea canephora were constructed using two enzymes, HindIII and BstYI. A total of 134,827 high quality BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from the 73,728 clones of the two libraries, and 131,412 BESs were conserved for further analysis after elimination of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. This corresponded to almost 13 % of the estimated size of the C. canephora genome. 6.7 % of BESs contained simple sequence repeats, the most abundant (47.8 %) being mononucleotide motifs. These sequences allow the development of numerous useful marker sites. Potential transposable elements (TEs) represented 11.9 % of the full length BESs. A difference was observed between the BstYI and HindIII libraries (14.9 vs. 8.8 %). Analysis of BESs against known coding sequences of TEs indicated that 11.9 % of the genome corresponded to known repeat sequences, like for other flowering plants. The number of genes in the coffee genome was estimated at 41,973 which is probably overestimated. Comparative genome mapping revealed that microsynteny was higher between coffee and grapevine than between coffee and tomato or Arabidopsis. BESs constitute valuable resources for the first genome wide survey of coffee and provide new insights into the composition and evolution of the coffee genome.
Full Text Available The presence of copia-like transposable elements in seven coffee (Coffea sp. species, including the cultivated Coffea arabica, was investigated. The highly conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase (RT present in the copia retrotransposons were amplified by PCR using degenerated primers. Fragments of roughly 300 bp were obtained and the nucleotide sequence was determined for 36 clones, 19 of which showed good quality. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared by multiple alignment analysis. The data suggested two distinct coffee RT groups, designated as CRTG1 and CRTG2. The sequence identities among the groups ranged from 52 to 60% for CRTG1 and 74 to 85% for CRTG2. The multiple alignment analysis revealed that some of the clones in CRTG1 were closely related to the representative elements present in other plant species such as Brassica napus, Populus ciliata and Picea abis. Furthermore, the chromosomal localization of the RT domains in C. arabica and their putative ancestors was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. FISH signals were observed throughout the chromosomes following a similar dispersed pattern with some localized regions exhibiting higher concentrations of those elements, providing new evidence of their relative conservation and stability in the coffee genome
Miranda, Andreia M; Steluti, Josiane; Goulart, Alessandra C; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Marchioni, Dirce M
Available evidence for the relationship between coffee intake and subclinical atherosclerosis is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). This cross-sectional study is based on baseline data from participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Only participants living in São Paulo, Brazil, who underwent a CAC measurement (n=4426) were included. Coffee consumption was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was detected with computed tomography and expressed as Agatston units. CAC was further categorized as an Agatson score ≥100 (CAC ≥100). In multiple logistic regression analysis considering intake of coffee and smoking status interaction, significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption (>3 cups/d) and CAC≥100 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.24] for ≤1 cup/d; OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.05] for 1-3 cups/d; OR: 0.33 [95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.65] for >3 cups/d). Moreover, there was a statistically significant interaction effect for coffee consumption and smoking status ( P =0.028 for interaction). After stratification by smoking status, the analysis revealed a lower OR of coronary calcification in never smokers drinking >3 cups/d (OR: 0.37 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.91]), whereas among current and former smokers, the intake of coffee was not significantly associated with coronary calcification. Habitual consumption of >3 cups/d of coffee decreased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis among never smokers. The consumption of coffee could exert a potential beneficial effect against coronary calcification, particularly in nonsmokers. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A.; Guerrant, Richard L.
Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. PMID:28100790
Ronildo Clarindo, Wellington; Roberto Carvalho, Carlos
Plant genome size has been measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide as a dye for nuclear DNA staining. However, some authors have reported the occurrence of genome size estimation errors, especially in plants rich in secondary metabolites, such as the coffee tree. In this context, we tested an alternative cytometric protocol using the SYBR Green I as a fluorochrome for stoichiometrically staining nuclear double-stranded DNA in Coffea canephora (2x) and Coffea arabica (4x). The results showed that the respective mean genome size measured from nuclei stained with SYBR Green I and propidium iodide was statistically identical. However, the G(0)/G(1) peaks of nuclei stained with SYBR Green I exhibited lower coefficient variations (1.57-2.85%) compared to those stained with propidium iodide (2.75-4.80%). Coefficient variation statistical data suggest that SYBR Green I is adequate for stoichiometric nuclei staining using this methodology. Our results provide evidence that SYBR Green I can be used in flow cytometry measurements of plants, with the advantages of minimizing errors in nuclear DNA content quantification, staining relatively quicker, with high affinity, and being less mutagenic than propidium iodide. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Machado, Silmara Rodrigues; Parise, Edison Roberto; Carvalho, Luciana de
The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥ 255 mL/day or ≥ 123 mg caffeine/day). According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (caffeine/day). Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal) (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p=0.04), lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4) fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, pcaffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026), γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Adriana P. de Almeida
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of instant coffee samples collected in the market of the city of São Paulo, Brazil from August to December, 2004. The EN 14133/2003 method, originally developed to quantify OTA in wine, grape juice and beer samples, was evaluated and approved for analyzing OTA in instant coffee samples. OTA was isolated in an immunoaffinity column and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The established detection and quantification limits were 0.16 and 0.52 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries from spiked samples were 92.6 ± 1.7, 83.7 ± 0.8, and 91.0 ± 1.2 % at levels of 3.0, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/g, respectively. Of a total of 82 samples analised, 81 (98.8% contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.17 to 6.29 ng/g. The high frequency of OTA occurrence in the instant coffee samples demonstrates the importance of an effective control of this product by governmental authorities and industries. The rapid methodology for OTA analysis in instant coffee used in this study was defined and validated, permitting it´s use for quality control of this product.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a contaminação por OTA em amostras de café solúvel comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de agosto a dezembro de 2004. O método EN 14133/2003, originalmente desenvolvido para quantificar OTA em amostras de vinho, suco de uva e cerveja, foi avaliado e aprovado para análise de OTA em amostras de café solúvel. OTA foi isolada em coluna de imunoafinidade e quantificada por CLAE com detecção em fluorescência. Os limites de detecção e quantificação do método foram 0,16 e 0,52 ng/g, respectivamente. Os percentuais médios de recuperação foram de 92,6% (3 ng/g, 83,7% (5 ng/g e 91,0% (8 ng/g, com coeficientes de variação de 1,7 (3 ng/g, 0,8 (5 ng/g e 1,2 (8 ng/g. A análise das 82 amostras de café solúvel revelou a presença de ocratoxina A em 81 amostras (98
Taye H Hamza; Honglei Chen; Erin M Hill-Burns; Shannon L Rhodes; Jennifer Montimurro; Denise M Kay; Albert Tenesa; Victoria I Kusel; Patricia Sheehan; Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth; Dora Yearout; Ali Samii; John W Roberts; Pinky Agarwal; Yvette Bordelon
Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal compo...
Ribeiro, J S; Augusto, F; Salva, T J G; Thomaziello, R A; Ferreira, M M C
Volatile compounds in fifty-eight Arabica roasted coffee samples from Brazil were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID and SPME-GC-MS, and the results were compared with those from sensory evaluation. The main purpose was to investigate the relationships between the volatile compounds from roasted coffees and certain sensory attributes, including body, flavor, cleanliness and overall quality. Calibration models for each sensory attribute based on chromatographic profiles were developed by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Discrimination of samples with different overall qualities was done by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The alignment of chromatograms was performed by the correlation optimized warping (COW) algorithm. Selection of peaks for each regression model was performed by applying the ordered predictors selection (OPS) algorithm in order to take into account only significant compounds. The results provided by the calibration models are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of using this methodology in on-line or routine applications to predict the sensory quality of unknown Brazilian Arabica coffee samples. According to the PLS-DA on chromatographic profiles of different quality samples, compounds 3-methypropanal, 2-methylfuran, furfural, furfuryl formate, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxyaldehyde, 4-ethylguaiacol, 3-methylthiophene, 2-furanmethanol acetate, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, 1-(2-furanyl)-2-butanone and three others not identified compounds can be considered as possible markers for the coffee beverage overall quality.
Silmara Rodrigues Machado
Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥255 mL/day or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (< or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p = 0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p < 0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR– 0.16; 95%CI – 0.03–0.80; p = 0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.
Maldonado dos Santos, João Vitor; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Khan, Saad M; Liu, Yang; Wang, Juexin; Vuong, Tri D; de Oliveira, Marcelo Fernandes; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T; Abdelnoor, Ricardo Vilela
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is one of the most important legumes cultivated worldwide, and Brazil is one of the main producers of this crop. Since the sequencing of its reference genome, interest in structural and allelic variations of cultivated and wild soybean germplasm has grown. To investigate the genetics of the Brazilian soybean germplasm, we selected soybean cultivars based on the year of commercialization, geographical region and maturity group and resequenced their genomes. We resequenced the genomes of 28 Brazilian soybean cultivars with an average genome coverage of 14.8X. A total of 5,835,185 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,329,844 InDels were identified across the 20 soybean chromosomes, with 541,762 SNPs, 98,922 InDels and 1,093 CNVs that were exclusive to the 28 Brazilian cultivars. In addition, 668 allelic variations of 327 genes were shared among all of the Brazilian cultivars, including genes related to DNA-dependent transcription-elongation, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis-coupled electron transport, cellular respiration, and precursors of metabolite generation and energy. A very homogeneous structure was also observed for the Brazilian soybean germplasm, and we observed 41 regions putatively influenced by positive selection. Finally, we detected 3,880 regions with copy-number variations (CNVs) that could help to explain the divergence among the accessions evaluated. The large number of allelic and structural variations identified in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection programs to detect unique SNPs for cultivar fingerprinting. The results presented here suggest that despite the diversification of modern Brazilian cultivars, the soybean germplasm remains very narrow because of the large number of genome regions that exhibit low diversity. These results emphasize the need to introduce new alleles to increase the genetic diversity of the Brazilian germplasm.
Hamza, Taye H; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M; Rhodes, Shannon L; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Payami, Haydeh
Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P(2df) = 10(-6), GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10(-7)) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that "Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers" was confirmed: OR(Replication) = 0.59, P(Replication) = 10(-3); OR(Pooled) = 0.51, P(Pooled) = 7×10(-8). Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10(-3)), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10(-13)). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P(2df)coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify
Taye H Hamza
Full Text Available Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD. We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC, and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS, testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P(2df = 10(-6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10(-7 but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that "Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers" was confirmed: OR(Replication = 0.59, P(Replication = 10(-3; OR(Pooled = 0.51, P(Pooled = 7×10(-8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10(-3, whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10(-13. Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P(2df<5×10(-8 in GWAIS, and OR = 0.41, P = 3×10(-8 in heavy coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of
Hamza, Taye H.; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M.; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I.; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W.; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K.; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Payami, Haydeh
Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P2df = 10−6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10−7) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that “Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers” was confirmed: ORReplication = 0.59, PReplication = 10−3; ORPooled = 0.51, PPooled = 7×10−8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10−3), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10−13). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P2dfcoffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that
Schaefer, R.; Batista, H.B.; Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.
Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any
Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig
the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...
southeast Brazilian market, there is a difference in metals content among the samples of roasted coffee varieties . These variations in metal compositions among samples of roasted coffee can indicate the differences in the cultivation of the coffee plants; such as the type of soil, the use of fertilizers with different chemical ...
Mariana Ferreira Rocha
Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum
Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs and ARGONAUTE (AGO as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR, Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover. We aimed to unravel the components and functions of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in a non-model plant species of worldwide economic relevance. The sRNA-guided silencing complex members have been identified in the Coffea canephora genome, and they have been characterized at the structural, functional, and evolutionary levels by computational analyses. Eleven AGO proteins, nine DCL proteins (which include a DCL1-like protein that was not previously annotated, and eight RDR proteins were identified. Another 48 proteins implicated in smallRNA (sRNA pathways were also identified. Furthermore, we identified 235 miRNA precursors and 317 mature miRNAs from 113 MIR families, and we characterized ccp-MIR156, ccp-MIR172, and ccp-MIR390. Target prediction and gene ontology analyses of 2239 putative targets showed that significant pathways in coffee are targeted by miRNAs. We provide evidence of the expansion of the loci related to sRNA pathways, insights into the activities of these proteins by domain and catalytic site analyses, and gene expression analysis. The number of MIR loci and their targeted pathways highlight the importance of miRNAs in coffee. We identified several roles of sRNAs in C. canephora, which offers substantial insight into better understanding the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of this major crop.
Amin, N; Byrne, E; Johnson, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Walter, S; Nolte, I M; Vink, J M; Rawal, R; Mangino, M; Teumer, A; Keers, J C; Verwoert, G; Baumeister, S; Biffar, R; Petersmann, A; Dahmen, N; Doering, A; Isaacs, A; Broer, L; Wray, N R; Montgomery, G W; Levy, D; Psaty, B M; Gudnason, V; Chakravarti, A; Sulem, P; Gudbjartsson, D F; Kiemeney, L A; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Stefansson, K; van Rooij, F J A; Aulchenko, Y S; Hottenga, J J; Rivadeneira, F R; Hofman, A; Uitterlinden, A G; Hammond, C J; Shin, S-Y; Ikram, A; Witteman, J C M; Janssens, A C J W; Snieder, H; Tiemeier, H; Wolfenbuttel, B H R; Oostra, B A; Heath, A C; Wichmann, E; Spector, T D; Grabe, H J; Boomsma, D I; Martin, N G; van Duijn, C M
Coffee consumption is a model for addictive behavior. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on coffee intake from 8 Caucasian cohorts (N=18 176) and sought replication of our top findings in a further 7929 individuals. We also performed a gene expression analysis treating different cell lines with caffeine. Genome-wide significant association was observed for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24 region. The two SNPs rs2470893 and rs2472297 (P-values=1.6 × 10(-11) and 2.7 × 10(-11)), which were also in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.7) with each other, lie in the 23-kb long commonly shared 5' flanking region between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. CYP1A1 was found to be downregulated in lymphoblastoid cell lines treated with caffeine. CYP1A1 is known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are important constituents of coffee, whereas CYP1A2 is involved in the primary metabolism of caffeine. Significant evidence of association was also detected at rs382140 (P-value=3.9 × 10(-09)) near NRCAM-a gene implicated in vulnerability to addiction, and at another independent hit rs6495122 (P-value=7.1 × 10(-09))-an SNP associated with blood pressure-in the 15q24 region near the gene ULK3, in the meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts. Our results from GWASs and expression analysis also strongly implicate CAB39L in coffee drinking. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed significantly enriched ubiquitin proteasome (P-value=2.2 × 10(-05)) and Parkinson's disease pathways (P-value=3.6 × 10(-05)).
Cardena, M M S G; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, A K; Santos, S E B; Mansur, A J; Bernardez-Pereira, S; Santos, P C J L; Pereira, A C; Fridman, C
There is a high prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the general population, but it is more common in black people. We evaluated the association between genomic ancestry and mitochondrial haplogroups (mt-haplogroups) with HF etiology in 503 Brazilian patients. We elicited Mt-haplogroups by analyzing the control region of mitochondrial DNA, and genomic ancestry, by using 48 autosomal insertion-deletion ancestry informative markers. Hypertensive (28.6%, n=144) and ischemic (28.4%, n=143) etiologies of HF were the most prevalent herein. Our results showed that 233 individuals (46.3%) presented African mitochondrial (mt)-haplogroups, and the major contribution in the genomic ancestry analysis was the European ancestry (57.5% (±22.1%)). African mt-haplogroups were positively associated with a diagnosis of hypertensive cardiomyopathy (odds ratio, OR 1.55, confidence interval, CI 95% 1.04-2.44, P=0.04) when compared with European mt-haplogroups. Regarding the genomic ancestry, the African ancestry variant had higher risks (OR 7.84, 95% CI 2.81-21.91, Pancestry variant had lower risks (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-5.00, Pancestry showed an OR of 4.05 (CI 95% 1.53-10.74, P=0.005), whereas African ancestry showed an OR of 0.17 (CI 95% 0.06-0.48, P=0.001) for developing ischemic etiology. In conclusion, this study supports the importance of using ancestry informative markers and mitochondrial DNA to study the genetics of complex diseases in admixed populations to improve the management, treatment and prevention of these illnesses. Therefore, the ancestry informative markers and mt-haplogroups could provide new biomarkers to be associated with HF etiologies and be used as a premise for more specific management.
Manuella Souza Silverio
Full Text Available Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.
Cornelis, Marilyn C
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Déchamp, Eveline; Breitler, Jean-Christophe; Leroy, Thierry; Etienne, Hervé
Coffee (Coffea sp.) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in many tropical countries. It is a cash crop for millions of small farmers in these areas. As for other tree species, coffee has long breeding cycles, which makes conventional breeding programs time-consuming. For that matter, genetic transformation can be an effective way to introduce a desired trait in elite varieties or for functional genomics. In this chapter, we describe two highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques developed for the C. arabica cultivated species: (1) A. tumefaciens to study and introduce genes conferring resistance/tolerance to biotic (coffee leaf rust, insects) and abiotic stress (drought, heat, seed desiccation) in fully transformed plants and (2) A. rhizogenes to study candidate gene expression for nematode resistance in transformed roots.
Francisco Alberto Pino
Full Text Available Summary A field study was carried out in the largest Brazilian city in order to evaluate the quality of coffee prepared and sold for out-of-home consumption, using a logit model. It was shown that the decision on coffee quality was taken by the coffee house owner or manager based on his perception of the socio-economical class of the consumers, the prevalent gender, the participation of coffee in the invoicing and the coffee brewing method.
... related side effects similar to coffee. Caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach upset, nausea and vomiting, increased heart and breathing rate, and other side effects. Consuming large ... might also cause headache, anxiety, agitation, ringing in the ears, and ...
Andriani, Pierpaolo; Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten
We posit that comparative advantage is discovered via alternative transactional regimes of trading. Transactional regimes are performative, based on different forms of embedded agency. The theory is applied on a study of Brazilian coffee business which manifests the increasing importance of specialty coffee. Innovations in the transactional regime have created new forms of agency which triggered new ways to produce coffee and to activate the hidden potential of variety in consumer tastes. Com...
Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Maurício L; Gouveia, Mateus; Horta, Bernardo L; Mambrini, Juliana; Kehdy, Fernanda S G; Pereira, Alexandre; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Victora, Cesar G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
Brazil never had segregation laws defining membership of an ethnoracial group. Thus, the composition of the Brazilian population is mixed, and its ethnoracial classification is complex. Previous studies showed conflicting results on the correlation between genome ancestry and ethnoracial classification in Brazilians. We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to quantify this correlation in 5,851 community-dwelling individuals in the South (Pelotas), Southeast (Bambui) and Northeast (Salvador) Brazil. European ancestry was predominant in Pelotas and Bambui (median = 85.3% and 83.8%, respectively). African ancestry was highest in Salvador (median = 50.5%). The strength of the association between the phenotype and median proportion of African ancestry varied largely across populations, with pseudo R(2) values of 0.50 in Pelotas, 0.22 in Bambui and 0.13 in Salvador. The continuous proportion of African genomic ancestry showed a significant S-shape positive association with self-reported Blacks in the three sites, and the reverse trend was found for self reported Whites, with most consistent classifications in the extremes of the high and low proportion of African ancestry. In self-classified Mixed individuals, the predicted probability of having African ancestry was bell-shaped. Our results support the view that ethnoracial self-classification is affected by both genome ancestry and non-biological factors.
Mariana Costa Monteiro
Full Text Available Coffee is a product consumed all around the world, Brazil being the biggest exporter. However, little is known about the difference in composition of the different brands in terms of bioactive substances. In the present study, ten of the most consumed brands of coffee in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. Caffeine contents, trigonelline and total chlorogenic acid varied from 0.8 g/100g to 1.4 g/100g; 0.2 g/100g to 0.5 g/100g and from 3.5 g kg-1 to 15.9 g kg-1, respectively. The large heterogeneity observed in the amounts of the bioactive compounds can be attributed to different formulations of the various brands, as well as to different roasting conditions.
Piccoli, Mario L; Brito, Luiz F; Braccini, José; Cardoso, Fernando F; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flávio S
Genomic selection (GS) has played an important role in cattle breeding programs. However, genotyping prices are still a challenge for implementation of GS in beef cattle and there is still a lack of information about the use of low-density Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) chip panels for genomic predictions in breeds such as Brazilian Braford and Hereford. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using imputed genotypes in the accuracy of genomic predictions for twenty economically important traits in Brazilian Braford and Hereford beef cattle. Various scenarios composed by different percentages of animals with imputed genotypes and different sizes of the training population were compared. De-regressed EBVs (estimated breeding values) were used as pseudo-phenotypes in a Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) model using two different mimicked panels derived from the 50 K (8 K and 15 K SNP panels), which were subsequently imputed to the 50 K panel. In addition, genomic prediction accuracies generated from a 777 K SNP (imputed from the 50 K SNP) were presented as another alternate scenario. The accuracy of genomic breeding values averaged over the twenty traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.40 across the different scenarios. The average losses in expected genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) accuracy (accuracy obtained from the inverse of the mixed model equations) relative to the true 50 K genotypes ranged from -0.0007 to -0.0012 and from -0.0002 to -0.0005 when using the 50 K imputed from the 8 K or 15 K, respectively. When using the imputed 777 K panel the average losses in expected GEBV accuracy was -0.0021. The average gain in expected EBVs accuracy by including genomic information when compared to simple BLUP was between 0.02 and 0.03 across scenarios and traits. The percentage of animals with imputed genotypes in the training population did not significantly influence the validation accuracy. However, the size of the training
Cesconeto, Robson Jose; Joost, Stéphane; McManus, Concepta Margaret; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini, Jose
Abstract Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samβada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in b...
A. P. B. Gollücke
Full Text Available The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA in foods has led some countries to establish regulatory limits. Although coffee is not a major source of OTA in human consumption, the European Community (EC may establish limits in the near future, with possible economic impact on producing countries. This study measured the OTA content with HPLC in 37 samples of Brazilian green coffee exclusive destined to the export market and also verified a possible relation between coffee defects and OTA content. The results showed an OTA concentration ranging from A presença de ocratoxina A (OTA em café, detectada nos últimos anos, tem levado alguns países a estabelecer limites regulatórios. Embora o café não seja uma fonte importante de OTA no consumo humano, a União Européia poderá estabelecer limites, causando impacto econômico em países produtores desses grãos. O presente estudo analisou OTA utilizando CLAE em 37 amostras de café verde brasileiro destinado exclusivamente à exportação e verificou a possível relação entre grãos defeituosos e concentração de OTA. Os resultados mostraram que a concentração de OTA esteve entre < 0,16ng/g (limite de detecção e 6,24ng/g (média 3,2ng/g. Das cinco amostras avaliadas quanto à relação defeitos X OTA, o nível da toxina esteve entre 0,22 e 0,80ng/g (média 0,46ng/g entre grãos sadios e 0,42 e 17,46ng/g (média 4,52ng/g entre grãos defeituosos. Diferenças morfológicas entre grãos sadios e defeituosos observados em Microscopia Ótica não demonstraram susceptibilidade à invasão fúngica entre os defeituosos. Entre os 15 grãos observados em Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV, apenas um (preto revelou presença de fungos e esporos. Os resultados desta investigação apontam que o café verde brasileiro destinado à exportação encontra-se dentro dos limites para OTA já estabelecidos.
Mehta, A.; Chavas, Jean-Paul
An econometric model of coffee price dynamics is specified and estimated to capture the evolution of coffee prices at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. It investigates the historical influence of the International Coffee Agreement (ICA) through its effects on yield and planting decisions. In the short run, the ICA caused Brazilian farm prices to become disconnected from international prices. The ICA helped coffee producers to better incorporate current world price information into planti...
Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.
Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.
E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro
Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analytical methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants
Cesconeto, Robson Jose; Joost, Stéphane; McManus, Concepta Margaret; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini, Jose
Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as F ST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samβada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in both methods, with a Kappa value of 0.073 (95% CI: 0.011-0.134). The frequency of these markers indicated a clear north-south country division that reflects Brazilian environmental differences in temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation. Global spatial territory correlation for environmental variables corroborates this finding (average Moran's I = 0.89, range from 0.55 to 0.97). The distribution of alleles over the territory was not strongly correlated with the breed/genetic groups. These results are congruent with previous mtDNA studies and should be used to direct germplasm collection for the National gene bank.
Handayani, Baiq Rien
Coffee is one of the most widely served beverage. Flavor mainly the aroma is the most important attribute to specialty coffee. Coffee flavor consisted of volatile and non volatile compounds. The compounds were influenced by several factors i.e. growth environment, physiology, harvesting, post-harvest, roasting process and preparation. Keywords: coffee, flavor
Full Text Available Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the effects of coffee on human health.
Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França
Full Text Available We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women, genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3, African (6.6, and Native American (6.3 ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; p<0.001. Independent of education level, African ancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001, and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009. Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all p<0.001. Our findings, from an admixed population, indicate that both genomic ancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.
França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Yudkin, John S; Ong, Ken K; Victora, Cesar Gomes
We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women), genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3), African (6.6), and Native American (6.3) ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; pancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001), and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009). Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all pancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.
Mudadu, Maurício A; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Mokry, Fabiana B; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Tullio, Rymer R; Nassu, Renata T; Niciura, Simone C M; Tholon, Patrícia; Alencar, Maurício M; Higa, Roberto H; Rosa, Antônio N; Feijó, Gélson L D; Ferraz, André L J; Silva, Luiz O C; Medeiros, Sérgio R; Lanna, Dante P; Nascimento, Michele L; Chaves, Amália S; Souza, Andrea R D L; Packer, Irineu U; Torres, Roberto A A; Siqueira, Fabiane; Mourão, Gerson B; Coutinho, Luiz L; Reverter, Antonio; Regitano, Luciana C A
Nelore is the major beef cattle breed in Brazil with more than 130 million heads. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often used to associate markers and genomic regions to growth and meat quality traits that can be used to assist selection programs. An alternative methodology to traditional GWAS that involves the construction of gene network interactions, derived from results of several GWAS is the AWM (Association Weight Matrices)/PCIT (Partial Correlation and Information Theory). With the aim of evaluating the genetic architecture of Brazilian Nelore cattle, we used high-density SNP genotyping data (~770,000 SNP) from 780 Nelore animals comprising 34 half-sibling families derived from highly disseminated and unrelated sires from across Brazil. The AWM/PCIT methodology was employed to evaluate the genes that participate in a series of eight phenotypes related to growth and meat quality obtained from this Nelore sample. Our results indicate a lack of structuring between the individuals studied since principal component analyses were not able to differentiate families by its sires or by its ancestral lineages. The application of the AWM/PCIT methodology revealed a trio of transcription factors (comprising VDR, LHX9 and ZEB1) which in combination connected 66 genes through 359 edges and whose biological functions were inspected, some revealing to participate in biological growth processes in literature searches. The diversity of the Nelore sample studied is not high enough to differentiate among families neither by sires nor by using the available ancestral lineage information. The gene networks constructed from the AWM/PCIT methodology were a useful alternative in characterizing genes and gene networks that were allegedly influential in growth and meat quality traits in Nelore cattle.
Wagner Moura Lamounier
Full Text Available Pretendeu-se com este trabalho de pesquisa detectar a existência dos componentes estocásticos e/ou determinísticos de tendência, ciclo, e sazonalidade nos preços do mercado spot da principal commodity agrícola do Brasil: o café. A metodologia empregada referiu-se a análises no domínio do tempo (para a análise de tendência e sazonalidade e análise no domínio da freqüência, também conhecida como análise espectral, para o estudo da presença de ciclos de preços. Os resultados encontrados mostram que a tendência existente nos preços do café se configurou como uma composição de tendências dos tipos determinística e estocástica. Com relação aos ciclos existentes nos preços do café, tem-se que a análise espectral para os dados conjuntos de toda a amostra (janeiro de 1946 a dezembro de 2000 confirmou a incidência de um ciclo de média duração, existente no intervalo de 22 a 44 meses. Em relação à análise da sazonalidade nos preços, observou-se que a mesma, enquanto um componente de influência no comportamento dos preços do café no mercado internacional, não é da forma determinística e regular, pelo contrário, é de natureza estocástica, variando em função do período do tempo.The main aim of this research was to detect the existence of the stochastic (and/or deterministic components of Trend, Cycle and Seasonality in the spot market prices of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodity: coffee. The methodology used was the analysis in the time domain (to trend and seasonality and the analysis in the frequency domain, also known as spectral analysis for the study of cycles in prices. The results found that the trend in coffee prices is compounded by a mix of deterministic and stochastic trends. With relation to the cycles in the prices, the spectral analysis to whole sample data (from January 1946 to December 2000 has confirmed the rate of a cycle of medium duration between the interval of 22 and
Conceição da Costa, Maria
Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the participation of women scientist in knowledge production within the Genome Project sponsored by FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation. Between 1997 and 2003, FAPESP invested approximately 33 million euros to develop the FAPESP Genome Project (PGF, generating major changes in Molecular Biology in Brazil: institutions devoted to fostering science and technology have been investing large sum of money; bioinformatics became one of the fields with great demand for professionals, and the results of the Xylella Genome Project, first organism sequenced in Brazil, were published in several international scientific journals including Nature, and Brazil became the first country to develop genome projects outside USA, Europe and Japan. As a consequence of this process, women scientists were loosing space as “spokespersons of this new science”, playing secondary roles at the project.Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la participación de las mujeres en la producción de conocimiento del proyecto genoma financiado por la FAPESP (Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo. Entre 1997 y 2003, FAPESP invirtió aproximadamente 33 millones de euros en el desarrollo del Proyecto Genoma Fapesp (PGF, provocando importantes cambios en la Biología Molecular brasileña: las instituciones de fomento a la investigación comenzaron a promoverla con grandes financiaciones; la bioinformática se tornó uno de los campos con mayor demanda de profesionales y, por fin, los resultados del Proyecto Genoma de la Xylella Fastidiosa, primer organismo vivo secuenciado en Brasil, se publicaron en revistas científicas internacionales, como Nature. Con ello se convierte en el primer país fuera de la tríada EUA-Europa-Japón en desarrollar proyectos genoma. Como consecuencia del proceso, las mujeres están perdiendo espacio como “portavoces de esta nueva ciencia”, ocupando papeles secundarios en el
Marinês P. Corso
Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.
Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.
Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such
Bernardo Friedrich Theodor Rudorff
Full Text Available Coffee is the second most valuable traded commodity worldwide. Brazil is the world’s largest coffee producer, responsible for one third of the world production. A coffee plot exhibits high and low production in alternated years, a characteristic so called biennial yield. High yield is generally a result of suitable conditions of foliar biomass. Moreover, in high production years one plot tends to lose more leaves than it does in low production years. In both cases some correlation between coffee yield and leaf biomass can be deduced which can be monitored through time series of vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. In Brazil, a comprehensive, spatially distributed study assessing this relationship has not yet been done. The objective of this study was to assess possible correlations between coffee yield and MODIS derived vegetation indices in the Brazilian largest coffee-exporting province. We assessed EVI and NDVI MODIS products over the period between 2002 and 2009 in the south of Minas Gerais State whose production accounts for about one third of the Brazilian coffee production. Landsat images were used to obtain a reference map of coffee areas and to identify MODIS 250 m pure pixels overlapping homogeneous coffee crops. Only MODIS pixels with 100% coffee were included in the analysis. A wavelet-based filter was used to smooth EVI and NDVI time profiles. Correlations were observed between variations on yield of coffee plots and variations on vegetation indices for pixels overlapping the same coffee plots. The vegetation index metrics best correlated to yield were the amplitude and the minimum values over the growing season. The best correlations were obtained between variation on yield and variation on vegetation indices the previous year (R = 0.74 for minEVI metric and R = 0.68 for minNDVI metric. Although correlations were not enough to estimate coffee yield exclusively from vegetation indices, trends properly reflect the
Thi Thanh Dieu Phan
Full Text Available Content of 4(5-methylimidazole (4-MeI, caffeine and chlorogenic acid in commercial coffee brands were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV DAD and MS detectors. Positive ion ESI mass spectra of the 4-MeI standard yielded intense signals corresponding to [M+H]+ (83.0604 and [2M+H]+ ions (165.1115. Also, adducts of 4-MeI with acetonitrile from mobile were detected - [M+ACN]+ ions (124.0849. The LOD of 2.5 ng mL-1 and LOQ of 8.4 ng.mL-1 were calculated according to the following formulas: LOD = 3.SD/S, and LOQ = 10.SD/S, where S is the slope of the calibration curve and SD is the standard deviation of the noise. The caffeine content was compared to the results of the standard addition, 1st derivative and liquid-liquid extraction spectrophotometry. 4-MeI was in tens µg g-1 in the Vietnamese coffees while in units µg.g-1 in all Czech and Brazilian coffees (<2.4 µg.g-1 and <4.9 µg.g-1, respectively. The results for caffeine were within the documented range (0.31 - 2.20% in all coffee samples. The lower content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid was observed in Vietnamese coffees. All the methods used for determination of caffeine in the Czech and Brazilian coffees gave acceptable precision and accuracy. However, there were significant differences in the results in Vietnamese coffees. The caffeine extractability (100 °C, 3 min brewing almost reached 100% in Czech and Brazilian coffees, while it was less than 90% in Vietnamese coffees. The Czech and Brazilian coffees tend to produce more caffeine in brews than the Vietnamese coffee because of the different composition of blends and the particle size degree.
Full Text Available SEN virus (SENV is a circular, single stranded DNA virus that has been first characterized in the serum of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected patient. Eight genotypes of SENV (A-H have been identified and further recognized as variants of TT virus (TTV in the family Circoviridae. Here we describe the first genomic characterization of a SENV isolate (5-A from South America. Using 'universal' primers, able to amplify most, if not all, TTV/SENV genotypes, a segment of > 3 kb was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the serum of an HIV-1 infected patient. The amplicon was cloned and a 3087-nucleotide sequence was determined, that showed a high (85% homology with the sequence of the Italian isolate SENV-F. Proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4 consisted of 758, 129, 276, and 267 amino acids, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, isolate 5-A was classified into TTV genotype 19 (phylogenetic group 3, together with SENV-F and TTV isolate SAa-38.
Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R
To evaluate the utility of coffee-related genetic variants as proxies for coffee consumption in Mendelian randomization studies, by examining their association with non-alcoholic beverage consumption (including subtypes of coffee and tea) and a range of socio-demographic and life-style factors. Observational study of the association of genetic risk scores for coffee consumption with different types of non-alcoholic beverage consumption. UK general population. Individuals of European ancestry aged 40-73 years from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 (n = 114 316). Genetic risk scores were constructed using two, four and eight independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of coffee consumption. Drinks were self-reported in a baseline questionnaire (all participants) and in detailed 24 dietary recall questionnaires in a subset (n = 48 692). Genetic risk scores explained up to 0.38, 0.19 and 0.76% of the variance in coffee, tea and combined coffee and tea consumption, respectively. Genetic risk scores demonstrated positive associations with both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption, and with most subtypes of coffee consumption, but only with standard tea consumption. There was no clear evidence for positive associations with most other non-alcoholic beverages, but higher genetic risk for coffee consumption was associated with lower daily water consumption. The genetic risk scores were associated with increased alcohol consumption, but not consistently with other socio-demographic and life-style factors. Coffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instruments for combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomization studies. However, associations observed with alcohol consumption require further investigation to determine whether these are due to causal effects of coffee and tea consumption or biological pleiotropy. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John
Amaral, Dany S; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo; Lima, Paulo C; Desouza, Og
The effects of increasing plant diversity on the population of the coffee leaf-miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) were investigated in two organic coffee production systems. One system consisted of coffee intercropped with banana trees (shaded system) and the other one of coffee intercropped with pigeon pea (unshaded system). The increase in plant diversity on both systems was achieved via introduction of green manures such a perennial pea nut, sunn hemp and Brazilian lucerne. The population of L. coffeella, predation and parasitism of L. coffeella mines were biweekly evaluated during eight months. The increase in plant diversity on both systems did not affect the attack of L. coffeella on coffee leaves and the mine parasitism rate. However, there was a positive and significant relationship between increasing plant diversity and coffee leaf mine predation by wasps on unshaded coffee system and a negative relationship on shaded coffee system.
Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P
Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.
Full Text Available Brazilian coffee farming is carried out both on flat and steep lands. In flat areas, mechanized operations are intensive; however, in steep slope areas, certain mechanized operations cannot be performed, such as harvesting. Based on this, the industry has developed machinery to harvest coffee in areas with up to 30% slope. However, harvesters have their efficiency and operational performance influenced by land slope. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the operational performance and harvesting efficiency of a steep-slope harvester under different situations, using different speed settings. The experiment was carried out in the county of Santo Antônio do Amparo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using five coffee stands with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% slope. Evaluations were performed with a self-propelled harvester (Electron, TDI®, Araguari, MG, Brazil at three rotation speeds (600, 800 and 1.000 rpm and two ground speeds (800 and 1.000 m h-1. The results showed the lower speed (800 m h-1 was suitable for 10% slope areas since the amount of fallen coffee berries. For areas of 20% slope, harvesting time was 21.6% longer than in flatter areas. Downtime varied from 10.66 to 29.18% total harvest due to a higher number of maneuvers.
Full Text Available Hemileia vastatrix is the causal agent of coffee leaf rust, the most important disease of coffee (Coffea arabica. In this work, a 454-pyrosequencing transcriptome analysis of H. vastatrix germinating urediniospores (gU and appressoria (Ap was performed and compared to previously published in planta haustoria-rich (H data. A total of 9234 transcripts were identified and annotated. Ca. 50% of these transcripts showed no significant homology to international databases. Only 784 sequences were shared by the three conditions, and 75% were exclusive of either gU (2146, Ap (1479 or H (3270. Relative transcript abundance and RT-qPCR analyses for a selection of genes indicated a particularly active metabolism, translational activity and production of new structures in the appressoria and intense signalling, transport, secretory activity and cellular multiplication in the germinating urediniospores, suggesting the onset of a plant-fungus dialogue as early as at the germ tube stage. Gene expression related to the production of carbohydrate-active enzymes and accumulation of glycerol in germinating urediniospores and appressoria suggests that combined lytic and physical mechanisms are involved in appressoria-mediated penetration. Besides contributing to the characterisation of molecular processes leading to appressoria-mediated infection by rust fungi, these results point towards the identification of new H. vastatrix candidate virulence factors, with 516 genes predicted to encode secreted proteins.
What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.
This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and
Bech, Bodil Hammer
Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...... the effect of caffeine on mean birth weight and gestational age in a randomised controlled double-blinded trial with 1,207 women randomised to either caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee. We found no difference in mean birth weight or gestational age between children of mothers randomised...
Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand
The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...
Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.
Debastiani, R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.
The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.
Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.
The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans
Olesen, Birgitte Ravn
and ethnomethodology we – researchers - decided to study the interplay between practitioners and researchers negotiating on how a psychiatric patient who drinks too much coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the interlocutors’ different common......-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...
de Noronha, Thiago Rodrigo; Mitne-Neto, Miguel; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes
Karyotype (KT) aberrations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, around 50% of cases present normal results. Single nucleotide polymorphism array can detect chromosomal gains, losses or uniparental disomy that are invisible to KT, thus improving patients' risk assessment. However, when both tests are normal, important driver mutations can be detected by the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Fourteen adult patients with AML with normal cytogenetics were investigated by NGS for 19 AML-related genes. Every patient presented at least one mutation: DNMT3A in nine patients; IDH2 in six; IDH1 in three; NRAS and NPM1 in two; and TET2 , ASXL1 , PTPN11 , and RUNX1 in one patient. No mutations were found in FLT3 , KIT , JAK2 , CEBPA , GATA2 , TP53 , BRAF , CBL , KRAS, and WT1 genes. Twelve patients (86%) had at least one mutation in genes related with DNA methylation ( DNMT3A , IDH1 , IDH2, and TET2 ), which is involved in regulation of gene expression and genomic stability. All patients could be reclassified based on genomic status and nine had their prognosis modified. In summary, NGS offers insights into the molecular pathogenesis and biology of cytogenetically normal AML in Brazilian patients, indicating that the prognosis could be further stratified by different mutation combinations. This study shows a different frequency of mutations in Brazilian population that should be confirmed. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Nove amostras de café solúvel representativas das marcas brasileiras foram adquiridas no mercado e analisadas quanto a composição de ácidos clorogênicos, cafeína e trigonelina, através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os isômeros dos principais grupos de ácidos clorogênicos (ACG, ou seja, ácidos cafeoilquínicos (ACQ, dicafeoilquínicos (ADICQ e feruloilquínicos (AFQ foram determinados. O grupo de ACQ foi predominante em todas as amostras sendo o 5-ACQ o maior componente nas amostras. Os teores totais de ACG variaram de 0,6 a 5,9g%. As amostras com baixo teor de ACG foram provavelmente aquelas obtidas de grãos submetidos a torrefação intensa. Os teores de trigonelina foram também bastante variáveis situando-se na faixa de 0,3 a 1,0g% refletindo as diferentes condições de processamento utilizadas pelos fabricantes. Com exceção das amostras descafeinadas que apresentaram resíduo de 0,065g% os teores de cafeína situaram-se em torno de 2,7g%. A menor variabilidade nos teores de cafeína deve-se a sua alta estabilidade térmica. O conhecimento da composição do café solúvel, principalmente em relação aos compostos bioativos é relevante para o direcionamento de futuros estudos e para a avaliação da contribuição do café nos efeitos biológicos específicos da dieta.Nine Brazilian instant coffee samples were analysed for chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline using HPLC. Different isomers of chlorogenic acid (CGA in the groups of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA, dicaffeoylquinic acids (DICQA and feruloylquinic acids (FQA were determined. The isomers of the CQA group were predominant in all samples with 5-CQA being the most abundant. Total CGA levels varied from 0.6 to 5.9g%. The samples with lowest CGA content were probably the ones obtained from dark roasted coffee beans. The trigonelline levels varied between 0.3 to 1.0g% reflecting the different conditions used by the manufacturers. The decaffeinated
Coffee, coffee of high quality that meets the demands of sophisticated coffee drinkers. Income effect. The speciality coffee industry in Rwanda, is now helping to change lives of the people. By growing better quality coffee, producers are earnings more. While low-grade coffee sells for approximately US$ 2.1 per KG, speciality.
Besides drastic reduction in the forest cover and low average yield, the crop is attacked by several diseases among which coffee berry disease, coffee wilt disease and coffee leaf rust caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, Gibberella xylarioides and Hemileia vastatrix, respectively, are the major fungal diseases contributing to ...
Chimetto, L A; Brocchi, M; Gondo, M; Thompson, C C; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L
A taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi). Mucus of 54 cnidarian specimens collected in three different places at São Sebastião in two consecutive years (i.e. 2005 and 2006) was used for taxonomic characterization of the cnidarian microbiota. Ninety-eight of the 151 vibrio isolates fell within the vibrio core group according to partial 16S rDNA sequences. We performed the sequencing of recA and pyrH genes of all vibrio isolates. The most abundant taxa belonged to the vibrio core group (Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio alginolyticus), Vibrio mediterranei (=Vibrio shillonii) and Vibrio chagasii. With the exception of V. chagasii which was found only in the mucus of M. hispida, the other species appeared in different hosts with no evidence for the presence of host-specific clones or species. Using rep-PCR analysis, we observed a high genomic heterogeneity within the vibrios. Each vibrio isolate generated a different rep-PCR fingerprint pattern. There was a complete agreement between the grouping based on rep-PCR and concatenated sequences of pyrH, recA and 16S rDNA, but the pyrH gene has the highest discriminatory power for vibrio species identification. The vibrio core group is dominant in the mucus of these cnidarians. There is a tremendous diversity of vibrio lineages within the coral mucus. pyrH gene sequences permit a clear-cut identification of vibrios. The taxonomic resolution provided by pyrH (but not recA) appears to be enough for identifying species of vibrios and for disclosing putative new taxa. The vibrio core group appears to be dominant in the mucus of the Brazilian cnidarians. The overrepresentation of these vibrios may reflect as yet unknown ecological functions in the coral holobiont.
A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...
Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.
Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem
Raquel D. C. C. Bandeira
Full Text Available About 20% of Brazilian raw coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. Consequently, these beans are incorporated to good quality beans in the Brazilian market. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P, green (V and sour (A defective beans which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of immature, black-immature, black defective beans and PVA compared to good quality beans. Potential defective beans markers were identified.
Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti
Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.
Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort in a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.
Olesen, Birgitte Ravn
-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...
, I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...
Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)
... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...
Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan
There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.
Análise de compostos bioativos, grupos ácidos e da atividade antioxidante do café arábica (Coffea arabica do cerrado e de seus grãos defeituosos (PVA submetidos a diferentes torras Bioactive compounds, acids groups and antioxidant activity analysis of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica and its defective beans from the Brazilian savannah submitted to different roasting degrees
Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais
Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou os compostos bioativos (ácidos clorogênicos, trigonelina, cafeína, fenóis totais e proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos e atividade antioxidante de um café arábica proveniente do Cerrado Mineiro e de seu PVA (grãos pretos, verdes e ardidos. As amostras foram preparadas nas torras clara (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutos, média (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos e escura (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutos. Considerando-se a média das três torras do café e do PVA, a diferença observada no teor de todos os constituintes acima não foi significativa (p > 0,05, exceto com o teor de grupos hidroxila ácidos que foi ligeiramente superior no PVA e cafeína calculada pelo método semiquantitativo que foi superior no café. Portanto, dentre esses constituintes, os compostos com grupos ácidos seriam os únicos que poderiam contribuir para explicar a grande diferença de sabor existente entre o café de grãos sadios e o de PVA. Tanto o café como o PVA apresentaram atividade seqüestradora do radical DPPH. nas três torras, sendo a atividade do café sempre superior. Analisando-se as variações dos teores de cafeína, fenóis totais, proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos, trigonelina e ácidos clorogênicos, não foi possível explicar a atividade antioxidante superior apresentada pelo café da torra média (CE50 de 2,3 mg.mg-1 de DPPH..This work reports the results of the investigation of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total phenolics, and proanthocyanidins, total acid groups, and the antioxidant activity of the Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica from the Brazilian cerrado (vast tropical savannah (Minas Gerais state and its defective beans (Black, green, and sour beans. The samples were prepared using three roasting degrees: light (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutes, medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos, and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutes. Considering the
SILVA, Christian Luiz da
Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem como objetivo verificar se as estratégias de diferenciação das empresas de torrefação e moagem por meio de novas tecnologias de produto têm sido percebidas pelos consumidores brasileiros. Para isso, foi correlacionado o perfil da demanda com a evolução de consumo (preço e quantidade dos diferentes tipos de café, adquiridos a partir de dados mensais de 2002 a 2004, classificados em grupos de produtos: café Gourmet, Tradicional moído e moído a Vácuo puro. Os principais resultados mostraram uma mudança comportamental, ainda que singela, no período analisado. Os cafés Gourmet e a Vácuo ganharam mercado em relação ao produto tradicional, uma vez que apresenta maior valor agregado. Considerando a pequena modificação da restrição orçamentária no período em análise na região estudada, concluiu-se que a mudança estratégica permitiu ampliar a participação do café na cesta de produto dos consumidores a partir do valor adicionado, conquistado pela diferenciação nas características, principalmente, sensorial do produto.ABSTRACTThis article aims to verify whether Brazilian consumers have perceived the differentiation strategies of roasting and grinding companies. For that purpose, the profile of the demand for different types of coffee was correlated with their consumption history (price and quantity. 2002 and 2004 monthly data series from Sao Paulo metropolitan region were classified into the following groups of coffee products: Gourmet, Ground Traditional and Vacuum Ground. The main results showed a behavioral change, albeit small, in the period studied. Compared against the Traditional type, the Gourmet and Vacuum types have gained market share, once they present a higher added value. Considering that there was an almost imperceptible change in the budgetary restriction of the consumers in the period and region analyzed, it is concluded that the strategic change, i.e., added value through
coffee. Similar reports of dysphoria M 27 when caffeine deprived and reports of positive feelings when caffeine has been ingested by heavy coffee...assessed. Questions regarding personal information such as age, gender , education, and income were presented in multiple-choice format. Additionally...coffee left, nor were demand or noise manipulations, p’s > .05. Gender and having had some college education, as the only two background variables
Roselli, C.; Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Rongoni, A.; Saetta, D.
This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210 Po and natural gamma emitters as 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137 Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210 Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10 -2 Bq kg -1 . 40 K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, indicators of 226 Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg -1 . 228 Ac, 228 Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 212 Pb, 224 Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg -1 . 208 Tl, 224 Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg -1 . In all samples, the artificial 137 Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg -1 ). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210 Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 208 Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 208 Tl respectively. (author)
Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Kyunga; Ahn, Younjhin; Yang, Mihi; Lee, Jung Eun
The association between coffee intake and type 2 diabetes may be modulated by common genetic variation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between habitual coffee intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes and to determine whether this association varied by genetic polymorphisms related to type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. A population-based cohort study over a follow-up of 4 years was conducted. A total of 4077 Korean men and women aged 40-69 years with a normal glucose level at baseline were included. Coffee intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and incident type 2 diabetes or prediabetes was defined by oral glucose tolerance test or fasting blood glucose test. The genomic DNA samples were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0, and nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to type 2 diabetes in East Asian populations were extracted. A total of 120 cases of type 2 diabetes and 1128 cases of prediabetes were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, we observed an inverse association, but without any clear linear trend, between coffee intake and the combined risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. We found that inverse associations between habitual coffee intake and the combined risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were limited to those with the T-allele (GT/TT) of rs4402960 in IGF2BP2, those with the G-allele (GG/GC) of rs7754840 in CDKAL1, or those with CC of rs5215 in KCNJ11. We found a lower risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined with coffee intake among individuals with the GT/TT of IGF2BP2 rs4402960, GG/GC of CDKAL1 rs7754840, or CC of KCNJ11 rs5215, which are known to be related to type 2 diabetes in East Asians. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Luciana Benjamim Benatti
Full Text Available We compared the biochemical characteristics of the beans of a naturally decaffeinated Arabica coffee (AC1 discovered in 2004 with those of the widely grown Brazilian Arabica cultivar "Mundo Novo" (MN. Although we observed differences during fruit development, the contents of amino acids, organic acids, chlorogenic acids, soluble sugars and trigonelline were similar in the ripe fruits of AC1 and MN. AC1 beans accumulated theobromine, and caffeine was almost entirely absent. Tests on the supply of [2-14C] adenine and enzymatic analysis of theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase in the endosperm of AC1 confirmed that, as in the leaves, caffeine synthesis is blocked during the methylation of theobromine to caffeine. The quality of the final coffee beverage obtained from AC1 was similar to that of MN.
Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo
Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.
This indicates that intercropping coffee with plantain will improve its physiological growth than when grown as sole crop. The land equivalent ratio was recorded for coffee/plantain intercrop in all the locations. Consequently, coffee/plantain intercrop is recommended for coffee farmers in the first three years after transplanting ...
Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.
Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.
The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee
Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.
Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's expanding coffee industry. PMID:19283060
Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A
The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.
Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald
Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.
Aloysius Gunadi, Brata
In the last two decades, the world price of coffee has fallen significantly. The crisis has suffered millions of small coffee farmers in developing countries. However, in contrast to Latin America and Africa, studies on the impact of recent coffee crisis on the farmers tend to neglect Indonesia, one of the important coffee producing countries in Asia. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of recent coffee crisis on the Pasemah coffee farmers. The Pasemah highland, in Lahat Distri...
In December 2008, the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) opened a new coffee platform that has transformed Ethiopia’s coffee trade. The way ECX handles coffee in a commodity fashion has eroded traceability, a characteristic sought after by overseas coffee buyers. This paper traces the forces that give rise to the commoditization of coffee. An empirical analysis using a dataset on export coffee transactions supports the view that eroded traceability suppresses the export price of non-traceable...
Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie
A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.
The experimental design was RCB with five treatments coffee sole, coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and coffee/maize/cassava/plantain, replicated four times. Results obtained showed that in the coffee /plantain intercrop was significantly taller in height than recorded for other intercrop. The same trend obtained ...
Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Viegas, Marcelo Caldeira; De Conti, Antonio José; Corso, Marinês Paula; Benassi, Marta de Toledo
Between 15 and 20% of Brazilian coffee production corresponds to defective beans (PVA), which decreases the quality of the coffee brew. Steam treatment has been reported as an alternative to improve the volatile profile and cup quality of coffee. The aim of this study was to propose a steam treatment of defective Coffea canephora beans to improve the volatile profile of the roasted coffee. The sensory impacts of adding steamed coffee (SC) in Coffea arabica blends were evaluated. The steam treatments studied modified the volatile profile of roasted SCs, increasing the contents of acetoin, benzyl alcohol, maltol, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-furfurylthiol, and 5-methylfurfural and decreasing the contents of 4-ethylguaiacol, isovaleric acid, methional, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Among the evaluated parameters, the best condition to maximized the content of the volatiles with a potential positive impact and minimize those with a potential negative impact was 5bar/16min (SC 5). The thresholds of consumer rejection and of detection indicate that up to 30% SC 5 can be added to a high cup quality Coffea arabica coffee without perception or rejection of the coffee brew. A blend of 30% of SC 5 and 70% of Coffea arabica was well accepted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stegen, G.H.D. van der
The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee
Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.
Consumption among University Students in Nigeria. Adekunle Anthony Adegoke. Abstract. This paper examined the psycho physiological effects of coffee consumption as reported by University students. The relationship between coffee consumption ... and psychical performance but experimental support for this belief is.
Francisco, Carolina S; Ceresini, Paulo C; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D
Xylella fastidiosa, an economically important plant-pathogenic bacterium, infects both coffee and citrus trees in Brazil. Although X. fastidiosa in citrus is well studied, knowledge about the population structure of this bacterium infecting coffee remains unknown. Here, we studied the population structure of X. fastidiosa infecting coffee trees in São Paulo State, Brazil, in four regions where citrus is also widely cultivated. Genotyping of over 500 isolates from coffee plants using 14 genomic microsatellite markers indicated that populations were largely geographically isolated, as previously found with populations of X. fastidiosa infecting citrus. These results were supported by a clustering analysis, which indicated three major genetic groups among the four sampled regions. Overall, approximately 38% of isolates showed significant membership coefficients not related to their original geographical populations (i.e., migrants), characterizing a significant degree of genotype flow among populations. To determine whether admixture occurred between isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants, one site with citrus and coffee orchards adjacent to each other was selected; over 100 isolates were typed from each host plant. No signal of natural admixture between citrus- and coffee-infecting isolates was found; artificial cross-infection assays with representative isolates also yielded no successful cross infection. A comparison determined that X. fastidiosa populations from coffee have higher genetic diversity and allelic richness compared with citrus. The results showed that coffee and citrus X. fastidiosa populations are effectively isolated from each other and, although coffee populations are spatially structured, migration has an important role in shaping diversity.
Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier
Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...
Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...
Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.
Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...
Ho, Lap; Varghese, Merina; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Fei; Knable, Lindsay Alexis; Ferruzzi, Mario; Pasinetti, Giulio M
There is accumulating evidence that coffee consumption may reduce risk for type 2 diabetes, a known risk factor for Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases. Coffee consumption is also associated with reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementias. However, preventive and therapeutic development of coffee is complicated by the cardiovascular side effects of caffeine intake. As coffee is also a rich source of chlorogenic acids and many bioactive compounds other than caffeine, we hypothesized that decaffeinated coffee drinks may exert beneficial effects on the brain. We have investigated whether dietary supplementation with a standardized decaffeinated green coffee preparation, Svetol®, might modulate diet-induced insulin resistance and brain energy metabolism dysfunction in a high-fat diet mouse model. As expected, dietary supplementation with Svetol® significantly attenuated the development of high-fat diet-induced deficits in glucose-tolerance response. We have also found that Svetol®) treatment improved brain mitochondrial energy metabolism as determined by oxygen consumption rate. Consistent with this evidence, follow-up gene expression profiling with Agilent whole-genome microarray revealed that the decaffeinated coffee treatment modulated a number of genes in the brain that are implicated in cellular energy metabolism. Our evidence is the first demonstration that dietary supplementation with a decaffeinated green coffee preparation may beneficially influence the brain, in particular promoting brain energy metabolic processes.
Giannetti, B.F.; Ogura, Y.; Bonilla, S.H. [Universidade Paulista, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, R. Dr. Bacelar, 1212 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Almeida, C.M.V.B., E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Paulista, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, R. Dr. Bacelar, 1212 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)
Cerrado, a savannah region, is Brazil's second largest ecosystem after the Amazon rainforest and is also threatened with imminent destruction. In the present study emergy synthesis was applied to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm located in Coromandel, Minas Gerais, in the Brazilian Cerrado. The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated by comparing the emergy indices along ten years in order to assess the energy flows driving the production process, and to determine the best production model combining productivity and environmental performance. The emergy indices are presented as a function of the annual crop. Results show that Santo Inacio farm should produce approximately 20 bags of green coffee per hectare to accomplish its best performance regarding both the production efficiency and the environment. The evaluation of coffee trade complements those obtained by contrasting productivity and environmental performance, and despite of the market prices variation, the optimum interval for Santo Inacio's farm is between 10 and 25 coffee bags/ha. - Highlights: > Emergy synthesis is used to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm in Brazil. > The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated along ten years. > The energy flows driving the production process were assessed. > The best production model combining productivity and environmental performance was determined.
Giannetti, B.F.; Ogura, Y.; Bonilla, S.H.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.
Cerrado, a savannah region, is Brazil's second largest ecosystem after the Amazon rainforest and is also threatened with imminent destruction. In the present study emergy synthesis was applied to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm located in Coromandel, Minas Gerais, in the Brazilian Cerrado. The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated by comparing the emergy indices along ten years in order to assess the energy flows driving the production process, and to determine the best production model combining productivity and environmental performance. The emergy indices are presented as a function of the annual crop. Results show that Santo Inacio farm should produce approximately 20 bags of green coffee per hectare to accomplish its best performance regarding both the production efficiency and the environment. The evaluation of coffee trade complements those obtained by contrasting productivity and environmental performance, and despite of the market prices variation, the optimum interval for Santo Inacio's farm is between 10 and 25 coffee bags/ha. - Highlights: → Emergy synthesis is used to assess the environmental performance of a coffee farm in Brazil. → The effects of land use on sustainability were evaluated along ten years. → The energy flows driving the production process were assessed. → The best production model combining productivity and environmental performance was determined.
Ramalho, T.O.; Figueira, A.R.; Sotero, A.J. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Wang, R. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Geraldino Duarte, P.S. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Farman, M. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Goodin, M.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States)
The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays.
Ramalho, T.O.; Figueira, A.R.; Sotero, A.J.; Wang, R.; Geraldino Duarte, P.S.; Farman, M.; Goodin, M.M.
The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays
Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.
Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of
Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.
Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)
In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)
Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš
The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.
Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del
In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.
HIGH7 ROUT I NE 1>COFFEE0QUTA2= COFFE §UTA2 EXCEPT tQHD5,C 2>ENAEO05 XSMO 5 EXAFREQH CEXBAEQ5Exl 4> COFFEE @QUOtA2= COFF W OCT7R Q0 >EXNME EXSAI4OT1HEE , 5...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee
Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse
An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...
Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Quach, Austin; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate
Beneficial health effects have been attributed to coffee consumption, but it is not yet known whether epigenetics may have a role in this process. Here we associate epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels to habitual coffee consumption from two studies with blood (2100 and 215 participants), and one with saliva samples (256 participants). Adjusting for age, gender, and blood cell composition, one CpG (cg21566642 near ALPPL2) surpassed genome-wide significance (P=3.7 × 10 -10 ) and from among 10 additional CpGs significant at P≤5.0 × 10 -6 , six were located within 1500 bps of a transcriptional start site. Results for these 11 top-ranked CpGs remained significant after further adjusting for smoking. Also, methylation levels of another 135 CpGs were influenced by both coffee drinking and smoking (P≤1.0 × 10 -7 ). Functional enrichment analysis suggested that coffee-associated CpGs were located near transcription factor binding (P=1.2 × 10 -6 ) and protein kinase activity genes (P=2.9 × 10 -5 ). Interestingly, when we stratified by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), methylation differences with coffee consumption were observed only in women who never used MHT. We did not replicate any of the associations found in blood in our saliva samples, suggesting that coffee may affect DNA methylation levels in immune cells of the blood but not in saliva.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.
Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A
Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.
Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.
Full Text Available This study examines the empowerment of low-power, vulnerable stakeholders of global, complex supply chains as one effective strategy to increase value co-creation and to moderate the vulnerabilities that threaten supply chain resilience. Previous scholars have indicated the necessity of investigating the concept of value co-creation further by including various stakeholder perspectives and suggesting systems of evaluation. This research thus focuses on low-power smallholder farmers within the coffee supply chain by qualitatively evaluating the effectiveness of value co-creation projects. The study also analyzes the extent of development and the nature of empowerment initiatives designed conjointly by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs and coffee roasters that are addressed to farmers. The mixed qualitative methodology includes a literature review, interviews, focus groups, and content analysis of 20 value co-creation projects conducted in various developing and emerging coffee-producing countries. The research proposes a theoretical framework employed to conduct focus groups with Brazilian coffee farmers. This framework empirically demonstrates that these farmers are in the process of becoming business partners of the coffee supply chain thanks to various empowerment initiatives, common to most of the analyzed projects, that appear to moderate specific vulnerabilities of the coffee supply chain and therefore benefit supply chain resilience.
Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column
food deficit areas, migration of people, government policies and technological innovations which facilitated surplus production' (Hinderink and Sterkenburg, 1987). Households in the study areas are heavily dependent on coffee, both as a source of cash income and livelihood. Compared to the national average, they ...
Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes
Kenworthy, Eldon; Schaeffer, Eric
Discusses one result of globalization that more of what people consume comes from distant regions through complex transitions hidden from ordinary view. Outlines the advantages of studying the coffee chain to understand its relationship to consumer choice and environmental issues. (Author/ASK)
Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.
In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…
Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Privat, Isabelle; Bardil, Amélie; Gomez, Aureliano Bombarely; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Fuentes, Ivanna; Mueller, Lukas; Joët, Thierry; Pot, David; Foucrier, Séverine; Dussert, Stéphane; Leroy, Thierry; Journot, Laurent; de Kochko, Alexandre; Campa, Claudine; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe; Bertrand, Benoit
Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.
The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.
Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)
Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V
Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.
Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan
The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J
Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. ...
Andueza, S. (Susana); Vila, M.A. (María A.); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción)
Espresso coffee is a polyphasic beverage in which the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics obviously depend on both the selection of ground roasted coffee and the technical conditions of the percolation process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the coffee/water ratio on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of espresso coffee. Furthermore, the influence of botanical varieties (Arabica and Robusta) and the type of roast (conventional and torrefacto) on the selec...
Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan
Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In dealing with the psychological effects of coffee a distinction is drawn between three components of the subjective or experimential effect: the primary effect, which relates to the perception of the coffee beverage; the secondary effect, which stems from the ergotropic effect of coffee; and the tertiary effect, which is due to visceral sensations and which is a major contributor to the experience of digestability and wholesomeness. Results pertaining to these three components, their interaction, and their correlation with physiological and behavioral effects of coffee are discussed. The variability of research findings relating to the secondary effect is explained on the basis of the psychological activation theory. Relevant motivational, attitudinal, and moderator effects, which psychological coffee research will have to take into account, are described. Methods already available for psychological coffee research, including suitable techniques of experimentation and measurement, are presented together with three illustrative examples.
Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.
Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko
Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen
Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.
Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.
Cano-Marquina, A; Tarín, J J; Cano, A
Coffee is a beverage used worldwide. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implication on health. We have reviewed publications on the impact of coffee on a series of health outcomes. Articles published between January 1990 and December 2012 were selected after crossing coffee or caffeine with a list of keywords representative of the most relevant health areas potentially affected by coffee intake. Caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes are important components of coffee. Tolerance often acts as a modulator of the biological actions of coffee. There is a significant impact of coffee on the cardiovascular system, and on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Contrary to previous beliefs, the various forms of arterial cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia or heart insufficiency seem unaffected by coffee intake. Coffee is associated with a reduction in the incidence of diabetes and liver disease. Protection seems to exist also for Parkinson's disease among the neurological disorders, while its potential as an osteoporosis risk factor is under debate. Its effect on cancer risk depends on the tissue concerned, although it appears to favor risk reduction. Coffee consumption seems to reduce mortality. The information gathered in recent years has generated a new concept of coffee, one which does not match the common belief that coffee is mostly harmful. This view is further supported by the discovery of a series of phyto-components with a beneficial profile. Reasonable optimism needs to be tempered, however, by the insufficiency of the clinical data, which in most cases stem from observational studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blinová Lenka; Bartošová Alica; Sirotiak Maroš
The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from ...
Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan
This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.
RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA; ROXANA SARBU; ELENA CONDREA
The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many...
I. Pokorná; L. Smutka
This article deals with the trade with coffee. The primary aim of the paper is to analyse the international coffee trade. Because coffee belongs to the cash crops we have focus on the production. We have analysed the structure of the trade concerning the green (not roasted) coffee, roasted coffee and coffee extracts, essences or concentrates. The analyses of production show enormous differences between developed and developing countries on the supply side. Dissimilarity appeared in the price ...
Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr
Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna
For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...
Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E
Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS...... additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.002, 0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI: 0...
Verwaarloosbare hoeveelheden cholesterolverhogende diterpenen in koffie gezet met de koffiepadzetmethode bij vergelijking met ongefilterde kookkoffie=Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee
Boekschoten, M.V.; Cruchten, van S.T.J.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Katan, M.B.
The objective of this research was to determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee
Florez, Juan Carlos; Mofatto, Luciana Souto; do Livramento Freitas-Lopes, Rejane; Ferreira, Sávio Siqueira; Zambolim, Eunize Maciel; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Zambolim, Laércio; Caixeta, Eveline Teixeira
We provide a transcriptional profile of coffee rust interaction and identified putative up regulated resistant genes Coffee rust disease, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the major diseases in coffee throughout the world. The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective control strategy for this disease. To identify candidate genes related to different mechanism defense in coffee, we present a time-course comparative gene expression profile of Caturra (susceptible) and Híbrido de Timor (HdT, resistant) in response to H. vastatrix race XXXIII infection. The main objectives were to obtain a global overview of transcriptome in both interaction, compatible and incompatible, and, specially, analyze up-regulated HdT specific genes with inducible resistant and defense signaling pathways. Using both Coffea canephora as a reference genome and de novo assembly, we obtained 43,159 transcripts. At early infection events (12 and 24 h after infection), HdT responded to the attack of H. vastatrix with a larger number of up-regulated genes than Caturra, which was related to prehaustorial resistance. The genes found in HdT at early hours were involved in receptor-like kinases, response ion fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species, protein phosphorylation, ethylene biosynthesis and callose deposition. We selected 13 up-regulated HdT-exclusive genes to validate by real-time qPCR, which most of them confirmed their higher expression in HdT than in Caturra at early stage of infection. These genes have the potential to assist the development of new coffee rust control strategies. Collectively, our results provide understanding of expression profiles in coffee-H. vastatrix interaction over a time course in susceptible and resistant coffee plants.
Ek, Weronica E; Tobi, Elmar W; Ahsan, Muhammad; Lampa, Erik; Ponzi, Erica; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Lumey, L H; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Botsivali, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Karlsson, Torgny; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Palli, Domenico; Ingelsson, Erik; Hedman, Åsa K; Nilsson, Lena M; Vineis, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Flanagan, James M; Johansson, Åsa
Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNA methylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea have been suggested to play an important role in modulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. These mechanisms may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation. To investigate if DNA methylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N = 3,096). DNA methylation was measured from whole blood at 421,695 CpG sites distributed throughout the genome and analysed in men and women both separately and together in each cohort. Meta-analyses of the results and additional regional-level analyses were performed. After adjusting for multiple testing, the meta-analysis revealed that two individual CpG-sites, mapping to DNAJC16 and TTC17, were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. No individual sites were associated with men or with the sex-combined analysis for tea or coffee. The regional analysis revealed that 28 regions were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. These regions contained genes known to interact with estradiol metabolism and cancer. No significant regions were found in the sex-combined and male-only analysis for either tea or coffee consumption. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the
Laitala, Venla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri
Coffee is a highly popular drink associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases and the use of tobacco and alcohol. Considering the worldwide consumption, coffee has a substantial effect on individual wellbeing and public health. The role of genetic factors contributing to interindividual differences and their stability in coffee use is not well known. We analysed the heritability of coffee consumption and its stability in a large population-based sample of Finnish twins. In 1975 and 1981 a postal questionnaire on coffee consumption was sent to all Finnish same-sex twin pairs born before 1958. Responses were obtained from 10 716 complete twin pairs in 1975 (3409 monozygotic and 7307 dizygotic), of whom 8124 also responded in 1981. The data were analysed using classical twin modelling based on linear structural equations. Additive genetic and unique environmental factors affected coffee drinking, whereas shared environmental factors did not show any effect. Heritability of coffee consumption, adjusted for age and sex, was estimated as 0.56 in 1975 and 0.45 in 1981. Coffee consumption showed a moderate correlation between these two time-points (r = 0.58 in men and 0.55 in women). Genetic factors affecting coffee consumption were stable: additive genetic correlations were 0.84 in men and 0.83 in women, whereas unique environmental correlations were moderate (0.45 and 0.36). Additive genetic factors had the highest contribution in young adults. Coffee consumption is affected by both additive genetic and unique environmental factors, each of which plays an almost equally important role. The long-term stability of coffee consumption is affected mainly by a stable set of additive genetic factors.
RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA
Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..
Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F
The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Luciano, Michelle; Zhu, Ghu; Kirk, Katherine M; Gordon, Scott D; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G
Previous genetic investigations of sleep disturbance have shown various measures of sleep quality and sleep pattern to be heritable. But none of these studies have investigated the genetic predisposition to sleep disturbance attributed to caffeine. In this study, the heritability of coffee-attributed sleep disturbance and its relationship with other sleep measures were estimated, and chromosomal regions influencing this trait were identified. A classical twin design was used to estimate the heritability of coffee-attributed sleep disturbance and its genetic covariance with other measures of sleep disturbance (e.g., due to anxiety, depression) and sleep quality (e.g., variability in sleep quality). To locate quantitative trait loci influencing coffee-attributed sleep disturbance, a genome-wide linkage screen of 1395 microsatellite markers was performed. The study included 3808 Australian adult twin pairs (n = 1799 monozygous pairs; n = 2009 dizygous pairs). A subsample of 1989 individuals from 1175 families was used for the linkage analysis. The heritability of coffee-attributed sleep disturbance (measured by self report) was approximately 0.40, with three fourths of this genetic variance explained by genes unrelated to the general sleep disturbance factor. One region of significant linkage to coffee-attributed sleep disturbance was identified on chromosome 2q (LOD score of 2.9). Although no candidate genes known to be related to caffeine metabolism or sleep disorder were identified in the significant linkage region, 2 candidates were found under a smaller peak on chromosome 17q.
Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi
Instant coffee contains natural potassium-40 and is a very comprehensible educational tool for illustrating naturally existing radiations and radioisotopes because potassium-40 emits radiations. In the present study, a compression and formation method was applied to 10 varieties of commercially available instant coffees and 10 coffee block radiation sources were fabricated. Thus fabricated radiation sources were examined by comparing their dimensions (side length and thickness), weights and radioactivity of 40 K. For comparison, radioactivity of 40 K contained in 6 varieties of commercially available regular coffees was also measured. It was found that the dimensions and weights of the fabricated radiation sources did not significantly vary by difference of instant coffees, and the average radioactivity of 40 K contained in the 10 coffee block radiation sources was 16.6 Bq, being about 1.7 times more intensive than that of regular coffees. (author)
Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B
We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.
James L Crainey
Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.
Valdisser, Paula A M R; Pereira, Wendell J; Almeida Filho, Jâneo E; Müller, Bárbara S F; Coelho, Gesimária R C; de Menezes, Ivandilson P P; Vianna, João P G; Zucchi, Maria I; Lanna, Anna C; Coelho, Alexandre S G; de Oliveira, Jaison P; Moraes, Alessandra da Cunha; Brondani, Claudio; Vianello, Rosana P
Common bean is a legume of social and nutritional importance as a food crop, cultivated worldwide especially in developing countries, accounting for an important source of income for small farmers. The availability of the complete sequences of the two common bean genomes has dramatically accelerated and has enabled new experimental strategies to be applied for genetic research. DArTseq has been widely used as a method of SNP genotyping allowing comprehensive genome coverage with genetic applications in common bean breeding programs. Using this technology, 6286 SNPs (1 SNP/86.5 Kbp) were genotyped in genic (43.3%) and non-genic regions (56.7%). Genetic subdivision associated to the common bean gene pools (K = 2) and related to grain types (K = 3 and K = 5) were reported. A total of 83% and 91% of all SNPs were polymorphic within the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools, respectively, and 26% were able to differentiate the gene pools. Genetic diversity analysis revealed an average H E of 0.442 for the whole collection, 0.102 for Andean and 0.168 for Mesoamerican gene pools (F ST = 0.747 between gene pools), 0.440 for the group of cultivars and lines, and 0.448 for the group of landrace accessions (F ST = 0.002 between cultivar/line and landrace groups). The SNP effects were predicted with predominance of impact on non-coding regions (77.8%). SNPs under selection were identified within gene pools comparing landrace and cultivar/line germplasm groups (Andean: 18; Mesoamerican: 69) and between the gene pools (59 SNPs), predominantly on chromosomes 1 and 9. The LD extension estimate corrected for population structure and relatedness (r 2 SV ) was ~ 88 kbp, while for the Andean gene pool was ~ 395 kbp, and for the Mesoamerican was ~ 130 kbp. For common bean, DArTseq provides an efficient and cost-effective strategy of generating SNPs for large-scale genome-wide studies. The DArTseq resulted in an operational panel of 560 polymorphic SNPs in
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink
Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...
Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. ... Summary: Several epidemiological evidences indicate that consumption of coffee is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) however; there is dearth of experimental data to support these ...
This paper examined the psycho physiological effects of coffee consumption as reported by University students. The relationship between coffee consumption and anxiety was also explored. It was hypothesized that heavy caffeine users would report significantly higher anxiety and more psychophysical symptoms of ...
Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta
For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.
Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.
Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder
Bekedam, E.K.; Roos, E.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.
Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are
The worldwide turndown in coffee revenue to the majority of resource poor primary producers has become a serious threat to sustainable development. There is however inadequate knowledge with respect to mechanisms used by resource poor coffee farmers to stave off situations of economic hardship.
Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.
George, Sunitha Elizabeth; Ramalakshmi, Kulathooran; Mohan Rao, Lingamallu Jagan
Coffee, consumed for its refreshing and stimulating effect, belongs to the tribe Coffea of the subfamily Cinchonoidea of Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a complex chemical mixture composed of several chemicals. It is responsible for a number of bioactivities and a number of compounds accounting for these effects. Few of the significant bioactivities documented are antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, antimutagenic activity etc. Various compounds responsible for the chemoprotective effects of coffee are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, kahweol, cafestol, and other phenolics. Coffee also shows protective or adverse effects on various systems like the skeletal (bone) system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the homocysteine levels, the cholesterol levels etc. Harmful effects of coffee are associated with people who are sensitive to stimulants. Overall, with the available information, it can be concluded that the moderate consumption, corresponding to 3 to 4 cups/day with average strength is safer to human health.
Gouvea, B M; Torres, C; Franca, A S; Oliveira, L S; Oliveira, E S
The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Batch fermentation studies were performed employing whole and ground coffee husks, and aqueous extract from ground coffee husks. It was observed that fermentation yield decreased with an increase in yeast concentration. The best results were obtained for the following conditions: whole coffee husks, 3 g yeast/l substrate, temperature of 30 degrees C. Under these conditions ethanol production was 8.49 +/- 0.29 g/100 g dry basis (13.6 +/- 0.5 g ethanol/l), a satisfactory value in comparison to literature data for other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (5-11 g ethanol/l). Such results indicate that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production.
Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto
The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.
Ooi Ee Shan; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang
Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea can...
Coffee is attacked by various disease-causing organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, insects and weeds. One of the limiting factors for coffee production ... Keywords/phrases: Biological control, Coffee, Coffee wilt disease, Fusarium xylarioides (Gibberella xylarioides) Ethiop. J. Biol. Sci. 11(1): 65-103, 2012 ...
Yamazawa, Kazuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki
The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness. The participants were 59 Japanese undergraduate students. Men preferred sweeter coffee than women, while both men and women showed almost the same preference for acidic beverage sweetness. The sex difference in preferences for coffee sweetness may be related to coffee-drinking habits.
Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...
Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.
Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460,. Riyadh 11451 ... coffee alone. However, coffee with cardamom had more pronounced effects than coffee with cloves. Keywords: High-fat diet, Diabetes, Antioxidant, Arabian coffee, Cardamom, Cloves.
Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation.
Effect of shade trees species on coffee production in Manasibu district, West Ethiopia was assessed by the current study. It was aimed to (i) identify the most suitable dominant shade tree species for coffee production; (ii) assess the status of coffee production under different dominant coffee shade trees and unshaded areas ...
The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...
Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.
The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).
Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon
Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnai...
Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia; Teixeira, J. A.
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been m...
Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.
Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcaffeine contained in X, Y, and Z coffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.
Tavares, K. M.; Pereira, R. G. F. A.; Nunes, C. A.; Pinheiro, A. C. M.; Rodarte, M. P.; Guerreiro, M. C.
Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics were used to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee by addition of coffee husks. Consumers' sensory perception of the adulteration was evaluated by a triangular test of the coffee beverages. Samples containing above 0.5% of coffee husks from pure coffees were discriminated by principal component analysis of the infrared spectra. A partial least-squares regression estimated the husk content in samples and presented a root-mean-square error...
Golan, Jennifer; Lay, Jann
Focusing on intra-household allocation, we investigate the effects of coffee market liberalisation in Uganda. As coffee has traditionally been a male domain, higher income from this activity might increase gender disparities. In addition, gender-related inefficiency in household production might undermine the positive impact of improved incentives. Using data from three household surveys conducted between 1992 and 2006, we estimate Engel curves, coffee yield and labour input equations incorpo...
Holland, Emil Bæk; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren
Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers and coopera...... is a coordination device that allows for bringing out differences in how quality is done in practice. Coffee, in this event, is not a fixed object, but shifts as issues of quality are brought up in tasting. This suggests a decentering of the object on the issue of quality....
Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S
The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biolo...
Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.
Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.
Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties
Ahmed, Ismaïl; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lill, Christina M; Searles Nielsen, Susan; Artaud, Fanny; Gallagher, Lisa G; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Mulot, Claire; Nacfer, Magali; Liu, Tian; Biernacka, Joanna ,; Armasu, Sebastian; Anderson, Kari; Farin, Federico ,; Lassen, Christina Funch
International audience; Overview The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) involves both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures. In particular, coffee consumption is inversely associated with PD but the mechanisms underlying this intriguing association are unknown. According to a recent genome-wide gene–environment interaction study, the inverse coffee–PD association was two times stronger among carriers of the T allele of SNP rs4998386 in gene GRIN2A than in homozygotes for the C al...
Katherine W. Reeves
Full Text Available There is plausible biological evidence as well as epidemiologic evidence to suggest coffee consumption may lower endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between self-reported total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, and endometrial cancer risk using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study Research Materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biological Specimen and Data Repository Coordinating Center. Our primary analyses included 45,696 women and 427 incident endometrial cancer cases, diagnosed over a total of 342,927 person-years of follow-up. We used Cox-proportional hazard models to evaluate coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk. Overall, we did not find an association between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk. Compared to non-daily drinkers (none or < 1 cup/day, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for women who drank ≥4 cups/day were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.63, 1.18 for total coffee, 0.89 (95% CI 0.63, 1.27 for caffeinated coffee, and 0.51 (95% CI 0.25, 1.03 for decaf coffee. In subgroup analyses by body mass index (BMI there were no associations among normal-weight and overweight women for total coffee and caffeinated coffee. However among obese women, compared to the referent group (none or < 1 cup/day, the hazard ratios for women who drank ≥2 cups/day were: 0.72 (95% CI 0.50, 1.04 for total coffee and 0.66 (95% CI 0.45, 0.97 for caffeinated coffee. Hazard ratios for women who drank ≥2 cups/day for decaffeinated coffee drinkers were 0.67 (0.43–1.06, 0.93 (0.55–1.58 and 0.80 (0.49–1.30 for normal, overweight and obese women, respectively. Our study suggests that caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with lower endometrial cancer risk among obese postmenopausal women, but the association with decaffeinated coffee remains unclear.
Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.
Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.
Pessôa, Rodrigo; Loureiro, Paula; Esther Lopes, Maria; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P; Sanabani, Sabri S
Here, we aimed to gain a comprehensive picture of the HIV-1 diversity in the northeast and southeast part of Brazil. To this end, a high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis protocol and instrument were used to characterize the near full length (NFLG) and partial HIV-1 proviral genome in 259 HIV-1 infected blood donors at four major blood centers in Brazil: Pro-Sangue foundation (São Paulo state (SP), n 51), Hemominas foundation (Minas Gerais state (MG), n 41), Hemope foundation (Recife state (PE), n 96) and Hemorio blood bank (Rio de Janeiro (RJ), n 70). A total of 259 blood samples were obtained from 195 donors with long-standing infections and 64 donors with a lack of stage information. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to amplify the HIV-1 NFLGs from five overlapping fragments. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. Of the 259 samples studied, 208 (80%) NFLGs and 49 (18.8%) partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Of these 257 samples, 183 (71.2%) were pure subtypes consisting of clade B (n = 167, 65%), C (n = 10, 3.9%), F1 (n = 4, 1.5%), and D (n = 2, 0.7%). Recombinant viruses were detected in 74 (28.8%) samples and consist of unique BF1 (n = 41, 15.9%), BC (n = 7, 2.7%), BCF1 (n = 4, 1.5%), CF1 and CDK (n = 1, 0.4%, each), CRF70_BF1 (n = 4, 1.5%), CRF71_BF1 (n = 12, 4.7%), and CRF72_BF1 (n = 4, 1.5%). Evidence of dual infection was detected in four patients coinfected with the same subtype (n = 3) and distinct subtype (n = 1). Based on this work, subtype B appears to be the prevalent subtype followed by a high proportion of intersubtype recombinants that appeared to be arising continually in this country. Our study represents the largest analysis of the viral NFLG ever undertaken worldwide and provides insights into the understanding the genesis of the HIV-1 epidemic in this particular area of South America and
Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš
Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
Sep 26, 2017 ... Global warming is threatening coffee production and the economies of small countries that rely on it to make a living. In Colombia, producers and scientists are keeping a close eye on the situation.
Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc., but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.
The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein
Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal
The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adauto Ferreira Barcelos
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.
Missio, R F; Caixeta, E T; Zambolim, E M; Pena, G F; Zambolim, L; Dias, L A S; Sakiyama, N S
Coffee is one of the main agrifood commodities traded worldwide. In 2009, coffee accounted for 6.1% of the value of Brazilian agricultural production, generating a revenue of US$6 billion. Despite the importance of coffee production in Brazil, it is supported by a narrow genetic base, with few accessions. Molecular differentiation and diversity of a coffee breeding program were assessed with gSSR and EST-SSR markers. The study comprised 24 coffee accessions according to their genetic origin: arabica accessions (six traditional genotypes of C. arabica), resistant arabica (six leaf rust-resistant C. arabica genotypes with introgression of Híbrido de Timor), robusta (five C. canephora genotypes), Híbrido de Timor (three C. arabica x C. canephora), triploids (three C. arabica x C. racemosa), and racemosa (one C. racemosa). Allele and polymorphism analysis, AMOVA, the Student t-test, Jaccard's dissimilarity coefficient, cluster analysis, correlation of genetic distances, and discriminant analysis, were performed. EST-SSR markers gave 25 exclusive alleles per genetic group, while gSSR showed 47, which will be useful for differentiating accessions and for fingerprinting varieties. The gSSR markers detected a higher percentage of polymorphism among (35% higher on average) and within (42.9% higher on average) the genetic groups, compared to EST-SSR markers. The highest percentage of polymorphism within the genetic groups was found with gSSR markers for robusta (89.2%) and for resistant arabica (39.5%). It was possible to differentiate all genotypes including the arabica-related accessions. Nevertheless, combined use of gSSR and EST-SSR markers is recommended for coffee molecular characterization, because EST-SSRs can provide complementary information.
We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.
Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.
Bekedam, E Koen; Roos, Ellen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit
Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are present in LMw coffee brew material. LMw coffee fractions differing in polarity were obtained by reversed-phase solid phase extraction and their melanoidin, sugar, nitrogen, caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and phenolic groups contents were determined. The sugar composition, the charge properties, and the absorbance at various wavelengths were investigated as well. The majority of the LMw melanoidins were found to have an apolar character, whereas most non-melanoidins have a polar character. The three isolated melanoidin-rich fractions represented 56% of the LMw coffee melanoidins and were free from non-melanoidin components. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the melanoidins isolated showed similar features as high molecular weight coffee melanoidins. All three melanoidin fractions contained approximately 3% nitrogen, indicating the presence of incorporated amino acids or proteins. Surprisingly, glucose was the main sugar present in these melanoidins, and it was reasoned that sucrose is the most likely source for this glucose within the melanoidin structure. It was also found that LMw melanoidins exposed a negative charge, and this negative charge was inversely proportional to the apolar character of the melanoidins. Phenolic group levels as high as 47% were found, which could be explained by the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in these melanoidins.
Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme
Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...
Swaibu, Mbowa; Tonny, Odokonyero; Ezra, Munyambonera
At the beginning of the 21st Century, the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA) introduced coffee in the mid-North subregion. This marked the beginning of the sub-region’s transition from dependency on annual crops such as cotton to a perennial crop. While the long-term objective of UCDA was to find ways of sustaining the coffee sector amidst the coffee wilt disease in the traditional coffee growing regions, the opening up of coffee growing opportunities to enhance the incomes of agricul...
Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim
The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.
Aricléia de Moraes Catarino
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the main export commodities of Brazilian agribusiness. Phoma leaf spot [Phoma tarda (Stewart Boerema & Bollen] is one of the most important coffee fungal diseases in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the intensity of Phoma leaf spot in coffee seedlings supplied with different rates of Ca+2 and K+. The study was conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, at the Department of Phytopathology - UFLA, from February 2010 to December 2011. The assay was repeated twice under the same conditions. The nutrient solutions consisted of five concentrations of K+ (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mmol L-1 and Ca+2 (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mmol L-1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 25 treatments and three replicates, with two plants per plot. The areas under incidence progress curve (AUIPC and severity (AUSPC were calculated. At the lowest rate of Ca2+ (2 mmol L-1 and highest K+ (6 and 7 mmol L-1, approximately, the AUIPC was the smallest. For the AUSPC, the lowest rates of Ca+2 and K+ resulted in the lowest severities. Supply of Ca+2 and K+ in nutrient solution reduced AUIPC and AUSPC of Phoma leaf spot, and these nutrients can be recommended for the management of the disease.
Carolina Schaper Bizzotto
Full Text Available Decaffeinated coffee accounts for 10 percent of coffee sales in the world; it is preferred by consumers that do not wish or are sensitive to caffeine effects. This article presents an analytical comparison of capillary electrophoresis (CE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for residual caffeine quantification in decaffeinated coffee in terms of validation parameters, costs, analysis time, composition and treatment of the residues generated, and caffeine quantification in 20 commercial samples. Both methods showed suitable validation parameters. Caffeine content did not differ statistically in the two different methods of analysis. The main advantage of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was the 42-fold lower detection limit. Nevertheless, the capillary electrophoresis (CE detection limit was 115-fold lower than the allowable limit by the Brazilian law. The capillary electrophoresis (CE analyses were 30% faster, the reagent costs were 76.5-fold, and the volume of the residues generated was 33-fold lower. Therefore, the capillary electrophoresis (CE method proved to be a valuable analytical tool for this type of analysis.
Verwaarloosbare hoeveelheden cholesterolverhogende diterpenen in koffie gezet met de koffiepadzetmethode bij vergelijking met ongefilterde kookkoffie=Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee
Boekschoten, M.V.; Cruchten, van S.T.J.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Katan, M.B.
To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. DESIGN: Observational. METHOD: In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major
Silva, J A; Carvalho, S P; Bruzi, A T; Guimarães, R J; Oliveira, L L; Simões, L C
In a coffee plantation of a coffee 'Acaiá' cultivar (Coffea arabica), on the Midwest of Minas Gerais in Capitólio city, a different kind of coffee tree was found (1989), possibly due to a mutation. It presented larger leaves and grains than those of conventional coffee trees and was named as "Big Coffee VL." The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of Big Coffee VL progenies cultivated at Universidade Federal de Lavras, by evaluating growth and production traits, based on genetic distances and clusters. The experiment was established in a lattice design with 100 progenies of this coffee tree and 23 repetitions. Traits evaluated were vigor, plant height, stem diameter, node number of plagiotropic branches, pair numbers of plagiotropic branches, and productivity. Genetic divergence was evaluated by multivariate procedures: Mahalanobis generalized distance, clustering methods, and principal component analysis. Genetic distances were estimated using Mahalanobis distance and presented variations from 0.04 to 18.70. The most similar progenies were P23 and P29 and the most dissimilar progenies were G8 and P14. The progenies were divided into three groups, with P14 present as an isolated group. Thus, it was possible to observe the existence of genetic variability among the progenies of Big Coffee VL, which can be used in breeding programs to increase grain size. Progenies G8 and P14 presented the highest genetic distance, and were the most suitable for future integration of crossings in plant breeding programs.
The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...
Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...
Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.
Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between
Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S
Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.
Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela
Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.
Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel
Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation.
Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Qureshi, I.H.
Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)
Novaes, Fábio Junior Moreira; Oigman, Silvia Siag; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler
A new gas chromatography method using pulsed split injector (PS-GC) was validated to quantify thermolabile diterpenes cafestol, kahweol and isokahweol in methanolysed Arabica coffee oils. Linearity was 0.99 from 8 to 69mgmL(-1), recovery ranged from 99% to 101% and precision of less than 4% was obtained. Besides, Soxhlet extraction time was evaluated and Tukey׳s test indicated that the mass of diterpenes obtained in 4h is equivalent to a 16h period, which represents a space-time yield four times higher. The microwave assisted methanolysis proved to be efficient to quantitatively convert the natural diterpene esters in their respective alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters, accompanied by PS-GC. Also, the intact diterpene esters were analyzed by GC for the first time by the comparison between cold on-column (COC) and PS injection techniques. In all these stages, the molecular integrity of the thermolabile furokaurane diterpenes was maintained. The methanolysed oils from 13 samples of green Brazilian Arabica coffees were analyzed by PS-GC and the diterpenes composition varied from 8 to 12% w/w in oil and 0.7-1% in coffee beans. The ratio between cafestol and kahweol was successfully used to predict the quality of coffee even before the roasting and brewing processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Castillo Luis F.
Full Text Available Gene annotation is a process that encompasses multiple approaches on the analysis of nucleic acids or protein sequences in order to assign structural and functional characteristics to gene models. When thousands of gene models are being described in an organism genome, construction and visualization of gene networks impose novel challenges in the understanding of complex expression patterns and the generation of new knowledge in genomics research. In order to take advantage of accumulated text data after conventional gene sequence analysis, this work applied semantics in combination with visualization tools to build transcriptome networks from a set of coffee gene annotations. A set of selected coffee transcriptome sequences, chosen by the quality of the sequence comparison reported by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and Interproscan, were filtered out by coverage, identity, length of the query, and e-values. Meanwhile, term descriptors for molecular biology and biochemistry were obtained along the Wordnet dictionary in order to construct a Resource Description Framework (RDF using Ruby scripts and Methontology to find associations between concepts. Relationships between sequence annotations and semantic concepts were graphically represented through a total of 6845 oriented vectors, which were reduced to 745 non-redundant associations. A large gene network connecting transcripts by way of relational concepts was created where detailed connections remain to be validated for biological significance based on current biochemical and genetics frameworks. Besides reusing text information in the generation of gene connections and for data mining purposes, this tool development opens the possibility to visualize complex and abundant transcriptome data, and triggers the formulation of new hypotheses in metabolic pathways analysis.
Bekedam, E.K.; Laat, de M.P.F.C.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.
The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules
Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe
Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.
Rodriguez Padron, B.
Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households.
Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon
The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....
Eduardo de Sá Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.
Jha, S; Bacon, CM; Philpott, SM; MÉndez, VE; LÄderach, P; Rice, RA
In the past three decades, coffee cultivation has gained widespread attention for its crucial role in supporting local and global biodiversity. In this synthetic Overview, we present newly gathered data that summarize how global patterns in coffee distribution and shade vegetation have changed and discuss implications for biodiversity, ecosystem services, and livelihoods. Although overall cultivated coffee area has decreased by 8% since 1990, coffee production and agricultural intensification...
Viegas, Susana; Viegas, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Sofia; Twarużek, Magdalena; Kosicki, Robert; Grajewski, Jan
According to the International Coffee Organization, global coffee production is rising driven by an increase in total demand. However, similar to other crops, coffee cherries, and beans are exposed to contamination and consequent colonization by fungi during different phases of plant development, harvesting, transport, and storage. Consequently, mycotoxins also contaminate coffee beans although the roasting process has an important role in reducing mycotoxins presence, depending upon the comb...
Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F
Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase.
Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...
To contribute to understanding the socio-economic impact of shade trees and the returns from robusta coffee farming systems, this study compared the financial profitability of shaded coffee fields which are dependent on nutrient cycling to sustain production (traditional system) and shaded coffee fields where compost ...
Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.
The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their
Coffee is a major source of income for millions of smallholder farmers worldwide and is a significant ... on investing in more productive technologies ..... revenue. Therefore coffee production in Kigoma is very high and hence low profitability. Furthermore, the distribution of levels of income earned from coffee shows that about ...
A study was conducted to investigate the presence, intensity and damages caused to coffee berries by major insect pests of coffee in wild coffee populations in Afromontane rainforests of Southwestern Ethiopia. The parasitoids associated with those insect pests were also studied. Based on ecological descriptions of forest ...
Padron, Benigno Rodriguez; Burger, Kees
This paper analyses the structural changes which have been present since the economic clauses of the International Coffee Agreements have no longer been in effect. It studies the elements that modified the coffee policy over time. It also investigates the main characteristics of the entire coffee
This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of collapse of International Coffee Agreement (ICA) and liberalization of coffee marketing in Tanzania on coffee prices. The motivation for this analysis is that the ICA regulatory system reduced price volatility by encouraging the build-up of stocks during surplus years ...
Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...
Coffee husks, a waste by-product from coffee processing has been used as particles with hydrolysed tannin and urea formaldehyde as binders to make homogenous coffee husks particleboards. The resulting particleboards were subjected to physical and mechanical tests and a comparison made with the existing ...
Can you tell a Z from a WW? The Bulletin is offering a prize for deciphering LEP events on show in Restaurant No. 1. If you’ve been to the coffee areas in Restaurant 1 you’ve probably noticed the ‘LEP event’ table tops, installed for the symposium and exhibition ‘From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics’. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, ‘Voyage to the Heart of Matter’, for the correct identification of all 16 events. Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There will be a draw on 19 January to pick the winner from entries that correctl...
The challenge to identify the LEP events displayed on coffee tables in Restaurant 1 (Bulletin 02-03/2010) sparked interest among readers who do not have the opportunity to see them . Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 Table 13, Table 14, Table 15, Table 16 We have therefore decided to open the challenge to these readers by displaying the events on the web. We are also extending the deadline accordingly to 2 March. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, Voyage to the Heart of Matter, for the correct identification of all 16 events. Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There wi...
Nurmanisa, Aisy; Wilopo,; Sanawiri, Brillyanes
This research aims to understand and explain; How to Starbucks Coffee create value proposition for their customer? How to Starbucks Coffee segmented the customer, to create the value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build and choose the channels to grab the customer and create value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build a customer relationship and create value proposition from the process? .This reaserch uses primery data descriptive analysis method with fenomelogy kualitative o...
Estruturas de governança interna e a capacidade de inovação em pequenas firmas brasileiras de torrefação e moagem de café Estructuras de gobernanza interna y capacidad de innovación en pequeñas empresas brasileñas productoras de café tostado y molido Internal governance structures and capacity for innovation in small Brazilian coffee roasting and grinding firms
Gabriela Feresin Jardim
.0 (RAGIN, 2008. Como resultado, se verificó que las estructuras de gobernanza interna plural, que combinan prácticas de incentivos monetarios, burocráticos y comunitarios, presentaron resultados más consistentes para la innovación de las pequeñas empresas de tostado. Tales resultados, al permitir identificar los requisitos organizacionales que producen mayor innovación, pueden ayudar a definir acciones de políticas públicas y privadas para las empresas brasileñas, con el fin de mejorar su nivel de innovación y competitividad en sus mercados.This study investigates which combinations of internal governance structures (market, bureaucratic, and community allow the greatest scope for developing the innovation capacity of small firms. It draws on the studies by Grandori and Furnari (2008, 2010, which hypothesize that the capacity to innovate is more consistently found in firms that use plural internal governance structures. This hypothesis was tested through a survey of 110 Brazilian roasting and grinding coffee firms. The type of innovation investigated was the product. To determine the combinations of structures we used the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA software fs/QCA, version 2.0 (Ragin, 2008. As a result, we found that plural internal governance structures, which combine monetary, bureaucratic, and community incentives, have more consistent innovation results for small roasting firms. By identifying the organizational requirements that create greater opportunities for innovation, these results can help chart the course of public and private policies which will enable Brazilian companies to improve their rate of innovation and competitiveness in their markets.
van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.
OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover
Olthof, M.R.; van Dijk, A.E.; Deacon, C.F.; Heine, R.J.; Dam, R.
Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by incretin hormones by measuring the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and coffee components on GLP-1 and GIP concentrations. A randomized cross-over trial of the effects of 12
Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...
Rusdi Evizal; Tohari Tohari; Irfan D. Prijambada; Jaka Widada; Donny Widianto
Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), namely sun coffee (without shade trees), coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina ...
Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne
Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...
Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês
Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, pCoffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult
Wolska, J.; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K.; Szymkowiak, M.; Chlubek, D.; Gutowska, I.
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world?s most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland)...
Luong, Quoc; Tauer, Loren W.
Vietnam grew from an insignificant to the world’s second largest coffee producer during the 1990s. To understand this growth, this paper examines Vietnamese coffee growers’ investment decisions using real options theory. The study finds that producers, with variable costs of 19 cents/lb and total cost of 29.3 cents/lb, would enter coffee production at a coffee price of 47 cents/lb and exit at a coffee price of 14 cents/lb. Most Vietnamese growers appear to be sufficiently efficient to continu...
Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio
Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Consequently, it is important to consider the impact of coffee on health and disease. A daily intake of at least three cups of coffee is likely to have beneficial health effects, especially in patients at risk of liver diseases. Coffee has been associated with decreased liver inflammation, prevention of cirrhosis, reduced steatosis and lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is not yet possible to make clear recommendations, but coffee can likely be included as part of a healthy diet for patients with liver diseases.
Narita, Yusaku; Inouye, Kuniyo
Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed drinks in the world. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the only by-product produced during the coffee beans roasting process, and large amounts of CS are produced by roasters in coffee-consuming countries. However, methods for the effective utilization of CS have not been developed. Reuse of CS, which is the primary residue from the coffee industry, is important for the environment and economy. Recently, there have been some attempts to reuse CS for biolo...
Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I
Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...
Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Denancé, Nicolas; Legendre, Bruno; Morel, Emmanuelle; Briand, Martial; Mississipi, Stelly; Durand, Karine; Olivier, Valérie; Portier, Perrine; Poliakoff, Françoise; Crouzillat, Dominique
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium endemic to the Americas that has recently emerged in Asia and Europe. Although this bacterium is classified as a quarantine organism in the European Union, importation of plant material from contaminated areas and latent infection in asymptomatic plants have engendered its inevitable introduction. In 2012, four coffee plants (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) with leaf scorch symptoms growing in a confined greenhouse were detected and intercepted in France. After identification of the causal agent, this outbreak was eradicated. Three X. fastidiosa strains were isolated from these plants, confirming a preliminary identification based on immunology. The strains were characterized by multiplex PCR and by multilocus sequence analysis/typing (MLSA-MLST) based on seven housekeeping genes. One strain, CFBP 8073, isolated from C. canephora imported from Mexico, was assigned to X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa/X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. This strain harbors a novel sequence type (ST) with novel alleles at two loci. The two other strains, CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8074, isolated from Coffea arabica imported from Ecuador, were allocated to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. These two strains shared a novel ST with novel alleles at two loci. These MLST profiles showed evidence of recombination events. We provide genome sequences for CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8073 strains. Comparative genomic analyses of these two genome sequences with publicly available X. fastidiosa genomes, including the Italian strain CoDiRO, confirmed these phylogenetic positions and provided candidate alleles for coffee plant adaptation. This study demonstrates the global diversity of X. fastidiosa and highlights the diversity of strains isolated from coffee plants. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai
Cotta, Michelle G; Barros, Leila M G; de Almeida, Juliana D; de Lamotte, Fréderic; Barbosa, Eder A; Vieira, Natalia G; Alves, Gabriel S C; Vinecky, Felipe; Andrade, Alan C; Marraccini, Pierre
The aim of the present study was to perform a genomic analysis of non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) in coffee. Several nsLTPs-encoding cDNA and gene sequences were cloned from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species. In this work, their analyses revealed that coffee nsLTPs belong to Type II LTP characterized under their mature forms by a molecular weight of around 7.3 kDa, a basic isoelectric points of 8.5 and the presence of typical CXC pattern, with X being an hydrophobic residue facing towards the hydrophobic cavity. Even if several single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in these nsLTP-coding sequences, 3D predictions showed that they do not have a significant impact on protein functions. Northern blot and RT-qPCR experiments revealed specific expression of Type II nsLTPs-encoding genes in coffee fruits, mainly during the early development of endosperm of both C. arabica and C. canephora. As part of our search for tissue-specific promoters in coffee, an nsLTP promoter region of around 1.2 kb was isolated. It contained several DNA repeats including boxes identified as essential for grain specific expression in other plants. The whole fragment, and a series of 5' deletions, were fused to the reporter gene β-glucuronidase (uidA) and analyzed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. Histochemical and fluorimetric GUS assays showed that the shorter (345 bp) and medium (827 bp) fragments of nsLTP promoter function as grain-specific promoters in transgenic tobacco plants.
Vanesa Gesser Corrêa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.
Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Joon Heon; Park, Jung Su; Park, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeong Su; Weon, Byung Mook
The coffee-ring effect, which is a natural generation of outward capillary flows inside drying coffee drops, is valid at the dilute limit of initial solute concentrations. If the solute is not dilute, the ring deposit is forced to have a non-zero width; higher initial concentration leads to a wider ring. Here we study the coffee-ring effect in the dense limit by demonstrating differences with various initial coffee concentrations from 0.1% to 60%. The coffee drops with high initial concentrations of real coffee particles show interesting evaporation dynamics: dense coffee drops tend to evaporate slowly. This result is different from the classic coffee-ring effect in the dilute limit. We suppose that the slow evaporation of dense coffee drops is associated with the ring growth dynamics. The coffee-ring effect becomes more significant in modern technologies such as self-assembly of nanoparticles, ink-jet printing, painting and ceramics. The complexity in evaporation dynamics of colloidal fluids would be able to be understood by expanding the coffee-ring effects in the dilute as well as the dense limits.
Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine.
Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.
Aslihan Arslan; Christopher P. Reicher
The Ethiopian government initiated the Ethiopian Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative in 2004 for three coffee origins: Sidama, Yirgacheffe and Harar. Following a court case between Starbucks and the Ethiopian government regarding the trademarking of Sidamo, Ethiopian government engaged in a public relations campaign to raise awareness for the Initiative, which was widely publicised in the international media especially after Oxfam organised a public campaign. This paper evaluates the...
intensity was reduced but acceptability was unaffected: 2$) caramel -based extenders restored beverage color lost by cutting recipe levels...without a caramel -based extender product was financed by Food Engineering Laboratory (FEL) Task No. Q823126, Support to Armed Forces Product Evaluation...Analysis 14 Laboratory Experiments 14 A. Roasted and Ground Coffee without Extenders 14 B. Troop-Issue R&G Coffee with Caramel -Based Extenders 15 C
Nassif, Wander; Rossi, George Bedineli; Garcia, Mauro Neves; Bazanini, Roberto
Coffee is a product of high national demand and has been present in the consumer habits, indicating a great search for distinguished and quality coffees. The evaluations of this product are based on descriptive and deductive positions, also on its own information. The perceived characteristics can be intrinsic such as the taste, aroma, color, appearance and consistency or extrinsic which refers to the outer part that surrounds the product such as the environment, packaging, brand and also the...
Leipziger, Fabia T.
This comprehensive study of Brazilian library literature illuminates the important step towards a national plan through the creation in 1954 of the Brazilian Institute of Bibliography and Documentation with the support of UNESCO, the National Research Council, and other agencies. (Author)
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.
Donald J. Lyman
Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.
Lyman, D.J.; Benck, R.M.; Merle, S.F.
Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.
... from coffee husk have more positive attributes than briquettes produced from coffee pulp at both farms. It is concluded that briquettes produced from coffee husk and pulp could be used as an alternative source of energy and waste management option. Keywords: Briquette; Carbon Sequestration; Coffee Husk; Coffee Pulp ...
Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun
In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...
They all reduced infection of the berries and sporulation of Colletotrichum sp. on detached maturing coffee ... Griffiths, 1972, Gibbs, 1972). Use of the CBD and leaf rust resistant cultivar Ruiru 11 is on the increase but its mass adoption is hampered by low production of the .... It was then put into three-liter capacity plastic.
Rijsbergen, B.J. van; Elbers, W.J.; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Ruben, R.; Hoebink, P.R.J.
Sustainability standards like Fair Trade (FT) or Utz certified (Utz) are widely regarded as a promising way of improving smallholder coffee farmer welfare. As yet, the impact of certification remains poorly understood. This chapter presents the findings of the study regarding the impact of FT and
Sep 17, 2008 ... Results of this study will be utilised for germplasm collection, conservation as well as in variety development efforts. Key words: Coffea arabica L., DNA-based markers, fingerprinting, genetic diversity. INTRODUCTION. Coffee, one of the most important beverage crops in the world and a valuable agricultural ...
Traditional coffee farming has occurred worldwide at equatorial latitudes below 25° under very specific growing conditions with acidic soils, warm temperatures and high humidity. Environmental conditions have been found to have large impacts on the quality and taste of the berry, which in turn affec...
Marion, Charles F.
This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…
J. Physiol. Sci. 28(December 2013) 179–185 www.njps.com.ng. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose. Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. Morakinyo AO*, Adekunbi DA, Dada KA and Adegoke OA. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Lagos. Nigeria.
Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro
Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted proof of concept of metabolomics application to predict degree of coffee adulteration by determining the civet coffee fraction in blends. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cláudio Pagotto Ronchi
Full Text Available Changes in spacing within rows may alter the morphology of the coffee plant by affecting the physiological constituents of its productivity. Even though some common plant responses to crop spacing variation are known, there is yet no scientific evidence that elucidates the effects of decreased spacing on the sourcesink relation in plagiotropic branches and, its association with both productivity and eco-physiological aspects of coffee leaves, mainly for new coffee cultivars in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this work was to characterize the morphophysiological responses of Coffea arabica L. cultivars subjected to different spacing between plants within rows. Four Arabica coffee cultivars (Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144, Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62, Catuaí Amarelo IAC 32, and Tupi RN IAC 1669-13 were transplanted in January 2010. A row spacing of 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 m was adopted between plants, maintaining a 3.80-m constant between rows. A randomized block design with four replicates was applied. During the experimental period, several morphophysiological characteristics of plagiotropic fruiting branches were evaluated in the months of April and December in 2013 and, in April 2014. The evaluation was conducted based on two canopy positions; canopy toward the rows, representing low exposure to light or toward the inter-row spacing, representing high light exposure. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic pigments levels were minimally or not at all affected by changing either the coffee cultivars or plant spacing. During the first evaluation, the leaf-to-fruitratio linearly increased, regardless of the cultivar. Light-exposed branches showed higher content of carotenoids and chlorophyll a in leaves and lower leaf-to-fruit-ratio as compared to those within the plant canopy. A major reduction in the number of fruits per branch was observed which was closely related to a parallel decrease in the number of fruits per
Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin layer drying. Thin layer drying experiments of coffee bean and parchment coffee were conducted in the temperature range of 40-60o C, the relative humidity ranged from 14 to 28% and drying air velocity of 1.4 m/s. The moisture diffusivities in different coffee’s components (parchment and coffee bean were determined by minimizing the RMSE between the predicted and the experimental data of moisture contents. The simulated results showed that the moisture diffusivities of coffee bean were three orders of magnitude higher than those of the parchment. Moisture diffusivities of coffee components were found to significantly increase (P<0.05 with the increase in drying air temperature and were expressed by Arrhenius-type equations. Moreover, the model was also used to predict the moisture gradient in coffee bean during drying. The model simulates the moisture contents in different components of parchment coffee well and it provides a better understanding of the transport processes in the different components of the parchment coffee
Anca C. Fărcaş
Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.
Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan
This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Definição e esquematização das fases fenológicas do cafeeiro arábica nas condições tropicais do Brasil Definition and outline for the phenological phases of arabic coffee under Brazilian tropical conditions
ÂNGELO PAES DE CAMARGO
Full Text Available O café arábica (Coffea arabica L. leva dois anos para completar o ciclo fenológico de frutificação, ao contrário da maioria das plantas que completam o ciclo reprodutivo no mesmo ano fenológico. Após várias tentativas para definição e esquematização das distintas fases fenológicas do cafeeiro, chegou-se a uma forma racional constituída de seis fases distintas envolvendo os dois anos fenológicos, iniciados em setembro. As fases são: 1ª fase, vegetativa com sete meses, de setembro a março, todos com dias longos; 2ª fase, também vegetativa, de abril a agosto, com dias curtos, quando há indução das gemas vegetativas dos nós formados na 1ª fase, para gemas reprodutivas. No final da 2ª fase, em julho e agosto, as plantas entram em relativo repouso com formação de um ou dois pares de folhas pequenas, que aparecem no período de relativo repouso do cafeeiro, entre os dois anos fenológicos. Em seguida vem a maturação das gemas reprodutivas após a acumulação de cerca de 350 mm de evapotranspiração potencial (ETp, a partir de abril; 3ª fase, de florada e expansão dos frutos, de setembro a dezembro. As floradas ocorrem cerca de 8 a 15 dias após o aumento do potencial hídrico nas gemas florais (choque hídrico, causado por chuva ou irrigação; 4ª fase, granação dos frutos, de janeiro a março; 5ª fase, maturação dos frutos ao completar cerca de 700 mm de somatório de ETp, após a florada principal; 6ª fase, de senescência e morte dos ramos produtivos, não primários, em julho e agosto.The arabic coffee (Coffea arabica L. takes two years to complete the entire phenological cycle of the frutification, unlike most of the other crops, that complete the reproductive cycle in one year. Six different phenological phases, taking a total of two years, are proposed, starting in September of each year. The phases are: 1st phase: vegetative, with seven months, September to March, with long days; 2nd phase: also
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of the entrepreneur and the characteristics of the internationalization process for Yaguara Ecológico, a small Brazilian coffee producer, in the light of different theoretical approaches. A literature review was done with special attention given to the theories of International Entrepreneurship and Effectuation. This paper deals with the International New Venture phenomenon (OVIATT; McDOUGALL, 1994, and in order to understand the importance of entrepreneurs in a company's internationalization process, the Effectuation theory was chosen that offers alternatives to describe how they think and behave when starting a new venture (PERRY et.al., 2012. The research method used a single case study and in-depth interviews were conducted with company managers. The results suggest that the theories offer explanations for the company's internationalization activities; however, some characteristics of this trend did not adhere to the theoretical propositions.
Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.
Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.
Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack
The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...
Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.
Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...
Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a well-known method for its sensitivity and accuracy in irradiated food detection. Our goal is to analyse the irradiated green coffee by EPR. Arabica beans and grounded coffee was electron beam irradiated up to 40 kGy. The EPR spectra and time dependence of signals were studied. Results were analysed with respect to find a possibility to identify irradiated green coffee. (authors)
França,André Cabral; Freitas,Ana Flávia de; Santos,Edson Aparecido dos; Grazziotti,Paulo Henrique; Andrade Júnior,Valter Carvalho de
ABSTRACT Mycorrhizae provide several benefits to coffee plants. This study evaluated whether these benefits influence the damage caused by the Bidens pilosa competition with coffee seedlings. A randomized blocks design was used, with treatments established in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (presence and absence of B. pilosa interference in non-inoculated control or plants inoculated with either Claroideoglomus etunicatum or Dentiscutata heterogama). Coffee seedlings were inoculated with fungi spore...
abnormality is low, as it is normally found in commercial varieties such as Red Bourbon and Caturra. Out of 2,930 plants belonging to 30 progenies grown in five' locations, 82 or 2.57c had fruits of a light red colour, being heterozygotes Xcxc. These plants resulted, as expected, from natural cross-pollination in the original plot where the seeds of mother trees were collected. If taken as a measure of the amount of cross-pollination this percentage may be considered as relatively high, because few plants with red fruits (XcXc were noticed in the original plot of Yellow Bourbon. From these studies it may be concluded that due to their excellent agronomic characteristics the new strains of Yellow Bourbon coffee will have an outstanding place among the commercial varieties for the Brazilian coffee areas.
Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.
Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256
Rebelo, Irene; Casal, Susana
Coffee beverages, prepared in a multitude of ways around the world, are increasingly part of our daily lives. Although considered an unhealthy beverage for decades, coffee is increasingly the headline of medical journals in association with a reduced risk for several diseases. What if this beverage could give us pleasure, while modulating mood and lowering the risk for several diseases of the modern society, including type 2 diabetes (T2D)? Based on the most recent epidemiological and research data, long-term consumption of coffee beverages is associated with a lower risk of developing T2D in healthy individuals, probably involving multiple mechanisms, with interventions on glucose homeostasis, antioxidant activity, and inflammatory biomarkers. Several coffee constituents potentially responsible for these effects are described, as well as the factors that make their presence highly variable, with interesting effects associated with chlorogenic acids, trigonelline and norharman. Due to the high number of compounds contained in coffee, we explore the potential synergic effect within the coffee matrix. Moreover, acute coffee consumption shows different health effects from those achieved on a long-term daily consumption, and not all coffee beverages are similar. Still, despite the huge amount or work developed in the last decade, the substances and mechanisms behind these protective effects on T2D are still to be fully elucidated, being therefore soon for dietary interventions based on coffee. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Higdon, Jane V; Frei, Balz
Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
Schmit, Stephanie L.; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B.
Background Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), current evidence remains inconclusive. Methods We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of CRC in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing CRC [Odds Ratio (drinkers versus non-drinkers)=0.74; 95% CI: 0.64–0.86; Pcoffee consumption alone (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.68–0.99; P=0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.94; P=0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing CRC. Compared to 2.5 servings/day (OR=0.46; 95% CI: 0.39–0.54; PCoffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. Impact Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of CRC. PMID:27196095
Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley
Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005-07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91-2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk.
Jang, Young Jin; Son, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Ji-Sun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ahn, Jiyun; Hur, Jinyoung; Ha, Tae Youl
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage worldwide and is believed to help prevent the occurrence of various chronic diseases. However, the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, differentiation and the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, mice were fed a normal diet or a normal diet supplemented with 0.3% coffee or 1% coffee. Coffee supplementation was observed to increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while simultaneously upregulating protein expression of total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B in quadricep muscle. Myostatin expression was also attenuated, and IGF1 was upregulated with subsequent phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, while AMPK phosphorylation was attenuated. Coffee also increased the grip strength and PGC-1α protein expression, and decreased the expressions of TGF-β and myostatin in tricep muscle. Coffee activated the MKK3/6-p38 pathway and upregulated PGC-1α, which may play a role in promoting myogenic differentiation and myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that coffee increases skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy by regulating the TGF-β/myostatin - Akt - mTORC1.
Erik J. Groessl
Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.
Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.
Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon
Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.
Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O
Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi
Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40 K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)
André Cabral França
Full Text Available Mycorrhizae provide several benefits to coffee plants. This study evaluated whether these benefits influence the damage caused by the Bidens pilosa competition with coffee seedlings. A randomized blocks design was used, with treatments established in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (presence and absence of B. pilosa interference in non-inoculated control or plants inoculated with either Claroideoglomus etunicatum or Dentiscutata heterogama. Coffee seedlings were inoculated with fungi spores and developed for 120 days. Then, they were subjected to the interference of B. pilosa for more 120 days, when data were collected for growth traits, mycorrhizal colonization, dry matter and foliar nutrient concentrations in coffee plants. Dry matter and nutrient contents in B. pilosa plants were also evaluated. Inoculation provided better growth and nutrition of coffee plants. The competition with B. pilosa reduced mycorrhizal colonization, height, leaf area, leaf and stem dry mass, root dry weight, number of reproductive branches and levels of P and Fe in the coffee plants. However, the harmful effect of the interference was lower in inoculated coffee plants. The dry mass of B. pilosa decreased under the interference of inoculated coffee plants. The inoculation of C. etunicatum and D. heterogama in Arabica coffee seedlings increases the competitiveness of the crop against B. pilosa interference.
Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)
Jenkins, Rhodri; Ellis, Emrys H.; Lewis, Emily J.; Paterson, Michael; Le, Chien; Ting, Valeska; Chuck, Christopher
The suitability of biodiesel produced from spent Vietnamese coffee was examined. Previous work shows that the geographical origin of coffee beans has little effect on the composition and physical properties of the biodiesel produced Jenkins et al. . Vietnamese coffee, however, is roasted in a range of fats and oils for flavour enhancement and therefore has a unique fatty acid profile. The oil yield and biodiesel properties of three Vietnamese coffees were assessed and compared to a coffee ...
The purpose of this thesis work is to develop and improve the visibility of the Coffee shop Green in terms of different marketing techniques. The company that requested the work is operating in University Tec de Monterrey Mexico Querétaro. The selected company wanted to improve their visibility among the students and wanted to have new tools to improve their marketing. Through new marketing techniques the selected company can have more customers daily bases and is able to earn more profits. ...
Jennings Peter F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Method Ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 ± 1.7 y; 178.1 ± 10.4 cm; 71.8 ± 12.1 kg underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 354 ml (1.5 cups of freshly brewed JF or commercially available caffeinated coffee (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a session-average was calculated for RER, HR and BP. Results Initial analysis revealed no significant differences. However, seven of the ten subjects were considered responders to JF (had a higher AUC for VO2during JF than P. Statistical analysis showed the difference between JF and P (12% to be significantly different in these responders. In addition, the average systolic BP was higher (p Conclusion It appears that consuming a nutritionally-enriched coffee beverage may increase resting energy expenditure in individuals that are sensitive to the caffeine and herbal coffee supplement. In addition, this supplement also appears to affect cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting systolic arterial blood pressure.
Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J.A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe
Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...
Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Yong Soon
Few studies have examined the effects of coffee on body composition in the general population. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that coffee consumption is protective against obesity and sarcopenia in Korean adults. The study included 6906 subjects aged ≥40 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009-2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was determined according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height-squared that was below the lower quintile of the study population. Participants were classified into 4 groups according to the degree of coffee consumption (coffee once a day compared to those who rarely drink coffee (OR: 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.94). Women who consumed coffee ≥3 times/d had higher obesity ORs than those who rarely drink coffee according to both obesity indices (OR: 1.57, 95% CI, 1.18-2.10 for obesity by BMI; OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75 for obesity by WC). Light coffee consumption was protective against sarcopenia in men, whereas frequent coffee consumption produced a higher risk for obesity, especially in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of
Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes
Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation
Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers
Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement
Silván, José Manuel; Morales, Francisco J; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio
There is a methodological and conceptual overlap between coffee melanoidins and dietary fiber. Green Uganda coffee beans were roasted in a range from 8.1 to 21.6% of weight loss to evaluate melanoidins and dietary fiber. Samples were characterized by color, moisture, solubility, water activity, carbohydrates, polyphenols, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and melanoidins content. Hydroxymethylfurfural and chlorogenic acids were also measured as chemical markers of the extent of roasting. Melanoidins rapidly increased from 5.6 (light roasting) to 29.1 mg/100 mg soluble dry matter (dark roasting). A melanoidins-like structure was already present in green coffee that might overestimate up to 21.0% of the melanoidins content as determined by colorimetric methods. However, its contribution is variable and very likely depends on the method of drying applied to green coffee. SDF content (mg/100 mg soluble dry matter) gradually increased from 39.4 in green coffee to 64.9 at severe roasting conditions due to incorporation of neoformed colored structures and polyphenols. Then, SDF progressively turns to a maillardized structure, which increased from 11.0 to 45.0% according to the roasting conditions. It is concluded that the content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber and also that coffee dietary fiber includes melanoidins. A conceptual discussion on a new definition of coffee melanoidins as a type of maillardized dietary fiber is conducted.
The aim of this paper was evaluate the environmental fate of pesticides applied in coffee crops in southeast of Brazil ... The preliminary evaluation of contamination risk due the use of pesticides in coffee crops, using fugacity models, proved to be ...... ground water, using Goss and GUS criteria, respectively and presented by ...
Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda. G.H. Kagezi1, P. Kucel1, J.P. Egonyu1, ... Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of the Black Coffee Twig Borer (BCTB), Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on ... the damaged plant parts do not bear fruits resulting into loss of yields and hence,.
However, no study has so far been conducted to elucidate the association of coffee bean qualities with soil chemical properties in both major and minor coffee ... electrical conductivity, and percent organic carbon were determined from 53 soil samples in Jimma University soil laboratory and Wolkitie Soil Testing and Soil ...
van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.
Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the
G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)
textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who
Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.
Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the
This article explores the sharing of writing through a coffee house--style poetry reading. Although this article focuses on a workshop and share activity used in a preservice teacher language arts and literacy course, it contains tips and ideas for implementing poetry coffee houses with elementary and secondary school students and preservice and…
In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...
Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.
Sep 29, 2016 ... The country's coffee-growing areas endure higher temperatures, less predictable rainfall, and increases in pests and plant diseases. For example, devastating fungal disease and other related climate-change impacts attacked coffee plants in 2011, slashing Colombia's production by 40% and forcing some ...
Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.
Saab, Sammy; Mallam, Divya; Cox, Gerald A; Tong, Myron J
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Its health benefits including improved overall survival have been demonstrated in a variety of disease states. To examine the association of coffee consumption with liver disease, a systematic review of studies on the effects of coffee on liver associated laboratory tests, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed. Coffee consumption was associated with improved serum gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in a dose dependent manner in individuals at risk for liver disease. In chronic liver disease patients who consume coffee, a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, a lowered mortality rate in cirrhosis patients, and a lowered rate of HCC development were observed. In chronic hepatitis C patients, coffee was associated with improved virologic responses to antiviral therapy. Moreover, coffee consumption was inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, in patients with chronic liver disease, daily coffee consumption should be encouraged. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Philpott, Stacy M.
Arboreal ants form patchy spatial patterns in tropical agroforest canopies. Such patchy distributions more likely occur in disturbed habitats associated with lower ant diversity and resource availability than in forests. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined these patchy patterns to statistically test if ants are non-randomly distributed or at what scale. Coffee agroecosystems form a gradient of management intensification along which vegetative complexity and ant diversity decline. Using field studies and a spatially explicit randomization model, I investigated ant patchiness in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico varying in management intensity to examine if: (1) coffee intensification affects occurrence of numerically dominant ants, (2) numerical dominants form statistically distinguishable single-species patches in coffee plants, (3) shade trees play a role in patch location, and (4) patch formation or size varies with management intensity. Coffee intensification correlated with lower occurrence frequency of numerically dominant species generally and of one of four taxa examined. All dominant ant species formed patches but only Azteca instabilis was patchy around shade trees. Ant patchiness did vary somewhat with spatial scale and with strata (within the coffee layer vs around shade trees). Patchiness, however, did not vary with management intensity. These results provide quantitative evidence that numerically dominant ants are patchy within the coffee layer at different scales and that shade tree location, but not coffee management intensity, may play a role in the formation of patchy distributions.
JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE. JR; STEVEN C. LATTAA
We quantified foraging behavior of 19 bird species in shade coffee plantations in the Dominican Republic to document and evaluate their use of food resources in the shade overstory relative to the coffee understory. All species were observed foraging in the Znga âera overstory, and 18 of the 19 species had median foraging heights significantly above the median maximum...
Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean
Jan 31, 2011 ... At the consumer end of the supply chain, coffee devotees pay a premium for their favourite morning pick-me-up to compensate growers for adopting sustainable farming practices. That premium presently stands at more than double the conventional market price. In the mainstream coffee market, price is ...
Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with cloves or cardamom in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. ... Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. ... Keywords: High-fat diet, Diabetes, Antioxidant, Arabian coffee, Cardamom, Cloves ...
Rodriguez Padron, B.
Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.
The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and
Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree
marketing were to insulate farmers and consumers from market shocks and ensure tax and foreign ... years and its demise meant allowing coffee prices to vary based on the market forces of supply and demand. Also the purpose of liberalizing coffee ..... sensitive to the functional forms. The leverage effects are analysed by ...
Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.
The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the
Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Grobbee, D.E.
Background: The long-term longitudinal evidence for a relation between coffee intake and hypertension is relatively scarce. Objective: The objective was to assess whether coffee intake is associated with the incidence of hypertension. Design: This study was conducted on a cohort of 2985 men and 3383
Sobolík, Václav; Žitný, R.; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Delgado, M.; Allaf, K.
Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 93-98 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 212200008 Keywords : coffee extract * soluble coffee * viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2002
Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro; Baldion Rincon, Jose Vicente; Guzman Martinez, Orlando
El Nino phenomenon is manifested in the coffee by a deficiency of water in the plant, that which affects its normal development in its fruits; the author describes other alterations that affect the plants of coffee due to El Nino phenomenon
Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.
BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on
Demographic and household factors, wealth and total farm size had no effect on the observed variation in the degree of coffee commercialisation among sampled households. ... Similarly, the degree of coffee commercialisation was found to have a statistically insignificant effect on household-level food consumption. Overall ...
Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...
The objective of this paper is to analyze the quality and value chain of Ethiopian coffee in a way to identify opportunities that maximize the benefits from the sector. First the Ethiopian coffee sector is overviewed and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively starting from the crop up to the cup based on data collected from ...
Carvalho, H.G. de
A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt
Graaff, van der N.A.
1981-01-01Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C.
Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I
Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...... threshold induced by smoking. The effect could not be explained by a cumulative raise in blood pressure. Our data suggest that caffeine enhances the analgesic effect of nicotine....
Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell
The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.
Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho
Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.
Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano
The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.
The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...
Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.
Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...
Bean quality attributes of coffees produced in Ethiopia are often determined based on results of green coffee bean assessment done on arrivals in the central market by Ethiopian ... Keywords: Coffee origins; Coffee industry; Commercial grade; Cup quality test; Efico; Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX); Specialty grade ...
Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.
Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B
Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.
Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.
Wang, Shiyang; Xu, Jiahong; He, Beibei
Background: Sweden is one of the biggest coffee consuming countries in Europe with the average annual coffee consumption per capita as high as 8.2kg. This mass consumption of coffee therefore creates high level of competition amongst coffee providers in the Swedish coffee market. There are numerous coffee shops and even some food chains and retail stores selling their own brand of coffee. This study will focus on Generation Y, as they will soon be the majority of consumers Purpose: The purpos...
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Marcela Vasques Cintra
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.
Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Ahmad, H; Soekarno, s
Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Insti...
Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don
Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activi...
De Beenhouwer, Matthias; Muleta, Diriba; Peeters, Bram; Van Geel, Maarten; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier
International audience; Arabica coffee is a major agricultural commodity worldwide, representing 60 % of the world’s coffee production. Arabica coffee is cultivated in more than 36 countries and is a key cash crop for many developing countries. Despite the coffee’s huge economic importance, there is very limited knowledge on the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with coffee roots. Therefore, we assessed the mycorrhizal diversity and community composition in Arabica coffee (Coffea ar...
Morais, Sérgio Antônio Lemos de; Aquino, Francisco José Tôrres de; Nascimento, Priscilla Mendes do; Nascimento, Evandro Afonso do; Chang, Roberto
The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity presented by Conilon coffee (C. Canephora) variety, produced in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were quantified. The light roast coffee showed the highest level of total phenols, trigonelline, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. The proanthocyanidin level was the highest for dark roast coffee, while caffeine level didn't show significative changes for the light and middle roast coffees. All the Conilon coffee extracts showed antioxidant activity d...
Full Text Available The paper refers to espresso coffee machines high quality and some possibilities to increase the level of automation and productivity. Existing machines require manual adjustment of coffee grinder depending on the quality of coffee beans. To eliminate this flaw has been developed and implemented an adjustable electromechanical system with DC servomotor and numerical control of coffee grinder. Computer simulation results demonstrate the functionality of the proposed electromechanical drive system of the coffee grinder
Shcolnik, Wilson; de Oliveira, Carla Albuquerque; de São José, Adriana Sá; de Oliveira Galoro, César Alex; Plebani, Mario; Burnett, David
This paper describes the evolution, structure, operation and some outcomes of the Brazilian Laboratory Indicators Program created by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology/Laboratory Medicine (Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica/Medicina Laboratorial, or SBPC/ML), in partnership with ControlLab, a Brazilian Company that provides services for proficiency testing, internal control, calibration, and training indicators for clinical laboratories. This web-based program is confidential for all participants. It contains 61 indicators categorized into three groups. Program operation and data analysis methods are described and indicators are reported in box plot format, with grouping varying in accordance with the profiles of the participating laboratories. Three indicators were selected as examples of program effectiveness in 2011: hemolysis, blood re-collection and productivity. Participants profile, examples of three indicators for the year 2011 (hemolysis, blood re-collection and productivity) and exploratory research conducted in 2012 on the implementation of the program are presented. Data related to laboratories participating in the program from 2006 to 2011 were collected and graphically represented. The Brazilian Laboratory Indicators Program brings important benefits for participants, contributing to the improvement of existing health systems in Brazil.
Aiex, Nola Kortner
Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…
Sanders, T G
Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their
Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on the performance and internal and external egg quality of commercial layers. One hundred and twenty 25-week-old Hy-line Brown layers, with 1575 ± 91 average body weight, were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (control, 1.2% caffeinated coffee, or 1.2% decaffeinated coffee of five replicates of eight birds each. The inclusion of 1.2% caffeinated coffee was calculated to supply 6mg caffeine per kg body weight, which is considered a moderate dose. The applied treatments did not influence (p>0.05 feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, Haugh units, yolk color or albumen and yolk percentages. The eggs of hens fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee presented lower (p<0.05 eggshell thickness and egg specific density. The eggs of layers fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee tended (p=0.0637 to present lower eggshell percentage. It was concluded that feeding caffeinated coffee to commercial layers does not affect their performance or internal egg quality; however, eggshell quality is impaired.
Petar M. Nikić
Full Text Available Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants’ response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78% consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%. Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P=0.024. Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.
Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran
Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic.
Full Text Available Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.
Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static and dynamic compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in different countries. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. Dynamic loading leads to the increase in the fracture force of coffee grains in comparison with the quasi static loading.
Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela
The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.
Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher
Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thiago Henrique Pereira Reis
Full Text Available Research data have demonstrated that the P demand of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is similar to that of short-cycle crops. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of annual P fertilization on the soil P status by the quantification of labile, moderately labile, low-labile, and total P fractions, associating them to coffee yield. The experiment was installed in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol cultivated with irrigated coffee annually fertilized with triple superphosphate at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Phosphorus fractions were determined in two soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. The P leaf contents and coffee yield in 2008 were also evaluated. The irrigated coffee responded to phosphate fertilization in the production phase with gains of up to 138 % in coffee yield by the application of 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Coffee leaf P contents increased with P applications and stabilized around 1.98 g kg-1, at rates of 270 kg ha-1 P2O5 and higher. Soil P application caused, in general, an increase in bioavailable P fractions, which constitute the main soil P reservoir.
Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Marchioli, Roberto
Many epidemiological studies have addressed the effects of coffee on cardiovascular disease. Most case-control studies suggest an increased risk in high coffee consumers, whereas cohort studies indicate no clear association with cardiovascular risk. Several aspects could be considered to explain and/or reconcile these inconsistencies. Selection bias and recall bias may explain a positive association supported by case-control studies. An inadequate adjustment for many confounding factors (i.e., smoking, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, etc.) could also affect the relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular risk. Moreover, coffee contains several biologically active substances that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. The development of complete/partial tolerance to some caffeine effects in habitual drinkers adds to the complexity of coffee effects. Variation in cup size and methods of coffee preparation may also explain some conflicting results. As it is not reasonable to conduct randomized controlled trials, it is recommended that coffee consumption be moderate in healthy people and limited in individuals at high risk.
Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.
Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.
Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K
The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.
Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira
Full Text Available The crop Coffee demands investments to the machines development, which it enables the processes ofpost-harvesting, becoming them faster, meanwhile improving the working. The use of stationary layer dryers are responsible for good results at drying and product quality, but it requires a constant revolving, in order to homogenize the grain mass and improve the air distribution inside the drying chamber. The shortage of workmanship, associated to the need of constant revolving and the heavy working conditions, it becomes it indispensable to mechanize, in some way, this step. The agricultural machine design is considered of great complexity, regarding it must be concerned with the interactions among the operator, machine and environment. When designing a machine, the experience and the dominion of several standpoints have to be interpreted clearly. With the increasing competitiveness on the consumer market and agricultural machines, several companies have joined the research centers, because in general, do not make use of systematic procedures during the project, which can result in failures during operation. This article aimed to design and build a semi-mechanized revolving prototype used to mix the coffee beans. The revolving prototype with the helical screw principles proved to be able to performing the grains transport efficiently.
Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.
Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.
Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R
Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results.
Karabudak, Efsun; Türközü, Duygu; Köksal, Eda
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels.
Full Text Available Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI, and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC. A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.91–3.34; p for the trend < 0.001 and abdominal obesity as measured by WC (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59–2.79; p for the trend < 0.001. The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.
Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda
Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.
Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna
This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".
Li, Hong Helen
The project presents a business plan for starting up a coffee shop in Nanjing, China. An overview of the competitive environment and the growing market demand for coffee in China is assessed, and the author describes the criteria by which a new entry to the market can compete successfully. The venture is intended to be a flagship operation for what is intended to be the development of a successful chain of coffee shops in China. The author concludes that a new entrant can penetrate the market...
Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical
Hall, Susan; Desbrow, Ben; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Davey, Andrew K; Arora, Devinder; McDermott, Catherine; Schubert, Matthew M; Perkins, Anthony V; Kiefel, Milton J; Grant, Gary D
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing numerous biologically active constituents predominantly belonging to the polyphenol and alkaloid classes. It has been established that coffee has a beneficial effect on numerous disease states including depression. A number of prospective and retrospective cohort studies have assessed the effects of coffee consumption on the relative risk of developing major depressive disorder in humans. These studies have identified an inverse relationship between the consumption of caffeinated coffee and the risk of developing depression. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid, all important constituents of coffee, have been shown to possess biological activities that highlight a possible mechanistic link to the pathology of depression. This review aims to assess the evidence from the biological evaluation of these constituents of coffee on markers of inflammation associated with depression in in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation, neuroinflammation and depression. The ability of bioactive coffee constituents to modulate the parameters of neuroinflammation has been shown with caffeine having strong antioxidant properties in vitro, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid having strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro and ferulic acid having activities in in vivo animal models of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heine Robert J
Full Text Available Abstract Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by incretin hormones by measuring the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and coffee components on GLP-1 and GIP concentrations. A randomized cross-over trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo on total and intact GLP-1 and GIP concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test took place in fifteen overweight men. No treatment significantly affected the overall GLP-1 or GIP secretion pattern following an OGTT relative to placebo. Decaffeinated coffee slightly increased total GLP-1 concentration 30 minutes after ingestion (before the OGTT relative to placebo (2.7 pmol/L, p = 0.03, but this change did not correspond with changes in glucose or insulin secretion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee acutely improves glucose tolerance through effects on the secretion of incretin hormones. Chronic effects of coffee and its major components still need to be investigated.
Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.
Hagen, Egil Ragnar
Masteroppgave i Industriell økonomi og informasjonsledelse, Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad The coffee industry in Nepal is young, and it is only since 2003 that export of washed Arabica coffee has commenced. The industry seems to be rather fragmented with several exporting companies competing to collect the relatively small output of the coffee production system. Two Norwegian investors are looking to promote coffee production for export from three hilly districts in eastern Nepal. There ...
Full Text Available ‘IPR 107’ was derived from a cross between ‘IAPAR 59’ and ‘Mundo Novo IAC 376-4’. ‘IPR 107’ is a dwarf medium sizeplant with medium precocity in ripening and with complete resistance to rust races in this time. This cultivar presents superior qualityand high yield in many coffee regions.
Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B
Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.
Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877
Campos, Nádia A; Panis, Bart; Carpentier, Sebastien C
One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention. The methodologies to induce SE and the further development of the embryos are genotype-dependent, what leads to an almost empirical development of specific protocols for each cultivar or clone. This is a serious limitation and excludes a general comprehensive understanding of the process as a whole. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of which achievements and molecular insights have been gained in (coffee) somatic embryogenesis and encourage researchers to invest further in the in vitro technology and combine it with the latest omics techniques (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics). We conclude that the evolution of biotechnology and the integration of omics technologies offer great opportunities to (i) optimize the production process of SE and the subsequent conversion into rooted plantlets and (ii) to screen for possible somaclonal variation. However, currently the usage of the latest biotechnology did not pass the stage beyond proof of potential and needs to further improve.
Full Text Available Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC or caffeic acid (CA using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2.
Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524
Voi, Dante Luiz; Borges, Jose Carlos
This work aimed to make an analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Policy, considering its multi ways of approaching, and was settled on several author's points of view, working on different scientific areas. The world scientific development panorama and its influence on science made in Brazil, including problems, conditions and consequences, are presented in an historical sequence. Central and peripherical (dependent) capitalist nations are defined and identified, and influences on the scientific, economical, political and cultural developments of the peripherical are remarked. (author)
Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci
Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.
Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee (Coffea robusta Rio Nunes) in Kogi State, Nigeria. M Idrisu, FD Babalola, IU Mokwunye, CF Anagbogu, IA Aderolu, O Ugioro, EU Asogwa, I Ndagi, FC Mokwunye ...
Delgado, P A; Vignoli, J A; Siika-Aho, M; Franco, T T
The water-insolubility of some coffee extract components is one of the major limitations in the production of instant coffee. In this work, fractions from coffee extracts and sediments were prepared, and their chemical composition determined. Based on the carbohydrate analysis, galactomannan was found to be the main polysaccharide component of the insoluble fractions and probably responsible for sediment formation. The suitability of twelve commercial enzymes for the hydrolysis of the insoluble fractions was investigated. Pectinase 444L was the most effective enzyme in releasing sugars, mainly mannose and galactose, from these substrates. Biopectinase CCM, Rohapect B1L, Pectinase 444L and Galactomannanase ACH were found to be the most effective enzymes for reducing the sediment of coffee extracts. The highest sediment reduction was obtained using Rohapect B1L and Galactomannanase ACH, at enzyme concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1mg protein/g substrate, respectively. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P
A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.
Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo
The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was
Heloiza G. Herckovitz
Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.
Heloiza G. Herckovitz
Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.
Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.
Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution
Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.
Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 differe...
Alexsandro Lara Teixeira
Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed
Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min
Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...
Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo
Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.
M.A. Lazim; M. Suriani
Knowing consumers' preferences and perceptions of the sensory evaluation of drink products are very significant to manufacturers and retailers alike. With no appropriate sensory analysis, there is a high risk of market disappointment. This paper aims to rank the selected coffee products and also to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation using fuzzy decision making model. Three products of coffee drinks were used for sensory evaluation. Data wer...
Popularly known as coffee senna, Senna occidentalis (L.) Link(synonym: Cassia occidentalis L.) is a ubiquitous plant appreciated by many tropical communities, especially as a herbal medicine. It has been widely used for centuries, principally for the treatmentof weakness, constipation, liver disorders and skin infections. Due to its poisonous potential tograzing animals, coffee senna is included in several toxicological studies and constitutes a promising species in the study of new active su...
Full Text Available Popularly known as coffee senna, Senna occidentalis (L. Link(synonym: Cassia occidentalis L. is a ubiquitous plant appreciated by many tropical communities, especially as a herbal medicine. It has been widely used for centuries, principally for the treatmentof weakness, constipation, liver disorders and skin infections. Due to its poisonous potential tograzing animals, coffee senna is included in several toxicological studies and constitutes a promising species in the study of new active substances.
Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira
Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.
Rodrigues, Francisca; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe(2+)/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. RESULTS seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.
Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J.; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K.; Perfecto, Ivette
The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon’s diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. PMID:28355478
Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min
Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.
Clarke, Neil D; Richardson, Darren L; Thie, James; Taylor, Richard
Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg -1 coffee (COF), 0.09 g·kg -1 decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or a placebo (PLA). All trials were dissolved in 300 ml of hot water. The race completion time was 1.3% faster following the ingestion of COF (04:35:37 ± 00:10:51 mm·ss) compared with DEC (04:39:14 ± 00:11:21 mm·ss; P=0.018; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.01; d=0.32) and 1.9% faster compared with PLA (04:41:00 ± 00:09:57 mm:ss; P=0.006; 95%CI: -0.15, -0.03; d=0.51). A large trial and time interaction for salivary caffeine concentration was observed (Pcaffeinated coffee one-mile race performance was enhanced by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with placebo and decaffeinated coffee respectively, in trained male runners.
Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D
Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.
Sun, Z.J.; Wells, D.P.; Maschner, H.; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Benson, B.
Photon activation analysis (PAA) is a multi-elemental radioanalytical technique in trace elements analysis with high accuracy and precision. Researchers at the Idaho accelerator center performed PAA analysis on coffee samples from several locations around the world as an initial step in assessing the relationship between trace elements in illicit drugs and the soils in which they were grown. The preliminary results show coffees from different locations have different concentrations of trace elements. In the three cases where we have soil samples, the matrices of elements in the coffee samples are closely related to the matrices of the elements of the local soil samples. The majority of trace elemental content is similar to that of the local soil sample in which the coffee is planted. It may be that coffee assimilates numerous elements from the soil where it is grown in similar ratios as is found in the soil. Thus, it is conceivable that the elemental content could serve as 'fingerprint' to trace the origins of the coffee. To verify our analytical results we applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods as well. Our PAA results are consistent with XRF experimental data. The future of tracing the origin of illicit drugs with the PAA technique is promising. (author)
Fábio Luiz Partelli
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of intercropping 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora with rubber trees on coffee tree microclimate, nutrition, growth, and yield. Rubber trees were planted in two double rows 33 m apart, with 4x2.3 m spacing between plants. Treatments consisted of the distances from the coffee plants to the rubber trees: 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m. Measurements of atmospheric variables (temperature, irradiance, and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentration, internode length of plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, individual leaf area, chlorophyll content, and yield were performed. Intercropping promotes changes in the microclimatic conditions of coffee plants close to rubber trees, with reduction of temperature and irradiance level and increase in air relative humidity. The proximity of the coffee tree to the rubber trees promotes the elongation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches and increases the individual leaf area; however, it does not affect leaf concentrations of N, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and B in 'Conilon' coffee and does not have a negative impact on yield.
Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste
Yusianto; Nugroho, Dwi
Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...
Obana, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Tanaka, Ryou-ichi
SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)
Miyazato, Hironari; Nakamura, Michiaki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hayashi, Shuichi
We investigated odour-active trace compounds in roasted Brazilian Arabica coffee. Aroma dilution extract analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile oil extracted from roasted coffee brew revealed 34 odour-active compounds. Among these, a pungent-smelling unknown odour-active compound was determined. The volatile oil was fractioned by silica gel column chromatography. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) of the fraction which contained a significant amount of the target unknown compound revealed the cyclic 1,4-diketone, cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, which had a pungent odour, and was thus first identified in roasted coffee. Model experiments revealed that cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione was formed via thermal degradation of sugars, especially monosaccharides, under alkaline conditions. Further, we demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, thermal degradation products of monosaccharides, were closely related to the formation of cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schmidt, H; Taniwaki, M H; Vogel, R F; Niessen, L
The objective of this work was to test whether ochratoxin A (OTA) production of Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius is linked to a certain genotype and to identify marker sequences with diagnostic value aiding identification of A. carbonarius, a fungus of major concern regarding OTA production in food and food raw materials. Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius were isolated mainly from Brazilian coffee sources. The ability of isolates to produce OTA was tested by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Strains were genetically characterized by AFLP fingerprinting and compared with each other and with reference strains. Cluster analysis of fingerprints showed clear separation of A. niger from A. carbonarius strains. To obtain marker sequences, AFLP fragments were isolated from silver stained polyacrylamide gels, cloned and sequenced. Sequences obtained were used to develop species- specific PCR primers for the identification of A. carbonarius in pure culture and in artificially and naturally infected samples of green coffee. No clear correlation between genetic similarity of the strains studied and their potential to produce OTA was found. The PCR assays designed are a useful and specific tool for identification and highly sensitive detection of A. carbonarius. The developed PCR assays allow specific and sensitive detection and identification of A. carbonarius, a fungus considered to be one of the major causative agents for OTA in coffee and grape-derived products. Assays may provide powerful tools to improve quality control and consumer safety in the food processing industry.
Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Cristiana; Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A
The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled "Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction" (Moreira et al., 2017) . Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms and respective GC-MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.
Ana S.P. Moreira
Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 . Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.
Full Text Available By virtue of being the product of the genetic admixture of three ancestral roots: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians, the present day Brazilian population displays very high levels of genomic diversity, which have important pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx implications. Recognition of this fact has prompted the creation of the Brazilian Pharmacogenomics Network (Refargen, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population heath impact. Here, we present original data and review published results from a Refargen comprehensive study of the distribution of PGx polymorphisms in a representative cohort of the Brazilian people, comprising 1,034 healthy, unrelated adults, self-identified as white, brown or black, according to the Color categories adopted by the Brazilian Census. Multinomial log-linear regression analysis was applied to infer the statistical association between allele, genotype and haplotype distributions among Brazilians (response variables and self-reported Color, geographical region and biogeographical ancestry (explanatory variables, whereas Wright´s FST statistics was used to assess the extent of PGx divergence among different strata of the Brazilian population. Major PGx implications of these findings are: first, extrapolation of data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in several pharmacogenes of clinical relevance (e.g. ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, VKORC varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/Color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts.
Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S
The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carolina Ramírez C.
Full Text Available It is expected that climate change modifies the current spatial pattern of coffee cultivation in mountainous slopes of Colombia. However, the approaches used to reach these results are based on the use of (global and regional climate models and species distribution models that largely supported in the niche concept. In order to assess the certainty of the results obtained with these models, a methodolog y in which data from weather stations and an index of agroclimatic type (thermal time, expressed as degree days are used. The best approximation for thermal time calculation was determined. Then, a multiyear monthly accumulated of coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were generated (using the simple triangle method by using daily data from weather stations with more than 20 years of information. The nonparametric trend analysis (Mann-Kendall and correlation analysis were used to determine effects of climate variability associated with the occurrence of El Niño and La Niña, on the thermal time of the two mentioned species. Significant, positive trends, in coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were found at heights (above sea level where the optimum coffee growth is reported.
Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna
Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Results of conjoint analysis showed quality attributes preferred by the entrepreneurs. They were Arabica and Robusta (50:50 mixed variety, mixing of 70:30 coffee, chicory ratio, keeping quality up to 6 months, medium level of taste/aroma, filter size of the powder and roasting time of 15 minutes/ 10 kg of seeds. About 83.00 per cent of entrepreneurs produced coffee powder as a final form of coffee product, nearly two-third (63.00 % of the entrepreneurs did not have any brand name or logo, cent per cent of them reported manual packing only. Major criteria to fix different price rate of coffee product were International daily market price (90.00 %, factors affecting the price policy were market price fluctuation (93.33 %, season (90.00 % and Cent per cent of them had adopted coffee price forecasting broadcasted by various media. Selection of the location depends on nearby town and coffee potential area, techniques to overcome the competitor were better pricing and supply of quality coffee product, attraction of customers depends on personal contact, attractive display boards, quality, taste, aroma and flavor. Promotional activities carried out by the entrepreneurs were developing the customer base (83.33 % and working towards building customer loyalty (76.67%. Relationships followed among stakeholders were good partnership, price and profit sharing, commission basis, service and quality, supply-service and demand. Further, market demand reported by entrepreneurs were: the demand for coffee beans peaked during July to November, coffee powder were more demand in three seasons namely rainy season (June-September, winter season (December- January and summer holidays (April-May. Feedback mechanism reported by coffee entrepreneurs were: quality analysis report received from the export organization, physical analysis, cup test, personal contact through phone, e-mail and also personal letters.
Bernd L. Fiebich
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified
Stephens, Thomas M.
Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)
Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto
The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.
Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were
Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.
The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)
Souza, J.A.M. de.
The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century
Full Text Available A simple mathematic model for caffeine kinetic description during the extraction process (leaching of coffee bean was developed. A nonsteady diffusion equation coupled with a macroscopic mass transfer equation for solvent was developed and them solved analytically. The kinetic of caffeine extraction from coffee bean is depend on initial caffeine content, final caffeine content, caffeine content at certain time, masstransfer coefficient, solvent volume, surface area of coffee beans, process time, radius of coffee bean, leaching rate of caffeine, caffeine diffusivity and a are constan, solvent concentration, activation energy, temperature absolute and gas constant. Caffeine internal mass diffusivity was estimated by fitting the model to an experiment using acetic acid and liquid waste of cocoa beans fermentation. The prediction equation for leaching rate of caffeine in coffee beans has been found. It was found that Dk (m2/sec=1.345x107—4.1638x107, and kL (m/sec=2.445x105—5.551x105 by acetic acid as solvent depended on temperature and solvent concentration. The prediction equation for length of time to reduce initial caffeine content to certain concentration in coffee beans has been developed, Caffeine diffusivity (Dk and masstransfer coefficient (kL was found respectively 1.591x 107—2.122x107 m2/sec and 4.897x105—6.529x105 m/sec using liquid waste of cocoa bean fermentation as solvent which depend on temperature and solvent concentration. Key words: Coffee, caffeine, decaffeination, leaching, mathematic model.
Luana Silva MONTEIRO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.
Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang
Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,
Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He
Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee.
Nesper, Maike; Kueffer, Christoph; Krishnan, Smitha; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Ghazoul, Jaboury
Intensification of multispecies coffee agroforests reduces shade tree diversity with implications for tropical biodiversity. We investigated how tree biodiversity and its effects on coffee production and quality changes along a gradient of intensification (from diverse multispecies to Grevillea
Guido Nicola Zanghì
Full Text Available Coffee contains a wide variety of bioactive compounds including polyphenols, melanoidins, and diterpenes. Coffee consumption may have either neutral or beneficial effects toward human health. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the association between coffee consumption and breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of coffee. The epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effect of coffee towards postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer. However, no statistical association was found between coffee and ovarian cancer. The chemo-preventive effects of coffee phytochemicals may include activation of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory response. Finally, coffee bioactive components where shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, as well as modulation of impaired angiogenesis.
Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Kvaskoff, Marina; Savoye, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Cervenka, Iris; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Kritikou, Maria; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Veierød, Marit B.; Ghiasvand, Reza; Lukic, Marko; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Salamanca Fernández, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Jirström, Karin; Sonestedt, Emily; Key, Timothy J.; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Gunter, Marc; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico
In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption
Orlando Monteiro da Silva
Full Text Available Coffee is the most widely commercialized tropical product on the international market. The 2009/10 crop had an estimated value of $15.4 billion, with 93.4 million bags exported. According to the International Coffee Organization (ICO, 2011, the coffee sector employed around 26 million people in 56 producing countries and over 100 exporting countries. But how would coffee products rank, in terms of income content, in relation to other commercialized products, and how have they evolved? To answer this question, the annual income content of 5,111 products exported by 167 countries from the period between 2000 and 2009, was calculated. Data from the UNCOMTRADE (2011, and “sophistication” indicators proposed by Hausmann and Rodrik (2003 who classify different products according to their productivity, were used. An emphasis was put on five coffee products (whole grain, roasted, decaffeinated, caffeinated, and soluble, showing the evolution of the number of exporting countries and of the “sophistication” index (income content, whose temporal variation was decomposed by the effects of competitiveness and income per capita changes. The results showed that non-roasted, non-decaffeinated, whole grain coffee is still the most commercialized product, but with the lowest income content of all coffee products, occupying the twenty-fourth worst position in terms of income content in 2009. The roasted, decaffeinated coffee presented the greatest income growth in the period, placing itself in the 3,309th position in 2009. The decomposition of the index showed that for coffee products with the most processing, the greatest cause of export sophistication growth was the Revealed Comparative Advantage effect. Products with the least amount of processing presented a loss in relative market share, with the addition of values to the production chain occurring outside those countries producing the raw materials.El café es el producto tropical m
Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sensory properties and physiological properties. Coffee beverages represent a significant source of antioxidants in the consumers' diet and contribute significantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in different quality classes of Arabica coffee. Samples of green Arabica coffee (Rio Minas) of two quality classes from two production batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonol content (FC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) in the coffee extracts was determined. This research shows that TPC was significantly higher (P coffee compared to TPC in roasted coffee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were significantly lower (P coffee than in roasted coffee. Differences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coffee were not significant (P > 0.05), while differences in TFC were significant (P coffee from the second production batch and differences in FC were significant (P coffee and for coffee roasted at 175°C. Roasting temperatures have different influences the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) of coffee and the highest antioxidant activity was determined in coffee roasted at 171°C. An exception was 1st class Arabica coffee roasted at 167°C (ABTS). All samples of 1st class Arabica coffee had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) compared to 2nd class Arabica. This research shows that the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity of different quality classes of Arabica coffee are dependent on the degree of roasting. TPC decreases when the roasting temperature increases, while TFC and FC also increase. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity
Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, J.A.; Casal, Susana
The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing...
Bote, A.D.; Struik, P.C.
The research work was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade on growth and production of coffee plants. To achieve this, growth and productivity of coffee plants growing under shade trees were compared with those of coffee plants growing under direct sun light. Different physiological, environmental and quality parameters were assessed for both treatments. Shade trees protected coffee plants against adverse environmental stresses such as high soil temperatures and low relative humidity. Sh...
DaMatta, Fábio M.; Ramalho, José D. Cochicho
Overall, drought and unfavourable temperatures are the major climatic limitations for coffee production. These limitations are expected to become increasingly important in several coffee growing regions due to the recognized changes in global climate, and also because coffee cultivation has spread towards marginal lands, where water shortage and unfavourable temperatures constitute major constraints to coffee yield. In this review, we examine the impacts of such limitations on the physiology,...
Tarno, Hagus; Wicaksono, Karuniawan Puji; Begliomini, Edson
Coffee is the most valuable traded commodity after oil. On coffee, bees act to support a pollination that is shown by the number of harvested berries. This research aimed to evaluate the use of pyraclostrobin on flowering stage and insect pollinators on Arabica Coffee. Experiment was conducted in Kalisat Coffee Farm, Jampit, Bondowoso, ca. 1600 meters after sea level from October 2013 to April 2014. Randomized Block Design was adopted in this experiment. Three doses of pyraclostrobin and cont...
Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia
Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)
Jef Rudiantho Saragih
The study was conducted in six subdistricts of Simalungun district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The research objective is knowing the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee. Determination of the households sample was using Probability Proportional to Size and Simple Random Sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units conventional coffee farms. Farmer’s data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. Benefit of coffee ce...
Kim, Keyhoon; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min
Background As coffee consumption is increasing remarkably over the past decade, the health effects concerning the coffee drinking has gained a wide attention across the nation. However, there is not a true consensus regarding the effects of coffee on metabolic disease. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between coffee intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean women Methods We used publicly accessible datasets collected through Korean National Health and Nutrition ...
Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do
Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)
Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.
In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.
Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T
Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ware, Jennifer J; Tanner, Julie-Anne; Taylor, Amy E; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F; Munafò, Marcus R
Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual-level data from the UK Biobank and in-vitro experiments of candidate compounds. The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in-vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6. Two-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = -1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.88 to -0.09]. However, in-vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.12). Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette
da Encarnação, Joana Amarante; Farrell, Tracy L; Ryder, Alexandra; Kraut, Nicolai U; Williamson, Gary
Coffee is rich in quinic acid esters of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) but also contains some free phenolic acids. A proportion of phenolic acids appear in the blood rapidly after coffee consumption due to absorption in the small intestine. We investigated in vitro whether this appearance could potentially be derived from free phenolic acids in instant coffee or from hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids by pancreatic or brush border enzymes. We quantified six free phenolic acids in instant coffees using HPLC-DAD-mass spectrometry. The highest was caffeic acid, but all were present at low levels compared to the chlorogenic acids. Roasting and decaffeination significantly reduced free phenolic acid content. We estimated, using pharmacokinetic modelling with previously published data, that the contribution of these compounds to small intestinal absorption is minimal. Hydrolysis of certain chlorogenic acids was observed with human-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and with porcine pancreatin, which showed maximal rates on 3- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. The amounts of certain free phenolic acids in coffee could only minimally account for small intestinal absorption based on modelling. The hydrolysis of caffeoylquinic, but not feruloylquinic acids, by enterocyte and pancreatic esterases is potentially a contributing mechanism to small intestinal absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A
In this work, the galactomannans from roasted coffee infusions were purified by 50% ethanol precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and phenylboronic acid-immobilized Sepharose chromatography. Specific enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->4)-D-mannan backbone allowed us to conclude that the galactomannans of roasted coffee infusions are high molecular weight supports of low molecular weight brown compounds. Also, the molecular weight of the brown compounds linked to the galactomannan increases with the increase of the coffee degree of roast. The reaction pathways of galactomannans during the coffee roasting process were inferred from the detection of specific chemical markers by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Maillard reaction, caramelization, isomerization, oxidation, and decarboxylation pathways were identified by detection of Amadori compounds, 1,6-beta-anhydromannose, fructose, glucose, mannonic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, and arabinonic acid in the reducing end of the obtained oligosaccharides. The implication of the several competitive reaction pathways is discussed and related to the structural changes of the galactomannans present in the roasted coffee infusions.
Sääksjärvi, K; Knekt, P; Rissanen, H; Laaksonen, M A; Reunanen, A; Männistö, S
To examine the prediction of coffee consumption on the incidence of Parkinson's disease. The study population comprised 6710 men and women, aged 50-79 years and free from Parkinson's disease at the baseline. At baseline, enquiries were made about coffee consumption in a self-administered questionnaire as the average number of cups per day. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of Parkinson's disease occurred. Parkinson's disease cases were identified through a nationwide registry of patients receiving medication reimbursement, which is based on certificates from neurologist. After adjustments for age, sex, marital status, education, community density, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, body mass index, hypertension and serum cholesterol, the relative risk for subjects drinking 10 or more cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.26 (95% confidence interval 0.07-0.99, P-value for trend=0.18). The association was stronger among overweight persons and among persons with lower serum cholesterol level (P-value for interaction=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease, but protective effect of coffee may vary by exposure to other factors.
Gabriel Henrique Horta de Oliveira
Full Text Available Flowability is an important characteristic of handling process for efficiency and reliability purpose of post-harvest operations, which are governed by the physical properties of the product. Physical properties determination is an important factor for formulation of machinery projects and sizing of post-harvest operations, which may impact considerably on the products quality, influencing directly the operation cost and company profit. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate and determinate some physical properties (repose angle, unit and bulk density, porosity and color coordinates, particle size, moisture content, water activity, angle of internal friction and effective angle of internal friction of coffee, such as to evaluate the influence of different roast and grinding degrees over these properties. Crude grain coffee (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, dehulled and dried were used. These were roasted at two levels: medium light and medium-dark brown, which Agtron numbers are, respectively, SCAA#65 and SCAA#45. After roasting process, grains were grinded at three particle sizes (thin, medium and thick. Both particle size and roast degree significantly affected physical properties of coffee. Coffee samples roasted at medium dark level obtained lower values of moisture content, water activity, repose angle, bulk and real density. Coffee samples grinded at level thin presented an increase of angle of internal friction and effective angle of internal friction, repose angle, bulk and real density, porosity and decrease of water activity values.
Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak
Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vučković Goran D.
Full Text Available Exergoeconomic methods provide an effective approach for identifying, evaluating and reducing thermodynamic inefficiencies and costs in an energy system. The aim of this paper is to show the potential for cost reduction on the demand side, using the exergoeconomic method in the example of real processes for coffee roasting. More than 6.5•109 kg of coffee beans is roasted worldwide annually, mostly in batch roasters. Near the end of the roast, roasting coffee emits volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and other pollutants, which in many industrialized countries have to be oxidized in afterburners. Afterburners release exhaust gases with a temperature of 250-450°C, depending on the roasting process and the method of exhaust gas cleaning. The aim of this paper is to use exergy analysis and exergoeconomic performance evaluation to determine the energy use for coffee roasting and the afterburning process, and evaluate the way to utilize waste heat and reduce costs in the factory. For roasters with the capacity of up to 4 tons of green coffee beans per hour, the potential of heat recovery is 1.1 MW and the possibility to save money is around 60,000 € per year. This case study is similar to many others worldwide, and the results of this analysis could lead to more general conclusions.