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Sample records for brazilian codling urophycis

  1. Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Murray, Marion; Reding, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth (Order Lepidoptera, Family Tortricidae) is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide. In most commercial fruit producing regions and home yards in Utah, fruit must be protected to harvest a crop. Insecticides are the main control tactic. There are new insecticides available, many of which are less toxic to humans and beneficial insects and mites than earlier insecticides. For commercial orchards with more than 10 acres of contiguous apple and pear plantings, pheromone-bas...

  2. Gamma irradiation effects on shelf life and gel forming properties of washed red hake (Urophycis chuss) fish mince

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh washed red hake (Urophycis chuss) mince without cryoprotectants was irradiated at 0 (control), 0.66 and 1.31 kGy and stored aerobically at 3.3 degrees C. The total aerobic plate counts of the control and the low and high levels irradiated samples remained less than 10(6) CFU/g for 4, 10, and 17 days, respectively. Gel strength decreased after irradiation of mince, and such decreases were dose dependent. Irradiation extended sensory shelf life of unfrozen fish mince 12-18 days and microbiologically (less than 10(6) CFU/g) 6-13 days longer than the unirradiated control

  3. Sterile insect technique in codling moth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)

  4. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for codling moth control

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Alan; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally effici...

  5. Field observations about the behaviour of codling-moth in Trentino (North-Eastern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattedi, L.; Forno, F.; Varner, M; Umberto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Codling-moth and applescab are the most important pathogens in both conventional and organic apple productions. In order to control any phytopathological problem, it is important to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of each specific pest. Since several years (starting from 1986) we are improving in Trentino (North-Eastern Italy) the observations of the population dynamics of codling-moth in order to find the best way to control and treat this pest insect. Constant monit...

  6. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Duménil; Gary J. R. Judd; Dolors Bosch; Mario Baldessari; César Gemeno; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communicatio...

  7. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  8. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  9. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  10. Use of \\kur{Notch} gene for the production of genetic "sexing" lines of codling moth.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVELLEROVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of pome fruit and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. The extensive use of insecticides for a control of this pest has resulted in the development of resistance to these chemicals, and there is an increasing demand on the use of environment-friendly control tactics, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Codling moth SIT relies on the mass rearing and release of genetically sterile both males and females into a wild po...

  11. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  12. Effect of Sex Pheromone and Kairomone Lures on Catches of Codling Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone evaluated the performance of a clear vertical interception trap coated with oil and baited with either sex pheromone, pear ester, or both attractants (combo) for adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Baited interception traps caught significan...

  13. Genetic Transformation of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct results in identification o...

  14. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  15. Possibilities of eradicating the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. from Syria, by releasing gamma irradiation sterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being a large apple producer, Syria is facing difficulties in exporting its surplus because of the high level of pesticide residues from the control of Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. etc. In addition, these species are under quarantine in some countries. A solution could be in using the sterile insect release technique (SIRT) for Codling moth. This method, however, has some limitations. It requires a thorough knowledge of biology and ecology of the pest species. It is also specific and effective towards particular pest species. A disadvantage could be the necessity to spray for other apple pests. Reporting the life history of the Codling moth in the apple producing regions, this paper discusses the possibility of using the SIRT for codling moth eradication. The results of the study indicate that the Codling moth has two distinct generations in the three main producing regions of the country. They also show that the separation between generations is very clear which may facilitate decision making in Codling moth control and eradication methods and reduces the number of required pesticide sprays. This also could be useful in adjusting Codling moth mass reading and release operations in a sterile insect release programme. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females) and fecundity of the summer generation is higher than the spring one. The results also show that a very small percentage of the spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of the summer generation larvae and all of those maturing in September do so. Studies on population density show that it is more than 5 times higher in neglected orchards than in commercial ones. Also the Codling moth summer generation increases about three times more than the spring generation, due probably to higher fecundity and favourable climatic conditions. (author)

  16. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  17. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonasMBengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  18. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  19. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  20. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  1. Implementation of a medfly, fruit fly parasitoids and codling moth rearing facility in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The medfly is a major pest for fruit crops worldwide and its presence in the countries means a threat for production and for export. The methodology that has been used in many countries to eradicate/suppress medfly population is the SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) that uses irradiation as a source for sterilisation. Besides medfly, Anastrepha species of quarantine relevance are important pests affecting the fruit crops in Brazil. Parasitoids that are natural enemies of fruit flies also will be reared in the facility for release in the production area. Finally, taking advantage of the large building area, the facility eventually will also produce sterile codling moths, a pest recently introduced into the south of Brazil and that affects the ever increasing apple and pear crops. The production of sterile medflies, natural enemies to control fruit flies and sterile codling moths - all of them using irradiation as sterilisation method and their release in the field is the most effective measure to control (suppression and eradication) such pests. The consumption of fresh fruits has increased worldwide and the production in Brazil either for domestic or export has been intensified in the last decade. As food safety is a major concern for the consumers, the use of environment-friendly technologies is always required. The SIT plays a major role for control fruit flies and other fruit pests. The final client for the sterile flies and moths will be the fruit growers in the tropical fruit growing areas in northern Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco (Sao Francisco Valley), Ceara, north of Minas Gerais e north of Espirito Santo. Initially 200 million medflies and 10 million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata wasps will be released per week. The codling moths irradiated in the facility will be sent by air to the apple and stone fruit production areas in the south of Brazil, (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), where the species is present. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  3. Area-wide codling moth SIT programme (1994-2004) in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 2004 was the tenth year of full sterile release operations for the 'Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release Program' (OK-SIR), targeting area-wide control of codling moth in British Columbia, Canada. Since the inception of OK-SIR, beginning with orchard cleanup in 1992, the codling moth mass-rearing facility has produced nearly 2.5 billion sterile moths with observed morphological and behavioural stability throughout each rearing season and from year to year. Seasonal variation in field performance and pheromone response may impact the success of released moths in the spring, however, and further research is merited in this area, as is additional experimental work regarding the engagement of sterile moths with wild populations throughout the programme region. Moth production averages have gradually increased over time, exceeding the predicted capacity of the facility, and likely attributable to ongoing engineering improvements and procedural refinements. It is clear that the quantity of sterile moths released has provoked dramatic reduction in wild codling moth populations throughout the valley, increasing the damage-free yield of host crops. The reception of the public as well as the farming community towards sterile insect release has been generally favourable, supported by economic advantages for farmers and environmental gains associated with significant reduction in the application of harmful pesticides. Initially implemented as an eradication programme, field results suggested as early as 1998 that 'control' was a more feasible option. Since 1999, field operations have been directed toward this revised goal. The programme treatment area of over five thousand ha is comprised of 3 zones stretching north-south in the fruit-growing region and involves significant urban and agricultural interface. Following initial cleanup efforts, sterile release in the southernmost zone (Zone 1) began and involved seven years of full-scale releases until 2002, when

  4. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented; however, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated convincingly. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pair...

  5. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  6. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181. ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  7. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. PMID:21190707

  8. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  9. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  10. Control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using the area-wide approach in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Management of codling moth (CM) is being conducted in southern Chile using an area-wide approach and integrating different tools such us Geographic Information System (GIS), classical biological control, inundative biological control and mating disruption. The total area covers 6,000 ha, and extends from the foothills of the Andes mountains and is bordered in the south and north by rivers. Vegetation cover is predominantly pastures, pine forests and berries, including six commercial apple orchards. Codling moth control in the commercial orchards is based on chemical insecticides, mating disruption or organic practices. Many alternative hosts for CM grow in this area, mainly as ornamentals, in abandoned orchards and in gardens for self-consumption. The most important species are noncommercial apple, pear, quince, walnut and apricot. Satellite images were obtained and every alternate host tree was georeferenced and drawn on these images. Pheromone traps are being used to identify main migrant sources and to quantify migration from sources to commercial orchards. Classical biological control includes importation and release of an egg/larval parasitoid (Ascogaster quadridentata) from USA to Chile. CM is reared on artificial diet and eggs are used to increase the A. quadridentata colony and allow field releases in the 2004-2005 growing season, especially in isolated and abandoned trees. Related to inundative biological control, several strains of entomopathogenic organisms have been collected and evaluated against CM, including the fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and nematodes. In addition, a Chilean species of trichogrammatid wasps, Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma caccociae, have been used under an inundative approach, especially in abandoned orchards. The Chilean species T. nerudai has shown similar or better preference and laboratory performance than introduced species such as T. bactrae, T. caccociae, T. dendrolimi and T. platneri. (author)

  11. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M

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    Benoît Graillot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16, the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M.

  12. Characterization of three transcripts encoding small heat shock proteins expressed in the codling moth, Cydia pomone//a (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen F. Garczynski; Thomas R. Unruh; Christelle Guédot; Lisa G. Neven

    2011-01-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of apples and pears worldwide. Increasing knowledge of how this insect responds to environmental stress will improve field and postharvest control measures used against it. The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play a major role in cellular responses to environmental stressors. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer,designed against the conserved α-crystallin domain, was used in 3′ rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends reactions to amplify transcripts encoding sHsps expressed in the codling moth cell line, Cp169, subjected to heat shock. Three full-length cDNAs were cloned from Cp169 cells that contained open reading frames encoding sHsps.The cDNA for CpHsp 19.8 was 795 bp encoding 177 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp 19.9 was 749 bp encoding 175 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp22.2 was 737 bp encoding 192 amino acids. Analysis of the protein sequences of the three CpHsps indicated the presence of 83 amino acids with homology to the α-crystallin domain. For each of the CpHsps, the α-crystallin domain was surrounded by divergent N- and C-terminal regions, consistent with the conserved structural features of sHsps. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, used to determine the expression patterns of each of the sHsps in different developmental stages of codling moth revealed the presence of transcripts in all stages tested. Consistent with characteristics of other sHsps, expression of CpHsp transcripts were greatly enhanced when insects were subjected to heat shock. The results of this research can be used as a guide to study the roles of sHsps in codling moth control using various post-harvest treatments.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on histology of the internal reproductive system of male false codling moth, cryptophlebia leucotreta (lepidoptera: tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male false codling moth pupae were exposed to an irradiation dose of 0,6 kGy gamma rays. A histological investigation showed that this irradiation dose caused a narrowing of the ductus ejaculatorius simplex 1 and zone 4 of the accessory glands. It did not appear to effect the testis, the process of spermatogenesis or other parts of the internal male reproductive system

  14. Developing transgenic sexing strains for the release of non-transgenic sterile male codling moths Cydia pomonella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Neven, L. G.; Fuková, Iva

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Vreysen, M.; Robinson, A.; Hendrichs, J.), s. 103-111 ISBN 978-1-4020-6058-8 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007307 Grant ostatní: Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture(AT) 12677; Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture(AT) 12055/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : codling moth * transgenesis * W chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Optimizing use of codling moth granulovirus: effects of application rate and spraying frequency on control of codling moth larvae in Pacific Northwest apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Fritts, R

    2005-10-01

    New formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulovirus (CpGV) [family Baculoviridae, genus Granulovirus] are commercially available in North America. In field tests on apple (Malus sp. 'Delicious'), we compared different application strategies for CpGV (Cyd-X, Certis USA, Clovis, CA) used in full-season programs against high pest populations. In replicated single tree plots, three rates (0.073, 0.219, and 0.438 liter ha(-1)) and application intervals (7, 10, and 14 d) killed 81-99% of larvae in fruit and reduced the number of mature larvae recovered in tree bands by 54-98%. Although the proportion of deep entries declined by 77-98%, the amount of fruit injury was not reduced compared with controls. There was a statistical trend between increasing dosage and spray frequency intervals and virus effectiveness, but no interaction between these factors. In a commercial orchard, we assessed a standard (0.219 liter ha(-1)) and two reduced rates of the virus (0.146 and 0.073 liter ha(-1)) applied in a weekly spray program in replicated 0.2-ha blocks. In the first generation, fruit injury was reduced in virus-treated compared with three untreated blocks although the decrease was only significant at the standard rate. Mortality rates of larvae (in fruit) were > or =90%, dose dependent, and comparable with rates observed from individual trees sprayed with equivalent treatments in the previous study. Rates of larval mortality declined at all dosages (81-85%) in the first part of the second generation. Most damage and proportionally less mortality occurred in the upper canopy. High pest pressures and untreated blocks contributed to significant damage and the study was terminated early. These data suggest virus programs can be tailored according to the localized pest pressure, but it may not prevent economic damage in high-pressure situations. PMID:16334311

  16. Study of the mechanism and possibilities of using F1 sterility for genetic control of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer based model was developed to simulate the suppression through three filial generations of field populations of codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), that have been exposed to the release of codling moths exposed to doses of gamma rays ranging from 1 to 500 Gy. The main purpose of the model is to select the optimal dose of radiation. The model runs on an IBM compatible computer. Numerous experiments were conducted to provide the experimental data required for the model. The model takes into account the fact that individual moths are affected in different ways by exposure to gamma rays. Some irradiated males mate and form spermatophore, while others fail to mate. Some males that form spermatophores fail to produce eupyrene sperm. These undesirable effects occur with increasing frequencies as the dose increases. Indeed, a high doses of radiation these negative effects are so great that the treated moths are totally non-competitive with the untreated moths. The release of F1 individuals has a number of advantages for the control of the codling moth. This approach involves the mass rearing and stockpiling of diapausing F1 larvae during the winter months. It facilitates the synchronization of the emergence and flight of genetically impaired individuals with the emergence and flight of the wild population. In addition, this approach facilitates the separation of the sexes and the release of only F1 males. The optimum dose for this approach was found to be 100 Gy. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  17. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  18. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  19. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  20. Radiation biology and inherited sterility in false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    False codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), male and female mature pupae and newly emerged adults were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the moths were either inbred or out-crossed with fertile counterparts. For newly emerged adults, there was no significant relationship between dose of radiation and insect fecundity when untreated females were mated to treated males. However, fecundity of treated females mated to either untreated or treated males declined as the dose of radiation increased. A similar trend was observed when mature pupae were treated. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to untreated males for both adults and pupae was 200 Gy, while fertility in crosses involving treated males declined linearly with increasing doses of radiation. In newly emerged adults, 350 Gy treated males had a residual fertility of 5.2% when mated to untreated females while in pupal experiments the residual fertility in 350 Gy treated males was 3.3%. Inherited effects resulting from irradiation of parental (P1) males with selected doses of radiation were recorded for the F1 generation. Decreased F1 fecundity and fertility increased F1 mortality during development, and a significant shift in the F1 sex ratio in favour of males was observed when increasing doses of radiation were applied to the P1 males

  1. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  2. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities. PMID:27369280

  3. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  4. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. PMID:21356213

  5. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pajač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM (Linnaeus is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth Cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 * 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  7. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  8. False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera,Tortricidae) larvae are chill-susceptible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leigh Boardman; Tim G.Grout; John S.Terblanche

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the low temperature tolerance and cold hardiness of larvae of false codling moth,Thaumatotibia leucotreta.We found that larvae have mean critical thermal minima (lower limits of activity) of 6.7℃ which was influenced by feeding status.The effects of low temperature exposure and duration of exposure on larval survival were assessed and showed that the temperature at which 50% of the population survives is -11.5 ± 0.3℃ after 2 h exposure.The supercooling point (SCP,i.e.,freezing temperature) was investigated using a range of cooling rates and under different conditions (feeding and hydration status) and using inoculative freezing treatments (in contact with water or orange juice).The SCP decreased significantly from - 15.6 ℃ to - 17.4℃ after larvae were fasted for 24 h.Twenty-four hour treatments at either high or low relative humidity (95.9% or 2.4%) also significantly decreased SCP to -17.2℃ and -18.2℃ respectively.Inoculative freezing (by water contact) raised SCP from - 15.6℃ to -6.8℃which could have important implications for post-harvest sterilization.Cooling rates did not affect SCP which suggests that there is limited phenotypic plasticity of SCP during the larval life-stage,at least over the short time-scales investigated here.In conclusion,larvae of T.leucotreta are chill-susceptible and die upon freezing.These results are important in understanding this pest's response to temperature variation,understanding pest risk status and improving post-harvest sterilization efficacy.

  9. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  10. Investigations on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of codling moth in an integrated pest control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diapause of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L., was studied in relation to various altitudes of origin. Altitudes of 350 m and 1300 m above sea level showed that low-altitude moths had a longer diapause. Altitude appears to affect the duration of larval diapause. Biological control by virus-induced granulosis was investigated, using 3 to 4 applications of the virus per tree per season, at the rate of 2x1011 to 9x1011 virus capsules per application. Codling moth infestation was reduced by 74.2% to 88.2%. Trichomma enecator and Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., both parasites of the codling moth, were both colonized in the laboratory, and population dynamics are being studied. Copulatory behaviour in the males of A. quadridentatus is elicited primarily by pheromones produced by the female. Males emit some sounds which appear primarily intended to convey territorial rights to other males. The frequencies produced by males and by females differ. Codling moth odours stimulate females to oviposit. The effect of pesticides on parasitation is being studied. Details of a planned mass-rearing facility for lepidopteran and other pests are given

  11. A pilot sterile insect release programme to suppress codling moth in South African apple and pear orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A local pilot codling moth sterile insect release (SIR) programme was proposed in 2002. The purpose of the pilot programme is to demonstrate the method and to establish its economic feasibility in commercial apple and pear orchards in South Africa. Due to financial constraints, the programme was limited to a total area of 150 ha. The pilot programme was launched in 2004 and is due to continue until March 2006. Initial efforts involved the establishment of a codling moth colony from field-collected insects during 2002. The colony was expanded during 2003 and codling moth eggs were imported from Canada. The insects were reared on an agar-based diet in small containers enclosed in paper bags. The colony was subsequently expanded in preparation for field releases in 150 ha during the 2004/05-season. The orchards selected for the pilot programme are planted in close proximity to each other and the area is semi-isolated. All orchards are treated with pheromone mediated mating disruption in combination with insecticide applications. The orchards are situated on two neighbouring farms, and both farms have extensive pest and disease monitoring programmes, thus historic data is available for all orchards. A monitoring method involving the weekly inspection of 24 trees per orchard is used. The monitored trees are marked and their position recorded using a global positioning system (GPS). All data generated during monitoring are recorded on a hand held computer and analysed using software developed in conjunction with Stellenbosch University. The software allows for the spatial and temporal analysis of pest and disease distribution and associated damage in the monitored orchards. Current research and development needs include the development of improved culture methods and the assessment of the overall fitness of laboratory cultured moths in the field. Irradiated and non-irradiated have been assessed under field condition using mark and recapture methods. The

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 x 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  13. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  14. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  15. Evaluating the potential of suppressing codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. field populations by the use of the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were done to evaluate the possibility of using the sterile insect technique for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., eradication from Syria. Data accumulated during these studies indicate that codling moth has two distinct generations (spring and summer generation) in the country. Spring generation starts from mid April to early May, reaches its peak about one month later, then declines rapidly soon after. Adults of summer generation start their activity in July, peak in August and wild moths disappear by late September to early October. A very small percentage of spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of summer generation larvae and all of hose maturing in September do so. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females). Studies on population density and rate of increase show that it ranged between 2.4 and 11.05 larvae/tree in commercial and neglected apple orchards respectively. The results also indicate that codling moth summer generation increased about three times more than spring generation. In the radiosensitivity studies, it is clear that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to irradiation treatment than males. A dose of 15 krad caused 100% sterility in treated females and reduced fecundity to less than 1% This dose (35 Krad) had no adverse effect on male longevity and competitiveness under laboratory conditions. However, males exposed to a dose of 25 or 35 Krad mated less times than control males and recovered some of their fertility overtime. (author)

  16. Interactions of two idiobiont parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Unruh, Thomas R; Headrick, Heather L

    2003-07-01

    Simultaneous use of parasitoids and entomopathogenic nematodes for codling moth (CM) control could produce an antagonistic interaction between the two groups resulting in death of the parasitoid larvae. Two ectoparasitic ichneumonid species, Mastrus ridibundus and Liotryphon caudatus, imported for classical biological control of cocooned CM larvae were studied regarding their interactions with Steinernema carpocapsae. Exposure of M. ridibundus and L. caudatus developing larvae to infective juveniles (IJs) of S. carpocapsae (10 IJs/cm2; approximately LC(80-90) for CM larvae) within CM cocoons resulted in 70.7 and 85.2% mortality, respectively. However, diapausing full grown parasitoid larvae were almost completely protected from nematode penetration within their own tightly woven cocoons. M. ridibundus and L. caudatus females were able to detect and avoid ovipositing on nematode-infected cocooned CM moth larvae as early as 12h after treatment of the host with IJs. When given the choice between cardboard substrates containing untreated cocooned CM larvae and those treated with an approximate LC95 of S. carpocapsae IJs (25 IJs/cm2) 12, 24, or 48h earlier, ovipositing parasitoids demonstrated a significant preference for untreated larvae. The ability of these parasitoids to avoid nematode-treated larvae and to seek out and kill cocooned CM larvae that survive nematode treatments enhances the complementarity of entomopathogenic nematodes and M. ridibundus and L. caudatus. PMID:12877830

  17. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  18. Implementation of the sterile insect release programme to eradicate the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect release (SIR) programme to eradicate the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), from the Okanagan region by the year 2000 has begun. The SIR programme includes about 8000 ha of apple and pear trees. In many orchards, the cessation of insecticidal sprays for codling moth control should permit apples to be grown without pesticide applications during the fruit development period, a major environmental and economic benefit. Research done by M.D. Proverbs and colleagues over twenty years has established techniques for rearing, sterilizing and releasing codling moths. However, the SIR costs estimated from a pilot project were more than twice those of chemical sprays to control the pest. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that a programme would be economical if only the minimum required number of moths was released, if the eradication area was treated in steps and if reinfestation was prevented. The British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association helped to develop an implementation plan which included a budget, a revenue scheme and a political and administrative framework. The plan was approved by the municipal governing bodies in the region, as well as the Provincial and Federal Governments. Enabling legislation was passed in 1989. Funds for equipment and a rearing facility to produce about five million moths per week were provided by the two senior governments, and the municipal governing bodies will collect property taxes and parcel based on the orchard are to cover the operational costs. The first phase of the programme, wild population reduction, started in 1992; the second, sterile moth release, will begin in 1994, and the third, prevention of reinfestation, will start in 1997. Recent improvements in the rearing procedures will increase efficiency and production security, and reduce worker health hazards. The integrated pest management systems in apples and pears may require some changes when the moth release phase of SIR begins. (author). 18 refs

  19. Isolation, characterization and localization of orthologous sequence of the \\kur{Drosophila Notch} gene in codling moth, \\kur{Cydia pomonella}

    OpenAIRE

    Kůta, Václav

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae) is a significant pest in apple orchards. In the 1990ies, a control programme using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been established, based on bisexual releases of sterile insects into wild populations of this pest. Male-only releases are not possible due to the lack of an efficient system to produce male-only progeny. Recently, a new approach has been proposed for the development of genetic sexing strains in Lepidoptera. It is based on in...

  20. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  1. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  2. Acceptability and suitability of eggs of false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from irradiated parents to parasitism by trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We determined the acceptability and suitability of eggs of Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) to parasitisation by Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae Nagaraja under no choice and choice situations. Male and female moths were treated (T) with 150 or 200 Gy of gamma radiation, inbred or out-crossed to untreated (N) counterparts, and eggs laid by different crosses were offered to T. cryptophlebiae as host material. Newly laid (24 h old) eggs, as well as eggs that were 48 h and 72 h old were evaluated. In general, all egg treatments in the no choice experiments were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for parasitoid development. However, significant differences in the number of parasitised eggs were detected when one member of the host cross, particularly the female, was treated with gamma radiation or when the host egg age was greater than 24 h. No significant differences were detected in any of the choice experiments. Our results suggest that T. cryptophlebiae would accept, successfully develop in, and emerge from false codling moth eggs laid by the different crosses that would theoretically be present in the field under a sterile insect release programme for false codling moth and suggest that further evaluations combining releases of irradiated moths and parasitoids are warranted. (author)

  3. A study to determine the feasibility of using the sterile male technique as a means of controlling false codling moth in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment has been carried out in order to determine the feasibility of using the sterile male technique as a means of controlling false codling moth in citrus. The insect material was obtained from the mass breeding unit of the CSFRI. Pupae of both sexes of the insect were irradiated with a cobalt(60 Co) irradiator. Irradiation and releases of the treated insects were made regularly during the period 9th September to 21st December 1976 in an unsprayed navel orchard. Two untreated navel orchards of comparable size and age were used as controls. Weekly assesment of the results was based on the presence or absence of larvae in fallen fruit, and was continued throughout the season. The most important results of the releases were first, a reduction in the number of larvae and second, a reduction in the percentage of dropped fruit infested during the peak infestation period compared with the untreated control orchards. The biggest drawback, at present, is the high cost involved in the mass rearing of false codling moth

  4. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  5. 苹果蠹蛾不育昆虫释放技术研究进展%Advances in the sterile insect technique for controlling codling moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 徐婧; 张润志

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique ( SIT) involves the mass release of sterile insects to reduce fertility of wild populations of the same species. The codling moth is a major global pest of apple and pear crops that has invaded 71 countries and 5 continents. In this paper, advances in mass rearing, sterilization and the release of sterile insects for codling moth control are introduced, including artificial diet, population construction, rearing facilities and conditions, adult collection and quality control, long distance transport, sterilization source and equipment, radiation sensitivity, release method, marking and saturation rate. The effectiveness of SIT in countries that have used this technique is reviewed. The codling moth had now been found in Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin and poses a serious threat to China' s fruit industry. The introduction of SIT' s to China is therefore both timely and important.%不育昆虫释放技术(sterile insect technique,SIT)是一种环境友好、可作为大面积害虫综合治理(AW-IPM)的防治技术,是以压倒性比例释放不育昆虫来减少田间同种害虫繁殖量的害虫治理方法.苹果蠹蛾Cydia pomonella(L.)是世界重要的梨果类害虫,现已入侵世界5洲71国.本文综述了苹果蠹蛾大规模饲养技术、辐射不育技术、释放技术3个关键环节的研究与技术进展,主要包括:苹果蠹蛾人工饲料、实验种群建立、饲养设备与条件、收集和质量评估、长距离运输、辐射源与设备、辐射剂量与敏感性、释放方法、释放标记和释放量等,并介绍了各国采用SIT技术的应用效果.苹果蠹蛾在我国新疆、甘肃、宁夏、内蒙、黑龙江、吉林6个省区发现,对我国苹果产业安全生产构成严重威胁,我国很有必要引进并建立苹果蠹蛾SIT防治技术体系.

  6. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  7. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  8. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  9. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth. PMID:26318002

  10. Codling moth tans-hemisferic compatibility studies and effect of long-distance airfreighting on adult longevity and mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest in pome fruit orchards in South Africa. Approximately 50 % of the pome fruit production area in this country is under a combination of mating disruption and insecticides. Despite the increased use of mating disruption, this technology is not employed in a true area-wide fashion and results have been variable. Consequently producers still rely almost exclusively on an organophosphate programme to control CM. The negative impact of insecticides on the environment coupled with increasing global incidence of CM resistance has necessitated the development of more environmentally friendly products and sustainable control technologies against this pest. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against CM in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 14-16 million moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Canada is only fully utilised for part of the year. The time and expense of implementing SIT against CM in South Africa would be substantially reduced if CM produced in Canada were found to be fully compatible with South African CM. In addition, because the pome fruit-growing season in both countries is opposite, the programme in Canada would benefit by maintaining CM production year-round and selling the CM to South Africa to use in SIT. Studies were conducted in small cages in the laboratory and in an unsprayed apple orchard in October 2003 to examine the mating compatibility of CM from Canada and South Africa. In addition during 2004, four shipments of CM adults and pupae were made through normal airfreighting services and insects were assessed for their longevity and mating ability upon their arrival in South Africa. The results from the small cage study suggest that Canadian CM males were equally attracted to calling Canadian and South African CM females despite the fact that Canadian CM had had

  11. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  12. Correction: Graillot, B.; et al. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M. Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Graillot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our article “Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M.” (Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144; doi:10.3390/v6125135 [1] we obtained resistance values of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, RGV laboratory colony [2], when challenged with Cydia pomonella Granulovirus, Mexican Isolate (CpGV-M, that were lower than those previously published [2]. Careful analysis of both the RGV colony and the CpGV-M virus stock used led to the realization that a low level contamination of this virus stock with CpGV-R5 occurred. We have made new tests with a verified stock, and the results are now in agreement with those previously published.

  13. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  14. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  15. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  16. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  17. The new Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 15, 1990, when Fernando Collor's Government was inaugurated, the Brazilian President has been pursuing a nuclear policy aimed at ensuring compliance with the constitutional principles and rules that determine the utilization of nuclear energy solely for peaceful uses and purposes. The development of Brazilian nuclear policy has followed several stages, which are reported in this paper from a legal and institutional point of view. (author)

  18. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2–4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy. PMID:25568003

  19. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  20. TEORES DE HISTAMINA E QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DE FILÉ DE PEIXE CONGELADO HISTAMINE LEVELS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY OF FROZEN FISH FILLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria F. M. SOARES

    1998-10-01

    (TVB, mean levels of 62.71 mg N/100 g were found, with significantly higher values (> 80 mg N/100 g for sandperch (Pseudopercis numida and shark (families Carcharhinidae and Squalidae and smaller than 68 mg N/100 g for the other types. Mean pH values varied from 6.11 in Brazilian codling (Urophycis brasiliensis to 7.49 in Brazilian drum (Umbrina sp.. Based on these results, 79, 39 e 62% of the samples would not comply with the Brazilian legislation for TVB, pH and sulfidric gas, respectively. Histamine was found in 37% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.00 in flounder (Paralichthys sp. and Pleuronectes sp. to 0.50 mg/100 g in sandperch. Histamine was not detected in Brazilian codling. There were significant differences among pH, TVB and histamine levels in samples from different families. In order to evaluate the potential use and critical limits of these parameters as an index of quality, samples should be monitored immediately after capture. The histamine concentrations found in these products, by itself, would not be sufficient to cause toxic effects.

  1. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  2. Application of biological pesticides in the control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)%生物源农药在苹果蠹蛾防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正伟; 杨雪清; 张雅林

    2015-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), a notorious quarantine fruit pest worldwide, poses a serious threat to the main apple producing areas in China. In terms of food safety, environmentally friendly biological pesticides are desirable substitutes for chemical pesticides;the long ̄term use of the latter have caused resistance, preventing its long team use for codling moth control. The present review summarized the use of biological pesticides, including parasitoids, sterilized insect, granu ̄lovirus, entomopathogenic nematodes, Bacillus thuringiensis, entomopathogenic fungi, microsporidia, sex pheromone, cantharidin, and spinosad that have been either applied or suggested to control codling moth. The challenges faced by biological pesticides are al ̄so discussed, and anyhow it will play an important role in the integrated pest management of codling moth due to its characteristics of infinite variety, wide source, good selectivity in application.%苹果蠹蛾是世界性检疫害虫,对我国苹果优势产区构成了巨大威胁。长期依赖化学防治使该虫抗性问题变得十分严峻。为了保障食品安全,以环境友好的生物源农药替代化学农药已成为当前苹果蠹蛾防治的热点。本文对国内外现有的生物源农药,如寄生蜂、不育昆虫、颗粒体病毒、病原线虫、Bt、病原真菌、微孢子虫、性信息素、斑蝥素、多杀菌素等,在苹果蠹蛾防治中的最新应用及其存在的问题进行论述,讨论了生物源农药凭借其种类多、来源广且在用药时期上选择性强等特点,在该虫综合治理中的重要地位及面临的挑战。

  3. Making Heritage in Brazilian Quilombos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lorena Kenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Palmares Cultural Foundation has recognized 1,624 communities as remanescentes de quilombos, or remnants, of traditional Black settlements. Since 1988, the constitution has guaranteed these groups collective land titles, generating heated debate and conflict concerning authenticity, assimilation, and land rights. Heritage has become an important vehicle for legitimizing identity and securing territory rights. I examine quilombola heritage in the sertão, an area not popularly acknowledged as having a history of slavery or Afro Brazilian cultural traditions.

  4. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  5. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  6. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  7. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  8. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  9. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  10. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  11. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  12. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  13. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  14. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  15. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  17. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  18. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  19. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  20. The use of radiation induced sterility for the control of the codling moth. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted from 1973 - 1977 in Hungary to obtain background information necessary for the implementation of sterile insect techniques (SIT) and pest management systems. The flight of the codling moth (CM), monitored by sex-pheromone traps, lasted from May to September. The two peaks (corresponding to the two generations per year) and the break between the two flights appeared blurred, i.e. control measures should be carried out nearly continuously during the whole season. The number of CM pairs was estimated by the release-recapture method as 100 to 500 per ha in mid-summer in an untreated orchard. Such naturally occurring low population levels could help initiating successful SIT against the CM even in not thoroughly treated apple stands. Mixed house gardens containing abandoned host trees have to be considered in Hungary as the main reservoir of the supposed ''semiwild type'' CM. Oak forests proved to harbour autonomous ''wild type'' CM populations on wild apple and sorb trees. The chemically well treated apple orchards have generally very low ''farm type'' CM populations. Natural occurrence of the CM granulosis virus in larvae developing in wild apples has been found. Transmission of the virus in laboratory rearings by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was detected. Spraying with virus suspensions fully protected apples against the CM; however, no spread of the virus to neighbouring untreated trees was observed. Surveys for other major insect pests (Lepidoptera, aphids and scales) of apples were also made and the high population levels of several species in the untreated apple stands have been found indicating that (1) natural control generally cannot reduce these populations to an economically acceptable level, and (2) the SIT against the CM must be combined with chemical treatments or with selective methods against these species. Based on a theoretical analysis of economic aspects of the SIT for codling moth control, it was found that in Hungary

  1. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  2. Developing a sterile insect release programme for false codling moth: Effect of different overflooding ratios on the incidence of damage under controlled situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Our overall research objective is the development of a sterile insect release (SIR) programme for false codling moth (FCM), Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), which is a key pest of citrus in South Africa and a serious invasive threat to the United States. This technology could be used both as an area-wide pest management tactic in South Africa and as an eradication tool should FCM be introduced into the United States. Our initial studies concentrated on the radiation biology and the documentation of inherited sterility in this species. More recently we determined that eggs of FCM produced by irradiated moths were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for development by the commercially available egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae. This finding might lead to the simultaneous field application of FCM-SIR and augmentative releases of egg parasitoids for synergistic suppression of FCM. Here we report the results obtained in field-cage evaluations of different release ratios of treated FCM on the incidence of fruit damage and on the competitiveness of FCM by examining the proportion of matings that involved the treated insects released into each field-cage. Experiments were conducted in a navel orange orchard where fifteen large nylon-mesh field-cages were used to enclose single trees. Fruit was thinned by hand to 50 fruit and virgin adult FCM treated with 150 or 200 Gy of gamma radiation were released into the cages along with unirradiated moths at the ratios of 5:1 and 10:1, respectively. Insects were allowed to mate and lay eggs for 7 d after which fallen fruit was collected daily and inspected for damage. Fruit were kept in individual containers in the laboratory until the emergence of the F1 generation. These insects were either individually (one male - one female) inbred or outcrossed with unirradiated adults to deduce their original parental pairing. Compared with the control cages, all treatments involving the release of irradiated

  3. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão C. Gamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to internationalize the existing Brazilian journals. With regard to the latter possibility, a metric analysis of scientometrics databases suggests that the reasons for the low impact of articles published in Brazilian journals are manifold, but the low performance is mainly explained by the scarce employment of the lingua franca-English language-in the articles. This article discusses the role that SciELO, a Brazilian scientific publisher, has played in indexing and assisting the best Brazilian psychology journals in raising their horizons, in terms of internationalizing their output, while at the same time serving as an instrument of promotion for national studies of psychology within the country of Brazil.

  4. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  5. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  6. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  7. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  8. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  9. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  10. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  11. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  12. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  13. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  14. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  15. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  16. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  17. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  18. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  19. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

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    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  20. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of deep-water fisheries off Brazil is reviewed from biological, eco-nomic, and political perspectives. This process has been centered in the southeastem and southern sectors of the Brazilian coast (19°-34°S and was motivated by the overfishing of the main coastal resources and a government-induced vessel-chartering program. Shelf break (100-250 m operations by national hook-and-line and trawl vessels intensified in the 1990s. Around 2000-2001, however, foreign-chartered longliners, gillnetters, potters, and trawlers started to operate in Brazilian waters, leading the occupation of the upper slope (250-500 m, mostly targeting monkfish (Lophyus gastrophysus, the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi, the Brazilian codling (Urophycis mystacea, the wreckfish (Polyprion americanus, the Argentine short-fin squid (Illex argentinus, the red crab (Chaceon notialis, and the royal crab (Chaceon ramosae. Between 2004 and 2007, chartered trawlers established a valuable fishery on deep-water shrimps (family Aristeidae, heavily exploiting the lower slope (500-1000 m. Total catches of deep-water resources varied annually from 5,756 ton in 2000 to a maximum of 19,923 ton in 2002, decreasing to nearly 11,000 ton in 2006. Despite intensive data collection, the availability of timely stock assessments, and a formal participatory process for the discussion of management plans, deep-water stocks are already considered to be overexploited due to limitations of governance. .El reciente desarrollo de la pesca profunda en Brasil fue revisado desde perspectivas biológicas, econômicas y políticas. Este proceso se ha centrado en los sectores sureste y sur de la costa de Brasil (19°-34°S y fue motivado por la sobrepesca de los principales recursos costeros en conjunto con una política gubernamental de arriendo de buques pesqueros. Las operaciones de pesca sobre el borde de la plataforma (100-250 m por buques palangreros y arrastreros se

  1. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  2. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  3. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  4. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  5. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  6. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  7. Transgenic approaches applied to the sterile insect technique of codling moth control%转基因在苹果蠹蛾不育昆虫释放技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹昱; 徐婧; 张润志

    2012-01-01

    使用不育昆虫释放技术是一项新兴的苹果蠹蛾Cydia pomonella(L.)防治方法,使用转基因得到不育雄蛾具有比传统辐射方法更多的优点.转基因技术通过使用基于piggyBac等转座子的质粒载体,并插入显性条件致死基因以培育遗传性别品系,同时插入荧光蛋白等标记基因来显示转基因的效果;在人工控制的发育条件,建立成熟的稳定苹果蠹蛾品系,用以最终的田间释放以达到防治的目的.%The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a relatively new approach to controlling the codling moth. Compared with the traditional irradiation method, the application of transgenic techniques is much better at producing sterile males. In addition to manual control of developmental conditions this involves using plasmid vectors based on the piggyBac transposon, inserting a dominant conditional lethal gene to culture genetic sexing strains and inserting marker genes such as fluorescent proteins to elucidate the efficacy of gene transfer.

  8. Development of mass production, gamma sterilization and release of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on codling moths was conducted from Spring 1973 to Autumn 1978 and included rearing of larvae on thinning apples and artificial diet ecology, radiation sterilization and the effect of field releases of sterile moths in suppressing the wild population. Field releases of irradiated with 30 Krad unsexed insects were conducted in two consecutive seasons, namely in 1977 and 1978 and aimed at a sterile to wild ratio of 97:1 and 233:1 respectively. The experimentally obtained ratio, however, based on catches in traps baited with sex attractant was 24:1 and 79:1 respectively. Examination of fruit infestation at harvest revealed an increase in infestation by 9% in the 1977 sterile release programme and by 56% in the 1978 programme. Likely causes of the failure of the SIT programme were the immigration of fertile females from the surrounding area and inadequate mating competitiveness of the released moths due to somatic damage caused by the irradiation and laboratory adaptation. The sharp increase of fruit infestation in 1978 was very likely the result of a six fold increase in yield which provided a better chance of survival for hatching larvae

  9. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  10. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  11. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  12. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro-Machado R.; de Oliveira P.L.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a gre...

  13. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  14. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  15. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  16. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  17. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  18. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individual variability of brain function with both biological and cultural origins. Based on this approach, Brazilian studies on aphasic children and illiterate aphasic persons were disseminated internationally. In the 1970s, cognitive neuropsychology began in England, highlighting dysfunctions in reading and writing processes. The characteristics of writing systems within each language became relevant for the manifestations of acquired dyslexia. Brazilian studies showed deficits in Portuguese and Japanese writing caused by brain lesions. During this scientific journey, scientific societies and postgraduate programs in Brazil were created to facilitate exchanges and communication among young researchers. By the end of the last century and in the early 2000s, the growth of the neuropsychology of aging raised awareness of the complexity of sociocultural factors, not only on language research but also according to the level of education, frequency of reading and writing habits, school type, and interactions among these factors and biological factors, especially between the level of education and age. From this historical standpoint, we outline future directions and perspectives in the field of Brazilian neuropsychology.

  19. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  20. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  1. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  3. Human Rights and Black Brazilian Health

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2009-01-01

     The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore the relationships between inequity and health in Brazil, particularly to Blacks Brazilians. Health as a human right is the focus to help the comprehension the pathways between inequity, racism and disease.

  4. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA)

  5. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  6. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  7. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  8. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  9. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  10. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  11. The Brazilian investment in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-Machado, R; De Oliveira, P L

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997) or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications) to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications). Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development. PMID:11717704

  12. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  13. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.)

  14. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  15. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  16. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  17. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  18. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  19. 苹果蠹蛾种群遗传多样性研究进展%Recent advances concerning the population genetic diversity of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉婷; 陈茂华

    2015-01-01

    苹果蠹蛾是重要的世界性果树害虫,寄主广泛,通过形成各种生态型或种群适应新入侵环境,对当地果品生产造成严重损失。本文综述了国内外有关苹果蠹蛾遗传多样性的研究进展。相关研究表明,寄主植物、地理隔离和杀虫剂等因素影响种群间的遗传多样性和遗传分化。其中,地理隔离是种群间形成遗传分化的主要原因之一,寄主分布格局、气候条件、虫体飞行能力和人为活动等因素都会影响种群间遗传分化的程度。苹果蠹蛾是我国重要的入侵害虫,我国东北地区和西北地区的苹果蠹蛾种群具有不同的遗传多样性水平,并且种群间有一定程度的分化,今后需要进一步研究影响我国苹果蠹蛾种群遗传的重要因素,明确该虫种群间分化情况、入侵来源和扩散路径,这对于延缓苹果蠹蛾在我国的扩散,制定合理有效的综合防治策略具有重要意义。%The codling moth, Cydia pomonella is an important cosmopolitan fruit pest. This species has a wide host range, and forms various ecotypes or populations to adapt newly invaded habitats, thus causing serious economic losses to fruit production every year. The research progresses of C. pomonella genetic diversity in China and other counties were reviewed in the current paper. The previ ̄ous research showed that some factors including host plants, geographic isolation and insecticide application could affect the popula ̄tion genetics of C. pomonella. Geographic isolation was one of the major factors which caused genetic differentiation of the pest, whilst other factors including host plant distribution, climate, flight capacity and anthropogentic measures could also influence the extent of genetic differentiation. C. pomonella populations from the northwestern vs. northeastern China have different level of genetic diversity, and show genetic differentiation. The further research need to be

  20. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  1. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  2. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  3. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  4. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  5. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show funding and grants determined by Brazilian government, as the big question of the wind energy industry marketing, allowing the economic viability of wind energy projects. Further, it appears that the wind energy industry is eager to investments and has great potential for new business, but there are problems within the producing companies which that have to be assessed, such as the competitiveness capability, the high equipment costs, the installation locations limitations and lack of specialized employees with specific skills and capacities.

  6. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  8. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  9. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  10. The Taint of Violence: insurgent voices in Brazilian Black Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    – Ethnology studies report issues related to theatricality and spectacularity both in the scenic and ritual fields. Thus, theatre is one of the supports in ethnoscenological research, and this work focuses on Black Theater. Among the forms of representation of Blacks in Brazilian society, violence is one of the symbolic traits that has been re-signified in Afro-Brazilian texts. This essay aims at portraying some echoes of violence in dramatic/spectacular texts in Brazilian Black Theatre. We i...

  11. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand...

  12. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  13. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres; José Luis Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is...

  14. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  15. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  16. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  17. Brazilian, Japanese, and American Business Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    The determinants of the outcomes of business negotiations in 3 cultures are investigated in a laboratory experiment. The outcomes of negotiations between Japanese businessmen result primarily from situational constraint—the role of the negotiator (buyer or seller). Representational (problem-solving oriented) bargaining strategies, a measure of the process of the interaction, is the most important variable in American negotiations. In negotiations between Brazilian business people, deceptive b...

  18. Unions and the Economic Performanceof Brazilian Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello

    2002-01-01

    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  19. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla; Werneck Marcos Azeredo; Lucas Simone; Abreu Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the profess...

  20. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalizat...

  1. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  2. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  3. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-01-01

    In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor expl...

  4. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza; Nilton César Lima; Jamerson Viegas Queiroz; Antonio Sergio Torres Penedo; Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho; Antonio Carlos Silva Costa

    2013-01-01

    Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show ...

  5. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  6. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza de Alencar Naas

    2014-01-01

    This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed ...

  7. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  8. The current misunderstood Brazilian foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Instead of taking advantage of increasing Brazilian international projection and involve the country in matters that are relevant for the group of actors in the international system, it seems that the country´s insertion goes confusedly in the opposite direction. Since the beginning of the current decade, Brazil has maintained evident cordiality for the governments of Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia and more recently Iran. As a consequence, Brazil is increasing dialogue with countries and involving ...

  9. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  10. DEVELOPMENTS IN BRAZILIAN FOOD SAFETY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete SALAY; Caswell, Julie A.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is an important case study of food safety policies because it is the eighth largest economy in the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product. Analysis of the policy and quality management initiatives of the Brazilian government shows that recent activities are more strongly oriented toward assuring access to international markets than to assuring the safety of food sold in domestic markets. This orientation has important implications for agribusiness firms operating in Brazil. Consumer ...

  11. The growth of Brazilian metrics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Urbizagástegui Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is presented on the growth of the literature on bibliometrics, informetrics, and scientometrics published in Brazil by Brazilian and foreign authors in the form of journal articles, book chapters, and papers presented at conferences. From 1973 to December 2012, close to 2300 documents were published. This literature is growing exponentially at a rate of 24% per year and doubling in size every 3.2 years.

  12. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  13. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá Mônica Oliveira B.; Glick Doris F.; Alves Maria Dalva S.

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches...

  14. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  15. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  16. Employment generation in Brazilian coffee regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, Flavia M. M.; Joaquim J. M. Guilhoto; Imori, Denise; Sakon, Fernando M.; Camargo, Fernanda S.; Vegro, Celso L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of coffee production on each of the main Brazilian states producers of arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), a better understanding of the structural links between production and industrialization of coffee on those states and the national economy can provide subsides for implementation of public policies, essential to plan the coffee production and increase the sector competitiveness. Therefore, this study analyzed the employment ...

  17. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  18. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  19. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  20. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  1. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  2. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  4. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  5. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  6. The Brazilian calibration network for radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination of the Brazilian Calibration Network for the radiodiagnostic dosimetry and quality control is the responsibility of the National Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LNMRI) of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD). The LNMRI/IRD is the Institute working in metrology, dosimetry and radioprotection at the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The IRD is designated by the Brazilian Government through the National Institute for Metrology (INMETRO) to maintain and disseminate the national ionizing radiation dosimetry standards and quantities related to the ionizing radiation. The idea for that network is to establish partnership in the implementation of health improvement programmes - the primary goal of the Brazilian Government. Some of these programmes are related to the medical applications of the ionizing radiation and it is so important that it is part of the main strategic planning of the following institutions involved in this subject: - National Sanitary Inspection Agency (ANVISA); - National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); - Health Ministry (MS). The Health Ministry of Brazil established the regulation named Portaria MS 453 in order to regulate the quality control and inspection in hospitals and clinics that use X ray for medical diagnostics. The National Sanitary Inspection Agency, in adherence to this regulation, is implementing at each State body the sanitary inspection compliance control. In parallel, there is a great demand for equipment acquisition and staff training all over Brazil. Many universities are implementing graduation and post graduate courses in order to cover the lack of specialized personnel at ANVISA, hospitals and service companies for running this programme The LNMRI/IRD provides traceable standards in radiation therapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection and coordinates this Brazilian metrology network to develop all Brazilian diagnostic metrology centres, take care of the implementation of

  7. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings approaching the following subjects: integration of the energy planning sector, operation and regulation, isolate systems and energy universalization, institutional, regulatory, tributary and legal fees aspects, energy complementary, environment, Brazilian energy matrix, and energy costs

  8. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  9. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  10. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  11. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  12. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000 only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  13. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  14. Area-wide control tactics for the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, in South Africa designed to suppress local populations and prevent and treat invasion/establishment in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The False Codling Moth (FCM), Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of citrus, stone fruit, and other crops in many countries throughout continental Africa, including South Africa. There is a growing awareness that this damaging pest could soon be introduced into other countries including the USA as a direct result of increased international trade and daily direct flights from African countries (including South Africa). As such, the FCM features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' Exotic Pest Arthropod List prepared for the USDA-APHIS-PPQ by the Entomological Society of America's Pest List Team. South Africa currently employs augmentative biological control against FCM using the egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae, however, this programme is not adequate as a stand-alone tactic for effective FCM suppression. Currently, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is under development as a strategy for FCM suppression in South Africa and as a tactic that could be rapidly deployed if FCM were to become established as an exotic invasive pest in other countries such as the United States. The SIT is regarded as a host-specific tactic that is environment-friendly and compatible with natural enemies. However, fully successful integration of the SIT and releases of natural enemies into an effective pest management approach can occur only if the natural enemy does not negatively impact irradiated insects and their progeny more severely than it affects the feral pest population, and if the release of irradiated insects does not negatively impact the efficacy of the natural enemy. Therefore, knowledge of the compatibility of T. cryptophlebiae and the release of irradiated FCM is crucial to the evaluation of the combined use of these tactics. The development and combination of these off-shore IPM strategies in South Africa will develop and/or enhance scientific expertise and infrastructure in South Africa, reduce populations of

  15. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  16. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  17. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  18. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Andrea Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceed...

  19. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  20. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nastri de Luca Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of São Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees & Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia.

  1. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  2. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  3. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  4. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...

  5. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  6. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  7. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  8. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO3), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  9. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  10. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  11. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  12. Brazilian energy balance 2001: calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  13. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  14. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  15. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  16. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  17. Environemtnal benefits of the Brazilian Ethanol Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After nearly twenty years since it was first launched, the Brazilian Ethanol Programme to data remains the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world. It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large scale ethanol production from sugar cane and its use to fuel car engines. On social and economic grounds, however, its evaluation is less positive. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated overview of the perspectives for the Ethanol Programme under the light of increasingly important local and global environmental concerns. Major results show that after oil prices supported upon the basis of its contribution to curb the increase of air pollution in Brazilian cities and of the greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the very survival of the Ethanol Programme, depends upon adequate economic compensation considering its global environmental benefits. These are appraised with two scenarios based on the use of a Markal-like model to define the range and costs of curbing greenhouse gases with a policy aiming at extending the Ethanol Programme

  18. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  19. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  20. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  1. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed by Brazilian small enterprises are characterized by having a lower or equal to R$ 3,600,000 (approximately 1,800,000 dollars gross annual income. To collect information regarding the diagnosis of the degree of knowledge of small entrepreneurs, it was used a structured questionnaire using gradual tracks in identification of the respondent and the firm. It was found that the majority of managers interviewed small enterprises does not use the operations management tools. Is because they do not know such tools or have no need for their use in their companies.

  2. The Brazilian nuclear power manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early stages of decision making, manpower availability has been recognized to be a key factor for the implementation of Brazil's nuclear power programme. Though care has been given to securing an industrial base and financial resources, the consequences of a lack of sufficient qualified manpower could be critical for the success of the whole programme. The broad scope of the Brazilian nuclear power programme which, as a main concept, aimed at establishing in the country a complete fuel cycle industry together with the construction of nuclear power plants, added another burden to the already complex task of providing appropriate human resources when advanced technologies are introduced in a developing country. Thus, not only the work-force required for nuclear power plant operation but also that needed for plant design, component manufacture, fuel cycle plant design and operation, had to be made available in number and qualification in accordance with the standards of the nuclear industry. The feasibility of the Brazilian programme depended on a complete transfer of technology, essentially achieved through personnel training. Again, the process of manpower preparation for an efficient know-how transfer required careful planning, and the great difficulty in its implementation was the lack of reliable experience at the time. (author)

  3. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  4. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  5. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  7. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

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    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

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    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  9. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

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    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  10. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  11. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

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    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  12. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

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    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  13. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  14. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  15. The Taint of Violence: insurgent voices in Brazilian Black Theatre

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    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available – Ethnology studies report issues related to theatricality and spectacularity both in the scenic and ritual fields. Thus, theatre is one of the supports in ethnoscenological research, and this work focuses on Black Theater. Among the forms of representation of Blacks in Brazilian society, violence is one of the symbolic traits that has been re-signified in Afro-Brazilian texts. This essay aims at portraying some echoes of violence in dramatic/spectacular texts in Brazilian Black Theatre. We intend to discuss the instances in which violence is scenically represented and how this interferes with the (reconstruction of black identities and subjectivities.

  16. Implication of Amendment 49 in Brazilian radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Amendment 49: Amendment 49, 8th february 2006, excludes from the monopoly of the Brazilian Government the production, the commercialization and the use of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals for medical, agricultural and industrial uses. The most recent modification of the Brazilian Constitution was gave for the alteration of the writing in the ''alinea b'', addition of a ''alinea c'' to the interpolated proposition XXIII of the caput of article 21 and for the new writing given to interpolated proposition V of the caput of article 177. Since its publishing a great effort of all regulatories agencies in Brazil have been made looking for the harmonization of national laws bu the Brazilian Nuclear Energy C omission, Health Surveillance Agency and Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The growth of PET-technology and consequently the use of FDG-18 and the radiopharmaceuticals in general, request a specific regulation. This regulation must be supported in the tripod: security, effectiveness and quality (FINN, 1999). In the United States, the radiopharmaceuticals are regulated under a number of agencies, because they are radioactive materials, and also are prescribed as medicine, being administered to human being. Finn (1999) alert, however, that an explicit need for the specific regulation. This necessity can be demonstrated by the signature in 21 november of 1997, in form of law, of the ''Administration Modernization Act'' (FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION MODERNIZATION ACT, 1997) applied to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This act, in its structure, commands that the FDA, develops practical procedures and good manufacture practice for radiopharmaceuticals, including that used in PET. In Europe, the regulations (registration and production) is made by the publishing of various ECC rules (the first was in 1965's) that are published in the form of Directives and Decision. To date tere have been 33 Council Directives, one Council Decision and one Council Regulation. In

  17. 苹果蠹蛾的综合防控和遗传控制研究进展%The status of the integrated pest management of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in China, and the prospects for the application of genetically modified insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申建茹; 武强; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), is a worldwide quarantine pest of fruits and nuts. Efforts to control the codling moth in the past mostly relied on broad ̄spectrum chemical pesticides. Recently, alternative non ̄chemi ̄cal control methods such as mating disruption and the granulovirus of C. pomonella ( CpGV) are increasingly being adopted, the pest could not be eradicated or suppressed effectively. This lead to a demand for new control tactics that are not only effective but also friendly to the environment. The sterile insect technique ( SIT) is one of the cost effective methods for eradication or suppression of the target population. However, the traditional SIT have some drawbacks:the amount of radiation required for full sterilization leads to lower competitiveness and field performance than those of the wild type, and the sex identification requires manual separation, making the method very labor ̄intensive. The developments of the genetically modified insects may address some of these limitations. Research progress in the SIT developmental history and the improvement caused by the genetically modified approach in the codling moth is reviewed, and the advantages and the feasibility of the genetically modified approach for codling moth control in China is also discussed.%苹果蠹蛾是仁果类水果的重要检疫害虫,在世界各地造成了巨大的经济损失。目前对其化学防治、化学生态调控、病毒等防治方法研究较多,但仍不能满足防控该害虫的需要,对新型防控技术的需求日益增强。不育昆虫释放技术( SIT)是一种可控制甚至根除靶标害虫的环境友好型防控技术,但传统SIT技术存在一定的局限性,如较难区分性别与筛选雌雄虫、辐射不育昆虫的交配竞争力和适合度降低等问题,这些缺陷随着昆虫遗传修饰技术的发展将得以解决,并将在害虫防控进程中起到积极作用。本文综

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  19. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jacob Lovisolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined the outcome of the investment. Extreme values are at least ± 7%. Investors should assess whether they will keep their holdings when returns of such magnitude occur. The characteristics of empirical distributions of stock returns favor the passive investor and the use of weight constraints in portfolio allocation models.

  20. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  1. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

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    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  2. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

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    Marcelle Chauvet

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.Este artigo utiliza vários métodos para datar e analisar ciclos de negócios e de crescimento no Brasil. Em particular, um modelo de mudanças de Markov é aplicado a dados de produção trimestrais e anuais. As probabilidades suavizadas dos estado markovianos são utilizadas como regras de previsão para definir as diferentes fases de flutuações cíclicas na produção real brasileira. Os resultados são comparados com diferentes regras não-paramétricas. Todos os métodos implementados geram uma cronologia similar e revelam assimetrias nas diferentes fases dos ciclos de negócio e crescimento do Brasil, nos quais os estados de baixo crescimento e recessão são de curta duração e mais

  3. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  4. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  5. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  6. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  7. Screening of Brazilian basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activity

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    Rosa Luiz Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 103 isolates of basidiomycetes, representing 84 species from different Brazilian ecosystems, were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity in a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Tissue plugs of the fruiting bodies were cultivated in liquid media and the whole culture extracted with ethyl acetate. Crude extracts from Agaricus cf. nigrecentulus, Agrocybe perfecta, Climacodon pulcherrimus, Gloeoporus thelephoroides, Hexagonia hydnoides, Irpex lacteus, Leucoagaricus cf. cinereus, Marasmius cf. bellus, Marasmius sp., Nothopanus hygrophanus, Oudemansiella canarii, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Phellinus sp., and Tyromyces duracinus presented significant activity against one or more of the target microorganisms. Eight isolates were active only against bacteria while three inhibited exclusively the growth of fungi. Two extracts presented wide antimicrobial spectrum and were active against both fungi and bacteria. Differences in the bioactivity of extracts obtained from isolates from the same species were observed.

  8. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  9. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

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    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  10. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  11. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  12. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  13. Figures of evil in Brazilian biographical film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Freitas Gutfreind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the evil,subjectively,through the history representation that the film does .From the concept of figure (Lyotard and Dubois, the image is thought by its ontology and by the sensitive. Are view of biographical films of fiction about the Brazilian military dictator ship, specifically, Zuzu Angel(Sergio Resende, 2006, legitimizes the aesthetic choices of this form of representation inked topolitical positions culturally determined, requiring the viewer acritical deconstruction of history.

  14. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  15. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  16. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  17. Brazilian quartz purification by leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity quartz powder presents an increasing demand for the production of silica glass, widely used for semiconductor processing, particularly for photo-voltaic solar cells manufacturing. Motivated by the huge natural quartz potential of this country, the present paper studied the cleansing effect of acid leaching on Brazilian quartz powder, investigating the following parameters: type of solvent, temperature and leaching time. Still, aqueous leaching tests with ultrasound activation were also performed in order to verify its efficiency. The ideal conditions found for leaching,with a 74,2% purification degree, were achieved using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid with hydrochloric acid at 100 deg C for 6 hours. A leaching procedure longer than 6 hours is not necessary, since Fe, Ca, K and Mg amounts do not show significant variation after such time. Also, aqueous leaching caused purification rates higher than 30% for most of the impurities tested, proving itself as a effective leaching method (author)

  18. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples

  19. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  20. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  1. Safety reviews of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a model developed for thermal hydraulic (TH) simulation of the Multipurpose Brazilian Reactor (RMB), whose Brazilian proposal for design, construction and operation was established in 2007. This reactor has as main proposed the production of radioisotopes for use in exams of nuclear medicine, material tests and utilization of neutrons beams. Besides of the TH modeling and safety analysis of the reactor, the application of a methodology to perform coupled calculation thermal-hydraulic/neutron kinetic (TH/NK) is also presented. Initially, the RMB was modeled in the safety analysis RELAP5 code. This code performs the thermal hydraulic calculation using point kinetics. Subsequently, the model was adapted and verified to the RELAP5-3D© code. This code performs the process of internal coupling through the option of nodal neutron kinetics calculation using the NESTLE code which solves the neutron diffusion equation. To generate the neutronic group constants, which are macroscopic cross sections that serve as input data for the neutronic codes, it was used the WIMSD-5B cell calculation code. The neutron analysis code PARCS was also used to model the 3D RMB core in order to compare the results of radial and axial average power distribution with the results generated by RELAP5-3D© code and with the available results of the CITATION neutron kinetic code. The safety analyses demonstrated safe behavior of the reactor through situations of possible transients. The 3D coupled calculations to the steady state operation also showed expected behavior, as well as the RMB neutronic analyzes performed with the codes NESTLE and PARCS.(author)

  2. Stock returns and volatility: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Tabak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between stock returns and volatility over the period of June 1990 to April 2002. We study firm-level relationship between stock returns and volatility for a sample of 25 time series of Brazilian stocks. Using Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR empirical evidence suggests that contemporaneous returns and volatilities are significantly and positively correlated while there is a negative relationship between changes in volatility and stock returns. Finally, the asymmetric volatility effect seems to hold for Brazilian stocks as shown by the results from an AR(1-EGARCH(1,1 estimation.Este artigo examina a relação entre retornos de ações e volatilidade no período de junho de 1990 a abril de 2002. Estudamos a relação entre retornos de ações e volatilidade no nível da firma para uma amostra de 25 séries de ações brasileiras. Usando o método de regressões aparentemente não relacionadas (SUR a evidência empírica sugere que retornos contemporâneos e volatilidades estão positivamente e significativamente relacionados enquanto existe relação negativa entre mudanças de volatilidade e retornos de ações. Finalmente, o efeito de assimetria na volatilidade é consistente com as ações brasileiras como pode ser percebido dos resultados da estimação AR(1-EGARCH(1,1.

  3. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  4. Experimental sodium loops at brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal circuits and sodium installations proceeding from Italy to be assembled at brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) are presented. Also some information are provided on the sodium experimental facilities presently existent. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. Abstracts of the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the short communications of papers presented at the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry, of nuclear interest. The papers are classified in four areas: isotope chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physico-chemical. (E.G.)

  6. Merger Control Under the New Brazilian Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Mario da Silva Pereira Neto; Paulo Leonardo Casagrande

    2011-01-01

    The approved legal framework will certainly open a new era of the Brazilian competition policy. Caio Mário da Silva Pereira Neto & Paulo Leonardo Casagrande (Brasil, Pereira Neto, Galdino, Macedo Advogados)

  7. Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

  8. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  9. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study. PMID:21519666

  10. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network. PMID:26312421

  11. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  12. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  13. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  14. Characterize the import players of Brazilian women's swimwear

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli Da Veiga; Ana Elizabeth Moiseichyk; Tônia Magali Moraes Brum; Darcila Brum Da Veiga

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Brazilian littoral combined with a culture of its use as a means of entertainment provided to the country the emergence of several companies specializing in the production and marketing of swimwear. However, there is a group of customers looking for imported products, even in this segment. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the import of Brazilian women's swimwear, which is investigating its importance and participation in the international context and the need for knowledge...

  15. Incoherences of Brazilian labour laws face to present radioprotection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian labour legislation establishes, since 1950, some privileges for people working in activities which imply exposure to ionizing radiations. Comparing the present legal framework with technical radioprotection knowledge, one can detect several incoherences covering: classification of such activities; additional payments; reduced labour journey; more vacations; medical surveillance; early retirements; special norms for women. An analysis of these incoherences lead us to propose a new frame of labour rights and radioprotection norms, coupling Brazilian juridical principles and modern radioprotection knowledge. (author)

  16. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  17. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  18. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    OpenAIRE

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHO...

  19. CURRENT COGNITION OF ROCK TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING BY BRAZILIAN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Briševac; Trpimir Kujundžić; Sandi Čajić

    2015-01-01

    Tensile strength in rock mechanics is a characteristic more frequently determined in the indirect rather than direct way. This paper presents a historical review of the development of the indirect method called the Brazilian test, comprising the period from 1943 to the present day. It stresses some aspects which are essential for interpreting the results of the Brazilian test due to the different degrees of stress during the testing and the direct method of determining tensile strength. The e...

  20. Current professional practice in brazilian mental healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mental health reform in Brazil presupposes mental health becoming integrated into the Brazilian health system, involving multidisciplinary teams whose professional practice has yet to be defined. The present study forms part of a project aimed at understanding human resources practices in Brazilian mental healthcare services.Methods This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a sample of highly qualified practitioners involved in the Ribeirao Preto/SP public mental health networ...

  1. PANDORA - Survey of Brazilian cardiologists about cholesterol reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raul D.; Spósito Andrei C.; Santos José Ernesto dos; Fonseca Francisco H.; Moriguchi Emílio H; Martinez Tania L. R.; Armaganijam Dikran; Timerman Sérgio; Timerman Ari; Nicolau José C.; Ramires José A. F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report about a group of physicians' understanding of the recommendations of the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, and about the state of the art of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Through the use of a questionnaire on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis prevention, and recommendations for lipid targets established by the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, 746 physicians, 98% cardiologists, were evaluated. RESULTS:Eight...

  2. Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...

  3. Stakeholder Theory and Value Creation Models in Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Giugni Vidal; Shawn Berman; Harry Van Buren

    2015-01-01

    Objective – The purpose of this study is to understand how top Brazilian firms think about and communicate value creation to their stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – We use qualitative content analysis methodology to analyze the sustainability or annual integrated reports of the top 25 Brazilian firms by sales revenue. Findings – Based on our analysis, these firms were classified into three main types of stakeholder value creation models: narrow, broad, or transitioning fro...

  4. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 year...

  5. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  6. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite; Paulo Sergio Miranda Mendonça; Everton José Buzzo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion...

  7. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Kakino Mamoru; Izuta Hiroshi; Tsuruma Kazuhiro; Araki Yoko; Shimazawa Masamitsu; Ichihara Kenji; Hara Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis ...

  8. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa; Camila Tureck; Gelvani Locateli; Rosane Marina Peralta; Eloá Angélica Koehnlein

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 ...

  9. Chinese business culture as perceived by brazilian expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alves Scherer; Italo Fernando Minello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze Chinese culture related to business as perceived by Brazilian expatriates in China. For this purpose, literature concerning the expatriate and cultural differences between Brazil and China was reviewed. The qualitative approach was adopted as the study method, carrying out semi-structured interviews with twelve Brazilian expatriate professionals in China. To analyze the data a content analysis technique was used, specifically the categorical analysis, usi...

  10. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  11. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fernandes Wanke; Rebecca de Mattos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increas...

  12. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Moura Souza; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Denise Tavares Giannini; Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira; Marize Melo dos Santos; Vanessa Sá Leal; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calcul...

  13. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  14. World Cup 2014 – Professional Training Program for Brazilian Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Alves Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of implementing a professional training program for the Brazilian hospitality industry in the 12 cities that will be the headquarters of the World Cup in 2014. This project was developed in the context of the program “Welcoming Cup”, of the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, whose objective is to enable the tourism industry to attain international standards of quality in tourism services.

  15. The nuclear contribution to the solution of Brazilian energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the justifying of Brazilian Nuclear Programme. Due to the demand increasing of electric energy in Brazil, the government decided to an alternative source. Although the brazilian electric power program continue basically hydroelectric, the nuclear power plants began to be constructed. The strategy adopted, the prospection of uranium enrichment, the project and construction of nuclear power plants, the responsibilities of Nuclebras and Nuclen and several stages of this program are described. (C.M.)

  16. Prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro R. Gil-Monte; Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Burnout is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress of an interpersonal and emotional nature. Brazilian law have already contemplated burnout syndrome as a mental and behavioural disorder related to work. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers. Methods: The sample was composed of 714 teachers from 8 schools in Porto Alegre and its metropolitan area (Brazil). The levels of burnout were evaluate...

  17. Georges Canguilhem and the development of Brazilian Public Heatlh field

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    2016-01-01

    Historical epistemology has played an important role in the development of modern Brazilian Public Health or “Saúde Coletiva” (Collective Health). Born as an academic search for new conceptual foundations of a social committed field of scientific knowledge, as well as a social political movement against civil-military dictatorship implanted in Brazil in 1964, the so called Brazilian Sanitary Reform Movement found in the French historical epistemology, particularly in the works of Georges Cang...

  18. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which impli...

  19. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  20. Brazilian energy statistics - 1993. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Some aspects about the opening or closing of the oil sector are also analysed, including the petroleum and petroleum products business; oil consumption issue; share of energy sources in world scenarios for the year 2020; reserves; prices and investments and the vulnerability of private companies. 12 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Brazilian energy statistics - 1992. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. A brief picture of Brazil's electric power status with regard to bordering countries is also presented, giving an idea of the prospects for progress in electric power integration through the implementation of new international electric power interconnection projects. (author). 13 figs., 19 tabs

  2. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  3. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium

  4. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  5. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  6. Brazilian Market Reaction to Equity Issue Announcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an event study to investigate stock returns associated with the announcement of equity issues by Brazilian firms between 1992 and 2003 in order to determine market reaction before, during, and after the issue announcement. After measuring abnormal returns by OLS, we used ARCH and GARCH models over 70% of the sample. Our results are remarkably consistent with most of the international empirical literature. Some previous empirical findings have turned up abnormal returns before the announcement date, interpreted as signs of insider information. This evidence also appears in our study as we found an average cumulative abnormal return of –0.01 three weeks before the announcement. With respect to the announcement date, the evidence reported in the literature is virtually unanimous in showing negative abnormal returns, meaning that stock issues convey pessimistic information to the market. Our study confirms these findings with an average – 0.03 cumulative abnormal return on the first three days following the announcement. Finally, the empirical literature has also collected evidence of long-term negative abnormal returns after the issues, which we alsoconfirm, with an abnormal return of –0.28 after one year following the announcement. The results also show that ARCH/GARCH estimation of abnormal returns is superior to OLS estimation.

  7. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  8. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  9. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  10. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  11. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  12. The protection system to Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sistema de Protecao ao Programa Nuclear Brasileiro-SIPRON (Protection System to Brazilian Nuclear Program) was established in 1980. It is intended to accomplish in only one system, all the actions related to security and protection for Nuclear Facilities in Brazil. The author presents in detail the protection system SIPRON, describing the system structure and organization, the functions and obligations of the system involved main organizations, as well as, the system operation and behaviour during an postulated occurrence of a nuclear emergency. It is also described an Exercise that happened in June of 1997 at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Angra I, after two simulated tests in December of 1996 and April of 1997. The NPP Angra I Emergency Plan Exercise was a good opportunity to test the SIPRON structure and preparedness program. It was verified, included by International Atomic Energy Agency observers, the system involved organizations effectiveness and the procedures efficacy to protect the public and the environmental. Finally, it is shown the SIPRON activities of routine, the system obstacles and the expected future performances. (author)

  13. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  14. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  15. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  16. The territorial logic in brazilian health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Lopes Brevilheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the territorial dimension has been addressed in the current Brazilian health policy. Provides an initial approximation of the theoretical discussion about the category territory and its implications for social policy. Then we analyze how this category was included in the principles and guidelines of the National Health System, deployed in key programs and normative instruments of health policy from 1990. It is concluded that: the territorial dimension was present from conception through SUS guideline regionalization of activities and services. In the main programs implemented in the 1990s, the territorial dimension had a character cutouts geographical and normative instruments gave centrality to the process of decentralization. However, from the 2000s, the regionalization strategy, pointing to the territorial perspective, gains greater significance. However, we still need to overcome the logic purely political-administrative and act so as to identify the real needs of the people, their potential, diversity and particularities, towards "used territory" referred to Milton Santos.

  17. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  18. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  19. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  20. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  1. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  2. Sleep habits in native brazilian bororo children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep behavior patterns in childhood are influenced by familial, cultural and environmental factors. In understanding sleep in Native Brazilian Bororo children, one should consider the influence of their culture on the child's sleep. This research analyzes sleep habits of Native Bororo children from the Meruri village, located in an Indian Reservation in the state of Mato Grosso. Fourty four children ( 24 M; 20 F were evaluated; ages ranged from one month to 10 years, with a mean age of 4.9 years. Sleep characteristics were assessed by means of a standard questionnaire applied to the mothers. Cosleeping - sleeping together with family members - was a remarkable finding, in every child 0-2 year old and in 81.5% in the 2-10 years group. The second characteristic was sleeping with many people in the same room. There was an average of 5.1 people per room in the younger group and 3.9 people in the older group

  3. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  4. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  5. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  6. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  7. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  8. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  9. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  10. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  11. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION: There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS: A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS: We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received. For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals.

  12. Economic Loss to the Brazilian Regions Due to the Doha Round Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso; Gurgel, Angelo Costa

    2009-01-01

    We build a database and model to develop general equilibrium analysis of the Brazilian economy at the level of the five macro regions. The model is multiregional at global level as also at the Brazilian level. The project is coupled to the GTAP model through disaggregation of the original Brazilian input-output matrix and trade flows and follows the GTAPinGAMS structure and syntax to generate the General Equilibrium Analysis Project for the Brazilian Economy (PAEG). The regional database is t...

  13. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICE OF BRAZILIAN FOOTWEAR-EXPORTING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Gomes, Clandia Maffini; Crespam, Cristina Ceribola

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze social and environmental management practices adopted by Brazilian footwear-exporting companies. To that end, we reviewed the literature on the Brazilian footwear industry and its socio-environmental management, which serves to frame our empirical survey of Brazilian footwear manufacturers having international operations, according to the Brazilian Footwear Association [ABICALÇADOS]. We undertook a descriptive study by using the survey method as a data collec...

  14. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2

    OpenAIRE

    Josué Laguardia; Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Claudia Travassos; Alberto Lopes Najar; Luiz Antonio dos Anjos; Miguel Murat Vasconcellos

    2013-01-01

    METHODS: The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD) (Social Dimensions of Inequalities) involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. RESULTS: Brazilian men scored substa...

  15. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  16. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little research available on the…

  17. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  18. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

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    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  19. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities involved in the program are: production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; radiation detectors and nuclear instrumentation; radiation protection and dosimetry; education and training of human resources; applied research and new technologies. The guiding and actions that the section will adopt to attend the growing necessities of Brazilian society, considering technological powers, management, available substructure and associated difficulties are defined. (M.C.K.)

  20. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m-3) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geo-genic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. (authors)

  1. Genesis of the Brazilian nuclear power plants program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genesis of the Brazilian Nuclear Power Program is described by the authors - who participated in the events - from the beginning of the sixties, until the definition and the start of the implementation in 1975 of the Reference Nuclear Power Program. A description is made of the main events, studies and decisions that contributed to the evolution of the Program: the GTRP (Nuclear Power Plant Working Group); the Thorium Group; the Lane Group; the decision about Angra 1; CNEN's analyses about the reactor line and, finally, the creation of CBTN (Nuclear Technology Brazilian Company), which elaborated the studies that resulted in the final definition of the Program and led to the Brazilian German Agreement and the establishment of NUCLEBRAS. (author)

  2. Occupational health profile of Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Roche, Andrea Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    The occupational health and safety conditions of a sample of Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts are examined in this article. We administered a main survey to a convenience sample of 626 Brazilian immigrant workers of all trades and a supplemental survey to 163 Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts in 2005 and 2006. Survey questions addressed housecleaner demographics, socioeconomic status, working conditions, and hazards of housecleaning work. Housecleaners are exposed to a variety of ergonomic, chemical, and biological hazards. Professional housecleaners' work is fast-paced, requires awkward postures, and involves repetitive movements, use of force, and heavy lifting. The most common symptoms reported include back pain, and pain in the muscles, arms, legs, neck, shoulder, hands, fingers, and feet. To reduce exposures to occupational hazards, we propose the substitution of green cleaners for toxic chemical cleaning products, the use of ergonomic equipment, the use of personal protective equipment, and changes in work organization. PMID:24401486

  3. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  5. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  6. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Mondaini Calvão

    Full Text Available Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970-2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v, yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population.

  7. Brazilian oil spills chemical characterization : case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petrobras Research Centre has been active in responding to some significant oil spills in Brazil in the past decade. The centre has characterized spilled oil, monitored the affected ecosystems and determined the fate of oil in the environment. This paper described the use of some advanced chemical analytical techniques used in Brazilian oil spill studies to determine fractions and individual petroleum hydrocarbons in water, groundwater, sediment, sand, fish and the spilled oil itself. Some of the most recent oil spill cases were discussed in terms of chemical characterization of the spilled oil and the environmental samples from different matrices of the affected ecosystems for determining the fate of the oil in the environment and to assess environmental damage. In particular, methods such as gas chromatography/flame ionization detector, P and T/GC/PID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry have been used to examine crude and fuel oil spills in Guanabara Bay, Barigui and Iguassu Rivers, and the Sao Sebastiao Channel. The chemical analytical methods are used to determine total petroleum hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, unresolved complex mixtures, volatile monoaromatic compounds such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), as well as parent and alkylated homologues polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and terpanes and steranes. Acute ecotoxicity data for water and sediment samples was also included. It was determined that with certain limitations, PAH ratios can help determine the origin of hydrocarbons as being either petrogenic or pyrolytic. However, alkylated PAH homologues and parent compounds such as dibenzothiophene and perylene give more precise interpretation of the data. 30 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs

  8. INNOVATION PROCESS IN OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Floriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the innovation process used by the open capital Brazilian companies and establish a ranking of the potentially innovative ones. For this, a questionnaire was sent to 484 companies with shares traded in Bovespa, receiving a response from 22. The innovation process is based on the model of Barrett and Sexton (2006. A summary of the results is presented below. (i Organizational Capabilities – 95.5% answered that they have incentives for innovation activities and 68.2% reported having procedures for all services. The leadership has a facilitator role encouraging the initiative (86.4% and promotes the maintenance of the group relationship (72.7%. Value risk taking, even through failures and prioritize the learning and experimenting new ideas. (ii Background of the innovation – reveals aspects of the capacity (internal or (external. Of the respondents, 59.1% developed internal activities of continuing P & D. Training to innovate is present in a continuous or occasional basis in 81.8% of the companies. The respondents characterize the economic environment as dynamic and the majority purchased software and equipments. In only 12 opportunities was a reference to obtaining patents as innovation protection measure. (iii Focus of innovation – the majority of the companies mentioned process or product innovation. Rewards are offered when the objectives are met and it is brought to attention when this does not occur. (iv Highlighted performance – the innovations achieved the expectations and created effects. The relevant benefits noticed were: improvement in quality of goods and services, increase of market share, increase of goods and services, and increase of productive capacity.

  9. Brazilian energy balance - BEB 2005 - year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of BEB 2005 is composed by nine chapters and six appendixes summarized as follows: 1) energy analysis and energy economy introduces 2004's energy highlights, ana analysis covering the years 1970 up to 2004 and synthesized data on energy production, consumption, foreign dependency, sectorial consumption together with a summary of the domestic energy supply from 1989 to 2004; 2) energy supply and energy demand by source 1989/2004 - registers energy production, imports, exports, inventories fluctuation. losses, adjustments by primary and secondary sources and sectorial total consumption; 3) energy consumption by sector 1989/2004 - classifies energy final consumption of according to primary or secondary sources, related to each economic sector; 4) energy foreign trading 1989/2004 - informs about energy imports, exports and energy foreign dependency; 5) transformation centers energy balance 1989/2004 - presents energy balances from energy transformation centers, including losses; 6) energy resources and reserves 1974/2004 - refers to primary sources and reserves, including methodological notes; 7) energy and socio economy 1989/2004 - compares energy, economic and population indicators such as specific consumption, prices and oil imports expenses; 8) energy data by federal units 2003 - shows the main energy sources' production, electric energy and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) households consumption, energy installations, reserves and hydropower potential all detailed by states. Appendixes: a) installed capacity - presents the generation installed capacity and the oil refining capacity; b) world energy data - registers the main energy indicators in terms of energy production, importation, exportation and consumption, according to the energy area and region; c) Brazilian energy balance general structure and concepts; d) data processing - details the BEB's data sources and methodological issues; e) conversion units; f) consolidated energy balances - contains the

  10. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  11. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  12. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Calabró, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work. PMID:27045850

  13. Economical and strategical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategical and economical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement are analyzed in three aspects: 1) The nuclear agreement in the context of the Brazilian economic - and social development process, considering the availability of energetic resouces of the country. Political implications. Considerations about creation and transfer of technology. 2) The economy aspects involved in the agreement. Comparison costs of electrical energy generated in a nuclear power plants and hydroelectric plant in Brazil. Impacts on the industrial development. 3) Strategical aspects. (E.G.)

  14. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Antropologia; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coimbra, M.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Elmore, D. [Purdue Univ., IN (United States). Purdue Rare Isotopes Measurement Lab.

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by {sup 14} C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  15. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  17. Market structure effects on wages in the Brazilian industrial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Geraldino Silva-Jr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze market structure effects on wage in the Brazilian manufacturing sector between 1998 and 2005. Our comprehensive linked employer-employee data has observation at firm and worker data level, as market share, wages and skills. We also control potential endogeneity through a quasi-natural experiment. There are few empirical studies analyzing market structure effects on wages at firm level. As far we know it is the first study in this subject for Brazilian Industrial firms.

  18. Evaluation of acoustical parameters of a Brazilian popular housing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jos A. C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Andressa M. C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    This article presents the results obtained from the evaluation of the acoustical insulation parameters determined in situ in a popular residence projected to offer an option to combat the housing deficit of the low income Brazilian population. This evaluation has been carried out according to the statements of the standards ISO 140-4 and 140-5, which state about this type of measurement. The results have shown that the surveyed house presents a satisfactory performance if compared to the standard of the Brazilian civil construction, but it is not adequate if compared to the demands of the international standards.

  19. The complex network of the Brazilian Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima e Silva, D.; Medeiros Soares, M.; Henriques, M. V. C.; Schivani Alves, M. T.; de Aguiar, S. G.; de Carvalho, T. P.; Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.

    2004-02-01

    We study the Brazilian Popular Music in a network perspective. We call the Brazilian Popular Music Network, BPMN, the graph where the vertices are the song writers and the links are determined by the existence of at least a common singer. The linking degree distribution of such graph shows power law and exponential regions. The exponent of the power law is compatible with the values obtained by the evolving network algorithms seen in the literature. The average path length of the BPMN is similar to the correspondent random graph, its clustering coefficient, however, is significantly larger. These results indicate that the BPMN forms a small-world network.

  20. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  1. Brazilian energy balance - BEB 2005 - year 2004. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The executive summary of the Brazilian energy balance 2005 - year 2004 offers a good outlook of the main parameters of energy supply and of energy consumption in Brazil. It summarizes the results obtained with energy production, conversion and consumption throughout 2004. It also reveals results on resources, reserves and installed capacities, as well as that of the self-productive sector of the country. Besides, the document describes the main macro economic indicators and presents an analysis about the correlation between the brazilian economic activities on energy and energy supply and consumption at national level

  2. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  3. Is the CAPM Dead or Alive in the Brazilian Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Joe Akira; Edson Bastos e Santos

    2009-01-01

    The central purpose of this work is to test the Sharpe-Lintner-Black Capital Asset Pricing Model in the Brazilian equity market. We have concluded that the CAPM is dead in the Brazilian equity market because, besides using the market premiums to explain the panel equity premiums, there are also some anomalies, such as, the firm size, the equity price-to-book value, the dividend yield, and the price-earnings ratio. Furthermore, by using the recent panel cointegration FMOLS (fully modified OLS)...

  4. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  5. The Internationalization Process of a Brazilian Company- A study of the Uppsala and the Network Models applied to a Brazilian company

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Briza

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Uppsala and Network Models of Internationalization belong to the Nordic School and were created based on Swedish companies. Is that possible to apply these models to a Brazilian context? Brazilian companies are becoming more international and expanding to foreign markets, and this study is going to exam if the Nordic schools models can be used to explain the internationalization process of a Brazilian company. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to exam if the proposition,...

  6. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  7. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  8. Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the ‘‘Instituto...

  9. Status of the implementation of Brazilian National Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes is increasing and it already justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. The Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is legally responsible for designing and constructing intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes generated in all Country, in accordance to Federal Law No. 10308. Additionally, the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA) lately is imposing to the implementation of new nuclear installations (e.g. Angra 3 NPP and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) that the National Repository should be in construction, before the start-up of those ones. In November 2009, the RBMN Project Charter was signed. The RBMN Project aims at the implantation of a National Repository to dispose the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Some aspects about the Repository construction are very challenging, mainly due to the licensing process, which will be made for two different regulatory bodies, nuclear and environmental. The main achievements obtained till now are the establishment of the current Brazilian radioactive waste inventory, the conceptual design and the selection of candidate sites for the repository. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  10. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  11. Contribution to Brazilian laws in nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, in a detailed analysis of Brazilian nuclear laws will show connection net and interconnections where it is inserted, by comparing national laws to those international ones, supported in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), proposing to it recommendations, norms and regulations, related to the pacific use of nuclear energy among member countries. (author)

  12. The Brazilian participation in the nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review about the origin of the brazilian nuclear power program and the strategy adopted for its implementation in Brazil is presented. The creation of the Nuclebras Engineering S/A, the Germany technology transfer and the personell job-training in Brasil are discussed. Some management models used for nuclear power plant construction in the world are still presented. (E.G.)

  13. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Sebastião; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  14. Semiotic Analysis of Brazilian E-Commerce Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; de Paula, Alice G.; Antunes, Diego R.

    A Semiotic analysis of pictographic signs used in Brazilian e-commerce sites is presented. This study shows a low mapping between the intended function in the system and the desired goal from the user. A better understanding of the Theory of Sign Production and Semiotic Engineering Methods for sign re-design is recommended.

  15. Status of the implementation of Brazilian National Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes is increasing and it already justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. The Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is legally responsible for designing and constructing intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes generated in all Country, in accordance to Federal Law No. 10308. Additionally, the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA) lately is imposing to the implementation of new nuclear installations (e.g. Angra 3 NPP and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) that the National Repository should be in construction, before the start-up of those ones. In November 2009, the RBMN Project Charter was signed. The RBMN Project aims at the implantation of a National Repository to dispose the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Some aspects about the Repository construction are very challenging, mainly due to the licensing process, which will be made for two different regulatory bodies, nuclear and environmental. The main achievements obtained till now are the establishment of the current Brazilian radioactive waste inventory, the conceptual design and the selection of candidate sites for the repository. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  16. Brazilian safety standard for fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During licensing and surveillance of nuclear power plants the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear of Brazil adopted IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 as the basic regulatory document for fire protection. In the Angra I nuclear power plant, which was designed in the United States of America, the BTP 9.5-1 guidelines (revision 2, including Appendix R to 10 CFR, Part 50) were used in support, and in Angra II, which was designed in the Federal Republic of Germany, several Federal German standards were adopted. Because these guidelines, and some of the requirements therein, do not always agree with Brazilian law and site characteristics, it was decided to produce Safety Standard NE-2.03. It is based on Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 and BTP 9.5-1, since they contain specific approaches to fire protection in nuclear power plants. Where any disagreement with Federal German and Brazilian standards occurred, a comprehensive engineering analysis was made in order to solve these problems without compromising plant safety. All the relevant aspects of the Brazilian Safety Standard are outlined. Also discussed are the modifications which had to be made to the guidelines and their requirements so that they are in accordance with Brazilian law and the site characteristics. (author). 3 refs

  17. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  18. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  19. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  20. Lost in Translation : Interpreting the Brazilian Electric Power Privatisation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDid Latin American privatisation polices fail because of flawed implementation of fundamentally sound policies or because privatisation policies were themselves seriously flawed? Using the Brazilian electric power reforms as a narrative tool, this paper examines the causal chain assumed

  1. African-Brazilian Health: contribuitions to promote equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Presents research reports that point out the impact of racism and discrimination to the well-being and health of the African-Brazilian people. The contributors, all well qualified and well known in their fields, are also political activists of the negro movement.

  2. Mineralogical study of Brazilian fly ashes; origin, characteristics and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one fly ash samples from the five main Brazilian coal-powered thermoelectric plants were subjected to gravimetric chemical analysis, complexometry, flame photometry, X-ray diffractometry, thermodifferential and thermogravimetric analysis, transmitted and reflected light microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and transmited and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  3. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  4. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  5. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  6. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  7. The nuclear energy in the context of Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has as its objective the study of nuclear activity within the context of Brazilian Law. It focuses on the organizational structure in which, as part of the Directives of the National Nuclear Energy Policy, this activity is being developed through specific legal norms. (Author)

  8. Bullying and Sexual Harassment among Brazilian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-01-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually…

  9. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  10. Plasticity of illusory vowel perception in Brazilian-Japanese bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato-Oliveira, Erika; Christophe, Anne; Hirose, Yuki; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Previous research shows that monolingual Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese listeners perceive illusory vowels (/u/ and /i/, respectively) within illegal sequences of consonants. Here, several populations of Japanese-Brazilian bilinguals are tested, using an explicit vowel identification task (experiment 1), and an implicit categorization and sequence recall task (experiment 2). Overall, second-generation immigrants, who first acquired Japanese at home and Brazilian during childhood (after age 4) showed a typical Brazilian pattern of result (and so did simultaneous bilinguals, who were exposed to both languages from birth on). In contrast, late bilinguals, who acquired their second language in adulthood, exhibited a pattern corresponding to their native language. In addition, an influence of the second language was observed in the explicit task of Exp. 1, but not in the implicit task used in Exp. 2, suggesting that second language experience affects mostly explicit or metalinguistic skills. These results are compared to other studies of phonological representations in adopted children or immigrants, and discussed in relation to the role of age of acquisition and sociolinguistic factors. PMID:20550272

  11. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments – a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  12. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  13. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  14. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  15. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  16. Proceedings of the 6. Brazilian congress on medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6. Brazilian congress on medical physics has presented and discussed recent research results and themes about state-of-the-art of the applications of Physics methods in prevention, diagnosis and pathology treatments. Also has included questions of Safety and Protection in the medical practices and some aspects of Formation/Education emphasizing the situation of medical physics in Brazil - present and future

  17. New prospects for biological control of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), is an invasive weed from South America that has been spread to many countries. It was introduced into the USA about 100 years ago as an ornamental. Escaping cultivation, it now occurs in three south-eastern states of the USA, Cali...

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  19. Brazilian N2 laser similar to imported models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high power N2 Laser, similar to imported models but built enterely with Brazilian materials is described. The prototype shows pulse repetitivity that varies from 1 to 50 per second and has a peak power of 500 kW. (Author)

  20. Sustainability Insights from the Mission Statements of Leading Brazilian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Rafael Mattos; Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro da Silva, Gustavo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mission statements from 30 leading Brazilian universities, evaluating the statements based on a sustainable model that involves an environmental management system, public participation and social responsibility, and sustainable education and research. Design/methodology/approach: Content…

  1. Brazilian nuclear legislation. Revision n.1/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intends to facilitate the access to the Brazilian nuclear legislation and other legal instruments, foreseeing the use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in health, work and environment areas up to 2002. Legislation on the civil liability of nuclear damage, the law of licensing taxes, controlling and inspection are also included

  2. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    scarce resource that must cope with the current and forecasted labor demand of the maritime shipping sector. Despite being one of the most lucrative occupational category, seafaring is relatively unpopular to the general Brazilian labor market. To address the perceived current and future imbalance in the...

  3. Ethnolinguistic Vitality among Japanese-Brazilians: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuyo; Matsubara Morales, Leiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ethnolinguistic vitality among Japanese-Brazilians ("Nikkeis"). First, an 18-item questionnaire was administered to 33 individuals who attended a seminar on bilingual studies held in São Paulo. Then, two bilingual "Nikkei" teachers who participated in the questionnaire and who grew up to be bilinguals…

  4. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  5. Proceedings of the 2. Brazilian Congress of Physicists on Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works of the 2. Brazilian Congress of Physicists on Medicine are presented, including course of 'Tomography by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance' and 'New Techniques in the Physics of X Ray Diagnostic' and topics about radiotherapy, radiodiagnostic and dosimetry. (C.G.C.)

  6. Interview with Brazilian astrophysicist Luciana da Cunha Ferreira

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, CERN hosted Brazilian astrophysicist, Luciana da Cunha Ferreira, in a weeklong teacher-training programme. Luciana was the first indigenous person from the Amazon region to visit CERN, and plans to share her new found knowledge of the LHC with other indigenous people on her return to Brazil.

  7. Greenhouse gas contributions from deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year's clearing of forest and savanna in the Brazilian Amazon is now contributing to the atmosphere 270 x 106 MT of carbon. This figure is almost 3 times as much as Brazil's use of fossil fuels. The fate of this biomass carbon and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is discussed in this chapter

  8. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Systemic sarcoidosis induced by etanercept: first Brazilian case report*

    OpenAIRE

    Unterstell, Natasha; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Serpa, Laura Araújo; Castro, Pérola Peres da Fonseca e; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are increasingly being used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Several adverse effects of these drugs have been reported, including the paradoxical development of sarcoidosis, especially with the use of etanercept. We present the first Brazilian case report of systemic sarcoidosis induced by etanercept and a literature review.

  10. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  12. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  13. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix de; Santos, Marize Melo Dos; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  14. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  15. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  16. Brazilian nuclear renaissance in a sustainable development scenario - 097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil generated 326 TWh of hydroelectric power in 2005, accounting for ∼81% of the electricity production for that year. The 2005 to 2030 projections for the Brazilian development indicate growths from 2,020 kWh to 4,380 kWh in the per capita electricity consumption and from US$4,300 to US$8,950 in the per capita GDP (in market exchange rate and 2005 US$). The consumption of electricity is to grow from 375 TWh in 2005 to 1,030 TWh in 2030. In simple view and without considerations of aspects related with energy efficiency, this growth means 1.8 times the generation capacity of the 20. century should be built along of 25 years of the 21. century. The Brazilian electricity generation will demand all primary sources to meet the foreseen growth of the electricity consumption. As economical, safe and clean primary energy source for electricity generation, the nuclear energy is one option capable of large-scale and short-term deployment in the Brazilian growth of the electricity consumption. The contribution of nuclear generation in the electricity consumption should evolve from the current 2.6% for amounts over 5% in 2030. The perspective of the Brazilian nuclear sector is evolving to be resumed and present an opportunity for pooling and rationalizing the available skills - technical, cultural and human. The role of business opportunities and the future demands in the value chain of nuclear activities are summarized in this document. Institutions of R and D and Brazilian universities play an important role for the formation of new demanded knowledge and human resources. (authors)

  17. Trust within Brazilian New Economy Organizations: an Empirical Investigation of Gender Effects Benchmarked on Brazilian Old Economy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Zanini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one of the negative aspects of the New Economy has been growing organizational survival-risk both at the firm and the sector levels. This precarious positioning of the firm has profoundly changed the work environment resulting in the dissolution of job-definition-boundaries, thereby raising the intensity of work and finally affecting the level and nature of trust in the workplace. This is the starting point for our study. Using a questionnaire developed by Gillespie, we investigated gender profiles concerning trust in Supervisors, Peers, and Team in the New and the Old Economies for Brazilian managers. The results show that, for the New Economy, Brazilian women are more willing to give trust to Supervisors whereas Brazilian men expressed higher levels of trust when dealing with Team members. The Peer results are mixed. For the Old Economy, men uniformly express higher levels of trust compared to women over all three reference groups. Finally, for gender matched comparisons, those working in the Brazilian Old Economy firms express higher levels of trust compared to their counterparts in the New Economy independent of gender or time worked. We conclude by discussing the control implications of the above results.

  18. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwiak Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. P-values Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%, vitamin A (92.4% and vitamin C (85.1% in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  19. Brazilian system for NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    part of the maintenance training center. Computers and audio-visual aids are available. There are two categories of nuclear power plant personnel which are regulated by CNEN: Licensed personnel (Senior Reactor Operators - SRO and Reactor Operators - RO) and Health Physics Supervisors. For these two categories, CNEN sets up rules and regulations which require approval of training programs and certificate them through independent written and oral examinations. All training activities related to these personnel are reviewed by CNEN. Licensed operators are required biannual retraining courses and their licenses are renewed every two years, after the applied programs are evaluated and approved by CNEN . Their requalification training programs, with utilization of full-scope simulators, however, are performed every year, at training centers located in the U.S. and Spain. ELETRONUCLEAR continuously exchanges information with international organizations such as IAEA, INPO, WANO and VGB, in areas of operational experience and guidelines related to training activities. raining Department provides an average of 24.000 mht (man-hour trained) per month, for the several departments of ELETRONUCLEAR and external organizations. It means 8% of total work force dedicated permanently to training programmes. Presently, there are some important issues influencing planning of training activities. During the last two years, production of electrical energy in Brazil could not follow its increasing consumption. Due to this problem, the Federal Government has decided to incentive an expansion of thermal energy production system, which is based mostly on large availability of natural gas in South America. This emerging market has recruited an expressive number of nuclear Personnel, Vienna (AT) salaries usually are higher in comparison with the nuclear market. Additionally, nuclear workers can retire after 25 years of work, following Brazilian legislation. These two aspects cause a expressive

  20. Effects of interest and exchange rate policies on Brazilian exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Sonaglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In heterodox literature, the industrial sector is considered strategic for economic development. Consequently, reducing the contribution of this sector in the production of the country before it has reached the stage of economic maturity, affects the productive dynamics and slow technical progress. The appreciation of the real exchange rate is seen as one of the factors responsible for the reduction of the external competitiveness of Brazilian manufactures, and this exchange rate valuation may be occurring due to the differences between domestic and international interest rates. Given this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of changes in the monetary and exchange rate policy and in the composition of the total exports on the performance of the Brazilian economy using a structuralist model. The results reinforce the importance of the manufacturing sector to economic growth, especially in a competitive exchange rate environment.

  1. [Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Kobayashi, Eliane; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M

    2003-12-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country. PMID:14762617

  2. [Healthcare value chain: a model for the Brazilian healthcare system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Malik, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    This article presents a model of the healthcare value chain which consists of a schematic representation of the Brazilian healthcare system. The proposed model is adapted for the Brazilian reality and has the scope and flexibility for use in academic activities and analysis of the healthcare sector in Brazil. It places emphasis on three components: the main activities of the value chain, grouped in vertical and horizontal links; the mission of each link and the main value chain flows. The proposed model consists of six vertical and three horizontal links, amounting to nine. These are: knowledge development; supply of products and technologies; healthcare services; financial intermediation; healthcare financing; healthcare consumption; regulation; distribution of healthcare products; and complementary and support services. Four flows can be used to analyze the value chain: knowledge and innovation; products and services; financial; and information. PMID:23099762

  3. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  4. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph;

    establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in......-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected...... seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River...

  5. Stolen beauty: gender, aesthetics and embodiment in Brazilian drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Pontes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a broader research on gender inflections in the Brazilian intellectual field and in Brazilian drama, between 1940 and 1968, the article discusses the relations between aesthetics and gender, and their implications on the careers of actresses Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero and Cleyde Yáconis. According to testimony of those who saw her perform on stage, Cacilda was never hampered by her less favorable physical attributes. The hypothesis is that this is due to the cunning tricks of the conventions of dramatic arts that allow the dodging of social, gender and physical constraints. Widely evoked by the media to portrait, underline or diminish women under its focus, beauty rarely features as a relevant dimension in the analysis of female trajectories. Hence the interest in discussing the subject through its refraction on the process of social construction of artistic careers.

  6. Sources and Reactions to Stress in Brazilian Lawyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Antunes Alves Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Job stress can negatively affect the health of employees. As such, the investigation of its characteristics in different professional categories is relevant. The aim in this study was to analyze the predictive power of seven stressors (decision latitude, psychological demands at work, physical demands at work, social support from colleagues, ergonomic stressors, relationships with clients, job insecurity for job dissatisfaction, depression and psychosomatic problems in a sample of 702 Brazilian lawyers. The data were collected using a Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ. The results showed that decision latitude and social support were the main negative predictors of stress, while psychological demands and job insecurity were its main positive predictors. These results are discussed in the light of the demand-support-control model, which was used as a framework for the research.

  7. A sustainability analysis of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of a new research reactor in Brazil for radioisotope production, support of the nuclear energy program and scientific research has received a positive sign of the government and is starting to be developed by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy. International Atomic Energy Agency points out that the implementation of a new research reactor is a major undertaking for a country, requiring an analysis to identify to which extent the conditions of the national nuclear program are proper and adequate to lead to a sustainable research reactor life cycle. This paper introduces the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Project (RMB) and describes the sustainability analysis performed, which has shown that the national nuclear infrastructure presents a very favourable condition to the implementation of the RMB project as well as to provide a sustainable life cycle for this new research reactor. (author)

  8. Demography, vulnerabilities and right to health to Brazilian prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases. The prison becomes the object of differentiated intervention by public bodies linked to the executive and the judiciary - it is worth remarking that the data show the high level of inequalities and health vulnerabilities among the prison population, whose needs involve a set of cross-sector of transverse public policies actions towards penal execution. PMID:27383334

  9. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion of two companies. A comparative analysis between obtained data and the theoretical background was made. The results found showed that the studied companies expanded internationally due to external demands and the desire to explore new markets. Changes in marketing strategies were made in different degrees, and communication was the element that suffered greater changes. The main challenge of internationalization found, was to understand local culture and incorporate it into the company’s operations.

  10. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increasing returns-to-scale, that is, they are too small in size comparatively to the tasks performed, indicating a capacity shortfall. Results also suggest paths for improving efficiency levels in a scenario of low investments and capacity constraints: privatization and cargo specialization. A final contribution to the literature lays on the development a simple methodology to assess returns-to-scale based on bootstrap results.

  11. INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING AND PERFORMANCE OF BRAZILIAN FIRMS

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    Teresa Rodriguez Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in long-term operational and financial performance for a sample of Brazilian companies made initial public offerings (IPO's shares, in the period 2002-2008. This period showed a historically high number of IPOs, a heavily discontinued phenomenon with the international financial crisis of 2008. As performance measures were chosen six financial indicators usually adopted in the literature in periods of three years pre-IPO, year of listing and three years post-IPO. The indicators evaluated were size, growth rate, profitability, financial leverage, investment level and investment rate. The results show evidence that, on average, there were statistically significant improvements in size, profitability, investment level and investment rate. But there was no evidence statistically significant changes in the growth rate and financial leverage after the IPO of Brazilian firms.

  12. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  13. Edith Magalhaes Fraenkel: The greatest figure of Brazilian Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka Oguisso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe and analyze the career of Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and her important legacy to Brazilian nursing. The methodology chosen was a documentary analysis of her areas of participation based on documents of the Historical Cultural Center of Iberian-American School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP and in the Rectory of the same University. The following thematic topics were categorized: preparation for leadership, moving to São Paulo, creation of the School of Nursing of USP, event organization, and unique developments at the end of her career. We conclude that Mrs. Edith Fraenkel is the most important figure of Brazilian nursing, thanks to her immeasurable work as a leader of the profession, nationally and internationally.

  14. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Sousa Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy and management capabilities. However, the relationship between technologic capabilities and differentiation strategy was not statistically significant. The existence of an inter-relationship between generic strategies of focus, cost leadership and differentiation indicates the use of combined strategies. Concerning the firms' financial performance, the results show that management capability and market performance have a statistically significant relationship with financial performance.

  16. Biological evolution and Brazilian students: knowledge and acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela da Silva Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify topics of the biological evolution theory Brazilian students affirm to know and their relation with variables such as sex, age, geographical localization, socioeconomical aspects, religion and science. 2.404 high school students (55.1% girls enrolled in 78 Brazilian schools took part of the research. The data was generated through a questionnaire and analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. The results point out that the knowledge of topics about evolution is low among students and influenced by the variables tested, the associations identified happened in a diversified way, and in lower or higher intensity according to the context studied.

  17. [Teaching in undergraduate nursing: the contribution of Brazilian Nursing Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Eucléa Gomes; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt

    2006-01-01

    The present study shows some of the most relevant actions of the Brazilian Association of Nursing in favor of the education process of the nursing professionals in Brazil, contextualizing those actions in the historical moment in which they occurred. In this manner, the study represents not only production of knowledge in the field, but also an element of record of the history of undergraduate nursing teaching in Brazil, offering instruments of analysis of the current situation of this teaching. The text highlights the contributions of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) in the education process of the nursing professionals, and in the elaboration and sustainability of the National Curricular Guidelines of the Undergraduate Nursing Course. PMID:17165386

  18. Gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitovitch, Elisa Maria Baggio; Barbosa, Marcia Cristina; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich; de Pinho, Suani Tavares Rubim; de Santana, Ademir Eugênio

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of the advances and difficulties in gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time. Recognizing that in some cases the level of gender equity has remained unchanged for a decade, the Commission for Relations and Gender of the Brazilian Physical Society plans not only to continue current activities but also seek new ways to address the issue, which will be discussed at the 2nd Brazilian Conference for Women in Physics, to be organized for 2015.

  19. Media roles, and ethics: perceptions of Brazilian, American and French journalist

    OpenAIRE

    Heloiza Herckovitz

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes self-perceptions of media roles and ethics of a sample of Brazilian journalists and compares them with American and French journalists. French and American styles of journalism have had major infl uences on Brazilian newspapers at different points in time. The study included a self-administered survey with 402 journalists working for 13 leading news organizations and personal interviews with renowned journalists of Sao Paulo- Brazil’s main media hub.  The typical Brazilian ...

  20. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira; Vitor Nagai Yamaki; Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Rosa; Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros; Nara Macedo Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals.Methods:All the References of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals.Results:3813 References distributed among 187 articles were...

  1. Composition of the board and firm value of brazilian public companies

    OpenAIRE

    Enalto de Oliveira Gondrige; Ademir Clemente; Márcia Maria dos Santos Bortolocci Espejo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the composition of boards of directors of Brazilian public companies and the firm value. The analysis is conducted by reference to a group of 208 Brazilian companies listed on Bovespa in the year 2008. The contribution of the study is done to assess the level of adherence to the recommendations of the Brazilian Institute of Corporate Governance (IBGC) regarding the composition of the board and its relation to market value. U...

  2. Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina de Familia e Comunidade SBMFC

    2010-01-01

    Instructions to authors of the Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine   The Brazilian Journal of Family and Community Medicine (BJFCM) is a three-monthly publication of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine, aimed at sensitizing professionals and health authorities to this field of interest, stimulating and disseminating Primary Health Care (PHC) issues and investigations, and facilitating interchange between academic institutions, health care services and or...

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink c...

  4. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with o...

  5. Global Players from Brazil: drivers and challenges in the internationalization process of Brazilian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flavia; Costa, Ionara; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses general patterns of internationalization of Brazilian firms. It highlights the main determinants for internationalization, the main destinations, as well as the modes of entry that Brazilian firms employ overseas. The paper also discusses some aspects related to the technological capabilities of Brazilian firms that are related to their internationalization strategies, in terms of both the exploitation of such advantages and the search for technological assets abroad.

  6. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada; Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins; Daniela Silva Canella; Larissa Galastri Baraldi; Renata Bertazzi Levy; Rafael Moreira Claro; Jean-Claude Moubarac; Geoffrey Cannon; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used ...

  7. Strategy Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Sanches Pagliarussi; Antonio Carlos Aguiar Gagno Junior; Antonio Thadeu Mattos da Luz

    2010-01-01

    In this study we describe how listed Brazilian companies disclose information about their strategy in annual reports. From the literature on operations strategy, we developed eight proxies and their respective keywords for strategy disclosure. Keyword frequencies were measured using an automatic procedure. We used cluster analysis to identify strategic groups and multinomial logistic regression to discriminate the groups using economic performance variables. From a sample of 450 annual report...

  8. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); 2) to evaluate the risk f...

  9. The Stability-Concentration Relationship in the Brazilian Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak; Solange Maria Guerra; Eduardo José Araújo Lima; Eui Jung Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this article the relation between non-performing loans (NPL) of the Brazilian banking system and macroeconomic factors, systemic risk and banking concentration is empirically tested. While evaluating this relation, we use a dynamic specification with fixed effects, using a panel data approach. The empirical results indicate that the banking concentration has a statistically significant impact on NPL, suggesting that more concentrated banking systems may improve financial stability. These r...

  10. The Brazilian preference: cesarean delivery among immigrants in Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the country of origin affects the probability of being delivered by cesarean section when giving birth at public Portuguese hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Women delivered of a singleton birth (n = 8228, recruited from five public level III maternities (April 2005-August 2006 during the procedure of assembling a birth cohort, were classified according to the country of origin and her migration status as Portuguese (n = 7908, non-Portuguese European (n = 84, African (n = 77 and Brazilian (n = 159. A Poisson model was used to evaluate the association between country of birth and cesarean section that was measured by adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS: The cesarean section rate varied from 32.1% in non-Portuguese European to 48.4% in Brazilian women (p = 0.008. After adjustment for potential confounders and compared to Portuguese women as a reference, Brazilian women presented significantly higher prevalence of cesarean section (PR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.08-1.47. The effect was more evident among multiparous women (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.12-1.73 and it was observed when cesarean section was performed either before labor (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 0.99-2.06 or during labor (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.58. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cesarean section was significantly higher among Brazilian women and it was independent of the presence of any known risk factors or usual clinical indications, suggesting that cultural background influences the mode of delivery overcoming the expected standard of care and outcomes in public health services.

  11. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert; Tereza Cristina Giannini

    2012-01-01

    Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees det...

  12. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Gomes Machado; Ilse Maria Beuren

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a) authors and their social networks of scientific production; b) researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c) methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17...

  13. EDUCATION AND YOUNG FACE OF DEMANDING JOB MARKET BRAZILIAN.

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Raza; Laurent Cantuaria Lalli

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses an analysis of public policies applied to education and their influence on economic development and social rise of workers in the Brazilian labor market, which requires efficient, economically productive people in constant training. It aims at examining the overall efficiency of the management model of educational public policies, as well as the teaching process and preparation of young people to the labor market. From the results of this study, we can conclude th...

  14. Sports and soccer in the social formation of Brazilian people

    OpenAIRE

    Marizabel Kowalski

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to map the codes of behaviors and manners in social relations and in the recent changes in sport organization in Brazil. Ideological, social, cultural, political and economic dimensions are given relevance here as a methodology in that they organize statements. In bibliographical sources interpreting sociologic discourses and in the outline of Brazilian society development and evolution we observe several characteristics pertaining to self-restraint and emotion control through...

  15. Brazilian savanna forest : conservation, medicinal reservoir and bioprospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Bessa, Nélita Gonçalves Faria de

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the Brazilian savanna forest from a Legal Reserve (LR) area from a perspective of conservation, reservoir of organic carbon and medicinal biomass for a prospective use of native medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey was carried out close to a community settled in the rural area in the south of Tocantins, being selected 9 of the most cited species (cajuí- Anacardium othonianum; inharé-Brosimum gaudichaudii; jatobá-Hymenaeae courbaril; j...

  16. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adami Fernando; Schlickmann Frainer Deivis; de Souza Almeida Fernando; de Abreu Luiz; Valenti Vitor E; Piva Demarzo Marcelo; de Mello Monteiro Carlos; de Oliveira Fernando R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State o...

  17. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Fernando; Schlickmann Frainer, Deivis Elton; de Souza Almeida, Fernando; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Vitor E Valenti; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira; de Oliveira, Fernando R

    2012-01-01

    Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa C...

  18. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Alicia de Francisco; Martha Zavariz de Miranda; Paulo José Ogliari; Gisele Torres; Valéria Limberger; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi

    2011-01-01

    Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela) and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. F...

  19. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, R. M. S. P.; Tomasella, J.; R. C. S. Alvalá; M. F. Sestini; A. G. Affonso; Rodriguez, D.A.; A. A. BARBOSA; Cunha, A. P. M. A.; Valles, G. F.; Crepani, E.; de Oliveira, S. B. P.; M. S. B. de Souza; Calil, P. M.; M. A. Carvalho; D. M. Valeriano

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 57% of the Brazilian northeast region is recognized as semi-arid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the 11 influencing factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change,...

  20. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas C. Morton; DeFries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Liana O. Anderson; ARAI Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001–2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to...

  1. Pesticides in Drinking Water – The Brazilian Monitoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Auria M. C.; Solano, Marize de L. M.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water n...

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Brazilian honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda B. Salgueiro; Aline F. Lira; Victor M. Rumjanek; Rosane N. Castro

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic levels of "assa peixe," "cambara," and "morrão de candeia" Brazilian honeys were investigated. Phenolic extracts of 11 honeys were evaluated spectrophotometrically to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were measured using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was applied to determine the phenolic composition of the honey extracts. Th...

  3. Radiologic accidents in industrial gamma radiography - Brazilian cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography happened in Brazil during the period of 1985 to 1988. Five operators and nineteen public people were involved. These accidents caused some injuries in parts of the body, mainly hands and fingers. The main causes were faults in source monitoring, inadequate routine procedures and unknowing of radiation warning symbol by public people. The present paper shows the Brazilian cases of radiological accidents and makes some analysis of them. (author)

  4. Representation of deaf people in Brazilian newspaper and magazine materials

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Hessel Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Deaf struggles for the right of self-representation not as disabled/handicapped people, but subjects with a particular culture who have Libras as their mother tongue, are very recent in Brazil. They have conquered the federal law no. 10.436/ 2002 recognizing the use of the Sign Language (LIBRAS stands for ‘Língua Brasileira de Sinais’, Brazilian Sign Language). Their history is marked by struggles against discrimination and in different standards of education; where deafness is clinically tak...

  5. Affective commitment of generational cohorts of Brazilian nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to use generational cohort and professionalism theories as the framework to examine the interaction between supervisor-subordinate relationships, work-family conflict, discretionary power and affective commitment at the work-life interface for Northeast Brazilian public sector professional nurses. Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative data were collected from 550 public hospital nurses in North-Eastern Brazil. Path and multivariate analysis were use...

  6. Organization and development of the Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program: its development until the present stage, as well as the organizations and the distribution of responsibilities involved in its execution at the present time. The nuclear power policy is established at the Presidency of the Republic and is planned, executed and controlled through the Ministry of Mines and Energy. Directly subject to the Ministry is the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), which has regulatory, standardization, licensing, planning and surveillance functions. The nuclear fundamental research and manpower formation are also under CNEN responsibility. Also subject to the Ministry are two companies responsible for the execution of the Programme: the Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. - ELETROBRAS, which advises on the granting of permits for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and the Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. - NUCLEBRAS, which holds the monopoly of the nuclear fuel cycle in the country, designs and builds nuclear power plants and provides assistance to the electric utilities as well as promotes the participation of the Brazilian industry in the nuclear field. Besides describing the new distribution of regulatory functions given by law to the CNEN, this paper gives special emphasis to the large industrial complex which is in the process of being established with the setting-up of the many NUCLEBRAS subsidiaries in joint-venture with German firms in the nuclear field, as a consequence of the Industrial Cooperation between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy signed between the two countries on June 27, 1975. The programs for these subsidiaries are presented and their participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Programme is discussed. The technology transfer aspects of the industrial activities are also discussed, based on the Government's policy on the subject

  7. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo; Simone Akemi Uenaka; Maitê Bette Motta; Cristina Harumi Adania; Letícia Yamasaki; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Heli...

  8. Unions and the Economic Performance of Brazilian Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Aquino Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello

    2002-01-01

    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  9. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity and chemical investigation of Brazilian Drosera

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Trevisan Ferreira; César Cornélio Andrei; Halha Ostrensky Saridakis; Terezinha de Jesus Faria; Elisângela Vinhato; Kátia Eliane Carvalho; Juliana Feijó de Souza Daniel; Sílvio Luiz Machado; Dennis Panayotis Saridakis; Raimundo Braz-Filho

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three different extracts (hexanic, ethyl acetate, methanol) obtained from Brazilian Drosera species (D. communis, D. montana var. montana, D. brevifolia, D. villosa var. graomogolensis, D. villosa var. villosa, Drosera sp. 1, and Drosera sp. 2 ) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC23212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC11229), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC10708), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC1...

  12. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C.; Katia Vergetti Bloch; Moyses Szklo; Carlos Henrique Klein; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Beatriz Schaan; Gloria Valeria da Veiga; Thiago Luiz Nogueira da Silva; Maurício T L de Vasconcellos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the Int...

  13. Net greenhouse gas fluxes in Brazilian ethanol production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Galdos, M. V.,; Cerri, C. C.; R. Lal; Bernoux, Martial; Feigl, B.; Cerri, C. E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels are both a promising solution to global warming mitigation and a potential contributor to the problem. Several life cycle assessments of bioethanol have been conducted to address these questions. We performed a synthesis of the available data on Brazilian ethanol production focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon (C) sinks in the agricultural and industrial phases. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuels, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from sources co...

  14. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager for the SOAR telescope

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Cláudia Mendes; Taylor, Keith; Quint, Bruno; Andrade, Denis; Ferrari, Fabricio; Laporte, Rene; Ramos, Giseli de A.; Guzman, Christian Dani; Cavalcanti, Luiz; de Calasans, Alvaro; Fernandez, Javier Ramirez; Castañeda, Edna Carolina Gutierrez; Jones, Damien; Fontes, Fernando Luis; Molina, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new Tunable Filter Instrument for the SOAR telescope. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) is a versatile, new technology, tunable optical imager to be used in seeing-limited mode and at higher spatial fidelity using the SAM Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics facility at the SOAR telescope. The instrument opens important new science capabilities for the SOAR community, from studies of the centers of nearby galaxies and the insterstellar medium to statistical cosmological...

  15. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio P de Sá; Juliana Zina; Célio F. B. Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual disp...

  16. Domestic coalitions in the FTAA negotiations: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Castelan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes an explanation to the domestic coalitions organised in Brazil around the FTAA negotiations, which stand as a hard case for the existing theories on political cleavages: industrialists and trade unions, albeit having shared common interests in the negotiations, did not adopt a joint strategy to foster their positions. The hypothesis to explain the political alignments in the FTAA is that the opening of the Brazilian market, which had advanced a lot in the years of ...

  17. Development of a Farm Management Tool for the Brazilian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, R.F.; Fernandes, Cunha M.F.B.; Chaib Filho, H.; Neto, J.S. Madeira; Silva, F.A.B.; Lobo, Y.M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a managerial information system prototype developed for modern agriculturalists in the Brazilian Cerrado´s Region. It follows a case study approach. One medium scale (422 hectares) of operation was envisioned, archetypical accounting framework was established, aiming to provide better data and information to support farm management decisions. The system has proved to be useful in examining decision making at farm level and in ex ante evaluations of changes in fa...

  18. Biotinidase deficiency: clinical and genetic studies of 38 Brazilian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Borsatto, Taciane; Sperb-Ludwig, Fernanda; Pinto, Louise LC; De Luca, Gisele R; Carvalho, Francisca L; De Souza, Carolina FM; De Medeiros, Paula FV; Charles M. Lourenço; Filho, Reinaldo LO; Neto, Eurico C.; Bernardi, Pricila; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Schwartz, Ida VD

    2014-01-01

    Background Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an inborn error of metabolism in which some genetic variants correlate with the level of enzyme activity. Biotinidase activity, however, may be artifactually low due to enzyme lability, premature birth, and jaundice; this hinders both phenotypic classification and the decision to implement therapy. This study sought to characterize the clinical and genetic profile of a sample of Brazilian patients exhibiting reduced biotinidase activity. Methods This ...

  19. Does Land Tenure Insecurity Drive Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio ARAUJO; Araujo Bonjean, Catherine; Combes, Jean-Louis; Combes Motel, Pascale; Eustaquio J. REIS

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the detrimental impact of land tenure insecurity on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It is related to recent controversies about the detrimental impact of land laws on deforestation, which seem to legitimize land encroachments. The latter is mainly the result of land tenure insecurity which is a key characteristic of this region and results from a long history of interactions between rural social unrest and land reforms or land laws. A simple mo...

  20. Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio ARAUJO; Araujo Bonjean, Catherine; Combes, Jean-Louis; Combes Motel, Pascale; Eustaquio J. REIS

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of property rights insecurity on deforestation in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Deforestation is considered as a risk management strategy: property rights insecurity reduces the present value of forests and fosters forest conversion into agricultural and pasture lands. Moreover, deforestation is the consequence of strategic interactions between landowners and squatters. Landowners clear the forest preventively in order to assert the productive use of land and to...